Genetic Code Study online at quizlet.com/_502qtw 1. Amino Acid 7. Gene Expression process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function 8. Genetic Code Molecules that are the building blocks of proteins; essential amino acids are those that cannot be made by the body and must be obtained from food; nonessential amino acids can be made by the body. 2. The information encoded within the genetic material that can be translated into a protein Anticodon 9. Hydrogen Bonds Bond holding together Nitrogen Bases (A,T,C,G,U) 10. Insertion When a different nitrogen bases is added (inserted) into a DNA/RNA sequence 11. mRNA group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon 3. Codon A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein. Group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that specify a particular amino acid to be incorporated into a protein 12. Mutation A change in the sequence of a DNA or RNA strand sometimes resulting in different traits being expressed 4. Deletion When a nitrogen base is removed (deleted) from a sequence of DNA or RNA 13. Nitrogen Bases A,T,C,G, & U - the sequence of these codes for different proteins 5. Frameshift When a sequence of DNA or RNA is re-arranged 14. Monomer of DNA/RNA 6. Gene Specific section of DNA - codes for one protein Nucleic Acid 15. Nucleotide Polymer of DNA/RNA 16. Polypeptide 20. RNA A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. 17. Protein A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually singlestranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses. An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells 18. 21. Substitution 22. Transcription When one nitrogen bases is replaced with another Ribose A five-carbon sugar present in RNA 19. Ribosomal RNA It is the process of transcribing or making a copy of genetic information stored in a DNA strand into a complementary strand of RNA (messenger RNA or mRNA) with the aid of RNA polymerases. 23. type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes Translation (genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm 24. tRNA An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA. The tRNA carries the ANTI CODON.