WILD 114 INTRO TO ZOOL LECTURE 5 PROTECTION SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT CHAPTER 23

advertisement
PROTECTION,
SUPPORT, AND
MOVEMENT
Introduction to Zoology
January 23, 2018
Chapter 23
TODAY WE WILL
Review
the function of the integument
and basic differences among types of
organisms
Review
the basic differences between
animal skeletons
Have
a general understanding of how
animals move

SO….WHAT IS
INTEGUMENTARY??
The integumentary syste
m comprises the skin
and its appendages
acting to protect the
body from various kinds
of damage, such as loss
of water or damages
from outside.
The integumentary syste
m includes hair, scales,
feathers, hooves, and
nails
PROTECTION: INTEGUMENTARY
SYSTEMS
 The
integument is the external covering of an
animal.
 It
primarily protects against mechanical injury and
invasion by microorganisms.
 Integumentary
 Regulation
 Excretion
 Vitamin
functions also include:
of body temperature
of waste materials
D3 formation
PROTECTION: INTEGUMENTARY
SYSTEMS (CONTINUED)
 Reception
of environmental stimuli:
 Pain
 Temperature
 Pressure
THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM OF
INVERTEBRATES
 Protozoans
 plasma
membrane
 Pellicle:
thick covering around
plasma membrane
 Invertebrate
integument
 single
layer of epithelial cells =
epidermis
 Specializations
include cuticles,
shells, or teguments
Figure 23.1 Integument of Invertebrates.
Protective cuticle
Figure 23.2 An insect cuticle.
VERTEBRATE INTEGUMENT = SKIN
Figure 23.3
Skin of Jawless Fishes: thick skin
Figure 23.4 Skin of Cartilaginous Fishes: multilayered
and contains mucous and sensory cells .
Figure 23.5 Skin of Bony Fishes: contains scales
composed of dermal bone
Figure 23.6 Skin of Amphibians: stratified
epidermis and a dermis containing mucous and
serous glands plus pigmentation cells
Figure 23.7 Skin of Reptiles: dry, no epidermal
glands
Figure 23.8 Skin of Birds: like reptiles, no epidermal
glands, covered with feathers
Figure 23.9 Skin of Mammals: several layers of a variety of cells, including
hair shafts, glands, blood vessels, thick dermis (middle layer)
VERTEBRATE INTEGUMENT
 Hair:
keratin-filled dead cells that
develop from the epidermis.
 Nails/claws:
epidermis

modifications of the
flat, horny plates on the dorsal
surface of the digits.
VERTEBRATE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
TODAY WE WILL:
 Review
the function of the
integument and basic
differences among types of
organisms
 Review the basic differences
between animal skeletons
 Have a general understanding
of how animals move
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
 Animals
have three types of skeletons:
 Hydrostatic
skeletons
 Exoskeletons
 Endoskeletons
HYDROSTATIC SKELETON
HYDROSTATIC SKELETON
Changing shape: Because the fluid volume is
constant, a change (increase) in width must
accompany a change (decrease) in length.
Core of liquid (water or a body fluid such as blood)
surrounded by a tension-resistant sheath
EXOSKELETON
 Rigid
exoskeletons provide sites for
muscle attachment and counterforces
for muscle movements.
 Exoskeletons
the body.
also support and protect
Figure 23.11b
Articulation of
an arthropod
limb.
VERTEBRATE SKELETON:
ENDOSKELETON
 Two


main types of supportive tissue:
Cartilage

Provides a site for muscle attachment

Aid in movement at joints

Provides support
Bone

Provides a point of attachment for
muscles

Transmits the force of muscle contraction
from one part of the body to another
Figure 23.12
Bone.
Figure 23.13
Fish
Endoskeleton.
Figure 23.14 Tetrapod Endoskeleton (frog)
Vertebrate skeleton:
• Longer appendages (legs and arms)
• The vertebral column adapted to
more dorsoventral (front to back)
motions than to side-to-side
movements
TODAY WE WILL
Review the function of the
integument and basic
differences among types of
organisms
Review the basic differences
between animal skeletons
Have a general
understanding of how
animals move
LEARNING OUTCOMES: SECTION
23.3
Describe
three types of
nonmuscular movement.
Explain
the sliding-filament
mechanism of muscle
contraction.
MOVEMENT: NONMUSCULAR MOVEMENT
AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS
Movement (locomotion) is characteristic of
certain cells, protists, and animals.
 The contractile proteins actin and myosin
are involved.
 Nonmuscular movement involves the
following structures:

 Pseudopodia
 Cilia
 Flagella
AN INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL
MUSCLES
 Animals
may have one or more of
the following types of muscle
tissue:
 Smooth
muscle: involuntary
muscle movements
 Cardiac
muscle: involuntary,
found in heart
 Skeletal
 Muscle
muscle: voluntary
tissue exhibits contractility,
excitability, extensibility, and
elasticity.
INVERTEBRATE MOVEMENTS
 Locomotion
of soft-body invertebrates:
 Pedal
locomotion in snails and
planarians
 Successive
muscle contraction in
earthworms
 Looping
movements in leeches
 Water-vascular
echinoderms
 Terrestrial
system of
locomotion in
invertebrates also involves walking
 Flight
 Jumping
Figure 23.17 Successive
Stages in Earthworm
Movement.
Figure 23.18 Looping
Movements.
Figure 23.20 WaterVascular System of an
Echinoderm.
Insert figure 23.22 Walking: Limb Trajectories of Several
Arthropods
Figure 23.23 Jump of a Flea.
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM OF VERTEBRATES
Figure 23.24a Fish Musculature.

Most of the musculature of fishes consists of segmental
myomeres.
Figure 23.25 Structure
of Skeletal Muscle
Tissue.
Figure 23.26 SlidingFilament Model of
Muscle Contraction:
myofilaments slide
within myofibrils
Figure 23.27 Nerve-Muscle Motor Unit:
• Nerves control skeletal muscle contraction.
• The process of contraction is controlled by calcium ions
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution
without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
QUESTIONS?
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards