MORPHOLOGY OF MALAYSIAN MOSQUE DESIGN AND THE APPLICATION OF FLORAL ORNAMENTATION Dessertation 2.1

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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
MORPHOLOGY OF MALAYSIAN MOSQUE
DESIGN AND THE APPLICATION OF FLORAL
ORNAMENTATION
HIDAYATI RAMLI
Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science
(Conservation and Heritage Management)
Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying
July 2018
AUTHOR’S DECLARATION
I declare that the work in this dissertation was carried out in accordance with the
regulations of Universiti Teknologi MARA. It is original and is the results of my own
work, unless otherwise indicated or acknowledged as referenced work. This thesis has
not been submitted to any other academic institution or non-academic institution for
any degree or qualification.
I, hereby, acknowledge that I have been supplied with the Academic Rules and
Regulations for Post Graduate, Universiti Teknologi MARA, regulating the conduct of
my study and research.
Name of Candidate
:
Hidayati Binti Ramli
Candidate’s ID no.
:
2016355613
Program
:
Masters of Science (Heritage and Conservation
Management) – AP777
Faculty
:
Architecture, Planning and Surveying
Dissertation title
:
Morphology of Malaysian Mosque Design and the
Application of Floral Ornamentation
Candidate’s signature : ……………………………………
Date
: July 2018
ii
ABSTRACT
Masjid or mosque simply means ‘a place of prostration’ however as a sacred space it
holds no inflexible architectural language with space or form but rather it is guided by
the act of ibadah itself (praying) which is an affixed time of prayer towards an
ontological axis (kiblah) with which a worshipper or an edifies orients itself towards
Mecca. And thus, mosques everywhere in the world adhere to this ontological rule; it
is an exoteric expression of beliefs (Akel Kahera et al, 2009). Mosques presence in
Malaysia has gone through a morphology of adaptation to suit at the very beginning
from its earliest inception the present timber technology and later its evolution was
more socio-political influenced from the colonial era to the modern times and later
architects in Malaysia were more concerned in applying regional language in
conceptualizing the mosque unique to Malaysia’s identity. From this morphology, the
floral ornamentation very distinct in timber mosque in Malaysia had also gone through
its changes and many influence had factored in these changes too and thus once again
created an ornamental discourse regarding its usage and adaptation in the local
mosque. This thesis tries to study how these changes had occurred in its
morphological timeline.
iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
AUTHOR’S DECLARATION
ii
ABSTRACT
iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
v
LISTS OF FIGURES
vii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1
1.1
Mosque Architecture
1
1.2
Mosque Ornamentation
2
1.3
Problem Statement
4
1.4
Aim
4
1.5
Objectives
4
1.6
Research Methodology
5
1.7
Significance of Study
7
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
8
2.1
Introduction
8
2.2
The Four Types of Mosque
8
2.2.1 The Arab Hypostyle Mosque
2.2.2
9
The Persian Four-Iwan Mosque
10
2.2.3 The Indian Three-domed Mosque
10
2.2.4 The Turkish Central-Domed Mosque
11
2.3
12
Mosque Ornamentation
2.3.1 Introduction
12
2.3.2 Floral Ornamentation in Vernacular Mosque
13
2.3.3 Flower Ornamentation Design Symbolism
14
2.3.4 Flower Ornamentation in Mosque Element
16
v
2.3.4.1 Buah Buton
16
2.3.4.2 Tutop Perabung
16
2.3.4.3 Tumpu Kasau/ papan meleh
17
2.3.4.4 Wall
18
2.3.4.5 Ventilation panels
18
2.3.5 Calligraphy
19
2.2.6 Geometric Ornamentation
19
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
20
3.1
Introduction
20
3.2
Research area
20
3.3
Methods
21
3.3.1 Secondary data collection
21
3.3.2 Observation method
22
3.4
Analyses
22
3.5
Limitation of study
22
CHAPTER 4: CASE STUDIES
24
CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
39
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS
43
REFERENCES
44
REFERENCES
44
vi
LISTS OF FIGURES
Figures Title
Page
Figure 1 Martin Frishman, schematic overview of Arab hypostyle mosque
9
Figure 2 Martin Frishman, schematic overview of Persian Four-Iwan mosque
10
Figure 3 Martin Frishman, schematic overview of Indian Three-domed mosque
10
Figure 4 Martin Frishman, schematic overview of Turkish Central-Domed mosque 11
Figure 5 the Lotus Flower
15
Figure 6
15
Figure 7
16
Figure 8 Figure 8 Three variations of the floral buah buton
16
Figure 9 Figure 9 types of ridge board cover or tutup perabung
17
Figure 10 Figure 10 various design of fascia board from top
17
Figure 11 Figure 11 Wall carving with different types of motifs on prayer space
18
Figure 12 Figure 12 Weaving wall types
18
Figure 13 Figure 13 carving of tebuk timbul on window
18
vii
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Mosque Architecture
The mosque institution is the most identified element of Islamic architecture
even when it isn’t dictated in the Quran of how the form should be built, however the
tradition did instruct them to build mosques and to make them function as places of
collective worship and community development centers (Omer, 2009) as was seen in
the earliest mosque built by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) which is often scholarly
sampled as the ideal if not the prototype of the Islamic spiritual form.
Eventually, the language of mosque architecture that became symbolic is the
minaret, courtyards, the minbar (pulpit), the mihrab (praying niche), domes, arches,
iwans, and certain decorative elements ultimately evolved in its styles to respond
towards the different cultures of the practiced faith in different region of the world,
most notably developed through the influence of climate, geography, traditions,
economy and building technologies that finally diversifies into the rich versatile
language of mosque architecture such as seen in China, Turkey, Iran, Morocco,
Malaysia and other places today.
Mosque’s presence in Malaysia is important not only for its religious
significance but in tracing its lineage we understand the morphology of its forms
evolution that’s closely related to Malaysia’s building identity as the substance of
Islamic architecture is always the same, due to the permanence of the philosophy and
cosmic values that gave rise to it (Omer, 2009). This means what changes in the built
forms of architecture is how the people internalize and then interpret its values from
the myriad circumstances forced upon it as it responds towards the architectural
influences throughout history. This can be seen through the study of mosques design
in Malaysia that is closely linked to its changing factors of; materiality, climatic
responses, construction technological advancement from its earliest vernacular
conception to its entrenched historical socio-political development in the whole of
South East Asia generally and regional landscape specifically as evidenced now in
1
modern contemporary mosque designs (Sabrina, 2008). Conversely, in Malaysia
today, the styles that are often adopted are from the Middle East where it is critically
seen as the ‘High-Islam’ examples from many factors but most intense contributive
efforts through the resurgence of Islamic political movements both globally and
locally, and government efforts in determining Malaysia’s ‘Islamic identity’ (Moser,
2012) that has moved architectural mosque design to a more conservative and
‘Arabized’ interpretations of Islam at the expense of the traditionally syncretic Islamic
practices of South-east Asia (Ghishal, 2008).
