8th Grade- Unit Planning Framework- Pandemic Epidemic How Does It ALL Spread

advertisement
1
Course/Grade level: 8th Grade Science Unit Length: Approximately 2weeks (on a 90 min/day block schedule)
2
3
Unit Title: Pandemic??? Epidemic??? How Does it ALL Spread?
4
5
Unit Theme: Global Systems
Conceptual Lens: Structure & Function
6
7
Curriculum Topic Study Guide: Life Science- NC Ecosystems
8
http://scnces.ncdpi.wikispaces.net/file/view/CTS%20Guide_NC%20Structures%20and%20Functions%20of%20Living%20Organisms
9
_Version2.pdf/345111554/CTS%20Guide_NC%20Structures%20and%20Functions%20of%20Living%20Organisms_Version2.pdf
10
11
Strand Map: Cells: Cell Functions
12
13
Cross-cutting Concepts: Patterns; Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation; Structure and function; Stability and
14
change
15
16
Science and Engineering Practices: Asking questions and defining problems; Planning and carrying out investigations;
17
Analyzing and interpreting data; Using mathematics and computational thinking; Constructing explanations and designing
18
solutions; Engaging in argument from evidence; Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information
19
20
Enduring Understandings:
21
1) All living things are made of cells.
22
2)
Structure and hazards caused by agents of disease have an affect on living organisms.
23
3) Technology has influenced the ways in which people interact with one another and with their surrounding natural
24
environment.
25
4) In artificial selection, humans have the capacity to influence certain characteristics of organisms by manipulating the
26
transfer of genetic information from generation to generation.
27
28
Essential Questions:
29
1) How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions?
30
2) How do organisms grow and develop?
31
3) How are science, engineering, technology, and society interconnected?
32
4) How do science, engineering, and the technologies that result from them affect the ways in which people live?
33
5) How do science, engineering, and the technologies that result from them affect the natural world?
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Subject Area/Grade: 8th Grade Science
Unit Length: Approximately 2 weeks (on a 90 min/day block schedule)
41
42
Unit Title: Pandemic??? Epidemic??? How Does it ALL Spread?
43
44
Unit Theme (Step 1): Global Systems
Conceptual Lens (Step 2): Structure & Function
45
46
Unit Map of Standards: 8th Grade- Cells: Cell Functions
47
http://scnces.ncdpi.wikispaces.net/Strand+Maps
48
49
Macro-Concepts
50
8.L.1.1
51

Bacteria
52

Fungi
53

Microbes
54

Parasites
55

Viruses
56
57
8.L.1.2
58

Antibiotics
59

Density-dependent factors
60

Epidemic
61

Infectious disease
62

Pandemic
63
64
8.L.2.1
65

Biotechnology
66

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
67

Gene
68

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
69

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
70
Subject Area/Grade:
Unit Title:
71
Unit Length:
72
Sample1.
73
1. The Learning Question: What is important for students to learn in the limited school and classroom time available?
74
75
STEP 1
Unit Theme
Conceptual Lens
STEP 2
76
77
STEP 3
Identify the Big Ideas:
78
(Write the Essential Standard, which emphasizes the context (big idea) for each clarifying objective. Align unpacking to clarifying objectives.)
79
Essential Standard:
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
STEP 4
Enduring Understanding
Essential Questions
STEP 5
98
(Generalizations)
(Guiding Questions)
99
1)
100
101
(Identify misconceptions)
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
1. The Learning Question: What is important for students to learn in the limited school and classroom time available?
109
110
STEP 3
Identify the Big Ideas for the unit
111
Essential Standard: (Write the Essential Standard, which emphasizes the context (big idea) for each clarifying objective. Align
112
unpacking to clarifying objectives.)
113
***Unpacking (Include unpacking from each clarifying objective included in the unit.) ***The Unpacking is at the end of the template.
114
115
8.L.1- Understand the structure and hazards caused by agents of disease that effect living organisms.
116
8.L.2- Understand how biotechnology is used to affect living organisms.
117
118
119
STEP 4
STEP 5
120
Essential Questions (EQ) (Guiding Questions)
Essential Standard & Clarifying Objective with (RBT tag)
& Enduring Understanding (Generalizations)
121
122
8.L.1.1- Summarize the basic characteristics of viruses, bacteria,
EQ: How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions?
123
fungi and parasites relating to the spread, treatment and
124
prevention of disease.
EQ: How do organisms grow and develop?
125
RBT# B2
126
Enduring Understanding:
127

128
All living things are made of cells. (LS 1, p.143)

129
The way in which an object or living this is shaped and its
substructure determine many of its properties and
130
functions. (A Framework for K-12 Science Education,
131
Crosscutting Concept, p.84)
132
133
134
8.L.1.2- Explain the difference between epidemic and pandemic as
135
it relates to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease.
EQ: How do agents of disease affect living organisms?
136
RBT# B2
137
138
139
Enduring Understanding:
140

141
Structure and hazards caused by agents of disease have
an affect on living organisms.
142

143
For natural and built systems alike, conditions of stability
and determinants of rates of change or evolution of a
144
system are critical elements of study. (A Framework for
145
K-12 Science Education, Crosscutting Concept, p.84)
146

147
Events have causes sometimes simple, sometimes
multifaceted. A major activity of science is investigating
148
and explaining causal relationships and the mechanisms
149
by which they are mediated. Such mechanisms can then
150
be tested across given contexts and used to predict and
151
explain events in new contexts. (A Framework for K-12
152
Science Education, Crosscutting Concept, p.84)
153
154
155
8.L.2.1- Summarize aspects of biotechnology including:
EQ: How are science, engineering, technology, and society
156

Specific genetic information available
interconnected?
157

Careers
158

Economic benefits to North Carolina
EQ: How do science, engineering, and the technologies that result
159

Ethical issues
from them affect the ways in which people live?
160

Implications for agriculture
161
RBT# B2
EQ: How do science, engineering, and the technologies that result
162
from them affect the natural world?
163
164
165
166
Enduring Understanding:
167
Technology has influenced the ways in which people interact
168
with one another and with their surrounding natural
169
environment. (ETS2.B, p.212)
170
171
In artificial selection, humans have the capacity to influence
172
certain characteristics of organisms by manipulating the
173
transfer of genetic information from generation to generation.
174
(LS.1.3, p.57)
175
176
(Identify misconceptions)
177
1. Many people appear to confuse antibiotics with antibodies (Making Sense of Secondary Science, p.56).
178
2. Many do not realize that antibiotics act only on bacteria and not on viruses (Making Sense of Secondary Science, p.56).
179
3. Students may have the notion that organisms “contain” cells as opposed to being “made up of” cells (Driver et al. 1994). In other words,
180
students may believe a living organism is like a “sack” filled with cells rather than being composed of cells. (Uncovering Student Ideas in
181
Science Vol. 1 by Page Keeley).
182
4. Students have various ideas about what constitutes “living”. Some may believe objects that are “active” are alive; for example, fire,
183
clouds, or the Sun. People of all ages use movement and, in particular, movement in response to a stimulus, as a defining characteristic of
184
life (Driver et al. 1994). (Uncovering Student Ideas in Life Science Vol. 1 by Page Keeley).
185
5. Elementary and middle school students use observable processes such as movement, breathing, reproducing, and dying when deciding if
186
things are alive or not. (Uncovering Student Ideas in Life Science Vol. 1 by Page Keeley).
187
6. Studies have found that antibiotics are a mysterious concept to the general public, including students (Lucas 1987 and Prout 1985). In
188
almost all sample groups questioned, most respondents did not know that antibiotics act only on bacteria and not on viruses. (Uncovering
189
Student Ideas in Life Science Vol. 1 by Page Keeley).
190
7. Some people think that you can “catch” a cold; therefore, the condition is not regarded as a disease, and the word cold reinforces the
191
connection with environmental causes (Driver et al. 1994, p.56). (Uncovering Student Ideas in Science Vol. 4 by Page Keeley).
192
8. In a study by Brumby, Garrard, and Auman (1985), some students saw health and illness as two different concepts rather than as a
193
continuum. Another sample of students saw illness as the negative end of a health continuum of “lifestyle diseases” with no mention of
194
infectious diseases (Driver et al. 1994). (Uncovering Student Ideas in Science Vol. 4 by Page Keeley).
195
9. Students have been known to hold conflicting ideas concurrently- at the same time, for example believing that “all diseases are caused by
196
germs” and that you can “catch a cold by getting cold and wet” (Driver et al. 1994). (Uncovering Student Ideas in Science Vol. 4 by Page
197
Keeley).
198
10. Research suggests that children often think of disease and decay as properties of the objects affected. They do not appear to hold a
199
concept of microbes as agents of change (Driver et al. 1994, p. 55). (Uncovering Student Ideas in Science Vol. 4 by Page Keeley).
200
11. Students may think that bacteria could be useful when dead, for making medicines or vaccines, but there is little evidence of notions
201
about the technological potential of living microbes. (Making Sense of Secondary Science, p. 57).
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
1. The Learning Question: What is important for students to learn in the limited school and classroom time available?
(Deconstruct the clarifying objective to write instructional targets.)
210
211
STEP 6: Deconstruct Standards to write instructional targets.
212
213
Essential Standard:
214
8.L.1- Understand the structure and hazards caused by agents of disease that effect living organisms.
215
Clarifying Objective:
216
8.L.1.1- Summarize the basic characteristics of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites relating to the spread, treatment and prevention of
217
disease.
218
(1) Remember
(2) Understand
(3) Apply
(4) Analyze
219
(5) Evaluate
(6) Create
(B) Conceptual Knowledge Targets
220
(C) Procedural Knowledge Targets
(D) Metacognitive Knowledge Targets
i. Recognize the definition of the
i.
Summarize the treatment
221
i. Determine whether the data can
following: pathogen, vector,
of illnesses caused by
Intentionally
222
be used as evidence to support a
antibiotic resistance, antibodies,
left blank…
bacteria and viruses and
223
claim. (D5)
antigens, and parasite. (A1)
fungi and parasites. (B2)
224
ii. Recognize various diseases
ii.
Compare basic
225
caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi
characteristics of disease-
226
and parasites. (A2)
causing agents (emphasis
227
on form and function):
228

