WILD 114 INTRO TO ZOOL LECTURE 1 CLASSIFICATION CHAPTERS 1,7

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WILD 114 INTRO
ZOOLOGY
Lecture 1 – Why Study Zoology
/ Animal Classification
READING: Miller Chapters 1
and 7
January 7, 2019
Goals for
Today:
• Why Study Zoology?
• What’s the big deal with
evolution?
• How are Zoology and
Ecology Related?
• How do we classify
animals?
Why study
Zoology?
Zoology includes the
study of:
• Mammology – the study of mammals
• Herpetology – the study of reptiles
• Ichthyology – the study of fish
• Entomology – the study of insects
• Ornithology – the study of birds
• Carcinology – the study of crustaceans
• Annelidology – the study of worms
Zoology also evaluates
extinct animals….
Anatomy
Cytology
Embryology
Zoology leads
to
specialization
Genetics
Histology
Molecular Biology
Physiology
Systematics
Pause and Reflect
Metathinking
Why study zoology?
Goals for Today
• Why Study Zoology?
• What’s the big deal with
evolution?
• How are Zoology and
Ecology Related?
• How do we classify
animals?
Evolution Defined
• Organic evolution is a
change in the genetic
makeup of populations
of organisms over time.
It is the source of
animal diversity, and
explains family
relationships within
animal groups.
Macro Evolution and
Controversy
• Macro evolution
is a theory that
asserts that
positive
mutations
coupled with
geologic time can
result in species
that are entirely
new or different
from the original
ancestor.
Evolution….a
tree or a
net?
The Net
Mitochondrial
DNA
Evolution and
Relatedness
Figure 1.4 Hierarchy of relatedness.
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or
distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
At the Domain
level there is
little relatedness
between
Domain and
Species.
Relatedness
increases as you
go down the
pyramid
Taxonomy
• The scientific classification of
animals based upon shared
genetic traits helps scientists
sort out “who is who”.
• This is particularly important
when dealing with closely
related animals like African
Cichlids
African Cichlids
Pause and Reflect….
Metathinking
What did we learn about
evolution?
Goals for Today
• Why Study Zoology?
• What’s the big deal
with evolution?
• How are Zoology and
Ecology Related?
• How do we classify
animals?
• Overpopulation
Zoology and Ecology
• Food
• Air
• Water
• Oil
• Timber
World Resources
Extinction
Rates
Goals for Today
• Why Study Zoology?
• What’s the big deal
with evolution?
• How are Zoology and
Ecology Related?
• How do we classify
animals?
Taxonomy
reflects
phylogeny…..
Classification
of Organisms
• Systematics or
taxonomy
• Study of the kinds
and diversity of
organisms and of
the evolutionary
relationships
among them
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or
distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
• In the 18th century,
Carolus Linnaeus
(Carl von Linne)
published a system
of taxonomy based
on resemblances
• Two key features of
his system remain
useful today:
• two-part names for
species
• and hierarchical
classification
A Taxonomic
Hierarchy
• Taxon
• Any grouping of animals that shares
a particular set of characteristics
• Taxonomic categories
• Hierarchically arranged (broader to
specific)
• Domain, kingdom, phylum, class,
order, family, genus, species
• Above species level there are no
definitions for each category
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written
consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Examples:
Taxa = animals that share a
similar trait
Modern
Taxonomy
Hierarchical classification system
Taxa
– Major groupings or categories
– Nested set of increasing inclusiveness
Domain
Share least DNA
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Mnemonic exercise
Share most DNA
• Simply put- two
names
• Genus, species
• Latin
• Universal
Binomial Nomenclature
Binomial
Nomenclature
• No two animals can have the same scientific
name
• The two-part scientific name of a species is
called a binomial
• The first part of the name is the genus
• The second part, called the specific epithet, is
unique for each species within the genus
• The first letter of the genus is capitalized, and
the entire species name is italicized or
underlined
• Both parts together name the species
Domains and Kingdoms
• The highest levels
of classification in
the taxonomic
hierarchy
• Ribosomal RNA
key to
determining
Kingdoms
because it is an
ancient molecule
that changes
slowly
Figure 7.2 Three lineages of life.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) common in
early history of life and makes base of tree
net-like
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
No reproduction or distribution without the prior written
consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
The Goal of Animal
Systematics
To group animals
in a way that
makes sense
based on their
genetic
relatedness and
shared
characteristics…..
but its not always
easy
•Is it a snake?
•Is it a lizard?
Look at this guy!
•How do we
decide?
Two
Methods to
Classify
Animals
• Method 1 - Animal Systematics
• Monophyletic – all animals in a group have once
ancestor
• Polyphyletic – all animals in a two separate
groups have one ancestor
• Parphyletic – all animals in two completely
different groups may have one ancestory
Which Kingdoms are usually
considered monophyletic?
Two Methods to
Classify Animals
• Method 2 Evolutionary
Systematics
• Homologies – traits of
different animals are similar
because they share a
common ancestor
• Analogies – traits of different
groups of animals are similar
because they adapted to
similar environments.
Two Types of Evolutionary
Systematic Similarities
Cladists vs. Taxonomists….the big rumble
Cladistics explained
Molecular
Approaches to
Animal
Systematics
• Relatedness of animals
reflected in proteins
and DNA
• Nuclear and
mitochondrial DNA
• Ribosomal RNA
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written
consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
• Ribosomal RNA studies
• Distant evolutionary relationships
• Evolutionary conservation results in very slow rates
of change (evolutionary conservation)
Domains and
Kingdoms
• Three major lineages (Domains)
• Eubacteria
• Bacteria
• Archaea
• Extremophile microbes
• Eukarya
• Organisms with compartmentalized cells
• Nuclear membranes separate transcription
& translation
• mitochondrial & chloroplast membranes
compartmentalize energy processing
Compare cladogram and phylogenetic tree
1. What kind of information is common to both representations?
2. How are the relationships between reptiles, birds, and mammals
represented differently in the two figures?
3. How do the differences in question 2 above reflect differing
approaches of phylogenetic systematics and evolutionary
systematics?
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
No reproduction or distribution without the prior written
consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Another
approach to
organizing
animals
• Symmetry
• Assymetry
• Radial
symmetry
• Bilateral
symmetry
Asymmetry.
Radial
symmetry.
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution
without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Bilateral symmetry.
Group exercise
• Come up with 3
additional examples
animals that exhibit:
1. Asymmetry
2. Radial symmetry
3. Bilateral symmetry
And another
method….cellular
organization
•Unicellular
•Diploblastic
•Triploblastic
Pause and
Reflect…..Metathinking
How do we organize
animals?
Questions?
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