Higher Human Biology Unit 1 Match Up

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Differentiation and Stem Cells
1. Differentiation
A. When the nucleus of a human cell is inserted into the cell of
another animal whose nucleus has been removed.
B. When only certain genes are switched on in a specialised
cell so it only produces proteins needed for it carry out its
function.
C. A discrete group of abnormal cells.
D. Describes stem cells that an only differentiate into a limited
number of specialised cells.
E. Moral values and rules.
F. Process of cell division in somatic cells.
G. When an unspecialised cell become altered and adapted to
perform a specialised function.
H. A cell that leads to the formation of gametes.
I. A term that describes a cell that has 46 chromosomes.
J. The amount of different cells that stem cells can differentiate
into.
K. Differentiated cell.
L. Laws that govern the use of stem cells.
M. When a cell differentiates.
N. A mass of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably.
O. The cells of an early embryo which are grown in the lab.
P. Formed when cancerous cells lose the surface molecules
that hold them together and detach and spread through the
body.
Q. Cells that do not respond to normal regulatory signals.
R. Stem cells found in locations such as red bone marrow.
S. Differentiated cells that have been reprogrammed to turn
some of their genes back on again and therefore act as stem
cells.
T. Unspecialised cell that can self-renew and differentiate into
specialised cells.
U. A collection of somatic cells that are performing a similar
function.
V. Describes stem cells that differentiate into all the specialised
cells.
W. Process where a germline cell divides to give gametes.
X. Cells of the early embryo.
Y. A term that describes a cell that has 23 chromosomes.
2. Specialisation
3. Selective gene expression
4. Stem cell
5. Embryonic stem cells
6. Tissue (adult) stem cells
7. Blastocyst
8. Differentiation potential
9. Multipotent
10. Pluripotent
11. Somatic cell
12. Tissue
13.Germline cell
14. Mitosis
15. Meiosis
16. Diploid
17. Haploid
18. Ethics
19. Induced pluripotent stem
cells
20. Nuclear transfer technique
21. Regulation
22. Cancer cells
23. Tumour
24. Benign tumour
25. Malignant tumour
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DNA and its Replication
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2.
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9.
DNA
Nucleotide
Base
Chemical bond
Hydrogen bond
Antiparallel
Double helix
Replication fork
DNA
polymerase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
10. Primer
J.
11. Leading strand
12. Continuous
K.
L.
13. Lagging strand
14. Ligase
15. Discontinuous
M.
N.
O.
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Describes the coil arrangement of DNA.
4 types: adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine.
The strand that is made continuously.
Bond that holds the base pairs together.
Enzyme that adds nucleotides onto the 3’ end of DNA.
The strand that is made discontinuously.
The molecule of inheritance.
Enzyme that joins DNA fragments of lagging strand together.
Describes the arrangement of the DNA strands in that the 3’ end of
one strand is at the bottom of the DNA and the 3’ end of the other
strand is at the top of the DNA.
When nucleotides are added onto the 3’ end of the parental DNA
strand.
Short sequence of DNA nucleotides.
Repeating unit that makes up DNA. Composed of deoxyribose sugar,
phosphate and a base.
The Y-shaped area of exposed bases during DNA replication.
When nucleotides are added in fragments.
Bond that holds the phosphate of one nucleotide onto the deoxyribose
sugar of the next.
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RNA, Transcription and Translation
1. Genotype
2. Phenotype
3. RNA
A. A chain of amino acids.
B. The base that replaces thymine in RNA.
C. Process where polypeptide chain is synthesised under direction of
mRNA.
4. Uracil
D. Appearance of the organism.
5. Protein
E. A string of ribosomes on the same mRNA molecule.
6. Polypeptide
F. A copy of DNA that is made in the nucleus.
7. Amino acids
G. Process where the polypeptide chain synthesised is modified by being
cleaved or having a phosphate or carbohydrate group added.
8. Transcription
H. Composed of one or more polypeptide chains.
9. RNA polymerase I. Triplet of bases on tRNA.
10. mRNA
J. Carries amino acids to the ribosome.
11. Promoter
K. The set of genes.
12. Primary
L. Process where exons are “stuck” together and introns are cut out of
transcript
the primary transcript.