Transmission
229

Impact
230

Treatment
231

Prevention (B2)
232
iii.
Explain why potable water
233
is important to the
234
prevention of disease.
235
(B2)
236
237
238
239
240
241
STEP 6: Deconstruct Standards to write instructional targets.
242
243
Essential Standard:
244
8.L.1- Understand the structure and hazards caused by agents of disease that effect living organisms.
245
Clarifying Objective:
246
8.L.1.2- Explain the difference between epidemic and pandemic as it relates to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease.
247
248
(1) Remember
(2) Understand
(3) Apply
(4) Analyze
249
(5) Evaluate
(6) Create
(A) Factual Knowledge Targets
(B) Conceptual Knowledge Targets
250
(C) Procedural Knowledge Targets
(D) Metacognitive Knowledge Targets
i. Recognize the definition of the
i.
i. Compare the spread of
Intentionally
251
i. Critique available health choices
following: epidemic, outbreak,
epidemics and pandemics. (B2)
252
left blank…
in context of the individual, the
pandemic, and transmission. (A1)
ii.
ii. Summarize the major
community, and the population as
253
historical outbreaks (Smallpox,
254
a whole. (D5)
Bubonic Plague, Ebola,
255
Influenza, Yellow Fever,
256
Cholera, Polio, Botulism,
257
Whooping Cough and AIDS).
258
(B2)
259
iii.
iii. Summarize how public
260
health agencies (CDC, USDA,
261
FDA & WHO) contribute to
262
the prevention and treatment of
263
disease. (B2)
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
STEP 6: Deconstruct Standards to write instructional targets.
274
275
Essential Standard:
276
8.L.2- Understand how biotechnology is used to affect living organisms
277
Clarifying objective:
278
8.L.2.1- Summarize aspects of biotechnology including: Specific genetic information available, Careers, Economic benefits to North
279
Carolina, Ethical issues, Implications for agriculture
280
281
282
(1) Remember
(2) Understand
(3) Apply
(4) Analyze
283
(5) Evaluate
(6) Create
(A) Factual Knowledge Targets
(B) Conceptual Knowledge Targets
284
(C) Procedural Knowledge Targets
(D) Metacognitive Knowledge Targets
i.
Recognize the definition of
i.
Summarize GMOs
i. Implement the process of gel
285
i. Determine whether the data can
the following terms:
(benefits, risks, and
electrophoresis. (C3)
286
be used as evidence to support a
Genetically Modified
processes) in agriculture.
287
claim. (D5)
Organisms (GMOs), gel
(B2)
288
electrophoresis, DNA,
ii.
Explain how
289
RNA, gene, plasmid,
biotechnology can be
290
recombinant DNA,
used to benefit society.
291
restriction enzyme, vector,
(B2)
292
and cloning (A1)
iii.
Infer ethical
293
considerations relating to
294
biotechnology. (B2)
295
iv.
Exemplify economic
296
benefits to NC due to the
297
biotechnology industry.
298
(B2)
299
v.
Summarize various
300
biotechnology careers.
301
(B2)
302
vi.
Critique written materials
303
for inconsistencies. (B5)
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
Complete this form after STEP 7 to embed strategies that promote
314
“Assessment for Learning”
315
316
Essential Standard:
317
8.L.1- Understand the structure and hazards caused by agents of disease that effect living organisms.
318
Clarifying Objective:
319
8.L.1.2- Explain the difference between epidemic and pandemic as it relates to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease.
320
321
Learning Target
Collecting Evidence
Criteria for Success
322
Documenting Evidence
Ai. Recognize the definition I will watch a video and make flash
323
Using index cards and coloring

Collection of flash
of the following: epidemic,
cards of the terms that include the
324
pencils, students will design
cards
outbreak, pandemic, and
term, the definition, and a pictorial
325
flash cards.

Journal writing
transmission. (A1)
representation.
326
327
Student-friendly language
328
Learning Target:
329
I can draw a representation
330
of the following terms:
331
epidemic, outbreak,
332
pandemic, and transmission.
333
334

335
Graphic organizer
Bi. Compare the spread of


I will construct a graphic
336
Students will view a

Completion of lab
epidemics and pandemics.
organizer comparing the
video and construct a
337
questions
(B2)
characteristics of epidemics
338
graphic organizer of

Discussion
and pandemics.
their choice depicting
339

Completion of
similarities and
Student-friendly language
340
Learning Guide
difference of epidemics
Learning Targets:
341
1. I can explain how
and pandemics.
342
epidemics and

I will simulate an outbreak of
343

Students will complete
pandemics are
the lab, “Middle School
a disease.
344
similar.
Outbreak? Simulated
345
disease transmission”.
2. I can explain how
346

epidemics and
347
Students will complete a
pandemics are
learning guide on the
348
different.
methods of transmission
349
3. I can explain how an
of infectious diseases.
350
epidemic can become
351
a pandemic.
352
4. I can explain the
353
major ways to
354
prevent the spread of
355
infectious disease.
356
5. I can explain various
357
methods of
358
transmission of
359
infectious diseases.
360
6. I can identify ways to
361
reduce the chances of
362
becoming infected
363
with a disease.
364
365
366
iv.
Bii. Summarize the major

I will research the major points
367

Students will research

Table of findings
historical outbreaks
regarding the historical
the major historical
368

Completion of
(Smallpox, Bubonic Plague,
outbreaks and construct a table
369
outbreaks and construct
Crystal Island
Ebola, Influenza, Yellow
of my findings.
a table of their findings.
370
Fever, Cholera, Polio,


I will complete an online
371
Students will complete
Botulism, Whooping Cough
simulation from Crystal Island.
372
certain activities from
and AIDS). (B2)
the Crystal Island online
373
simulation.
Student-friendly language
374
Learning Target:
375
I can explain the major
376
points (symptoms, treatment,
377
# of deaths, origin, and
378
transmission) of the major
379
historical outbreaks.
380
381
382
Biii. Summarize how public

I will research the role of
383

Students will research the

Class observations &
health agencies (CDC,
public health agencies.
roles of the agencies.
384
discussion
USDA, FDA & WHO)

I will determine the origin of
385

Students will complete

Completion of
contribute to the prevention
the lab entitled, “Poison
a contagious disease.
386
Learning Guide
Pump”.
and treatment of disease.
387

Completed activities

(B2)
388
Students will complete
in lab notebooks
certain activities from the
389
Crystal Island online
Student-friendly language
390
simulation.
Learning Targets:
391
1. I can explain the role
392
of the CDC.
393
2. I can explain the role
394
of the USDA.
395
3. I can explain the role
396
of the FDA.
397
4. I can explain the role
398
of the WHO.
399
5. I can apply
400
investigative
401
methods used by
402
epidemiologists to
403
trace the source of
404
contagious diseases.
405
406
Di. Critique available health


I evaluate and choose a
407
Students will evaluate

Chosen health plan
choices in context of the
health plan that is the best for
408
various health plans and
with reasoning
individual, the community,
me.
determine which one is
409

Completed list of the
and the population as a

best for him/her.
I will read excerpts from
410
best prevention
whole. (D5)
What You Need To Know
411

Students will research the
methods
Student-friendly language
About Infectious Disease to
412
best methods to prevent

Student presentation
Learning Target:
determine the best methods
413
the spread of infectious
of public service
1. I can determine
for the prevention and spread
414
diseases.
announcement (Must
which health plan

of infectious diseases.
415
Students will design a
develop a rubric for
would work best for

I will design a campaign for
416
campaign for any health
grading)
me.
a health issue/problem that
417
problem/issue that their
2. I can determine
my community has
community has
418
which choices would
encountered.
encountered.
419
be best for the
420
prevention and spread
421
of diseases.
422
3. I can create a public
423
service
424
announcement for
425
health issues in my
426
community.
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
Bi. I
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
1. Do the criteria for success focus on what students will do during the learning process?
454
2. Do the criteria for success provide an understanding of what quality work should look like?
455
3. Will the learning targets be met after achieving the criteria for success?
456
4. What will you do to address the misconceptions to move learning forward (e.g., how will you adjust instruction, what
457
descriptive feed will you provide)?
458
(NC Professional Teaching Standard IV: Teachers Facilitate Learning for Their Students)
459
(NC Professional Teaching Standard II: Teachers Establish a Respectful Environment for a Diverse Population of Students)
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
3. The Assessment Question: How does one select or design assessment instruments and procedures that provide accurate information
478
about how well students are learning?
479
480
Plan Exemplar “Assessments of Learning”
481
482
Strand
483
Clarifying Objective
Learning Target
Assessment Prototype
484
8.L.1.1- Summarize the
Aligned to CO
485
basic characteristics of
8.L.1.1 How are viruses, bacteria and parasites alike?
486
a. They are unicellular and can cause disease.
viruses, bacteria, fungi
487
b. They are multi-cellular and can cause disease.
and parasites relating
488
c. They are non-living and can cause disease.
to the spread, treatment
489
and prevention of
d.
490
They can infect a host and cause disease.
disease.
2009 8th Grade Science Curriculum- Assessment Examples, NCDPI
491
492
Aligned to LT
493
Ai. Recognize the definition
Ai.
494
of the following: pathogen,
1) A vaccine for the viral disease known as chicken pox would contain
495
vector, antibiotic resistance,
a. a large amount of live virus
496
antibodies, antigens, and
b. a dead or weakened form of the pathogen
497
parasite. (A1)
c. several different antibiotics
498
d. a small number of white blood cells
499
NY Regents, Living Environment, January 2014
500
501
2) Deer ticks are responsible for spreading Lyme disease. This organism, which
502
feeds on the blood of warm-blooded organisms, like mice, deer, and humans
503
is best described as a
504
a. predator
505
b. scavenger
506
c. parasite
507
d. vector
508
509
3) The human immune system fights infections by releasing:
510
a. energy
511
b. antibiotics
512
c. antibodies
513
d. antigens
514
8th Grade Science EOG Released Form, Revised 7/15/15, NCDPI
515
516
517
Aii. Recognize various
Aii.
518
diseases caused by viruses,
1) Malaria is a common disease in many countries. What is the cause of this
519
disease?
bacteria, fungi and parasites.
520
(A2)
a. a virus
521
b. a bacterium
522
c. a fungus
523
d. a parasite
524
8th Grade Science EOG Released Form, Revised 7/15/15, NCDPI
525
526
Bi. Summarize the treatment
Bi.
527
of illnesses caused by bacteria
1) Certain antibacterial soaps kill 99% of the bacteria present on hands. Constant
528
use of these soaps could be harmful over time because
and viruses and fungi and
529
parasites. (B2)
a. more pathogens may be resistant to the soap
530
b. microbes prevent viral diseases
531
c. large populations of pathogens are beneficial to the hands
532
d. the soap stimulates skin cell division
533
NY Regents, Living Environment, August 2013
534
535
2) Why do doctors suggest that people get a flu vaccine each year?
536
a. Viruses replicate more rapidly over time.
537
b. Viruses can mutate from year to year.
538
c. Vaccines are absorbed by the body after a year.
539
d. Vaccines get stronger over time.
540
8th Grade Science EOG Released Form, Revised 7/15/15, NCDPI
541
542
543
Use the diagram below to answer Question 3.
544
The diagram below represents some changes that took place in a bacterial population
545
recently exposed to an antibiotic.
546
547
548
549
550
Antibiotic
treatment
551
552
3) Which statement would best explain the presence of bacteria on day 4?
553
a. A bacterial population cannot survive exposure to antibiotics.
554
b. This bacterial population cannot survive exposure to this antibiotic.
555
c. Bacteria can change whenever it is necessary to survive antibiotic
556
treatment.
557
d. Some of the bacterial population was resistant to this antibiotic.
558
NY Regents, Living Environment, August 2012
559
560
Base your answers to Questions 4-6 on the information below.
561
562
In order to enroll in most schools, students must be vaccinated against certain viral
563
diseases, such as the mumps. Even with these vaccinations, many students still
564
suffer from other diseases. Discuss how a vaccination works and why some students
565
still become infected with other diseases.
566
4) Identify what is present in a vaccine that stimulates an immune response.
567
(Possible answers: (1) Dead/weakened virus/germ (2) antigens (3) small pieces
568
of the virus/viral coat) *Do not allow credit for “a little of the disease” or “a small
569
amount of the virus.
570
571
5) Describe how a vaccine protects against disease. (Possible answers: (1) It
572
causes an immune response, so that your body can respond quicker next time
573
you are exposed to the same pathogen/organism. (2) It causes the body to
574
produce antibodies to fight the disease.)
575
576
577
6) State why a student vaccinated against mumps can still be infected by the
578
pathogens that cause other diseases, such as chicken pox. (Possible answers: (1)
579
Vaccines protect only against specific diseases. (2) Antibodies are specific.)
580
NY Regents, Living Environment, June 2012
581
582
7) It is recommended that people at risk for serious flu complications be
583
vaccinated so that their bodies will produce
584
a. antigens to fight the flu virus
585
b. antibodies against the flu virus
586
c. toxins to fight the infection caused by the flu virus
587
d. antibiotics to reduce symptoms caused by the flu virus
588
NY Regents, Living Environment, January 2011
589
590
Bii.
591
1) Ten people became sick with the flu after attending a school dance. What is the
592
scenario that could best explain how the people got sick?
593
a. contact with environmental sources
594
b. contact with an infected animal
595
c. contact with a contaminated object
596
Bii. Compare basic
d. contact with an infected person
597
characteristics of disease-
8th Grade Science EOG Released Form, Revised 7/15/15, NCDPI
598
causing agents (emphasis on
599
form and function):
2) How can the rate of an infectious disease be drastically reduced?
600

Transmission
a. by taking medication daily
601

Impact
b. by preventing transmission between people
602

Treatment
c. by wearing clean clothing daily
603

Prevention (B2)
d. by performing dental hygiene three times a day
604
8th Grade Science EOG Released Form, Revised 7/15/15, NCDPI
605
606
3) An individual recovers from the common cold, which is caused by rhinovirus
607
A. The person then becomes infected with the avian influenza virus, which
608
causes the bird flu. Which statement best describes what will most likely
609
happen to this person?
610
a. He will have the symptoms of the bird flu because he is not immune to
611
the avian influenza virus.
612
b. He will have the symptoms of the common cold because he is not immune to
613
the avian influenza virus.
614
c. He will not the have the symptoms of the bird flu because he is immune to
615
rhinovirus A.
616
d. He will not have the symptoms of the common cold because the avian
617
influenza virus causes it.
618
NY Regents, Living Environment, August 2013
619
620
4) Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat some strains of bacteria. In the past
621
35 years, the percentage of vancomycin-resistant bacteria has steadily
622
increased. What might scientists do to successfully combat bacteria resistant
623
to vancomycin? (Possible answers could include: (1) Find a chemical to
624
fight the bacteria. (2) Develop a new antibiotic that treats that
625
particular strain of bacteria. (3) Genetically engineer new antibiotics.
626
(4) Use a different antibiotic.
627
NY Regents, Living Environment, June 2013
628
Biii.
629
1) Why do municipalities treat and chlorinate the water supply?
630
a. to increase the risk of obtaining waterborne illnesses
631
b. to decrease the risk of obtaining waterborne illnesses
632
c. to increase the presence of microorganisms in the water supply
633
d. to decrease the amount of available potable water
634
635
Biii. Explain why potable
Di.
636
water is important to the
637
prevention of disease.
Base your answer to Question 1 on the data table below.
638
639
Vaccines Received by Children
640
Patient
641
Measles Vaccine
Polio Vaccine
child A
642
Di. Determine whether the
child B
643
data can be used as evidence to
child C
644
support a claim.
645
1) What is the expected result of administering these vaccines?
646
a. Child A should be immune to both measles and polio.
647
b. Child B will form antibodies against measles and polio.
648
c. Child C will not get measles
649
d. All the children will not get measles or polio.
650
(Possible answers: (1) Child B should be immune to both measles and polio. (2)
651
Child B will form antibodies against both diseases. (3) Child B will not get measles
652
or polio.)
653
Adapted from the NY Regents, Living Environment, January 2013
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
8.L.1.2- Explain the
Aligned to CO
670
difference between
8.L.1.2
671
epidemic and pandemic
Several people contract the same flu-like symptoms in a particular city. Other cases
672
with the same symptoms show up across the state but the concentration
as it relates to the
673
remains localized in a few original cities. Some cases turn up elsewhere in the
spread, treatment and
674
nation but doesn’t catch on everywhere. In the cities where the flu-like
prevention of disease.
675
symptoms rate remains more than you would expect to normally see would
676
be an example of an epidemic. How could this scenario turn into a pandemic?
677
2009 8th Grade Science Curriculum- Assessment Examples, NCDPI
678
679
8.L.1.2 Which is a major difference between an epidemic and a pandemic?
680
a. An epidemic is caused by toxins but a pandemic is caused by viruses.
681
b. An epidemic results in more deaths than a pandemic.
682
c. An epidemic affects fewer people than a pandemic.
683
d. An epidemic spreads father around the world than a pandemic.
684
2009 8th Grade Science Curriculum- Assessment Examples, NCDPI
685
686
Aligned to LT
687
Ai. Recognize the definition of
Ai.
688
the following: antigenic shift,
1) What is the term used to describe a disease that has a global affect?
689
epidemic, outbreak, pandemic,
a. epidemic
690
and transmission. (A1)
b. pandemic
691
c. transmission
692
d. viral
693
694
Bi. Compare the spread of
Bi.
695
epidemics and pandemics. (B2) 1) Which is the best way to prevent the flu from becoming a pandemic?
696
a. getting a vaccination
697
b. taking antibiotics
698
c. eating fruits and vegetables
699
d. taking daily vitamins
700
Adapted from 8th Grade Science EOG Released Form, Revised 7/15/15, NCDPI
701
702
2) How is an epidemic different from a pandemic?
703
a. An epidemic is denoted in certain diseases while a pandemic is denoted in any
704
type of disease.
705
b. An epidemic is denoted in any type of disease while a pandemic is denoted in
706
certain diseases.
707
c. An epidemic is widespread worldwide while a pandemic occurs in a small
708
geographic region.
709
d. An epidemic occurs in a small geographic region while a pandemic is
710
widespread worldwide.
711
712
Bii. Summarize the major
713
historical outbreaks
Bii.
714
(Smallpox, Bubonic Plague,
1) Of the following, which disease is responsible for more human deaths and
715
known as the greatest pandemic killer?
Ebola, Influenza, Yellow
716
a. AIDS
Fever, Cholera, Polio,
717
b. Bubonic Plague
Botulism, Whooping Cough,
718
SARS and AIDS). (B2)
c. Influenza
719
d. Smallpox
720
721
Biii. Summarize how public
Biii.
722
health agencies (CDC, USDA,
1) Which of the following disease would the World Health Organization
723
(WHO) most likely try to determine its origin?
FDA & WHO) contribute to
724
the prevention and treatment
a. Ebola
725
of disease. (B2)
b. Hemophilia
726
c. Multiple Sclerosis
727
d. Sickle Cell Anemia
728
729
Di.
730
1) Project-based learning: Provide students with several different health plans.
731
Instruct students to review each plan and decide which plan works best for
Di. Critique available health
732
him/her. Ask students to state 2 reasons why he/she chose the plan and 2
choices in context of the
733
reasons why the other plans are not best for them.
individual, the community,
734
and the population as a whole.
735
(D5)
2) Which of the following is the best choice for someone living in the Northern
736
Hemisphere in November? Explain your answer.
737
a. Buy a winter coat.
738
b. Get a flu shot.
739
c. Have a wart removed.
740
d. Get your teeth cleaned.
741
742
3) Which of the following is the best health choice for a school? Justify your
743
answer.
744
a. Not accepting children with an out-of-date vaccination record
745
b. Not putting soap in the bathroom
746
c. Not having hot water in the restroom
747
d. Not having trash cans for waste
748
749
4) Project-based learning: Write a campaign for inoculation, clean water or any
750
health problem/issue that your community has encountered. *Check with your
751
teacher for approval of topic.
752
753
8.L.2.1- Summarize
Aligned to CO
754
aspects of biotechnology
8.L.2.1
755
including:
1) Strawberries have been genetically modified to resist frost. How is this a benefit
756

for growers in North Carolina?
Specific genetic
757
information
a. a longer growing season
758
b. a pest resistant berry
available
759

c. a larger berry
Careers
760

d. easier harvesting
Economic
761
benefits to
2009 8th Grade Science Curriculum- Assessment Examples, NCDPI
762
North Carolina
763

Ethical issues
Aligned to LT
764

Implications for
Ai. Recognize the definition of
Ai.
765
agriculture
the following terms:
1) The method used to alter the male mosquitoes is an example of an application
766
of
biotechnology, Genetically
767
a. a feedback mechanism
Modified Organisms (GMOs),
768
b. cloning
gel electrophoresis, DNA,
769
RNA, gene, plasmid,
c. biotechnology
770
d. gel electrophoresis
recombinant DNA, restriction
771
enzyme, vector, and cloning
NY Regents, Living Environment, January 2014
772
(A1)
773
Base your answer to Question 2 on the information below.
774
For many years, scientists hypothesized the existence of a single tomato gene that
775
increases the sweetness and production of tomatoes. After years of research, a team
776
of scientists identified the gene and observed greater sweetness and tomato
777
production in plants that contain this gene.
778
779
2) What process could be used to insert this gene into other plant species to
780
increase tomato production?
781
a. cloning
782
b. gel electrophoresis
783
c. genetic engineering
784
d. vaccination
785
786
3) What is involved in creating genetically modified bacteria?
787
a. allowing them to reproduce freely
788
b. changing their food source
789
c. using biotechnology techniques
790
d. growing them on selected plants
791
NC Test of Science, Grade 8 Form E, Released Form, Fall 2009
792
793
4) A scientist claimed that he had cloned a guinea pig to produce two offspring,
794
a male and a female. Why is the claim not valid?
795
a. Guinea pigs can reproduce both sexually and asexually.
796
b. The two offspring are not identical copies of the original guinea pig.
797
c. Each of the offspring had half the genetic information of the original guinea
798
pig.
799
d. None of the genetic information came from the original guinea pig.
800
NY Regents, Living Environment, June 2012
801
802
803
Bi. Summarize GMOs
804
(benefits, risks, and processes)
805
in agriculture. (B2)
Bi.
806
1) Which of these has been improved by genetic engineering?
807
a. Visibility of insects to predators
808
b. Growth of insects in cornfields
809
c. Reduced number of pollinating insects
810
d. Resistance of corn plants to insects
811
Virginia Department of Education, 8th Grade Released Form, Spring 2015
812
Bii. Explain how biotechnology
813
can be used to benefit society.
814
(B2)
Bii.
815
1) Which statement would most likely be used to describe the procedure
816
represented in the diagram below?
817
818
819
820
821
822
a. Enzymes are used to assemble an insulin gene, which is then attached to bacterial
823
DNA.
824
b. Bacterial DNA is cut from a human DNA strand and inserted into a human cell to
825
form an insulin gene.
826
c. The insulin gene is cut out of a human DNA strand using a restriction enzyme
827
and inserted into bacterial DNA, resulting in a combination of different DNA
828
segments.
829
d. A gene is deleted from bacterial DNA to produce an insulin gene, which is then
830
inserted into human DNA.
831
NY Regents, Living Environment, January 2011
832
833
2) Which set of terms correctly identifies the procedure shown in the diagram
834
below and a substance produced by this production?
835
836
837
838
a. selective breeding- growth hormone
839
b. cloning- antibiotics
840
c. replicating- glucose
841
d. genetic engineering- insulin
842
NY Regents, Living Environment, August 2010
843
844
845
846
Biii.
847
1) Scientists have successfully cloned animals, including large mammals such as
848
sheep. Which state provides the most likely reason that a human has not yet
849
been cloned?
850
a. Humans have DNA that is structurally very different from other mammals.
851
b. Cloning can only be performed on animals that normally reproduce
852
asexually.
853
c. Human genes are made of too many different types of simple sugars.
854
d. Some people consider human genetic experiments unethical.
855
NY Regents, Living Environment, January 2014
856
Biii. Infer ethical
857
considerations relating to
858
biotechnology. (B2)
Biv.
859
1) Where is the best indication of biotechnology as it benefits the economy of
860
North Carolina?
861
a. Winston-Salem
862
b. The Triad
863
c. Research Triangle
864
d. Greensboro
865
NCDPI, 2004 Curriculum 8th Grade Unit 9
866
867
Bv.
868
1) Which project is most likely to interest a scientist working at a biotechnology
869
Biv. Exemplify economic
company?
870
benefits to NC due to the
a. study and reconstruction of fossilized bones
871
biotechnology industry. (B2)
b. conservation of key species within ecosystems
872
c. development of genetically modified corn plants
873
d. prevention of sewage leaking into water supplies
874
NC Test of Science, Grade 8 Form E, Released Form, Fall 2009
875
876
2) Which of these careers would a student studying biotechnology most likely pursue?
877
Bv. Summarize various
a. electrical engineering
878
biotechnology careers. (B2)
b. astronomy
879
c. agricultural research
880
d. geology
881
882
883
Bvi.
884
Project-based learning: Provide multiple opportunities for students to examine
885
newspaper and magazine articles, campaign materials, and propaganda.
886
887
888
Ci.
889
1) A scientist wants to insert a gene from one organism into the DNA of
890
another. What type of molecule is used to cut the gene from the DNA of the
891
organism?
892
a. gene
893
b. plasmid
894
Bvi. Critique written materials
c. restriction enzyme
895
for inconsistencies. (B5)
d. vector
896
NC Test of Science, Grade 8 Form E, Released Form, Fall 2009
897
898
Di.
899
Ci. Implement the process of
Project-based learning: Provide multiple opportunities for students to examine data
900
gel electrophoresis. (C3)
in the form of charts, tables, and/or graphs. Instruct students to determine whether
901
the presented data supports a particular claim regarding topics such as: the
902
effectiveness of vaccinations, the use of a particular medicine that helps to prevent
903
certain diseases, improved sanitation linked to decrease of diseases, etc.
904
905
906
907
908
909
Di. Determine whether the
910
data can be used as evidence to
911
support a claim. (D5)
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
2. The Instruction Question:
935
How does one plan and deliver instruction that will result in high levels of learning for large numbers of students?
936
(Design Instructional Learning Experiences based on learning targets and target types.)
937
938
Essential Standard:
939
8.L.1- Understand the structure and hazards caused by agents of disease that effect living organisms.
940
Clarifying Objective:
941
8.L.1.1- Summarize the basic characteristics of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites relating to the spread, treatment and
942
prevention of disease.
943
944
STEP 7:
(Targets from Step 6)
(1) Remember
(2) Understand
(3) Apply
945
(4) Analyze
(5) Evaluate
(6) Create
TARGET TYPE:
A- Factual
B– Conceptual
C– Procedural
946
D – Metacognitive
Learning Target/
Guiding Questions
Learning Experiences
947
Target Type (A1, B2, etc.)
(Align to learning target/ target type.)
948
(Refer to Critical Content & Develop Success Criteria)
Ai. Recognize the definition of the
949
following: pathogen, vector, antibiotic
950
resistance, antibodies, antigens, and
951
parasite. (A1)
952
Aii. Recognize various diseases caused
953
by viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites.
954
(A2)
955
Bi. Summarize the treatment of illnesses
956
caused by bacteria and viruses and fungi
957
and parasites. (B2)
958
Bii. Compare basic characteristics of
959
disease-causing agents (emphasis on form
960
and function):
961