1.2
Mosque Ornamentation
The development of mosque ornamentation in Malaysia as part of the smaller
details of mosque architecture is then seen to have developed through the same
influence experienced by the mosque design and the many styles it took shape,
adopted, and shifted through the timeline of Malaysia’s cultural heritage.
Islamic ornamentation and its framework in Malaysia is seen to have little
forethought and critical discussions of its uses in the national architecture level. Each
element of ornaments and decorations in buildings has an answer of why it was made
into that because the elements carried a definition or medium of communication that
are closely related with the lives of its inhabitants and users along with its natural
surroundings. Each ornaments on the building varies in term of the use of materials
and motifs to describe historical background of a general area, yet has the same
characteristics as language or dialect of that area giving a different sound but still
carried the same meaning [1].
However, local architects today are perceived to have a distinct crisis when
interpreting Islamic architecture in a majority Muslim Malaysia where the dominant
decorations language adapted for its design are often derived from the Middle Eastern,
European and Indian symbolism and influence. This approach is found in most of the
decorative walls of national mosques that are copied from mosques built in these
countries during what is perceived as the ‘Golden Age’ of Islamic empire such
examples is the Putrajaya Mosque internal decorative dome is copied from both the
2
Mosque Lutfullah built in 1600 and the Mosque of Imam Shah (1611) at the time of
the Safavid empire in Iran [2].
Prof. Dr. Mohamad Tajuddin Mohamad Rasdi, national mosque critic opined
that the styles adopted by local mosque designs are developed throughout the ages
typify the religious development of the nation in context of its historical impact and
significance, however in today’s modern day; the Arabesque decorations in mosques
has been heralded as the typical if not the norm use that eventually dominated the
design language and surpassing the use of traditionally wood carvings ornamentation
in its discourse [3] for modern mosques design. This development could infer the
socio-political relevance towards architecture where the most consistent perception of
Islamic architectural vocabulary is represented by the use of Middle Eastern and
Central Asian architectural garb [4] presumably because of the central factor of Islam
the religion originating from the Arab peninsula and thus its arts and craftsmanship
would be typified as ‘Islamic arts/architecture’. However historically ornamentation
in traditional mosques were the works of refinement of ornaments taken from HinduBuddhist beliefs and then interpreted and refined to the Islamic values based on the
teachings of the al-Quran and as-Sunnah. Its fundamental link with our HinduBuddhist influence on our old culture could be the contributing factor of its use in
modern mosques design to be surpassed by Arabesque ornamentation as the dominant
decorating element due to mosque design constricted and defined within the
parameters of Arab culture making our historical heritage seemed outdated and then
divorced.
This means that the design languages of mosque by that extension, its
ornamentation is not conscripted in the holy text and was developed from many
historical precedence and influence unconfined by the Arab culture which adapting its
language in our local mosques today seem to be forced language, missing the
relevance of our local identity and its equally rich history which I will explore in
Chapter 2.
3
1.3
Problem Statement
Growing conservatism among Muslims in Malaysia has been manifested in the
architecture and urban design, that rather than drawing on vernacular design traditions
or developing a design idiom that recognizes a religiously and ethnically diverse
population, architecture styles are seen to have adopted a fantasy Middle Eastern style
for secular national buildings [5].
And in line with this development, traditional ornamentation rooted in old
cultural beliefs that had evolved through time, is being replaced by the domination of
Middle Eastern heritage and arts, as the modern and postmodern discourse has been
poorly understood in Malaysia to the point of blind imitation of forms separating the
traditional heritage into an architectural limbo [6]. Islam does not differentiate the
values of the spiritual and material but guided through the soul. It approves through
the art, where ornament own an identity itself according to the purity and honesty
emerging from the patron.
With the crisis of identity in architecture still existing in our built
environment’s public discourse, manifestation of traditional ornamentation could play
a part in presenting our cultural identity rooted in heritage and historical significance
as well as disseminating the symbolic meaning through its arts.
1.4
Aim
To understand the morphology of mosque architectural styles from the vernacular to
the contemporary design in relevance towards its application of the ornamentation in
its design language.
1.5
Objectives
To identify the design styles of mosque in Malaysia from the vernacular style
to the contemporary throughout the relevant historical time frame
4
To understand the floral ornamentations from the traditional vernacular Malay
mosque and its meaning.
To analyze the application of floral ornamentations or the changing of its
application in the defined mosques types throughout a determined period
1.6 Research Methodology
The research methodology will be conducted using the qualitative approach.
Literature reviews concerning the historical development of mosques’ styles in
Malaysia will be studied to understand the morphology of its design form through a
defined time frame;

vernacular,

colonial,

international precedence

contemporary modern design.
A brief of contents outline in each chapter is explained as below:
Chapter 1: Introduction
In Chapter 1, issues pertaining mosques architecture in Malaysia is discussed to
outline the intention of the study and the scope of the study to achieve this intention.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
This chapter will discuss issues related to the research topic with the support of
literatures from books, academic journals, articles, conference paper and other
secondary data sources. Theories, ideas, quotations and concept as well as existing
research and findings from the experts in the related field connect to the research topic
will be critically elaborated in this chapter.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
This chapter describes the way this study is conducted. It includes the methods used to
collect data and analyses the collected data in order to achieve the research objectives.
Limitation and problems that occurred during the study process will also be explained
in this chapter.
5
Chapter 4: Case Study
Chapter 4 details description of 4 chosen mosques throughout the Peninsular Mosque
that is considered relevant to the styles; further analyzed and compared of its usage
and or adaptations of floral ornamentation in the mosques design.
Chapter 5: Analysis and Findings
The case study is tabulated, pictures taken and all the data collected as well as the
discussions will be made with the basis of the literature to achieve the objectives of
the study.
Chapter 6: Conclusion
This final chapter summarizes the outcome of the research analysis to conclude the
study.
