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SPH3U REVIEW EXAM Name: DISCLAIMER If you work through this review it will help you be successful on the final exam. However, finishing this review is not a sufficient condition for your success on the end of semester exam in SPH3U! 1. Calculate the following and leave your answer in standard form (scientific notation). a) (5.0 x 108) m (2.0 x 1014) b) (4.0 x 105 g)+ (3.0 x 104 g) c) (3.400 x 10-2) kg (4.2 x 10-4) 2. State the number of significant digits in the following: a) 2.30 x 104 m s b) 0.050 kg c) 370.0 N 3. Complete the following table of SI units: quantity force symbol unit unit symbol SI base unit → F Newton N kg m s2 coulomb C displacement electric resistance E, Ek, Eg acceleration weight → Fg volt velocity watt period heat Hz speed work Page 1 of 12 4. Fill in the blanks with the correct symbol and power of 10. Prefix milli mega centi nano deci kilo micro Symbol Power of 10 5. An apple drops from a tree and falls freely toward the ground. Sketch the position-time, velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs of the apple’s motion, assuming that a) downward is positive b) upward is positive 6. Use the graph on the right to answer the questions that follow: a) What did Mr. Baggins do between the 2nd and 5th hour? b) What was Mr. Baggins' total distance and the displacement at the end of 10 h? c) What is Bilbo's average speed and average velocity over the entire trip? d) What is the average speed and average velocity for t1 = 1.0 h to t2 = 8.0 h? e) What is the velocity at t = 7.0 h? Displacement (km) [N] There and Back Again 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Time (h) 7. Use the graph on the left to answer the questions that follow: Velocity versus time for a really fast snail velocity (m/s) [North] 30 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 a) b) c) d) What is the velocity at t = 7.0 s? What is the acceleration at t = 2.0 s? Calculate the acceleration at t = 8.0 s Calculate the average velocity from t = 4.0 s to t = 9.0 s. e) Find the displacement from t = 3.0 s to 9.0 s. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 time (s) 7 8 9 10 Page 2 of 12 8. The position–time graph of the motion of a boy on a bicycle is shown on the right. The boy initially travels in a northerly direction. Determine the velocity of the boy at t = 10 s. (Assume constant acceleration for the first 20 s.) 9. How long will it take a mass to accelerate from 30.0 m/s [South] to 50.0 m/s [North] if its acceleration is a constant 4.0 m/s2 [North]? 10. If the following relationship exists, F a a) Plot force versus acceleration for the data given (force on the y-axis). b) What type of relationship does the graph represent? c) What is the value of the slope? force (N) [South] acceleration (m/s2) [South] 11. 0 0 31.0 2.0 46.5 3.0 62.0 4.0 77.5 5.0 What does the slope represent? If you don’t know, write the units down for the slope and simplify. 93.0 6.0 108.5 7.0 124 8.0 139.5 9.0 155 10.0 A mass covers a displacement of 810 m [W] in 9.00 s with a constant acceleration. If its initial velocity was equal to zero, what was its acceleration? 12. A man ran half way around a circular track of radius 1.0 km in 2.0 minutes starting at the most southerly point. During this time determine his: a) average speed in m/s b) average velocity in m/s 13. If you run 1.00 x 102 m at a speed of 5.0 m/s and then walk 3.00 x 102 m at a speed of 1.0 m/s what is your average speed? 14. A person runs 1.00 x 102 m [N], 1.50 x 102 m [S] and finally 5.0 x 10 1 m [E]. If the average speed for the run is 40 m/s, what is the average velocity for the run? 15. A coin rolls off a table with an initial horizontal speed of 25 cm/s. How far will the coin land from the base of the table if the table’s height is 1.25 m? 16. A baseball is thrown with an initial velocity of 27.0 m/s [35 0 above the horizontal]. a) What are the components of the ball’s initial velocity? b) How high and far will it travel? Page 3 of 12 17. Draw a free-body diagram to determine the net force acting on the object in italics in each of the following situations: a) Two teenagers are pushing a dirt bike through a freshly plowed field. One exerts a force of 390 N[W] on the bike while the other exerts a force of 430 N [W]. Frictional resistance amounts to 810 N. b) A water-skier is being pulled at a constant speed of 20.0 m/s. The tension in the horizontal rope is 520 N. c) An elevator, including passengers, has a mass of 1.0x103 kg. The cable attached to the elevator exerts an upward force of 1.2x104 N. Friction opposing the motion of the elevator is 1.5x10 3 N. 18. Draw two or more different free-body diagrams to illustrate a body… a) at rest. b) moving with a constant velocity. c) moving with a constant acceleration. 19. A balloon is seen to fall with a constant velocity. The constant velocity is best explained by the fact: [Draw a free body diagram of the balloon. Assume it has a mass of 0.035 kg] (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the resultant force acting on it is zero gravity supplies a constant pull that maintains its velocity the retarding force of air friction exceeds the force of gravity and allows no acceleration it is falling in a vacuum the force of gravity on the balloon is constant and thus there can be no acceleration – and this means the balloon’s velocity must remain constant 20. A force of 15 N [E] acts on a mass of 5 kg. Determine the acceleration of the mass. 21. A 6.0 kg mass (m1) has a 30.0 N force acting on it and a 10.0 kg mass (m2) has a 90.0 N force acting on it. If both masses start from rest at the same time, how long is it before one mass is travelling 15 m/s faster than the other? 22. Expressed in fundamental units a Newton (N) is: (a) kgm kgm2 kgs kgm2 kgm m (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) s s kgs 2 m2 s2 s2 23. When a force of 1.0 N [West] acts on a body that is free to move horizontally (no friction) and whose weight is 98 N [down], the body receives: (A) a speed of 1.0 m/s (D) an acceleration of 1.0 x 10 m/s2 [West] (B) an acceleration of 0.10 m/s2 [West] (E) an acceleration of 1.0 x 102 m/s2 [West] 2 (C) an acceleration of 1.0 m/s [West] → → 24. Consider the forces acting on the cart below: F f = 2.0 N and F a = 7.0 N → F a) b) f → F a Find the net force acting on the cart. If the cart’s mass is 1.2 kg, what is its acceleration? Page 4 of 12 25. A net force of magnitude 36 N gives a mass m1 an acceleration of magnitude 4.0 m/s2. The same net force gives another mass m2 an acceleration of 12 m/s2. What magnitude of acceleration will this net force give to the entire mass if m1 and m2 are fastened together? 26. In an electric tube, an electron of mass 9.1x10-31 kg experiences a net force of magnitude 8.0x10 15 N over a distance of 2.0 cm. a) Calculate the magnitude of the electron’s acceleration. b) Assuming it started from rest, how fast would the electron be moving at the end of the 2.0 cm motion? 27. A 1.2x104 kg truck is traveling South as 22 m/s. a) What net force is required to bring the truck to a stop in 330 m? b) What is the cause of this net force? 28. Calculate the acceleration of the cart on a table top as shown below, given the following assumptions: a) No friction is acting on the cart. b) A frictional resistance of magnitude 2.0 N is acting on the cart. m = 4.0 kg frictionless pulley m = 2.0 kg 29. A 2.00 x 102 kg motorcycle accelerates from 20.0 m/s to 50.0 m/s in 5.0 s. The unbalanced force on the motorcycle is [all directions are south] (A) 4.00 x 103 N (B) 1.20 x 103 N (C) 3.33 x 101 N -2 3 (D) 3.00 x 10 N (E) 6.0 x 10 N 30. The property of matter described in Newton’s first law of motion is: (A) inertia (B) gravity (C) weight (D) acceleration (E) velocity 31. When a rock is thrown straight into the air what is its acceleration at the top of its flight when its instantaneous velocity is zero? 32. To summarize the difference between mass and weight, complete the table below: Quantity Definition Symbol SI Method of Variation with unit measuring location Page 5 of 12 33. State Newton’s three laws of motion. 34. a) What is the weight of a 19 kg curling stone? b) What force if required to raise the curling stone without acceleration? 35. State the reaction force to each of the following action forces: a) the Earth attracts the moon with a force of 9.7x1024 N b) a cart pushes down on the floor with a force of 32 N c) the weight of a mass exerts a force of 0.75 N [down] on a string 36. Calculate the weight of a 54 kg robot on the surface of Venus where the gravitational field intensity is 8.9 N/kg []. 37. The force of gravity experienced by an astronaut on Earth’s surface is 750 N. What is the force of gravity on the same person at each of the following distances, in multiples of the Earth’s radius, from the centre of Earth? a) 3 b) 10 c) 22 38. An applied horizontal force of magnitude 9.1 N is needed to push a 2.8 kg lamp across a table at constant velocity. a) Determine the coefficient of kinetic friction between the lamp and the table. b) How would the coefficient of static friction compare with your answer in (a)? Why? 39. A 5.0 kg object made of one material is being pulled at constant velocity along a table made of another material. The coefficient of sliding friction between these two materials is 0.35. What is the magnitude of the force of friction? 40. State the law of conservation of energy. 41. A 2.0 kg mass is fired straight up with an initial velocity of 60.0 m/s. a) What is the kinetic energy of the mass when it is 20.0 m above the ground? b) What is the change in height when its speed changes from 50.0 m/s to 40.0 m/s? 42. A pendulum of length 1.0 m is raised 15 cm. What is the maximum speed it will reach at the bottom? 