Transmission
962

Impact
963

Treatment
964

Prevention (B2)
965
Biii. Explain why potable water is
966
important to the prevention of disease.
967
(B2)
968
969
Di. Determine whether the data can be
970
used as evidence to support a claim. (D5)
971
972
973
974
975
2. The Instruction Question:
976
How does one plan and deliver instruction that will result in high levels of learning for large numbers of students?
977
(Design Instructional Learning Experiences based on learning targets and target types.)
978
979
Essential Standard:
980
8.L.1- Understand the structure and hazards caused by agents of disease that effect living organisms.
981
982
Clarifying Objective:
983
8.L.1.2- Explain the difference between epidemic and pandemic as it relates to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease.
984
985
STEP 7:
(Targets from Step 6)
(1) Remember
(2) Understand
(3) Apply
986
(4) Analyze
(5) Evaluate
(6) Create
TARGET TYPE:
A- Factual
B– Conceptual
C– Procedural
987
D – Metacognitive
Learning Target/
Guiding Questions
Learning Experiences
988
Target Type (A1, B2, etc.)
(Align to learning target/ target type.)
989
(Refer to Critical Content & Develop Success Criteria)
Ai. Recognize the definition of
Ai. What is the definition of the
990
Ai.
the following: epidemic, outbreak,
following terms: epidemic, outbreak,
991
Activity 1: Formative Assessment
pandemic, and transmission. (A1)
Activity 2: Video- “Epidemics, Outbreaks, and Pandemics”
pandemic, and transmission?
992
Activity 4: PowerPoint Learning Guide
993
Activity 5: Flash Cards
994
995
Bi.
996
v.
Bi. Compare the spread of
Activity 2: Video- “Epidemics, Outbreaks, and Pandemics”
Bi.
997
epidemics and pandemics. (B2)
How are epidemics and pandemics
998
Activity 3: Ted-ED Video, “How Pandemics Spread”
vi.
similar? Different?
Activity 7: Crystal Island Activity
999
vii.
How can an epidemic turn into a
1000
Activity 8: Middle School Outbreak: Simulated Disease
viii.
pandemic?
Transmission
1001
Activity 9: Poison Pump-A Project WET Activity
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
Bii. Summarize the major
Bii.
Bii.
1007
historical outbreaks (Smallpox,
How have the major historical outbreaks
1008
Activity 6: YouTube Video, “ 15 Deadliest Epidemics in
Bubonic Plague, Ebola, Influenza, affected the human population?
1009
History”
Yellow Fever, Cholera, Polio,
1010
Botulism, Whooping Cough and
1011
AIDS). (B2)
1012
1013
Biii. Summarize how public health
Biii.
1014
agencies (CDC, USDA, FDA &
Biii.
Activity 7: Crystal Island Activity
1015
WHO) contribute to the prevention How do public health agencies trace the
1016
Activity 8: Middle School Outbreak: Simulated Disease
and treatment of disease. (B2)
origin of a disease?
Transmission
1017
How do public health policies aid in the
1018
Activity 9: Poison Pump-A Project WET Activity
prevention and treatment of disease?
1019
Activity 10: Public Health Agencies- What is their role in
society?
1020
1021
Di. Critique available health
Di.
1022
choices in context of the
Di.
Activity 11: Community Health Campaign
1023
individual, the community, and the
How do I make wise choices for my
1024
population as a whole. (D5)
overall health? For the health of my
1025
community?
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
2. The Instruction Question:
1042
How does one plan and deliver instruction that will result in high levels of learning for large numbers of students?
1043
(Design Instructional Learning Experiences based on learning targets and target types.)
1044
1045
Essential Standard:
1046
8.L.2- Understand how biotechnology is used to affect living organisms.
1047
Clarifying objective:
1048
8.L.2.1- Summarize aspects of biotechnology including: Specific genetic information available, Careers, Economic benefits to
1049
North Carolina, Ethical issues, Implications for agriculture
1050
1051
STEP 7:
(Targets from Step 6)
(1) Remember
(2) Understand
(3) Apply
1052
(4) Analyze
(5) Evaluate
(6) Create
TARGET TYPE:
A- Factual
B– Conceptual
C– Procedural
1053
D – Metacognitive
Learning Target/
Guiding Questions
Learning Experiences
1054
Target Type (A1, B2, etc.)
(Align to learning target/ target type.)
1055
(Refer to Critical Content & Develop Success Criteria)
Ai. Recognize the definition of the
1056
following terms: Genetically Modified
1057
Organisms (GMOs), gel electrophoresis,
1058
DNA, RNA, gene, plasmid, recombinant
1059
DNA, restriction enzyme, vector, and
1060
cloning (A1)
1061
Bi. Summarize GMOs (benefits, risks,
1062
and processes) in agriculture. (B2)
1063
Bii. Explain how biotechnology can be
1064
used to benefit society. (B2)
1065
Biii. Infer ethical considerations relating
1066
to biotechnology. (B2)
1067
Biv. Exemplify economic benefits to NC
1068
due to the biotechnology industry. (B2)
1069
Bv. Summarize various biotechnology
1070
careers. (B2)
1071
Bvi. Critique written materials for
1072
inconsistencies. (B5)
1073
Ci. Implement the process of gel
1074
electrophoresis. (C3)
1075
Di. Determine whether the data can be
1076
used as evidence to support a claim. (D5)
1077
1078
1079
1080
Planning Instruction
STEP 7a
Directions: Based on the clarifying objectives for which you wrote the assessment tasks, outline a miniunit for teaching the standards to your students so they will be able to perform well on the assessment
tasks that you designed. The plan should take several days to implement. Write your plan in a procedural
knowledge format. Whenever possible, use the “good things to do” that are appropriate for the standards
you are teaching.
Step
Number
1
Brief Description of Instructional Activities (8.L.1.2)
Activity 1: Formative Assessment: Administer the formative
assessment probe entitled, “Catching A Cold” (Uncovering Student
Ideas in Science, Vol. 4 by Page Keeley & Joyce Tugel. Ensure that
1081
~90 min.
students explain their thinking. Collect responses to determine what
students believe about infectious diseases, particularly colds.
*NOTE: This assessment will be administered again at the end of the
unit.
Activity 2: Opening Motivation: Show the YouTube video clip,
“Epidemics, Outbreaks, and Pandemics
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUl87kYHT3I).
Ask students to write in their journals about the experiences they
watched. How do you define epidemic, outbreak, and pandemic? From
the video, how are epidemics, pandemics, and outbreaks similar?
Different? Have you ever suffered from an infectious disease? If so,
what were your symptoms? What was your treatment?
1082
Activity 3: Ted-ED Video, “How Pandemics Spread”
a) Show the Ted-Ed Video, “How Pandemics Spread”.
(http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-pandemics-spread).
b) Instruct students to answer the questions on the website.
c) As a wrap-up, the teacher should review how infectious diseases
spread.
d) Instruct students to construct a graphic organizer comparing
epidemics and pandemics.
e) Review each student’s work, noting any wrong answers or
misconceptions.
1083
Activity 4: PowerPoint Learning Guide: A learning guide for notes is
provided for this unit. Instruct students to complete each section as you
deem necessary. (Some of the sections will already have been complete
with CO 8.L.1.1).
Activity 5: Flash Cards
a) Distribute index cards to each student.
b) Instruct students to fold each card in ½.
c) Inform students to make flash cards of the following terms:
epidemic, outbreak, pandemic, and transmission.
d) Instruct students to write the term on one side. Define the term on
the inside and draw a pictorial representation of the term on the
back.
1084
*NOTE: These cards can be used as a study tool and as a way to “quiz”
each other during class.
2
~90 min.
Activity 6: YouTube Video, “ 15 Deadliest Epidemics in History”
a) Distribute the learning guide to all students.
b) Ask students to complete the guide while watching the video.
c) After completing the learning guide, facilitate a discussion
regarding the epidemics.
*NOTE: The learning guide will be used as notes for the student.
*NOTE: Preparation Time: Preview video. Construct the learning
guide to include the name of the epidemic, symptoms, treatment, # of
deaths, original location of epidemic, and how the disease is spread.
1085
3
~90 min. (as
many class
periods
necessary to
complete the
selected
parts)
Activity 7: Crystal Island Activity
In the game, students play the role of a medical field detective investigating
a mysterious infectious disease outbreak affecting a team of scientists on a
remote island.
a) Arrange for computer access for students.
(http://projects.intellimedia.ncsu.edu/crystalisland/about/)
b) Direct students to complete the chosen activities.
*NOTE: Instructions for Classroom Implementation
1. Since most computers in schools require administrator privileges to
install software, pre-install the Unity 3D plugin on student computers
1086
using these instructions. This may require making a request to school IT
staff.
2. Crystal Island stores game save data on servers in the “cloud.” Ensure
that the following links are reachable from student computers. If they are
not, request that the links are “whitelisted” by your school’s IT staff:
A.
http://ci-lostinvestigation.appspot.com/
B.
http://uncharted.csc.ncsu.edu/
3.Use your social network account to sign-in to the teacher portal. Use
the portal to create accounts for students.
1087
4.Use the lesson planning resources as a template for integrating Crystal
Island into classroom activities.
*NOTE: More instructions can be found on the home page for Crystal
Island.
http://projects.intellimedia.ncsu.edu/crystalisland/getting-started/
*NOTE: Due to time constraints, you will have to preview all materials
and decide which activities are most important and plan instruction
accordingly.
1088
4
~60 min.
Activity 8: Middle School Outbreak: Simulated Disease Transmission
In this activity, students will act out the spread of an infectious disease
(the Monocucleosis Virus- “Mono”).
a) Provide each student with a 1.5 ml tube with 1 ml of “body
fluid”.
b) Students will “share body fluid” and record the name of the
person.
c) Instruct students to complete the laboratory questions.
1089
*NOTE: Be sure to instruct student to NOT ingest any of the materials
in this activity!
5
~60 min.
Activity 9: Poison Pump-A Project WET Activity
In this activity, students will use investigative methods used by
epidemiologists to trace the source of contagious diseases.
a) Divide students into manageable groups (3-4).
b) Make copies of the student activity sheet, victims cards, and clue
cards.
c) Provide each group with marking pens.
1090
d) Inform students that a killer is loose in London and it is their
responsibility to determine who (or what) is responsible for all the
deaths.
e) Instruct students to complete the lab and record group answers.
*NOTE: Suggestions for extensions to this activity are provided.
As a follow-up to Activities 5 & 6, ask students how the two activities
were related. Ask them if this could possibly happen in their community
or school. If so, ask them to explain.
6
Activity 10: Public Health Agencies- What is their role in society?
a) Provide computer access.
b) Make copies of the activity sheet.
1091
~90 min.
c) Provide excerpts from What You Need To Know About Infectious
Disease.
d) Instruct students to research the public health agencies (CDC, FDA,
USDA, and WHO) to determine their role in the spread and prevention
of disease.
e) Ask students to complete the activity sheet while conducting research.
*NOTE: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease is available
from The National Academies as a free PDF online
(http://www.nap.edu/catalog/13006/what-you-need-to-know-aboutinfectious-disease).
The public health agency websites are listed below:
 Center for Disease Control (CDC)- http://www.cdc.gov/
 Food & Drug Administration (FDA)- http://www.fda.gov/
1092


7
~270 min. (3
90-min. class
periods)
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome
World Health Organization (WHO)- http://www.who.int/en/
Activity 11: Community Health Campaign
a) Develop a grading rubric for the project and provide copies to the
students.
b) Arrange for computer access for students.
c) Instruct students that they are going to create a campaign
regarding a public health issue (Flu Vaccine Campaign, Clean
Water Campaign, etc). The campaign can be in various forms of
1093
media (commercial, public service announcement, poster
presentation, etc).
d) Allow students to work in groups of 2-3 or individually.
e) Allow a day for research, a day for completion of project and a
day for presentation. Depending how students progress, you may
need to allow more time.
*NOTE: A rubric must be developed and provided to students before
beginning project.
1094
Sequence learning experiences through the 5E Learning Cycle
STEP 7b
Directions: The 5E model sequences learning experiences so that students have the opportunity to
construct their understanding of a concept over time. The model leads students through five phases of
learning that are easily described using words that begin with the letter E: Engage, Explore, Explain,
Elaborate, and Evaluate. Use the following template to illustrate how the five Es are implemented across
the lessons in the unit described in step 7a.
1095
Learning Cycle
Learning Experience Plan
Elicit
(…prior knowledge about the
concepts in the unit)
Engage
(Design or select an engaging
activity to get students
hooked.)
Formative
Probes
Explore
1096
Explain
Elaborate
Evaluate
1097
Extend
EC/ELL/RTi
Strategies
Information
Technology
Standards
1098
1099
Course/Grade Level:_____________________________________________________________
1100
1101
STEP 8
Culminating Activity and Scoring Rubric
1102
1103
1104
[What] Investigate...
1105
[Why] in order to understand that...
1106
[How] Demonstrate understanding by...
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
4. The Alignment Question:
1127
How does one ensure that objectives, instruction, and assessment are consistent with one another?
1128
1129
The Cognitive Process Dimension
1130
STEP 9
1.
Remember
2.
Understand
3.
Apply
1131
4.
Analyze
5.
Evaluate
6.
Create
The Knowledge
1132
Dimension
1133
A.
Factual
Activity 1, 2, 4 &
1134
Knowledge
5
1135
Ai1
1136
1137
B.
Conceptual
8.L.1.2
1138
Knowledge
Activity 1, 2, 3, 6, 7,
1139
8, 9 & 10
1140
Bi1 & 2
1141
Bii1
1142
Biii1
1143
1144
1145
1146
C.
Procedural
1147
Knowledge
1148
1149
1150
D.
Meta-
Di2 & 3
Activity 11
1151
Cognitive
Knowledge
Di1 & 4
1152
1153
1154
1155
Key: Tag Objectives, Instruction and Assessments
1156
Clarifying Objective: 8.L.1.2-
Explain the difference between epidemic and pandemic as it relates to the spread, treatment and
1157
prevention of disease. (B2)
1158
1159
Activity:
1160
Activity 1: Formative Assessment
1161
Activity 2: Video- “Epidemics, Outbreaks, and Pandemics”
1162
Activity 3: Ted-ED Video, “How Pandemics Spread”
1163
Activity 4: PowerPoint Learning Guide
1164
Activity 5: Flash Cards
1165
Activity 6: YouTube Video, “ 15 Deadliest Epidemics in History”
1166
Activity 7: Crystal Island Activity
1167
Activity 8: Middle School Outbreak: Simulated Disease Transmission
1168
Activity 9: Poison Pump-A Project WET Activity
1169
Activity 10: Public Health Agencies- What is their role in society?
1170
Activity 11: Community Health Campaign
1171
Assessment:
1172
Ai1
Bi1 & 2
1173
Bii1
Biii1
1174
Di1, 2, 3, & 4
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
STEP 10
1191
Unit Overview
1192
Unit Overview
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
Refer to CTS Guide
V & VI
NC Professional Teaching Standard III: Teachers Know the Content they Teach
1225
How does this unit relate to the curriculum?
1226
This is a description of how the content that is taught in this unit relates to content taught in previous and future grades as well as the
1227
current grade. It should include the specific concepts that are taught in those grades, and how they relate to the concepts taught in this
1228
unit. Often, this information is provided in the curriculum guide; however, a better description may develop from the collaborative
1229
efforts of grade-level team members sharing their experiences. As a team, answer the following questions to describe only the most
1230
relevant concepts to be included in the unit:
1231
1. What prior knowledge is necessary to learn the content that is the focus of this unit?
1232
2. What new knowledge can be developed from the content that is mastered in this unit?
1233
1234
How does this unit relate to the curriculum?
1235
Prior Learning: Students learn…
1236
EQ: How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions?
1237