13. Splicing
M. Enzyme that adds nucleotides onto each other to create mRNA/
14. Exons
N. Non coding regions.
15. Introns
O. Molecule composed of ribose sugar, phosphate and a base.
16. Translation
P. Triplet of bases on mRNA.
17. tRNA
Q. A region of DNA in a gene where transcription is started.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
Codon
Anti-codon
Ribosome
Polyribosome
Alternative RNA
splicing
23. Posttranslational
modification
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R.
S.
T.
U.
V.
Organelle in the cell where protein synthesis takes place.
Processes where a copy of a section of DNA is made.
The original mRNA strand.
Sub-unit that makes up a polypeptide.
Coding regions.
W. Where alternative segments of RNA may be treated as exons and
introns.
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Proteins, Mutations and Genetic Disorders
1. Peptide bond
A. When one nucleotide is substituted for another resulting in an
altered protein.
2. Enzyme
B. Defends the body against antigens.
3. Hormone
C. Type of mutation that occurs at a splice-site.
4. Antibody
D. Mutation where a nucleotide is added to the DNA sequence.
5. Structural proteins
E. Things that speed up the rate of mutation.
6. Mutation
F. When part of a chromosome attaches onto another chromosome
that is not its partner.
7. Mutagenic agent
G. The bond that forms between amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
8. Single-gene
H. When every subsequent codon and amino acid along the length of
mutation
the gene is affected by an insertion or deletion mutation.
9. Point mutation
I. When a chromosome has genes from its partner inserted.
10. Missense
J. Type of mutation that involves a change in one nucleotide in the
DNA sequence of a single gene.
11. Nonsense
K. A mutation where a nucleotide is removed from the DNA sequence.
12. Insertion
L. Substance that speeds up chemical reactions.
13. Deletion
M. Mutation that involves the insertion of a large number of copies of a
nucleotide sequence.
14. Splice-site mutation N. Protein found in the membrane.
15. Nucleotide
O. Type of mutation that involves an alteration of a nucleotide
sequence repeat
sequence in the gene’s DNA.
expansion
16. Frameshift
P. A change in the structure or composition of an organism’s genome.
17. Duplication
Q. A chemical messenger.
18. Translocation
R. When one nucleotide is substituted for another resulting in a shorter
protein.
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Human Genomics
1. Genomics
A. The study of a group of living things with respect to their diversity,
relatedness and classification.
B. The study of the effects of pharmaceutical drugs on the genetically
different members of the human population.
C. Medicine given to an individual based on their genome.
D. An orderly arrangement of 1000s of different DNA probes on a
glass slide.
E. The study of the human genome.
2. Bioinformatics
3. Systematics
4. “Out of Africa”
theory
5. Personalised
medicine
6. Personal genome
sequence
7. Genetic disorder
F. This is caused by a variation in a person’s genomic DNA
sequence.
G. A technique that can be used to create many copies of a piece of
DNA.
H. Term used to describe the fusion of molecular biology, statistical
analysis and computer technology.
I. A short, single-stranded fragment of DNA used to detect presence
of a specific DNA sequence.
J. Term used to describe multiple replication of DNA to obtain a large
quantity.
K. Theory that proposes that humans originated in Africa, evolved
over millions of years to form a variety of genetically different
populations that then migrated out of Africa.
L. A complete sequencing of a person’s DNA bases.
8. Pharmacogenetics
9. PCR
10. Amplification
11. DNA probe
12. DNA microarray
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Metabolism and Enzymes
1. Cell metabolism
2. Catabolic
3. Anabolic
4. Reversible
5. Irreversible
6. Alternative
routes
7. Activation
energy
8. Transition state
9. Catalyst
10. Active site
A. A biochemical pathway where there is no going back and it is a key
regulatory point.
B. Pathway that brings about the breakdown of complex molecules to
simpler ones and releases energy.
C. Sugar found in milk.
D. This is when the shape of the active site ensures that multiple
substrates are held together to allow a reaction to take place.
E. Substance that binds to the repressor and prevents it from binding to
the operator gene.