43. A horse pulls a cart a distance of 1.20 x 102 m and does 8.40 x 103 J of work. With what force was the horse pulling the cart? 44. Look at the diagram below. [There is no friction or air resistance in (a) to (c).] 2.0 kg 10.0 N (a) If the block starts at rest, what is its kinetic energy after 2.0 s of travel? [Assume the applied force is continuous and constant.] (b) How far does the block travel during the first 2 seconds? (c) The applied force is stopped at the end of the 2.0 s. How far will the block travel in 20.0 seconds, measured from start? [The total time is therefore 2.0 s + 18.0 s = 20.0 s] (d) If the block encounters friction at the end of the 20.0 s and stops in a total of 4.5 s, then what was the average coefficient of kinetic sliding friction for this block? Page 6 of 12 45. A woman raises a 50.0 kg mass a vertical distance of 1.2 m in 0.50s. With what power is she working? 46. (a) If an athlete (whose mass is 60.0 kg) has an energy conversion efficiency of 24 % and she has an average power of 325 W when climbing stairs how high would she be able to climb with the energy consumed from 4 potato chips [28 g of chips has 610 kJ of energy and 28 g of chips is approximately 15 chips]. (b) If the bag of chips in the above question had been burned and used to heat water from 13 C to 22 C, then how much water was being heated [assuming 100% energy conversion]? 47. a) Jennie is a skydiver who, with her parachute, has a mass of 65.0 kg. She opens her parachute when she reaches a velocity of 3.0 m/s [Down]. The parachute exerts an upward force of 437 N. Calculate i) her acceleration ii) her velocity after 1.5 s. b) If the velocity after 1.5 s is the terminal velocity reached, determine how long it will take to reach the ground if she still has 855 m to go. c) How much energy (in %) was lost due to friction from the moment she opened the parachute to the time she reached the ground? 48. A ball is thrown up with a velocity of 45.0 m/s. What is the velocity of the ball after it has risen 10.0 m? [Solve using BOTH an energy transformation analysis AND kinematics.] 49. A 56 kg diver jumps off the end of a 7.5 m platform with an initial horizontal speed of 3.6 m/s. a) Determine the diver’s total mechanical energy at the end of the platform relative to the surface of water in the pool below. b) Apply the law of conservation of energy to determine the diver’s speed at a height of 2.8 m above the water. 50. A construction worker uses a rope and pulley to raise a 27 kg can of paint 3.1 m to the top of a roof. The downward force on the rope is 3.1x102 N as the rope is pulled 3.1 m. a) Find the work done in raising the can? b) How much “useful work” is done? c) What is the efficiency of the rope and pulley in the raising of the can? 51. Give an example in which positive work is done and an example in which negative work is done. 52. Determine the heat gained or lost in each case: c water = 4.18x103 (J/kgC) cAl = 9.2x102 (J/kgC) a) 85 g of water is heated from 15 C to 79 C in 2.0 min. b) 2.5 kg of aluminum cools from 185 C to 12 C. 53. It takes 523 J of thermal energy to melt 12.3 g of a metal at its melting point. Find the specific latent heat of fusion (in kJ/kg) of the metal. Page 7 of 12 54. Using the heating curve shown above: a) Describe what is occurring in each of the labeled sections. b) Identify when heat is added. c) What is the melting point of the solid? d) What is the freezing point of the liquid? e) At what temperature does the liquid boil? 55. What are isotopes of atoms with unstable nuclei called? a) radioactivity b) radioisotopes c) radioactive decay d) radiation 56. What happens to the mass of an atom when it undergoes alpha decay? a) b) c) d) The mass decreases by 4. The mass decreases by 1. The mass increases by 4. There is no change in mass. 57. What is the name of the process in which a large radioactive isotope is broken into smaller isotopes? a) beta emission b) nuclear fission c) transmutation d) nuclear fusion 58. The mass number is the sum of... a) the electrons and protons b) protons and neutrons c) neutrons and electrons Page 8 of 12 59. If the half-life for the radioactive decay of zirconium-84 is 26 minutes and I start with a 175 g sample, how much will be left over after 104 minutes? 60. Write the symbols for an alpha particle, beta particle and gamma ray. 61. Two atoms are isotopes if they have a) b) c) d) e) different atomic numbers the same mass number, but different atomic numbers the same number of protons and neutrons the same number of electrons, but a different number of neutrons the same atomic number, but a different mass number 62. Which of the following atoms are isotopes of element X? 108 110 108 I) X II) X III) X 56 56 52 a) I and II b) I and III c) II and III d) I, II, and III 63. State the type of decay a) 199 78 Pt → −10 e+199 79 Au b) 174 77 Ir → 24 He+170 75 Re 64. Calculate the rest energy of a proton (in J). (Given: mp = 1.67x10-27 kg) 65. The rest energy of a small object is 2.00x102 MJ. Calculate its rest mass. 66. A vibrating object (a mass on a spring) completes 32 cycles in 12 seconds. a) What is the period? b) What is the frequency? 