Skin keeps the body from drying out and protects it from harmful substances and germs. 6C/E3*
1238
1239
1240
EQ: How do organisms grow and develop?
1241

Reproduction is essential to the continued existence of every kind of organism. (LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms,
1242
p.146)
1243

Microscopes make it possible to see that living things are made mostly of cells. 5C/E2a
1244

A great variety of kinds of living things can be sorted into groups in many ways using various features to decide which things
1245
belong to which group. 5A/E1
1246

There are millions of different kinds of individual organisms that inhabit the earth at any one time—some very similar to each
1247
other, some very different. 5A/E3** (SFAA)
1248
1249
EQ: How do agents of disease affect living organisms?
1250

Most microorganisms do not cause disease, and many are beneficial. 5D/E5
1251
1252
EQ: How are science, engineering, technology, and society interconnected?
1253
Tools and instruments (e.g., rulers, balances, thermometers, graduated cylinders, telescopes, microscopes) are used in scientific
1254
exploration to gather data and help answer questions about the natural world. Engineering design can develop and improve such
1255
technologies. Scientific discoveries about the natural world can often lead to new and improved technologies, which are developed
1256
through the engineering design process. Knowledge of relevant scientific concepts and research findings is important in engineering.
1257
(ETS2.A, p. 211)
1258
1259
EQ: How do science, engineering, and the technologies that result from them affect the ways in which people live? How do
1260
science, engineering, and the technologies that result from them affect the natural world?
1261
Over time, people’s needs and wants change, as do their demands for new and improved technologies. Engineers improve existing
1262
technologies or develop new ones to increase their benefits (e.g., better artificial limbs), to decrease known risks (e.g., seatbelts in
1263
cars), and to meet societal demand (e.g., cell phones). When new technologies become available, they can bring about changes in the
1264
way people live and interact with one another. (ETS2.B, p. 213)
1265
1266
1267
1268
Current Learning: Students explore…
1269
EQ: How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions?
1270

All living things are composed of cells, from just one to many millions, whose details usually are visible only through a
1271
microscope. 5C/M1a
1272
1273
1274
All living things are made up of cells, which is the smallest unit that can be said to be alive. An organism may consist of one
1275
single cell (unicellular) or many different numbers and types of cells (multicellular). Unicellular organisms (microorganisms), like
1276
multicellular organisms, need food, a way to dispose of waste, and an environment in which they can live. (LS1.A: Structure and
1277
Function, p.144)
1278
There are many types of cells. Organisms may consist of one cell or many different numbers and types of cells. Most cells are
1279
so small that the cells themselves and their details can be seen only with a microscope. The cell is the functional unit of all organisms.
1280
All essential life functions (e.g., energy transfer and transformation, exchange of gas, disposal of waste, growth, reproduction, and
1281
interaction with the environment) take place within a cell or within a system of cells. (LS.2.1- Essential Knowledge 6-8, p.58)
1282
The cell membrane forms the boundary that controls what enters the cell and what leaves the cell. All cells contain genetic
1283
information. Some cells (nucleated or eukaryotic) hold the genetic information in a nucleus. However, some cells (non-nucleated or
1284
prokaryotic) do not have a nucleus in which genetic information is held. Each cell has a specific internal organization of subcellular
1285
components that give a cell its shape and structure. The specialized subcomponents of nucleated cells perform essential functions
1286
such as transport of materials (cell membrane), repository of genetic information (nucleus), energy transfer (mitochondria and
1287
chloroplast), protein building (ribosomes), waste disposal (lysosomes), structure and support (cell wall, cytoskeleton), internal
1288
movement within the cell and, at times, external movement (cytoskeleton). Non-nucleated cells perform the same kinds of functions
1289
as nucleated cells, but many of these functions take place within the cytoplasm, no within specialized internal structures. For example,
1290
unlike nucleated cells, the genetic material of non-nucleated cells is located within the cytoplasm, not in a separate nucleus. Some of
1291
the essential functions of non-nucleated cells and these functions’ locations include transport of material (cell membrane), protein
1292
building (ribosomes), and structure and support (cell wall). (LS.2.2- Essential Knowledge 6-8, p.60)
1293
1294
EQ: How do organisms grow and develop?
1295

One of the most general distinctions among organisms is between plants, which use sunlight to make their own food, and animals,
1296
which consume energy-rich foods. Some kinds of organisms, many of them microscopic, cannot be neatly classified as either
1297
plants or animals. 5A/M1
1298
1299
Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring. (LS1.B: Growth
1300
and Development of Organisms, p.146)
1301
DNA is the source of genetic information that determines an organism’s traits. DNA molecules are packaged and organized as
1302
chromosomes within cells. There is a single chromosome in some organisms; there is more than one chromosome in other organisms.
1303
Every chromosome has a single molecule of DNA. In some organisms, all of the DNA molecules come from a single parent (asexual
1304
reproduction). These organisms go through a division process (mitosis) that ensures the direct transfer of the genetic information
1305
(DNA) from one generation to another. (LS.5.2- Essential Knowledge 6-8, p.77)
1306
Genetic information is a repository of instructions necessary for the survival, growth and reproduction of an organism. In order
1307
for the information to be useful, it needs to be processed by the cell. Processing includes replication, decoding and transfer of the
1308
information. When genetic information changes (either through natural processes or genetic engineering), the results may be
1309
observable changes in the organism. At the molecular level, these changes may be the result of mutations in the genetic material, the
1310
effects of which may be seen when the information is processed, to yield a polypeptide. The processes of transcription, mRNA
1311
processing and translation may not be perfect, and errors can occur that alter phenotypes. External factors in the environment can
1312
affect the degree or potential for variations that result from information transfer, and biological processes are impacted directly and
1313
indirectly by the environment. These processes can be beneficial under certain circumstances, and although errors are rare, cellular
1314
mechanisms have evolved that correct errors and their effects. Genetic variations at the genome level, when expressed as phenotypes,
1315
are subject to natural selection; this, in turn, leads to evolution. (Enduring Understanding 3C- Transfer of genetic information may
1316
produce variation, p.183).
1317
1318
1319
EQ: How do agents of disease affect living organisms?
1320
Not everything that carries genetic information if a cell. A virus, which is not a cell, contains either DNA or RNA as its
1321
genetic information. To reproduce, a virus uses its own DNA or RNA but also uses the cellular machinery of the host cell. Often, the
1322
viral genes are incorporated into the host DNA or RNA, disrupting the DNA sequence within the host cell. (LS.2.2- Essential
1323
Knowledge 9-12, p.81)
1324
Since all organisms, as well as viruses, exist in a dynamic environment, mechanisms that increase genetic variation are vital for
1325
species to survive and evolve. In a meiotic organism, the transfer process whereby each gamete receives a one set of chromosomes
1326
also ensures that this set is unique and different from that of the parent. Random processes such as the transposition of DNA regions
1327
(“jumping genes”) occur in both eukaryotes and bacteria, and contribute to genetic variation. Bacteria divide by binary fission and do
1328
not have the random assortment processes that are available to eukaryotic organisms. Nonetheless, mechanisms have evolved in
1329
bacteria that ensure genetic variation beyond the variation that is introduced through normal DNA metabolism, e.g., replication, repair
1330
and recombination. Bacteria are unique in that bacterial genetic information can be transmitted or exchanged horizontally between
1331
individuals through a variety of processes, including conjugation, transduction and transformation. This type of exchange yields rapid
1332
dissemination of new phenotypes within and between bacterial populations, allowing for rapid evolution. (Enduring Understanding
1333
3C- Transfer of genetic information may produce variation, p.183).
1334
The basic structure of viruses includes a protein capsid that surrounds and protects the genetic information (genome) that can
1335
be either DNA or RNA. Viruses have a unique mechanism of replication that is dependent on the host metabolic machinery to produce
1336
necessary viral components and viral genetic material. Some classes of viruses use RNA without a DNA intermediate; however,
1337
retroviruses, such as HIV, use a DNA intermediate for replication of their genetic material. Some viruses produce variation by
1338
integrating into the host genetic material. In bacteria, this is referred to as lysogenesis, whereas in eukaryotic cells this is referred to as
1339
transformation. Since viruses use the host metabolic pathways, the viruses experience the same potential as the host for genetic
1340
variation that results from DNA metabolism. (Enduring Understanding 3C- Transfer of genetic information may produce variation,
1341
p.183).
1342
The virus is either the simplest living system or the most complex nonliving one, depending on your definition. Unlike a cell,
1343
which is highly structured, the virus simply consists of a core of nucleic acid wrapped in a protein coating. A virus may have only a
1344
few genes coded in its nucleic acid and only a few different proteins in its coat. But if a receptor in a cell’s outer membrane
1345
recognizes one of those outer proteins, the virus can fool the cell into opening the door. Once inside, the virus appropriates the cell’s
1346
machinery to produce more viruses. The DNA or RNA nucleic acid in viruses is coded to produce itself and its proteins. Once
1347
released inside the cell, this RNA pushes the cell’s own mRNA aside and starts to direct the synthesis machinery. When the resources
1348
of the cell have been plundered to produce many new viruses, the cell dies and the viruses are released to repeat the cycle. Some
1349
viruses contain strands of RNS and enzymes that allow those strands to be converted into DNA and inserted into the cell’s own
1350
genetic code. This action can disrupt the smooth workings of a cell, and thus threaten the entire organism. One of these so-called
1351
retroviruses is responsible for AIDS. Unlike the DNA in your cells, which is constantly being checked and repaired for any unwanted
1352
changes, viral DNA and RNA have the unfortunate ability to mutate rapidly. Consequently, viral diseases constantly evolve. That’s
1353
why new viral diseases seem to pop up every few years, and the flu vaccine you took this year may have little effect on next year’s
1354
strain. (Science Matters- Flu Bugs and Other Viruses, pp. 284-85).
1355
1356
1357
EQ: How are science, engineering, technology, and society interconnected?
1358
Together, advances in science, engineering, and technology can have- and indeed have had- profound effects on human society.
1359
Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science, and scientific discoveries have led to the
1360
development of entire industries and engineered systems. In order to design better technologies, new science may need to be explored
1361
(e.g., materials research prompted by desire for better batteries or solar cells, biological questions raised by medical problems).
1362
Technologies in turn extend the measurement, exploration, modeling, and computational capacity of scientific investigations.
1363
(ETS2.A, p. 211)
1364
1365
EQ: How do science, engineering, and the technologies that result from them affect the ways in which people live? How do
1366
science, engineering, and the technologies that result from them affect the natural world?
1367
Human populations and longevity have increased, as advances in science and engineering have influenced the ways in which people
1368
interact with one another and with their surrounding natural environment. All human activity draws on natural resources and has both
1369
short- and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of both people and the natural environment. The uses
1370
of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the finding of
1371
scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. Thus technology use
1372
varies from region to region and over time. Technologies that are beneficial for a certain purpose my later be seen to have impacts
1373
(e.g., health-related, environmental) that were not foreseen. In such cases, new regulations on use or new technologies (to mitigate the
1374
impacts or eliminate them) may be required. (ETS2.B, pp. 212-13)
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
Future Learning: In high school, students will explore…
1381
EQ: How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions?
1382
In multicellular organisms, groups of one or more kinds of cells make up different systems of cells (i.e., tissues and organs)
1383
that are connected and that cooperate with each other in order to perform the essential functions of life within an organism. Different
1384
multicellular organisms use different systems of specialized cells to carry out the same basic life functions. The human body is made
1385
up of cells that are organized into tissues and organs. These tissues and organs make up complex systems that have specialized
1386
functions (e.g., circulatory, endocrine, etc.) that support essential life functions of the organism. (LS.2.1- Essential Knowledge 9-12,
1387
p.59)
1388