F. Term used to describe that each enzyme only works on one substrate.
G. Gene that codes for the production of the beta-galactosidase enzyme.
H. Collective term for the thousands of biochemical reactions that occur
within a living cell.
I. Consists of structural gene and operator gene.
J. Gene that codes for production of repressor molecule.
11. Specificity
12. Induced fit
13. Orientation of
reactants
14. Multi-enzyme
complex
15. Lactose
16. Operon
17. Regulator gene
18. Operator gene
19. Structural gene
20. Repressor
21. Inducer
22. Signal molecule
23. Competitive
inhibitor
24. Non-competitive
inhibitor
25. Allosteric site
26. End-product
inhibition
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K. Controls the activity of enzymes.
L. Competes with the substrate to bind to the enzyme’s active site.
M. A substance which speeds up a chemical reaction and remains
unaltered.
N. The energy needed to break chemical bonds in the reactant
chemicals.
O. Molecule produced by regulator gene and binds to operator gene.
P. A non-active site of an enzyme.
Q. Pathway that brings about the build-up (synthesis) of simple molecules
to complex ones and requires energy.
R. A biochemical pathway where products can go back to reactants.
S. Gene that is controlled by the repressor molecule and in turn controls
the structural gene.
T. When enzymes work in groups eg. DNA and RNA polymerase.
U. Binds to a non-active site and changes the shape of the enzyme.
V. Describes the unstable molecules once they have absorbed enough
energy to break their bonds.
W. The part of the enzyme that is a particular shape to allow the substrate
to bond to.
X. Process where high concentration of the end product binds to
enzymes in the metabolic pathway and therefore stops further
production of the product.
Y. These allow steps in the pathway to be bypassed.
Z. This is when the active site fits tightly around the bound substrate.
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Respiration
1. Respiration
2. ATP
3. ADP
4. Phosphorylation
5. Glycolysis
6. Energy
investatement phase
7. Energy payoff phase
8. NAD
9. Phosphofructokinase
10. Pyruvate
A. Phase of glycolysis where 2 ATP are used.
B. 2nd state of respiration that takes place in the central matrix of the
mitochondria.
C. Molecule formed from the breakdown of glucose in glycolysis.
D. Coenzyme molecule that picks up Hydrogen ions from the citric
acid cycle.
E. Molecule formed when energy held in ATP is released.
F. An oxygen-storing protein present in muscle cells.
G.
H.
I.
J.
Formed from oxaloacetate combining to acetyl.
Respiration in the absence of oxygen.
Organelle where aerobic respiration takes place.
High energy molecule.
11. Mitochondria
12. Citric acid cycle
13. Acetyl coenzyme A
14. Oxaloacetate
15. Citrate
16. FAD
17. Electron transport
chain
18. ATP synthase
19. Oxygen
20. Creatine phosphate
21. Anaerobic
respiration
22. Lactic acid
23. Slow-twitch muscle
fibres
24. Fast-twitch muscle
fibres
25. Myoglobin
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K. Phase of glycolysis where 4 ATP are produced.
L. Protein found on the inner membrane of the mitochondria that
rotates when H+ ions pass through and regenerates ATP from
ADP and Pi.
M. Formed when pyruvate is broken down in the absence of oxygen.
N. Type of muscle with few mitochondria and blood capillaries,
contract quickly and are used in power events.
O. Enzyme-controlled process where a phosphate group is added to
a molecule.
P. Molecule formed from the breakdown of pyruvate.
Q. Coenzyme molecule that picks up hydrogen ions.
R. Molecule that breaks down releasing energy and phosphate to
regenerate ATP.
S. Type of muscle with many mitochondria and blood capillaries,
contract slowly and are used in endurance sports.
T. Series of metabolic pathways that bring about the release of
energy from a foodstuff and regeneration of ATP.
U. The final electron acceptor.
V. Enzyme that phosphorylates the intermediate at step 3 of the
energy investment phase of glycolysis.
W. Molecule that combines to the acetyl group of acetyl conenzyme A
to form citrate.
X. First stage of respiration that takes place in the cytoplasm.
Y. 3rd stage of respiration that takes place on the inner membrane of
the mitochondria.
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