PRELIMENARIES STUDIES
Identify Topic Research Questions
Setting Research Objectives
MORPHOLOGY OF MALAYSIAN MOSQUE DESIGN
AND THE APPLICATION OF FLORAL
ORNAMENTATION
LITERATURE REVIEW
Journals/ Articles
Books
Conference papers
DATA COLLECTIONS
4 case study/site visit
Observation
Photography
Tabulation/Comparison
DATA ANALYSIS
CONCLUSION
Table 1 Summary on research methodology
6
1.7
Significance of Study
This research is intended to document the morphology of the mosque design in
Peninsular Malaysia throughout its historic timeline, from its original traditional
vernacular form to the contemporary modern form of today. It tries to analyze these
changes in form and compute the contributive factors that effected these changes
enveloping and or developing the different styles of the mosque. From this
documentation, we can compare the similarities and or differences from the
development and how the application of floral ornamentation developed in the
mosque’s usage if at all.
Originally, the traditional mosque in Malaysia was built in timber and thus its
limited technology influenced craftsmanship tailoring the built form distinct of its
time in the early practice of Islam in the region. It was heavily decorated with floral
ornamentation that was still influenced by its adaptation from its parent culture
steeped in Hindu-Buddhist symbolism, however it too later adapted to suit Malay
identity and the Islamic prohibition of exemplifying created things or imagery of it in
art or built form.
From documenting the morphology of its form throughout a timeframe of
historical significance in architectural discourse, and to study the ornamentation as
one constant design element; we can determine its adaptation in design usage of the
mosques and how its evolution from the beginning to contemporary time is indicative
of a rich diversified symbolism of architectural heritage significant to Malaysian
architectural identity relating to its interpretative sense of place.
7
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1
Introduction
In this chapter, the literature review will skim through briefly on the
introduction of the mosque as a building typology and then expand the 4 types of
Arab hypostyle mosque common throughout the Middle Eastern world with a
complimentary study of our vernacular timber mosque as a regional introduction in
early mosque architecture in Peninsula Malaysia.
It will later study the morphology of these forms throughout the historical
timeframe defined by the evolution of the architectural styles;

Vernacular

Colonial

Art deco

Contemporary modern
Later it expands the literature to floral ornamentation in vernacular mosque
architecture and other ornamentation types that exist in mosque ornamentation.
2.2
The Five Types of Mosque
Masjid or Mosque literally and quite simply means ‘a place of prostration’,
with no priori style or form dictating it beyond its basic use; as such the spatial
characteristics of the mosque are intrinsically defined by the act of prostration. This is
especially so because the act of worship (ibadah) is not rigidly tied to a particular
place, space or form, (covered or uncovered) but rather to a prescribed time where a
worshipper or an edifies is directed towards an ontological axis of the holy place of
Makkah; known as the qiblah. Mosques everywhere around the world adhere to this
ontological rule; it is an exoteric expression of belief. Owing to this basic principles,
the mosque is a system of temporal spatial coordinates; it carries no preconceived
order with the exception of the required physical qiblah orientation of the
congregational prayer space towards Makkah [5].
8
However, as the religion expanded under the rule of Muhammad’s (pbuh)
successors; the four Caliphs after his passing in 632. Islamic empire grew extensive
territory throughout the Arabian Peninsula, into North Africa and Southern Spain, all
the way to Persian Sassanid Empire and extended as far as India; the call to prayer and
the need to construct undisturbed communal prayer soon arose (Hakim, 2008). This
has led the creation of four (4) distinct types of mosque in western and central Asia
and in North Africa; the Arab hypostyle mosque, the Persian four-iwan mosque, the
Indian three-dome mosque and the Turkish central-dome mosque (Figs 2-5).
However, before these styles became prominent all throughout the Muslim world,
South East Asia saw the use of the Nusantara style where the earlier influence of
China’s architectural designs was adopted through its mosque’s craftsmanship as well
as the design language.
2.2.1
The Arab Hypostyle Mosque
Figure 1 Martin Frishman, schematic overview of Arab hypostyle mosque
This style evolved from the earliest mosque built by the Prophet Muhammad
in Yathrib with an enclosed rectangular plan typical of Arab courtyard dwelling. The
dualism of interior courtyard and prayer hall was replicated in later designs as well as
its adaptation of the added elements of the qibla wall and mihrab on the one hand of
the wall, the minaret on the other hand. The minaret was built on a square plan with a
ribbed domed roof which became an enduring typical form in North Africa.
Later, as Islamic rulers established higher empire expansion in the 7th and 8th
centuries, the humble architecture began to diversify with the introduction of rich
ornamentation, such as that the mihrab was translated into more complex geometric
structures with extravagant decorations adorning the surfaces of the prayer niche.
9
According to Hakim (2008), as the central authority of the caliphate began to
wane in the 11th and 12th centuries, their power was distributed among a series of new
states that formed between Morocco and India that later led to the diversifying
architectural interpretation due in parts from responsive synthesis of regional elements
such as local climate, available material and traditional craftsmanship.
2.2.2
The Persian Four-Iwan Mosque
Figure 2 Martin Frishman, schematic overview of Persian Four-Iwan mosque
In Persia, the master builders integrated references to the four-iwan
construction of the pre-Islamic palaces. The basic arrangement derives from four
vaulted – which weakens the dominance of the qibla wall facing mecca – was later
adopted throughout all provinces of the land.
Ornamentation was extravagantly developed by the Persian builders to
accentuate the metaphoric interpretation of the heavenly and eternal with the
glorification of written scripts of the holy verses of the Quran, painstakingly applied
by hand, numerous artistic scripts and inscriptions were created and craftily applied to
decorate tiles, stones, walls, niches, domes, portals and minarets.
2.2.3
The Indian Three-domed Mosque
Figure 3 Martin Frishman, schematic overview of Indian Three-domed mosque
10
In the 11th century, Islamic government took over India and a mosque was later
erected, its authority declared through the 72.5 metres minaret as a symbolic
monument of conquest and victory. The mosques in Delhi and other buildings often
continued from the Persian forms gradually transformed by regional building
traditions and craftsmanship from interpretative works by Hindu workmen and
builders. This resulted in distinct fusion of Hindu and Islamic traditions arising during
the Mughal reign in the 15th and 16th century, resulting in a mosque form with three
domes and an extensive, walled courtyard.
