quizlet DNA RNA

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DNA and RNA key Terms
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1.
amino acid
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
2.
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
3.
codon
a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a
particular amino acid
4.
deoxyribose
sugar
5.
DNA helicase
an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix during DNA replication
6.
DNA
polymerase
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
7.
double helix
shape that resembles a twisted ladder
8.
histone
protein molecule. DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin around this
9.
messenger
RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest
of the cell
10.
nucleotide
nucleic acid made up of 5 carbon sugar and, phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
11.
protein
a substance that is a necessary part of the cells of animals and plants
12.
purine
adenine and guanine belong to this class
13.
pyrimidine
thymine and cytosine belong to this class
14.
replication
copying process by which a cell duplicates it's DNA
15.
ribose
sugar in RNA
16.
ribosomal
RNA
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
17.
RNA
polymerase
transcription enzyme that links RNA nucleotides together
18.
transcription
process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
19.
transfer RNA
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
20.
translation
RNA directs the assembly of proteins
21.
Watson &
Crick
the first described the shape of the double helix
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