Chapter 3 Guided Reading 3.1 Early studies led to the development of the cell theory. 1. When was the microscope invented? 2. Who is credited with inventing the first microscope? 3. What type of bark did Hooke observe? 4. What did Robert Hooke name the tiny, hollow compartments that he observed? 5. What type of microscope did Leeuwenhoek design which was much more powerful than Hooke’s microscope? 6. What did Leeuwenhoek become the first person to observe and describe? 7. What did he name the organisms that he observed? 8. What improvements came to the microscope over the next century and a half? 9. What was proposed by Matthias Schleiden? 10. What did Schwann conclude? 11. What was published in 1839 as the first statement of the cell theory? 12. What did Virchow report in 1855? 13. List the three major principles of the cell theory. Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and most internal structures of eukaryotic cells. 14. How many cells can be found in your body? 15. How are cells different from one another in your body? 16. Define cytoplasm – 17. Define organelles- 18. List defining characteristics of a prokaryotic cell- 19. List defining characteristics of a eukaryotic cell- 3.2 Cells have an internal structure. 20. Like your body,_______________________ are highly organized structures. 21. What is the framework of a cell? 22. Define cytoskeleton23. What are the 3 types of fibers that make up a cytoskeleton? 24. What is the function of the cytoplasm in the cell? Several organelles are involved in making and processing proteins. 25. Much of the cell is devoted to __________________________. 26. How many different amino acids make up proteins? 27. What are several unique characteristics of amino acids? 28. Define nucleus29. List several functions of the nucleus. 30. What structure is found within the nucleus? 31. Define endoplasmic reticulum- 32. What determines whether or not the ER is rough or smooth? 33. Define ribosomes34. Define golgi apparatus35. Define vesicles36. Define mitochondria37. Define vacuole38. Define lysosomes39. What role do lysosomes play in development? 40. Define centrioles41. Define cell wall- 42. What types of organisms display cell walls? 43. Define chloroplasts44. What types of organisms have chloroplasts? 45. Define cell membrane46. How many layers compose the cell membrane? 47. What are the three parts of a phospholipid? 48. What forms the “head” of the phospholipid? What forms the “tail” of the phospholipid? 49. List several other molecules that are found embedded in the cell membrane. 50. Define fluid mosaic model51. Define selective permeability- 52. Define receptor53. What does intracellular mean?