2.2.4
The Turkish Central-Domed Mosque
Figure 4 Martin Frishman, schematic overview of Turkish Central-Domed mosque
The Turkish new synthesis of the mosque form has had an enduring effect on
the mosque architecture till today. It was expanded from the regular hypostyle hall
plan of the first mosque of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) with each square covered
in a small hemispherical dome. Dome architecture in the Turkish found Ottoman
Empire became very prominent in mosque designs in the 14th century especially after
the victory over the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 and the conversion of the
Hagia Sophia, a church built under the Byzantine Emperor Justinian in the 6th century,
into a mosque. Later, Suleiman II the Magnificent royal architect developed a Muslim
counterpart, the Koca Mimar Sinan, to the genuine Christian original. Centralized
cubic buildings were designed, crowned by a dome and surrounded by half-cupolas.
The central space opened out into a similar-sized courtyard of fountains
surrounded by arcades covered with small domes. The prayer hall was often
emphasized through the elegant stacking half-cupolas, contrasting markedly with the
needle-like minaret.
11
2.2.5
The Nusantara Mosque
The Nusantara type found in the South East Asian region has a similar set up with the
exception that uses the pyramid with multiple levels of two or three levels of roof.
These mosques in the beginning does not possess a minaret but that the architectural
element appeared a few decades lates as architectural project distinct 'landmark' and
also makes as a minaret.
2.3
Mosque Ornamentation
2.3.1
Introduction
Ornamentation is an important aesthetic in Islamic Arts which acts as
symbolic elements in trying to capture the essence of transcendence through Tawhid
(oneness of God) which according to Al Faruqi (2001) is achieved creatively through
hierarchy, symbolic interpretation, lavish decoration whose function goes beyond
mere display. Islamic ornamentation in mosques are mostly created in visual
intricacy inspiring awe in its façade’s treatment and details, that in its artistic pattern
are symbolically designed in deep spiritual meaning usually inspired by expression
of nature as well as the constellations. This architectural ornamentation is inspired
from plants, including stems and single, doubled, and entangled branches; leaves
whether whole, halves, in twos, threes, and fives, in full or punctured style; palm
leaves and various fruits. The most distinct characteristic of these pattern is the
tendencies for these arts to adorn surfaces of mosques and the absence of human and
animal forms in its decorations which is attributed to depiction of God’s creation
being forbidden (haram) in its religious doctrine. Islamic art according to Sammeer
Syigh in his book, Islamic Art: A Contemplative Reading in Its Philosophy and
Aesthetics Characteristics opines that it arises from an aesthetical philosophical view
of the place that man occupies in the universe, which inspires the religious Islamic
view and transforms inspiration into a pure artistic language but are still conforming
towards the everyday dimensions of life with its fine details intricately binding the
unseen with the seen, between heaven and earth, and between abstraction and
feeling. This means that even the mixing of plants in geometric patterns are symbolic
with meaning and intention as suggested by Aloosi (2003) where the geometric
12
ornamentation is an expression of unity and unifying characters between all the
varying countries of the Arab world as expressed through definite geometric frames
where they renew and alternate and interlocks strongly making it difficult to find the
beginning and end points of its relationship with each other. These expressions
dominate the space and are united constituent elements of Islamic architecture
throughout the Arab world and later its adapted influence in the rest of its Islamic
empire, thus attesting to the unified practice through its arts, in both external features
and in its essence.
2.3.2
Floral Ornamentation in Vernacular Mosque
In this chapter, I will first study the floral type of ornamentation in our
vernacular mosque in Malaysia as the earliest use of ornamentation in mosque
designs here to determine its types, characters, dominant usage of its elements and its
applications in mosques’ designs. Later I will determine the other types of
ornamentation particular in mosque application.
According to the book Western Ornaments and Malaysian Architecture.
Floral ornamentation is derived from representation of living entities and later
abstracted into patterned design. Floral ornaments are naturally inspired by natural
aspects of plant life. The artist would have observed plants such as flowers and
leaves and translated them into ornament that is used to decorate objects and
buildings alike. On occasion, the artist would strive to achieve natural results by
producing lifelike copies as the most recognizable feature (Khai Kid, 2015).
Due to the pre-Islamic practice in Malaysia in the 13th century, most of
ornamentation in mosques then was greatly influenced by the previous application of
Hindu-Buddhist ornamentation however it evolved and later interpreted to suit the
poetics of Malay artistry as well as to move away from previous pagan believes and
avoiding the direct adoption of God’s creation which was not permitted in Islamic
practice.
Ornamentation in vernacular mosque was created to visualize the sacred in
13
built form as was often decorated in the carving of timber as the primary material
available in the earlier days. These decorations were designed in varying language
inspired by nature and constellation element decorated at specific location in the
mosque, however I will only focus on the floral type of designs on; the roof in the
form of both tunjuk langit and tutup perabung, facial boards, wall, as well as floor,
window, and the door. These motifs on wood carvings were influenced from HinduBuddhist characters in the 1st century towards the Malay culture until it gradually
changed with the introduction of Islamic culture in the 14th century when it arrived in
Peninsualr
Malaysia
at
Kuala
Berang,
Kuala
Terengganu.
Later,
these
ornamentations included not only flora and fauna but also Arabic calligraphy,
geometric motifs, and the cosmos interpretation.
The parts of the plants that are manifested includes fruits, stem, tendril, leaf
and more conspicuous flowers (Said, 2002) such as the lotus flowers that is thought
as auspicious in form; sunflower, is also popular depicted onto door leaf and
ventilation panels; Epiphyllum anguliger commonly known as fishbone cactus or
bunga Bakawali in Malay was commonly used for its spiritual character and thus
translated to form. While the pomegranate fruit was also chosen as motif decoration
due to its interesting shapes and bright fruit orange flowers. I. Said (2002) further
that Malay craftsmen observed the beauty of their surroundings and symbolize the
intangible value into a physical product that can be appreciated by others through
their application in mosques wood carvings.
Ultimately, these floral elements are symbols of the universe and it was
adapted on the mosque as a poetic language between worship of man towards his
Creator. This spiritual relation is more strongly visualized through the built form in
its hierarchical elevation, and the floral decoration is to decorate the sacred space and
relate man to his biology.
2.3.3
Flower Ornamentation Design Symbolism
The decoration and symbolism of ancient Malay cultures were laden with
philosophy, thought beliefs and values of its society, carrying a message to convey in
the ornamental and Malay representation (Nakula, 2012). The symbolic meaning that
traditional craftsmen tried to carve in timber ornamentation of mosque was “Allah’s
Essence” and Muslims relationship with Allah’s “Earth’s seed” because man is seen
14
as the vicegerent (khalifah) of earth. Among the most recognized adaptation of
natural element to exemplify this symbolism and relationship of man and the Divine
is derived through the Lotus Flower (Nelumbium Speciosum). The important
symbolism of this flower could be thought in relation to the spiritual relationship of
early Malays with Buddhism illustrates the pluralistic value in vernacular
architecture, which was adapted and then developed with Malay culture and Islamic
tradition.
Figure 5 the Lotus Flower
From Figure 5 the Lotus Flower has 2 important elements; the stem which
symbolizes “Allah’s Essence” and the petals which symbolizes the “Universe”.
However, in the end the stem that is symbolic of man’s relationship with Allah is
symbolically hidden as the spiritual relationship between the created and the
Creator exists within man’s soul leaving the petals of the Lotus Flower to be
expanded from 8 petals to 12 petals widening the Universal values of it on earth.
The Lotus Flower as the relationship of Man and God is seen in elevation as shown:
Figure 6
The Lotus flower can be seen through the built form of its pyramidal roof – a
Chinese pagoda like influence is clearly seen from the roof however, the
ornamentation decorating it is symbolic of the lotus flower from the Malay
craftsmen interpretation as seen in Figure 7.
15
Figure 7
2.3.4
Flower Ornamentation in Mosque Element
2.3.4.1 Buah Buton
Figure 8 Figure 8 Three variations of the floral buah buton
Buah Buton (Roof crown) is an element very particular to vernacular mosque
architecture to depict the relationship of man and the Divine. This is an ornamental
part piece to cover the tenon and mortise joint of the tunjuk langit to the tie beam
(Said, 2001). Said further clarified that usually the tunjuk langit is beautifully carved
with a lotus blossom motif and their ends have buah butons using similar motifs.
This type is typical in old mosques around Melaka, Negeri Sembilan.
2.3.4.2 Tutop Perabung
16
Figure 9 Figure 9 types of ridge board cover or tutup perabung
Tutup perabung or the ridge board was designed with dragon head figurines as a
symbol to protect the sacred space from evil forces but later developed into a refined
ornamentation to avoid it from the dragon imagery which would not be permitted in
Islamic beliefs. Due to that flower motifs become more prominent.
2.3.4.3 Tumpu Kasau/ papan meleh
Figure 10 Figure 10 various design of fascia board from top
Tumpu kasau or fascia board is the horizontal decorative timber roof eaves
covering the timber rafter. There are two types of this fascia board which are single
piece type (jenis sekeping papan) with carvings on a single long timber piece and the
multiple pieces (jenis kepingan papan bersusun) with carvings on multiple timber
pieces arranged side by side.
The design of single pieces are less intricate floral motifs in comparison to the
multiple pieces which sometimes combines flower motifs and other elements.
17
2.3.4.4 Wall
Figure 11 Figure 11 Wall carving with different types of motifs on prayer space
Figure 12 Figure 12 Weaving wall types
Timber walls are often decorated with floral motifs on carved wood or weaving
types.
2.3.4.5 Ventilation panels
Figure 13 Figure 13 carving of tebuk timbul on window
According to Said (2001), ventilation panels are carving components on
doors, windows, door or window leafs, walls, railing and mimbar. They are part of
the fenestration allowing air and light into the building. The perforated timber boards
are placed on top of doors, windows or walls allowing circulation of air and light into
the building that illuminates the interior which is often dark because interior is
covered by the pyramidal rood and also because of the dark hue of the timber walls
18
and the underside of the roof. The late afternoon sun may often cast intricate
shadows on the praying space when light passes through the carved panels. While at
night, the light from lamps passes through the perforations vesting silhouette of the
carved panels.
2.3.5
Calligraphy
The Arabic language is considered to have Divine attribute having the Quran
being revealed in the Arab Peninsula, it’s calligraphy in the Islamic culture is regarded
as the primary form of Islamic art and creative expressions. Symbolically depicted as
a mediator that expresses the quality and skills of its Creator, it communicates directly
or indirectly the existence and power of God since the calligraphy is usually selected
verses of the holy Quran. Its significance is the arts creation is also mainly due to the
prohibition of human and figural images making inscribing the divine words as
substitute for these motifs. Because the letters of the sacred alphabet correspond to
characters and qualities of God as the Divine Scribe, Arabic calligraphy used as
mosque ornamentation need not be understood of its language but that it should
communicate its sacred symbolism of Divine word and by extension Divine Presence.
2.2.6
Geometric Ornamentation
This type of decorative motifs is the most basic element in Islamic ornament
where the artist often experiments with the basic design language of repetition,
rotation and reflection, using straight lines, squares, triangles, circles, crossed circles,
hexagonal shapes and octagonal shapes. The practice of geometry is then to depict an
approach to communicate the orders of the universe through its dominant
characteristic of balance and harmonious pattern. This type of patterns in the earliest
centuries of Islam was first influenced from both the Greeks and Romans but later
modified and further elaborated under Islamic governance with the use of octagons
and star shapes decorating art objects and architecture. The embellishments however
have complex mathematical equations towards its design which had earlier attracted
the Muslims craftsmen maximizing the art form in relation to non-figurative
ornamentation of the created as well as visualizing the Creator and His perfected
mathematical (geometrical) equations and balance of the universe.
19
CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
3.1
Introduction
The research methodology will be conducted using the qualitative approach.
Literature reviews concerning the historical development of mosques’ styles in
Malaysia will be studied to understand the morphology of its design form through a
defined time frame of its earliest development in these styles; vernacular, colonial,
international precedence and finally the contemporary modern design. These
mosques will be defined by their design form, its technological construction, and
materiality. Focusing on the use of ornamentation as decorative elements in its
façade treatment of ornamentations of the different type of mosque typology will be
studied contrasted through the different styles in its defined time frame, identified,
and documented.
3.2 Research area
There will be 4 case studies chosen, and each one chosen in relevance to the
different timeline and consequent to it; its architectural styles evolution as well as due
to these influences;

Construction technology

Climatic factors

Political

International architectural influences
And lastly to finally see these evolutions translated into the contemporary
modern built form and the ornamentation interpreted through it as was studied in the
literature review in Chapter 2.
20
Firstly, the chosen mosque is the Vernacular type because it was one of the
earliest type of mosque typical to Malaysia and was designed with local floral
ornamentation. The mosque chosen is the Tengkera mosque as it is one of the
vernacular architectural styles, built in 1728 with regional influences of architectural
form as well as its design language influenced by the technology of its day.
The second mosque to be studied would evolve towards the Colonial
architectural styles with Moorish influences due to the change of historical movement
in Malaysia’s timeline as well as the political reasons. The mosque that would be
studied is the Masjid Jamek Kuala Lumpur that was built in
The third mosque is the Sultan Sulaiman Mosque, built in 1932 in Kelang,
Selangor is chosen to contrast the influence that had less to do with the political
influence of the day but more due to the open architectural discourse of the
international architectural movement that was still colonial influenced but moving
towards the modern architecture typology.
Lastly, the mosque chosen is the contemporary modern influence of the day
would be the KLCC mosque that was built in 1998, which has all the elements
previously studied in relevance to the technological influence, political in its
approach to accentuate a more Malaysian identity of perhaps the idealization of the
nations’ hope or the designers understanding corresponding towards all the elements
governing a mosque design in Malaysia, which would be an amalgamation of
different languages.
3.3
Methods
3.3.1 Secondary data collection
Secondary data from sources, which is related to the study includes academic
journals, articles, books, and conference papers, were selectively reviewed. These
were elaborated at length in Chapter 2 both from the first subject to be studied is the
different types of built form typical in architectural designs of mosques as well as the
studies of ornamentation in our regional floral design and other types that exists in
mosque ornamentation; so as to guide the observation done in the next method of
data gathering.
21
3.3.2
Observation method
From the first method of secondary data collection, the observation made are
in relevance to the morphology of built forms through the different timeline, the first
vernacular form 1728, later of colonial form built in 1808, Art Deco influence built in
1932 and then finally contemporary modern influence built in 1998.
The mosques will be studied of its morphological form and contrast its
evolution in relation to the ornamentation existing or adapted to its overall design in
observation of;
Roof ornamentation:
 Buah Buton (Roof crown) or
 Tunjuk Langit (Finial)
 Ridge board cover or tutup perabung
 Tumpu kasau or fascia board
Wall ornamentation:
 Wall carving
Openings ornamentation (Doors and Windows)
 Ventilation panels
3.4 Analyses
The findings will then be tabulated, analyzed and then synthesized with the
literature review that was previously done to support or reason the findings.
3.5 Limitation of study
The limitation of the study is due in most part by time constraints also the
varying factors that could contribute to the discourse of the morphological influence
of mosque design, namely; political influences, cultural attributes, building and
22
technological development, economic reasons and other more important factors that
had major influences towards the mosque styles’ evolution. However, focusing on the
ornamentation, we can analyze the changes occurring to the use, and or adaptation of
its usage through the timeframe of its morphology.
23
CHAPTER 4
CASE STUDIES
4.1
Tengkera Mosque (1728)
4.1.1 Introduction
The Tengkera mosque was built in Tengkera, Malacca in 1728 and is the second
oldest mosque after the Kampung Hulu Mosque at the Kampung Hulu district.
The Tengkera mosque was built during the Netherland occupation of Malacca and
was designed in Malaccan mosque style with Javanese as well as China's
architectural influence. Its plan is typical of Malaccan mosques; an open square plan
that is flanked with a 3 tier pyramidal roof style; the first tier covers the verandah,
the second tier covers the praying congregation area and the highest tier is the
pyramidal roof finished with the floral ornamented roof crown. The mosque had
undergone two restorations and was repaired in 1890 and 1910 and was originally
built with timber columns imported from Kalimantan, Indonesia.
An archway with pagoda like roof and floral ornamentation decorates the entrance to
the mosque with a pagoda influenced minaret built next to the mosque’s verandah.
This historical mosque houses a tomb belonging to Sultan Hussein Muazzam Shah
who with Temenggung Abdul Rahman, in 6 February 1819, signed a legal contract
to hand over Singapore to Sir Stamford Raffles and soon left Singapore to Malacca
where he later died and buried in the Tengkera Mosque cemetery.
24
4.1.2 Architectural Form
Sectional drawing of the Tengkera Mosque, Melaka built in the eighteenth century.
Measured drawing by Mohd Suhaimi, Saleha, Poongavanam, Abu Hari, and Mohd
Ali (1981)
The Tengkera mosque features the typical Nusantara mosque built form with a
square plan and pyramidal roof covering the praying area and open verandah on all
sides surrounding the center praying area except the mihrab wall facing the kiblah.
Its architectural style is in the Sino-Eclectic category with distinct Chinese influence
and a combination of two or more influence of architectural language, namely the
Malaccan and Javanese features.
Typical to the Sino-Eclectic style is that the mosque is built on the ground and is not
raised like most local mosques design of its era. The mosque has slabs on grade
which are raised about half a meter high with stone stairways accessing to the main
floor plan.
25
4.1.3 Roof Form
The roof was originally built with timber and covered with thatch roof and later
covered with Senggora roof tiles. Its shape is influenced by Chinese pagoda roof
with a Buah Buton (roof crown) floral ornamentation and a mild steel crescent moon
and star decoration.
4.1.3 Tunjuk Langit (Finial)
Finial is the decoration that sits on the apex of the arch of the parapet where the
façade is extensively decorated with floral carvings and simulated overhang with
brackets. The mosque’s finial is ornamented with the cosmos decorative element
with crescent moon.
26
4.1.4 Tutup perabung (Ridge Board)
The ridge board is decorated with floral ornamentation as if sprouting from the roof
to cover the edges.
4.1.5 Tumpu Kasau (Fascia Board)
The fascia boards are made from timber with plant carvings that decorates the roof
edges all around the mosque.
27
4.1.6 Wall
The mosque’s wall is punctuated with ventilation panels near the mihrab with floral
decoration in rhombus geometric form that act as window or openings for the
mosque’s ventilation design.
While the wall is finished with 1000mm high ceramic tiles in floral design and single
floral patterned wall tile at each interval of door opening.
28
4.1.8 Door
The timber doors are decorated in intricate floral carvings with an arched ventilation
panel at the top that is covered in colored glass frame and intricate floral decoration
complete with quranic carving at the top of the door frame.
29
4.2 Sultan Abdul Samad Jamek Mosque (1909)
4.2.1 Introduction
Source :
Sultan Abdul Samad Jamek Mosque, or in Malay: Masjid Jamek Sultan Abdul
Samad is Kuala Lumpur's oldest mosque and built at the confluence of Klang and
Gombak Rivers which is why it is a very significant mosque to Kuala Lumpur's
history. Built in 1907 and officially opened on December 23rd, 1909, it boasts a
Moghul type architecture which was synonymous with colonial design approaching
Muslim's house of worship as well as British's administrative buildings around
Kuala Lumpur.
Recently, the mosque had undergone conservation as well as extension as efforts in
the River of Life project that had seen the tourist friendly place become the central
part of the revivification of the meeting point of the river.
4.2.2 Architectural Form
The Jamek mosque is designed in a combination of the hypostyle form and the
Indian Three-domed Mosque style where its basic plan is square enveloped in a
rectangular compound with a minaret. However, the main complex is topped with
three domes as it was heavily influenced by Mughal architecture both by a strong
presence of Indian people as well as the British colonialist’s exotic taste for Islamic
architecture within the context of influence from North Indian mosques. The brick
moasque was built featuring load-bearing brick walls and columns with ceremonial
flowery arches.
The prayer hall inside sees three Mughal onion-shaped domes and the mosque’s
30
main hall opens out into a walled sahn or courtyard which was originally unroofed.
4.2.3 Roof Form
The dome was originally made from copper but was replaced by zink after it
collapsed in 1984. The shape of the domes is bulbous onion shape typical of Mughal/
Indo-Saracenic mosques design where it symbolizes the symbolic influence of
nature. It is capped in its apex with a simple lotus decoration topped with finial. The
forecourt was roofed over to cater and adapt to the needs for more prayer space as
well as the climatic tropical heavy rains. The two flanking minarets set to a
symmetrical composition of the mosque, while the smaller chatris which is small
domed kiosk common on roofs in Mughal architecture, reinforce the Mughal
influence.
4.2.4 Tunjuk Langit (Finial)
31
The finial is simple designed, a common finish in Mughal styled domes that sits on a
lotus leaves which is influenced by Hindu temples. The chatris are also capped with
a simpler finial design.
4.2.5 Wall
The wall is bared red bricks which was abundant during the Colonial era in
administrative Kuala Lumpur and boast a Moorish influence. The walls are
frequently punctured by ceremonial flowery arches and windows are shaped like
palatial patterns covered with geometrical stained glass shapes.
4.1.8 Door
The door to the main praying area are made out of timber with geometrical carving
and topped with a high window also covered in geometrical shaped designs.
4.3 Sultan Sulaiman Mosque (1932)
4.3.1 Introduction
According to Documentation Section of National Archives of Malaysia, Sultan
Sulaiman mosque that is situated in the Royal Town of Klang in Selangor was built
to commemorate Klang becaming the capital of British colonial administration for
Selangor from 1875 until 1880 and later Royal The mosque was officially opened by
the 5th Sultan of Selangor, Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah on 11th September
1932.
32
The 85-year-old mosque was designed by the British architect Leofric Kesteven and
was designed based on Moghul's architectural influence in terms of the planning but
the overall facades is designed in Art Deco taste where it outlined the monolithic
structure.
The Sultan Sulaiman Mosque has a main minaret and four domes on each of its
balconies. Its main building is octagonal shape.
4.3.2 Architectural Form
4.3.3 Roof Form
The main roof is dome covering the octagonal shape of the main praying area that is
topped with a roof crown made of glass flanked by 8 iron decorative lighting rods
that
light
up
the
sky
at
night.
The other smaller minarets are also covered in dome roof with decorative floral
ornamentations and a
4.3.4 Tunjuk Langit (Finial)
4.3.5 Tutup perabung (Ridge Board)
4.3.6 Tumpu Kasau (Fascia Board)
4.3.7 Wall
4.3.8 Door
33
4.4
As-Syakirin Mosque (1998)
The As Syakirin Mosque was constructed as part of Kuala Lumpur City Centre
(KLCC) project and was built in 1998. Situated in the vicinity of the KLCC public
park it is more well known as KLCC mosque and nicknamed the ‘Jewel in the
park’, as it is strategically situated near the Petronas Twin towers and Suria
Shopping Centre as well as having jewel like geometrical dome centering its
complex.
Initially the design catered to a congregation of 6000 people, but in 2009, the 2story mosque was renovated and extended to further accommodate 5000 more,
increasing its total capacity to 11,000 worshippers.
The mosque is designed as an Islamic architectural landmark in a majority Muslim
country that was economically fast developing its capital city, Kuala Lumpur and
was designed to reflect its national agenda. It is designed in modern style (Ghaffar,
2017) with an absence of a minaret which further punctuate its modern architectural
language without adhering to the traditional visual indication to the location of a
mosque which became emblematic of mosque architecture.
The mosque features interesting architecture of West Asia specially Uzbek design
combined with a taste of East Asia and was built by Uzbekistan craftsmen to
decorate its interior and the internal dome’s facade details made out of marble and
granite. The mosque has intricate carvings and calligraphy on the interior walls as
well as on the dome internal structures.
34
4.3.2 Architectural Form
The structural plan is sequence shaped hypostyle mosque, supported by columns.
The style of the mosque is modernistic expressionism (Rasdi, 2009). Historically,
the modern style resulted from a rejection of historical revivalism, ornamentation
and abstraction in the design language of contemporary European architectural
expression of the early 20th century and instead it honors the structural expression
as it was bearing truth to form and architecture. This can be seen where the mosque
does not have a minaret due to it being a modern mosque with modern technology
where the use of speakers had rendered the minaret’s purpose for the call of the
adhan (call of prayer) redundant. The masjid’s space is very simple but structurally
elegant with symmetrical design both in plan and in its elevation reveling in the
balance in its overall composition as is often seen in Islamic architecture to denote
the balance of the universe and its creation.
4.3.3 Roof Form
Fig The exterior of the mosque (source wikimapea
The flat roof is designed in the shape of 8 pointed stars capped with a geometrical
patterned structural dome. It almost looks like a half-open umbrella, reminiscent of
Masjid Negara with its poetic significance as Islam as the divine protector of the
nation. The dome is separated with 8 sides to the polygon and is supported by 8
main girders at the lower apex of the dome and a vaulted ceiling structure holds the
geodesic structure. This top cupola exteriorly looks modern with no typical crescent
moon filial to adorn it while inside of the structure act as decorative elements as the
steel structures are left exposed with rhombus shaped glass windows penetrating the
structure at each 8 separated polygonal intervals. While the top apex of the dome’s
cupola is interior finished with white granite and decorated with simple ornamented
35
muqarnas and its granite finish beam is carved with Arabic calligraphy of Quranic
scriptures (Asma al-Husna).
The highest vaulted ceiling of the dome is also decorated geometrical muqarnas
(decorative ceiling) influenced by the Middle East and 8 and 5 star shapes are carved
on the white granite muqarnass at the lower end of the dome structure.
4.3.4 Ribbed vault structure
36
Figure Rib vault structure along the Pillars structure at the new praying area
main praying area
Sky-glass windows
Series of symmetrical design pillars
At a glance, the series of pillars give the impression of palm trees creating the
symbolism of nature synonymous with Islamic art but symbolized in structural
form. The symmetrical pillar’s arms curve upwards to form a cross ribbed vault
structure that support the reinforced concrete roof with sky glass windows shaped
like leaves, reinforcing the palm trees metaphor, and at certain angles, one can view
the Petronas Twin Towers from these windows as well lighting the mosques open
interior with natural light. However, series of the pillars are not covered in glass
window but instead the vault are covered up with minimal grooved panel ceiling
bearing the branch structure.
4.3.7 Wall
The mosque walls are punctured with stained-glass windows near the wall facing the
37
kiblah with carved geometrical art on some part of the walls.
4.3.8 Door
The doors to the main interior of the praying area is made of glass door with simple
coloured stained glass design enveloped in ceramic finish architrave.
38
CHAPTER 5
ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
39
Based on the research, Syakirin Mosque is belongs to modernistic expressionism. The
term modernistic, according to Mohamad Tajuddin Mohamad Rasdi (2009), springs
from the ideas and main principles that govern the early revolution of architecture in
Europe in the early twentieth century. To them, true architecture rejects historic
revivalism, ornamentation and abstraction in
any form but honour the structural expression in architecture. The Modernistic
Expressionism and Modernistic Structuralism are the two types of modernistic styles
of mosques in Malaysia.
Modernistic Expressionism carries a metaphoric message through the use of
structurally expressive form.
YEAR
1728
1808
1932
1998
NAME
Tengkera
Abidin
Sultan
KLCC
Mosque
Mosque
Sulaiman
Mosque
Mosque
ORNAMENTATION
STYLE
Vernacular
ROOF
BUAH BUTON
(Roof Crown)
Description
TUNJUK LANGIT
(Finial)
Description
TUMPU KASAU
(Fascia Board)
Description
WALL
Description
OPENING
Description
DOOR
Description
WINDOW
Description
VENTILATION
40
Colonial
Art Deco
Modern
PANELS
Description
1728
1730’s
1748
1808
1871
1892
1898
Vernacular Vernacular Vernacular Colonial
Vernacular Colonial
Colonial
Tengkera
Kampung
Kampung
Abidin
Langgar
Sultan
Jamek
Mosque
Laut
Keling
Mosque
Mosque
Abu
Mosque
Mosque
Mosque
Bakar
Mosque
Kampung
Hulu
Melaka
Mosque
Acheen
Street
Mosque
1908
1909
1910
1912
Colonial
Colonial
Vernacular Colonial
Vernacular Colonial
Vernacular
Indian
Jamek
Syed Alwi Zahir
Kapitan
Al-
Kampung
Mosque
Mosque
Mosque
Keling
Muhammadi Raja
Mosque
Mosque
Mosque
1916
1922
1924
Mosque
Ubudiah
Mosque
Paloh
Mosque
1925
1929
1930
1932
41
1938
1964
1965
Colonial
Jamek
Mosque
Vernacular
Old
Mosque of
Kampung
Tinggi
Vernacular Colonial
Colonial
Modern
Modern
National
Art-Deco
Art-Deco
influence
influence
Tanjung
Sultan
Jamek
Sultan
Keling
Sulaiman
Mosque
Ahmad I Mosque
Mosque
Mosque
Alauddin
Ubudiah
Mosque
Mosque
Mosque
Paloh
Mosque
1967
1972
1980
1982
1989
1994
1998
Modern
Modern
Modern
Modern
Modern
Modern
Modern
State
State
Sultan
Al-Malik
Sultan
Mosque
Mosque
Idris Shah Khalid
Abdul
II Mosque
Aziz
Ibai
KLCC
Mosque
Mosque
of
Kampung
Cendering
Mosque
Mosque
42
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS
43
REFERENCES
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Malay Wood Carvings in Modern and Post-Modern Architecture in Malaysia: A
Failure
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Jurnal Alam Bina, Jilid 8, No.2.
Sarah Moser. (2012). Circulating Visions of 'High Islam': The Adoption of Fantasy
Middle Eastern Architecture in Constructing Malaysian National Identity.
Urban Studies. 49(13) 2913–2935, October 2012.
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Akel Kahera, Latif Abdulmalik and Craig Anz, Design. (2009). Criteria for Mosques
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Islamic
Centers. Art, Architecture, and Worship, Architectural Press,
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REFERENCES
[1]
S. Mastor, “Konsep Hiasan dan Perlambangan, Senibina Melayu Tradisi dan
Etnik Nusantara’, Slide, Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaaan Malaysia, 2004.
N.Utaberta et al, “Typological Study of Traditional Mosque Ornamentation in
Malaysia – Prospect of Traditional Ornamentation in Urban Mosque, World
Academy of Science. Engineering and Technology International Journal of
Civil, Architecture Science and Engineering Vol: 6 No: 7, 2012
[2]
[3]
[4]
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohamad Tajuddin Mohamad Rasdi, Mosque Architecture in
Malaysia: Classofication of Styles and Possible Influence, Journal Alam Bina,
2005
[5]
Sarah Moser, Circulating Visions of ‘High Islam’: The Adoption of Fantasy
Middle Eastern Architecture in Constructing Malaysian National Identity,
Urban Stud 2012 49: 2913, 2012
N.Utaberta et al, “Typological Study of Traditional Mosque Ornamentation in
Malaysia – Prospect of Traditional Ornamentation in Urban Mosque, World
Academy of Science. Engineering and Technology International Journal of
Civil, Architecture Science and Engineering Vol: 6 No: 7, 2012
[6]
[7]
and
Akel Kahera, Latif Abdulmalik and Craig Anz, Design creteria for Mosques
Islamic Centers. Art, Architecture, and Worship, Architectural Press, 2009
Picture
Masjid dome and finial
Saad, F. (2009, July 30). Domes & Squares - Masjid Jamek [Digital image].
Retrieved
May
28,
2018,
from
https://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Asia/Malaysia/West/Kuala_Lumpur/KL/photo110
6638.htm
45
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