Mineral Resources

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Topic: Mineral Resources
Exercise Questions
Q.1. How would you differentiate between metallic and non-metallic minerals?
Ans. Metallic Minerals:
i.
An element that reflects light (is shiny).
ii.
Metallic mineral re those minerals which can be melted to obtain new products.
iii.
Iron, cooper, bauxite, tin, manganese are some examples.
iv.
These are generally associated with igneous rocks.
v.
They are usually hard and have shines or lustre of their own.
vi.
They are ductile and malleable.
vii.
When hit, they do not get broken.
Non-Metallic Minerals:
i.
An element that does not reflect light (not shiny).
ii.
Non-metallic minerals are those which do not yield new products on melting.
iii.
Coal, salt, clay, marble are some examples.
iv.
These are generally associated with sedimentary rocks.
v.
They are not so hard and have no shine or lustre of their own.
vi.
They are not ductile and malleable.
vii.
When hit, they may get broken into pieces.
Q.2.
a) Name four non-metallic minerals (other than coal) which are mined in Pakistan.
Ans.
i.
Limestone
ii. Marble
iii. Rock salt
iv.
Gypsum
b) For each of the minerals you have named in (a) describe its uses in Pakistan.
Ans.
i.
Limestone is mainly used in cement making. It is also used in iron and steel industry,
and in manufacture of bleaching powder, glass, paper and paints.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Marble is used in house buildings.
Rock salt is used in cooking tanning and leather industry and in making different kind
of sodas.
Gypsum is used in cement industry and in making plaster of paris and papermaking.
c) State the meaning of the terms “Mineral exploration” and “Mineral extraction”.
Ans.Mineral Exploration means searching out of minerals. This is also called prospecting.
Mineral Extraction means working and taking out the minerals from the mines.
d) Describe the measures and policies which have been introduced in Pakistan to
promote the exploration for and the exploitation of Minerals.
Ans. Soon after the partition the department of Geological survey of Pakistan was opened. It
did very useful work in searching out and locating workable mineral deposits in the country.
In 1961 Oil and Gas Corporation of Pakistan was established to explore, develop, produce,
refine and sell oil and gas. For speedy development Pakistan Mineral Corporation was
established in 1974.Resource development corporation was founded to develop Saindak
Copper deposits of Baluchistan. Gemstone corporation of Pakistan was formed in
1979.Provincial Mineral development Corporations were formed in each province to develop
the mineral resources of the province. Government of Pakistan seeks the collaboration of
mining companies of foreign countries for the development and exploitation of mineral
resources.
Q.13.What are the various effects of mining?
Ans.The various effects of mining are:
i.
Vegetation cut down resulting in soil exposure.
ii.
Natural landscape deformed due to construction of roads and miners’ houses
iii.
Rock blasting and digging of earth.
iv.
Noise pollution and ground vibration from blasting.
v.
Traditional mining methods are dangerous for the health of miners.
vi.
Land pollution due to mining waste.
vii.
Water supply polluted from mineral waste.
viii.
Air pollution from dust and smoke.
Q.3. (a) Study the map Fig.5-A which, shows the distribution in Pakistan of deposits of
three minerals.
#
Questions &Answers
i. Which
i
of the minerals
has
i most widespread
deposits?
1
Ans.Limestone
ii. Which
2
of the minerals
has the deposits only
towards the North of
Pakistan?
Ans.Rock salt
iii. Name
3 one source of
limestone that has led
to the development of a
cement factory at
Karachi.
Ans. Manghopir Hills
and Murli Hills near
Karachi
iv. Name
4 one source of
limestone that has
enabled a cement
factory to be built at
Hyderabad.
Ans. Ganjo Takar Hills
of limestone near
Hyderabad.
V.Explain your choices in (iii) and (iv).
Ans. Limestone is the basic raw material for cement making. Since limestone is a heavy and
bulky commodity; it becomes uneconomical if transported over long distances. Therefore cement
factories are built very close to the source of limestone. The Manghopir Hills in the vicinity of
Karachi and Ganjo Takar Hills near Hyderabad are providing raw material for cement factories.
Q.3. (b) Why is the extraction of limestone so important to industry and agriculture in
Pakistan?