67. If the frequency is 11 Hz then what is the period? 68. A wave has a speed of 24.5 m/s and a period of 5.0 seconds. What is the wavelength of the wave? 69. Label the sketch of the wave depicted below: (Use the terms wavelength, through, crest and amplitude.) 70. A crest of a wave with amplitude of 15 cm meets a trough with amplitude of 18 cm. What will happen when the two crests occupy the same spot at the same time? [Assume each wave has the same wavelength.] Page 9 of 12 71. At standard pressure what is the speed of sound in air at (a) 11 °C? (b) -22 °C? 72. A bat sends a 1.10 x 105 Hz ultrasound signal out towards an insect 1.20 x 10 2 m away. a) If the temperature is 22 °C, how long will it take the bat to hear the return signal? b) What is the wavelength of the signal? 73. What is the distance between successive nodes in a standing wave? 74. If the wavelength of a wave is 1.3 m, then what is the length of a standing wave with 6 nodes? Draw a diagram of this transverse standing wave. 75. What are two different types of waves? [State the characteristics of these waves.] 76. You send a pulse down a string that is attached to a second string with unknown properties. The pulse returns to you inverted and with a smaller amplitude. a) Is the speed faster or slower in the second string? b) Is the wavelength smaller or larger in the second string? 77. A pipe organ playing in a concert produces a 440 Hz signal with a pipe open at both ends. If the ideal temperature for the organ is 20 °C, then what is the length of the pipe (at the first harmonic)? 78. A 512 Hz tuning fork held over a soda bottle reaches its first harmonic when the level of water is 17 cm from the bottle opening. What is the temperature of the air? 79. If the temperature is 12 °C, and a jet accelerates at rest at 12 m/s2 for 41 seconds, then what is the Mach value for the jet at the end of this 41 seconds? 80. a) An ambulance is moving at 38.0 m/s with the siren blaring at a frequency of 1.8 x 103 Hz. It is headed towards an accident scene. What is the apparent frequency of the siren heard by the bystanders at the accident scene? (The air temperature is –8.0 C). b) A fire truck is moving at 98 km/h with its siren on. An observer near the highway hears the siren blaring at a frequency of 1.3 x 103 Hz as the fire truck moves away from his location. If the air temperature is –8.0 ºC, what is the actual frequency of the siren? 81. When the electric potential difference across a series of lights is 12.0 V, a current of 0.35 A flows through it. The lights are left on for 0.50 h. What is the energy used by the lights 82. A bolt of lightning delivers 25 C of charge, releasing 1.2x109 J of energy in 30.0 ms. a) What is the power associated with the bolt? b) What is the current? c) What is the potential difference across the bolt of lightning? 83. What is the charge on an object that has a deficit of 4.1x10 12 electrons? Page 10 of 12 84. The following appliances are operated in a 120.0 V circuit for a thirty-day month: • Six 100.0 W light bulbs for 8.0 h/d • a 10.0 kettle for 10.0 min/d • a bread machine drawing on 6.0 A for 1.0 h/d cents Calculate the electricity bill for the month at an average cost of 8.5 . kWh 85. What is positive current flow? negative current flow? right hand and left hand helix rules? right and left hand straight conductor rules? 86. Draw the magnetic lines of force for each of the diagrams below: (a) 2 bar magnets (b) a current carrying conductor (c) current through a solenoid (b) (a) S N N S (c) 87. What is the motor principle? 88. Draw the magnetic lines of force for each of the diagrams below: (a) 2 parallel wires with currents (b) a conductor near a U-shaped magnet (a) (b) S N Page 11 of 12 89. For the diagram below: a) Name the parts of the motor that are labeled. b) Determine which end of the coil is N. c) State in which direction the coil will spin. D C A S N B 90. What is Faraday's principle? Oersted's discovery? Lenz's law? 91. A transformer consists of a primary coil of 100 turns and a secondary coil of 5000 turns. The primary potential difference and current are 120 V and 2.00 A. What is the secondary potential difference? What is the secondary current? What kind of transformer is it and why? ❑ Do you have all of your notes, tests, quizzes and handouts organized and accessible? [ANSWER = YES] ❑ Have you identified the areas you are weakest and strongest in? [ANSWER = YES] ❑ Have you been solving 7 to 10 physics problems a day? [ANSWER = YES] ❑ Do you realize how much work you must do in order to be successful for this exam? [ANSWER = YES] You must solve problems from your notes, text and fully work out solutions to old tests, quizzes, test reviews and handouts… Page 12 of 12