The immune system functions to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body
1389
and against some cancer cells that arise within. 6C/H1*
1390

Communication between cells is required to coordinate their diverse activities. Cells may secrete molecules that spread locally to
1391
nearby cells or that are carried in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. Nerve cells transmit electrochemical signals that
1392
carry information much more rapidly than is possible by diffusion or blood flow. 6C/H3*
1393

Some drugs mimic or block the molecules involved in communication between cells and therefore affect operations of the brain
1394
and body. 6C/H5** (BSL)
1395

Some allergic reactions are caused by the body's immune responses to usually harmless environmental substances. Sometimes the
1396
immune system may attack some of the body's own cells. 6E/H1
1397
1398
1399
EQ: How do organisms grow and develop?
1400

The variation of organisms within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of the species will survive under
1401
changed environmental conditions. 5A/H1a
1402
1403
EQ: How do agents of disease affect living organisms?
1404

Natural selection leads to organisms that are well-suited for survival in particular environments. 5F/H6a
1405
1406
1407
EQ: How are science, engineering, technology, and society interconnected?
1408
Science and engineering complement each other in the cycle known as research and development (R&D). Many R&D projects may
1409
involve scientists, engineers, and others with wide ranges of expertise. (ETS2.A, pp. 211-12)
1410
1411
EQ: How do science, engineering, and the technologies that result from them affect the ways in which people live? How do
1412
science, engineering, and the technologies that result from them affect the natural world?
1413
Modern civilization depends on major technological systems, including those related to agriculture, health, water, energy,
1414
transportation, manufacturing, construction, and communications. New technologies can have deep impacts on society and the
1415
environment, including some that were not anticipated or that may build up over time to a level that requires attention or mitigation.
1416
Analysis of cots, environmental impacts, and risks, as well as of expected benefits, is a critical aspect of decisions about technology
1417
use. (ETS2.B, p. 214)
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
Resources:
1424
A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas
1425
http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13165
1426
1427
Benchmarks for Science Literacy, AAAS- Project 2061
1428
http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/
1429
1430
Science College Board Standards for College Success TM
1431
http://professionals.collegeboard.com/k-12/standards
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
UNPACKING & EXCERPTS from Benchmarks for Science Literacy
1452
1453
UNPACKING & EXCERPTS from Benchmarks for Science Literacy
1454
1455
8.L.1- Understand the structure and hazards caused by agents of disease that effect living organisms.
1456
1457
8.L.1.1- Summarize the basic characteristics of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites relating to the spread, treatment and
1458
prevention of disease.
1459
1460
Students know that:
1461
1462
 microbiology as a basic science explores microscopic organisms including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, parasites, and
1463
some fungi and algae. These organisms lack tissue differentiation, are unicellular, and exhibit diversity of form and size.
1464
1465
 viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites may infect the human body and interfere with normal body functions. Some
1466
kinds of bacteria or fungi may infect the body to form colonies in preferred organs or tissues.
1467
o
Viruses
1468
 Viruses are non-living particles composed of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and a protein coat.
1469
 Viruses need a host cell to reproduce.
1470
 Viruses invade healthy cells and use the enzymes and organelles of the host cell to make more viruses, usually
1471
killing those cells in the process.
1472
 Viral diseases are among the most widespread illnesses in humans. These illnesses range from mild fevers to
1473
some forms of cancer and include several other severe and fatal diseases. Transmission of these illnesses
1474
varies; some are transmitted by human contact, while others are transmitted through water or an insect bite.
1475
 Vaccines and some anti-viral drugs are used to control and prevent the spread of viral diseases.
1476
o
Bacteria
1477
 Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled organisms.
1478
 Bacteria can live in a variety of places (with oxygen, without oxygen, extreme hot, extreme cold).
1479
 Bacteria reproduce through binary fission, a form of asexual reproduction. Under optimal conditions, bacteria
1480
can grow and divide extremely rapidly, and bacterial populations can double very quickly.
1481
 Antibiotics are used to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Because antibiotics have been overused, many diseases
1482
that were once easy to treat are becoming more difficult to treat. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria occurs when
1483
mutant bacteria survive an antibiotic treatment and give rise to a resistant population.
1484
o
Fungi
1485

Fungi are eukaryotic, nonphotosynthetic organisms, and most are multicellular heterotrophs.
1486

Most fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually (producing spores). This provides an adaptive advantage. When
1487
the environment is favorable, rapid asexual reproduction ensures an increased spread of the species. During
1488
environmental stress, sexual reproduction ensures genetic recombination, increasing the likelihood that offspring
1489
will be better adapted to the new environmental conditions.
1490

Fungi can sometimes attack the tissues of living plants and animals and cause disease. Fungal disease is a major
1491
concern for humans because fungi attack not only us but also our food sources, making fungi competitors with humans
1492
for nutrients.
1493

Mold spores can cause mild to serious allergies in some people. Billions of mold spores can become airborne and may
1494
then be inhaled, triggering an allergic reaction.
1495
o
Parasites
1496

A parasite is an organism that feed on another individual, known as the host. They either live on or in their host’s body.
1497

Natural selection favors adaptations that allow a parasite to efficiently exploit its host. Parasites are usually
1498
specialized anatomically and physiologically. Tapeworms are so specialized for a parasitic lifestyle that they do
1499
not even have a digestive system. They live in the small intestine of their host and absorb nutrients directly
1500
through their skin.
1501

Infectious disease may also be caused by animal parasites, which may take up residence in the intestines,
1502
bloodstream, or tissues.
1503
Teacher Note: It is not necessary for students to know specific diseases or disorders caused by microorganisms.
1504
1505
Excerpts from Benchmarks for Science Literacy
1506

All living things are composed of cells, from just one to many millions, whose details usually are visible only through a
1507
microscope. 5C/M1a
1508

Organs and organ systems are composed of cells and help to provide all cells with basic needs. 6C/M1
1509

Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites may infect the human body and interfere with normal body functions. A person can
1510
catch a cold many times because there are many varieties of cold viruses that cause similar symptoms. 6E/M3
1511

White blood cells engulf invaders or produce antibodies that attack them or mark them for killing by other white cells. The
1512
antibodies produced will remain and can fight off subsequent invaders of the same kind. 6E/M4
1513

Specific kinds of germs cause specific diseases. 6E/M6** (BSL)
1514

Vaccines induce the body to build immunity to a disease without actually causing the disease itself. 6E/M7** (BSL)
1515

Some viral diseases, such as AIDS, destroy critical cells of the immune system, leaving the body unable to deal with multiple
1516
infection agents and cancerous cells. 6E/H4
1517

