PROTECTION, SUPPORT, AND MOVEMENT Introduction to Zoology January 23, 2018 Chapter 23 TODAY WE WILL Review the function of the integument and basic differences among types of organisms Review the basic differences between animal skeletons Have a general understanding of how animals move SO….WHAT IS INTEGUMENTARY?? The integumentary syste m comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or damages from outside. The integumentary syste m includes hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails PROTECTION: INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEMS The integument is the external covering of an animal. It primarily protects against mechanical injury and invasion by microorganisms. Integumentary Regulation Excretion Vitamin functions also include: of body temperature of waste materials D3 formation PROTECTION: INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEMS (CONTINUED) Reception of environmental stimuli: Pain Temperature Pressure THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM OF INVERTEBRATES Protozoans plasma membrane Pellicle: thick covering around plasma membrane Invertebrate integument single layer of epithelial cells = epidermis Specializations include cuticles, shells, or teguments Figure 23.1 Integument of Invertebrates. Protective cuticle Figure 23.2 An insect cuticle. VERTEBRATE INTEGUMENT = SKIN Figure 23.3 Skin of Jawless Fishes: thick skin Figure 23.4 Skin of Cartilaginous Fishes: multilayered and contains mucous and sensory cells . Figure 23.5 Skin of Bony Fishes: contains scales composed of dermal bone Figure 23.6 Skin of Amphibians: stratified epidermis and a dermis containing mucous and serous glands plus pigmentation cells Figure 23.7 Skin of Reptiles: dry, no epidermal glands Figure 23.8 Skin of Birds: like reptiles, no epidermal glands, covered with feathers Figure 23.9 Skin of Mammals: several layers of a variety of cells, including hair shafts, glands, blood vessels, thick dermis (middle layer) VERTEBRATE INTEGUMENT Hair: keratin-filled dead cells that develop from the epidermis. Nails/claws: epidermis modifications of the flat, horny plates on the dorsal surface of the digits. VERTEBRATE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM TODAY WE WILL: Review the function of the integument and basic differences among types of organisms Review the basic differences between animal skeletons Have a general understanding of how animals move THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Animals have three types of skeletons: Hydrostatic skeletons Exoskeletons Endoskeletons HYDROSTATIC SKELETON HYDROSTATIC SKELETON Changing shape: Because the fluid volume is constant, a change (increase) in width must accompany a change (decrease) in length. Core of liquid (water or a body fluid such as blood) surrounded by a tension-resistant sheath EXOSKELETON Rigid exoskeletons provide sites for muscle attachment and counterforces for muscle movements. Exoskeletons the body. also support and protect Figure 23.11b Articulation of an arthropod limb. VERTEBRATE SKELETON: ENDOSKELETON Two main types of supportive tissue: Cartilage Provides a site for muscle attachment Aid in movement at joints Provides support Bone Provides a point of attachment for muscles Transmits the force of muscle contraction from one part of the body to another Figure 23.12 Bone. Figure 23.13 Fish Endoskeleton. Figure 23.14 Tetrapod Endoskeleton (frog) Vertebrate skeleton: • Longer appendages (legs and arms) • The vertebral column adapted to more dorsoventral (front to back) motions than to side-to-side movements TODAY WE WILL Review the function of the integument and basic differences among types of organisms Review the basic differences between animal skeletons Have a general understanding of how animals move LEARNING OUTCOMES: SECTION 23.3 Describe three types of nonmuscular movement. Explain the sliding-filament mechanism of muscle contraction. MOVEMENT: NONMUSCULAR MOVEMENT AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS Movement (locomotion) is characteristic of certain cells, protists, and animals. The contractile proteins actin and myosin are involved. Nonmuscular movement involves the following structures: Pseudopodia Cilia Flagella AN INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL MUSCLES Animals may have one or more of the following types of muscle tissue: Smooth muscle: involuntary muscle movements Cardiac muscle: involuntary, found in heart Skeletal Muscle muscle: voluntary tissue exhibits contractility, excitability, extensibility, and elasticity. INVERTEBRATE MOVEMENTS Locomotion of soft-body invertebrates: Pedal locomotion in snails and planarians Successive muscle contraction in earthworms Looping movements in leeches Water-vascular echinoderms Terrestrial system of locomotion in invertebrates also involves walking Flight Jumping Figure 23.17 Successive Stages in Earthworm Movement. Figure 23.18 Looping Movements. Figure 23.20 WaterVascular System of an Echinoderm. Insert figure 23.22 Walking: Limb Trajectories of Several Arthropods Figure 23.23 Jump of a Flea. THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM OF VERTEBRATES Figure 23.24a Fish Musculature. Most of the musculature of fishes consists of segmental myomeres. Figure 23.25 Structure of Skeletal Muscle Tissue. Figure 23.26 SlidingFilament Model of Muscle Contraction: myofilaments slide within myofibrils Figure 23.27 Nerve-Muscle Motor Unit: • Nerves control skeletal muscle contraction. • The process of contraction is controlled by calcium ions Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. QUESTIONS?