THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM UNIT TEST REVIEW 1. Review the diagram of the respiratory system (upper and lower and alveoli) 2. Describe the passage of air as it passes through the respiratory system (step by step). 3. What is the glottis? 4. What is cellular respiration? 5. What is ATP? 6. What is VO2 and what is VO2max? How are they different? 7. How would oxygen efficiency differ between an athlete and a smoker? 8. How is oxygen mainly transported? 9. How is CO2 transported, include percentages for each type of transport. 10. Describe how CO2 is related to the control of breathing. 11. What do cilia and mucus do? 12. How are oxygen and ATP related? 13. Differentiate between external and internal respiration. 14. Describe the mechanics of breathing (i.e. what happens to the diaphragm and the intercostals muscles during inhalation and exhalation). 15. Define the following: a) tidal volume d) expiratory reserve volume b) vital capacity e) inspiratory reserve volume c) residual volume 16. Describe the process of gas exchange between deoxygenated blood and the capillaries after an inhalation. 17. What is bronchitis? Emphysema? Asthma? Cystic fibrosis? Tuberculosis? COPD? Pneumonia? 18. What is bronchial thermoplasty? 19. What is pneumothorax? 20. What is the pleural membrane? 21. Calculate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide on top of Mount Everest (31kpa) 22. By which process does gas exchange occur by? 23. How does smoking impact an individual? 24. What does nicotine do? 25. What happens to your rate of breathing when; A. There is low oxygen in the air? B. After you hyperventilate (high oxygen)? 26. Describe how breathing occurs in terms of volume and pressure 27. Compare the partial pressure of oxygen at the following locations A. Alveoli and blood stream B. Blood stream and cell 28. What is the role of hemoglobin in oxygen transport and oxygen transport? 29. What is the role of the medulla oblongata? 30. Know how oxygen is transported from the point of entry to the point it exits into a cell in terms of partial pressure and how it is transported within the blood stream.