Specialized cells and the molecules they produce identify and destroy microbes that get inside the body. 6C/M4
1518
1519
1520
1521
8.L.1.2- Explain the difference between epidemic and pandemic as it relates to the spread, treatment and prevention of
1522
disease.
1523
Students know that:
1524

a disease outbreak happens when a disease occurs in greater numbers than expected in a community or region, or
1525
during a season. An outbreak may occur in one community or even extend to several countries. It can last from days to
1526
years. Sometimes a single case of a contagious disease is considered an outbreak. This may be true if it is an unknown
1527
disease, is new to a community, or has been absent from a population for a long time. An outbreak can be considered as
1528
an epidemic or pandemic.
1529
1530

epidemic and pandemic are similar terms that refer to the spread of infectious diseases among a population. There
1531
are two main differences between epidemic and pandemic. The term pandemic normally is used to indicate a far higher
1532
number of people affected than an epidemic. Pandemic also refers to a much larger region being affected. In the most
1533
extreme case, the entire global population would be affected by a pandemic.
1534
1535
 the terms epidemic and pandemic usually refer to the rate of infection, the area that is affected or both. An epidemic is
1536
defined as an illness or health-related issue that is showing up in more cases than would normally be expected. It occurs
1537
when an infectious disease spreads rapidly to many people. In 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1538
epidemic took the lives of nearly 800 people worldwide.
1539
1540
 in the case of a pandemic, even more of the population is affected than in an epidemic. A pandemic typically is in a
1541
widespread area (usually worldwide) rather than being confined to a particular location or region and affect global
1542
populations. An epidemic is not worldwide. For example, malaria can reach epidemic levels in regions of Africa but is not
1543
a threat globally. Whereas a flu strain can begin locally (epidemic) but eventually spread globally (pandemic). This is not
1544
unusual for a new virus, because if people have not been exposed to the virus before, their immune systems are not ready to
1545
fight it off, and more people become ill. Swine flu started in Mexico city where it was feared to lead to epidemic
1546
proportions in North America, now that the flu has been found in New Zealand, Israel, Scotland and many other countries,
1547
it has become pandemic. The 1918 Spanish flu and the Black Plague are extreme examples of pandemics. Keep in mind,
1548
though, that a pandemic doesn't necessarily mean millions of deaths-it means a geographically widespread epidemic.
1549
1550
 influenza pandemics have occurred more than once. Spanish influenza killed 40-50 million people in 1918. The Asian
1551
influenza killed 2 million people in 1957. The Hong Kong influenza killed 1 million people in 1968. An influenza
1552
pandemic occurs when: A new subtype of virus arises. This means humans have little or no immunity to it; therefore,
1553
everyone is at risk. The virus spreads easily from person to person, such as through sneezing or coughing. The virus begins
1554
to cause serious illness worldwide. With past flu pandemics, the virus reached all parts of the globe within six to nine
1555
months. With the speed of air travel today, public health experts believe an influenza pandemic could spread much more
1556
quickly. A pandemic can occur in waves. And all parts of the world may not be affected at the same time.
1557
1558

Teacher Note: It is not necessary for students to know specific examples of epidemics and pandemics. Examples provided
1559
are for teaching purposes only.
1560
Excerpts from Benchmarks for Science Literacy
1561

The environment may contain dangerous levels of substances that are harmful to human beings. Therefore, the good health of
1562
individuals requires monitoring the soil, air, and water and taking steps to make them safe. 6E/M5
1563

Toxic substances, some dietary habits, and some personal behavior may be bad for one's health. Some effects show up right
1564
away, others years later. Avoiding toxic substances, such as tobacco, and changing dietary habits increase the chance of living
1565
longer. 6E/M2
1566
1567
1568
8.L.2- Understand how biotechnology is used to affect living organisms.
1569
1570
8.L.2.1- Summarize aspects of biotechnology including:
1571

Specific genetic information available
1572

Careers
1573

Economic benefits to North Carolina
1574

Ethical issues
1575

Implications for agriculture
1576
Students know that:
1577
 technology is essential to science for such purposes as sample collection and treatment, measurement, data collection and
1578
storage, computation, and communication of information.
1579
1580
 traditional biotechnology was (and still is) the use of living organisms to solve problems and make useful products.
1581
Domesticating crop plants and farm animals through selective breeding, and using yeast to make bread rise and produce
1582
wine are examples of traditional biotechnology. New biotechnology involves the use of living cells and their molecules to
1583
solve problems and make useful products.
1584
1585
 biotechnology is not just one technology, but many. Biotechnology is a toolbox filled with many different kinds of living
1586
cells and their component molecules, and different ways to use them. Because there are millions of different species of
1587
plants, animals, and microorganisms in the world, each having cells and molecules with unique characteristics, there are a
1588
lot of potential tools in this toolbox. This is why biotechnology is so powerful and can be applied in so many different ways.
1589
There are three basic kinds of biotechnology tools: working with cells, working with proteins, and working with genes.
1590
1591
 many industries are finding uses for the new tools provided by biotechnology. The health care industry is developing
1592
better ways to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease. The food and agriculture industries are rapidly adopting the tools of
1593
biotechnology. The “third wave” of biotechnology applications is just beginning to emerge in energy and the environment,
1594
where living cells and their molecules can help us develop new methods to clean up our environment, detect environmental
1595
contamination, and reduce our dependence on petroleum.
1596
1597
 the microbial world has led to the emerging field of biotechnology which has given us many advances and new careers
1598
in medicine, agriculture, genetics, and food science. Biotechnology, while it has benefited North Carolina in many ways,
1599
has also raised many ethical issues for an informed community to consider. As we increase our knowledge and make
1600
advances in technology we are able to reduce the threat of microbial hazards.
1601
1602
 biotechnology affects us in every area of our lives: our food, water, medicine and shelter. Uses of modern biotechnology
1603
include: making medicine in large quantities (e.g. penicillin) and human insulin for the treatment of diabetes, combating
1604
crime through DNA testing and forensic testing, removing pollution from soil and water (bioremediation), and improving
1605
the quality of agricultural crops and livestock products. Some new areas such as Genetic Modification (GM) and cloning
1606
are controversial.
1607
1608
Excerpts from Benchmarks for Science Literacy
1609

New medical techniques, efficient health care delivery systems, improved diet and sanitation, and a fuller understanding of
1610
the nature of health and disease give today's human beings a better chance of staying healthy than their ancestors had.
1611
6E/H3a*
1612

Human beings use technology to match or exceed many of the abilities of other species. 6A/M5*
1613

Technologies having to do with food production, sanitation, and health care have dramatically changed how people live and
1614
work and have resulted in rapid increases in the human population. 6A/M6*
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
Grade/Subject: 8th Grade Science
Today’s Date: November 12, 2015
1622
1623
NC Essential Standard:
Guiding Questions:
1624
8.L.1- Understand the structure and hazards caused by
1625
agents of disease that effect living organisms.
1) What is the definition of the following terms: epidemic, outbreak,
1626
pandemic, and transmission?
1627
Clarifying Objective:
1628
8.L.1.2- Explain the difference between epidemic and
2a) How are epidemics and pandemics similar? Different?
1629
pandemic as it relates to the spread, treatment and
2b) How can an epidemic turn into a pandemic?
1630
prevention of disease.
1631
1632
Instructional Learning Targets:
1633
Ai. Recognize the definition of the following: epidemic,
1634
outbreak, pandemic, and transmission. (A1)
1635
1636
Bi. Compare the spread of epidemics and pandemics. (B2)
1637
1638
1639
Today’s Objectives: (Student-Friendly Language)
1640
1) Student-friendly language Learning Target:
1641
I can draw a representation of the following terms:
1642
epidemic, outbreak, pandemic, and transmission.
1643
1644
2) Student-friendly language Learning Targets:
1645
1. I can explain how epidemics and pandemics are
1646
similar.
1647
2. I can explain how epidemics and pandemics are
1648
different.
1649
3. I can explain how an epidemic can become a
1650
pandemic.
1651
1652
1653
1654
Bell Ringer:
Opening/Motivate:
1655
Students will work individually to complete the formative

Ask students to respond to the following questions in their
1656
assessment probe, “Catching A Cold” (Uncovering
journal:
1657
Student Ideas in Science, Vol. 4 by Page Keeley & Joyce
1) Have you ever suffered from an infectious disease?
1658
Tugel. Ensure that students explain their thinking.
2) If so, what were your symptoms?
1659
Collect responses to determine what students believe
3) What was your treatment?
1660
about infectious diseases, particularly colds.

Show the YouTube video clip, “Epidemics, Outbreaks, and
1661
Pandemics
1662
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUl87kYHT3I).Provide
1663
discussion regarding the bell ringer activity. Share some of
1664
your personal experiences with infectious disease. (Please
1665
note that some students may be reluctant to share their
1666
experiences.)
1667
1668
Guided Activity:
Independent Practice
1669
1) In groups of 2-3, instruct students to define
(Differentiation Plan)
1670
epidemic, outbreak, and pandemic, based on
1) Students will construct a graphic organizer regarding epidemics
1671
the video they just previewed.
and pandemics. (From the videos, how are epidemics and
1672
2) Show the Ted-Ed Video, “How Pandemics
pandemics similar? Different?)
1673
Spread”. (http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-
2) Students will complete the section of their learning guide
1674
pandemics-spread). Students will answer the
for the PowerPoint regarding the transmission of diseases.
1675
questions on the website.
1676
3) Review the section of the PowerPoint regarding
1677
the transmission of diseases.
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
Closing Activity:
Homework Assignment:
1685
Ask students to complete the Flash Cards activity.
At home, record the following in your journal:
1686
Has anyone in your family has had an infectious disease. If
1687
so, which one(s)? At what age did the disease occur? What
1688
were the symptoms? What was the treatment?
1689
1690
1691
Resources for today:
1692
1693
1) Copies of the formative assessment probe entitled, “Catching A Cold” (Uncovering Student Ideas in Science, Vol. 4 by
1694
Page Keeley & Joyce Tugel
1695
2) YouTube video clip, “Epidemics, Outbreaks, and Pandemics (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUl87kYHT3I).
1696
3) Ted-Ed Video, “How Pandemics Spread”. (http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-pandemics-spread)
1697
4) Internet access
1698
5) Projection access for video clips and PowerPoint presentation
1699
6) Learning guides for the PowerPoint
1700
7) Index cards
1701
8) Markers, coloring pencils, crayons
1702
1703
1704
1705
Formative Assessment Plan: Administer the formative assessment probe entitled, “Catching A Cold” (Uncovering Student
1706
Ideas in Science, Vol. 4 by Page Keeley & Joyce Tugel. Ensure that students explain their thinking. Collect responses to
1707
determine what students believe about infectious diseases, particularly colds.
1708
*NOTE: This assessment will be administered again at the end of the unit.
1709
1710
1711
Summative Assessment Plan: Unit test
1712
1713
1714
1715
Announcements:
Attendance: Everyone is here and accounted for! 
1716
1717
1718
Intentionally left blank
1719
1720
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards