quizlet GENETIC CODE 2

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Genetic Code
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1.
Amino
Acid
7.
Gene
Expression
process by which a gene produces its product
and the product carries out its function
8.
Genetic
Code
Molecules that are the building blocks of
proteins; essential amino acids are those that
cannot be made by the body and must be
obtained from food; nonessential amino acids
can be made by the body.
2.
The information encoded within the genetic
material that can be translated into a protein
Anticodon
9.
Hydrogen
Bonds
Bond holding together Nitrogen Bases
(A,T,C,G,U)
10.
Insertion
When a different nitrogen bases is added
(inserted) into a DNA/RNA sequence
11.
mRNA
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that
are complementary to an mRNA codon
3.
Codon
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that
attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and
specifies the primary structure of a protein.
Group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that
specify a particular amino acid to be
incorporated into a protein
12.
Mutation
A change in the sequence of a DNA or RNA
strand sometimes resulting in different traits
being expressed
4.
Deletion
When a nitrogen base is removed (deleted) from
a sequence of DNA or RNA
13.
Nitrogen
Bases
A,T,C,G, & U - the sequence of these codes for
different proteins
5.
Frameshift
When a sequence of DNA or RNA is re-arranged
14.
Monomer of DNA/RNA
6.
Gene
Specific section of DNA - codes for one protein
Nucleic
Acid
15.
Nucleotide
Polymer of DNA/RNA
16.
Polypeptide
20.
RNA
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked
together by peptide bonds.
17.
Protein
A type of nucleic acid consisting of
nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and
the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine
(C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually singlestranded; functions in protein synthesis and as
the genome of some viruses.
An organic compound that is made of one or
more chains of amino acids and that is a
principal component of all cells
18.
21.
Substitution
22.
Transcription
When one nitrogen bases is replaced with
another
Ribose
A five-carbon sugar present in RNA
19.
Ribosomal
RNA
It is the process of transcribing or making a
copy of genetic information stored in a DNA
strand into a complementary strand of RNA
(messenger RNA or mRNA) with the aid of
RNA polymerases.
23.
type of RNA that makes up the major part of
ribosomes
Translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic
information coded in messenger RNA directs
the formation of a specific protein at a
ribosome in the cytoplasm
24.
tRNA
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino
acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA. The tRNA carries the ANTI CODON.
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