Ans. Limestone is found at many places in all four provinces of Pakistan. It is the chief raw
material for cement making. It is also used in manufacturing of Lime, bleaching powder, glass
soap, paper and paints. Limestone is also used as flux in iron and steel industry. Limestone is an
important building material also. It is widely used in building of roads. In agriculture Limestone
is used as fertilizer and to reduce salinity. Lime solution is painted on fruit tree trunks for
protection against pests and termites.Indirectly, cement is used in building of dams and to line
canals which helps agriculture.
Q.3. (c)
i.
Look at Fig 5-A and name one gypsum deposit in the Salt Range.
Ans. Khewra (also Dandot and Daudkhel)
ii.
State one use for gypsum.
Ans. Gypsum is used in cement making. It is also used in making of plaster of paris, paint, paper
and rubber industries.
iii.
In what ways is rock salt important to industry and to people?
Ans. Rock salt is used in food industry. It is used as preservatives. Leather industry also uses
much salt. Salt is used in chemical industry for the manufacture of different kinds of sodas such
as caustic soda, washing soda and bi-carbonate of soda. These are widely used in textile industry,
tanning and laundries. Pakistan is not only elf-sufficient, but also exports salt to nearby
countries.Rocksalt is used in cooking and preservatives. Mining of rock salt provides
employment to people.
Q.3. (d)
i.
Name one other non-metallic mineral extracted in Pakistan.
Ans. Marble. (Also coal, oil, gas, china –clay, sulphur).
ii.
How does the production of non-metallic minerals in Pakistan help its economy?
Ans. Pakistan has vast deposits of some important non-metallic minerals such as rock salt,
limestone, gypsum, marble and china-clay.Coal, oil and gas are also non-metallic minerals. All
these minerals are important for the economy of Pakistan. Rock salt and marble are exported and
bring foreign exchange to Pakistan. Many of these minerals are raw material for industries. The
progress in cement industry and chemical industry are because of deposits of rock salt and
limestone. Coal, oil and gas are also important because their production helps to reduce the
import of fuels. Gas has been especially very helpful in the progress of Pakistan economy .Its
production has saved much foreign exchange. Gas is used in many industries, fertilizer industry
and power generation. Coal is used in brick kilns and for power generation.
Additional Questions:
Q.1.Name three ways by which coal is mined.
Ans.Three methods of coal mining are:
i.
Strip or open cast mining
ii.
Adit mining
iii.
Shaft mining
Q.2.Why is coal produced in Pakistan described as low quality?
Ans. Pakistan’s caol is of low quality.It is lignite caol.It is low in carbon content,high in sulphur
content and has impurities.It burns of quickly and does not produce high temperature.It gives out
much smoke and produces much ash.Therefore Pakistani coal is of low quality.
Q.3.Name the two main raw materials quarried in Pakistan that are used to make cement.
Ans. Limestone and Gypsum.
Q.4.Describe the distribution of Limestone extraction in Pakistan.
Ans. Limestone is widely distributed in Pakistan.It is found in abundance in all four provinces.In
Punjab Limestone is found in the Potwar plateau and salt range mainly near
khewra,Dandot,dandkhel,Rawalpindi and D.G Khan.In Khyber pakhtoonkhwa limestone is
found near Nowshera and Kohat.In Baluchistan it is found in Harnai.In Sindh Limestone is found
at Kot Deji Hills near Rohri in upper sindh,at Ganjo takkar Hills near Hyderabad, at Mangopir
and Murli Hills near Karachi.
Q.5.Limestone and rock salt are both called “bulky goods”. What is the cheapest form of
transport for these goods?
Ans. Rail Transport and Trucks.
Q.6.Why is the supply of limestone to most areas likely to be cheaper than rock salt?
Ans. Cement factories are located very close to the source of limestone and it is a low value
commodity as compared to rock salt which is high value commodity and is supplied all over the
country.Therefore,the supply of limestone is likely to be cheaper than that of rock salt.
Q.7.What is a mixture of Rock salt and water called?
Ans. Brine and it is used in chemical industry.
Q.8.What is rock salt used for in Pakistan?
Ans. Rock salt is used in food in Pakistan. It is also used as preservative in leather industry, and
for manufacture of different kinds of sodas such as soda ash, washing soda and caustic soda.
Q.9.How are minerals formed?
Ans. There are four ways that minerals can be formed. From molten rock, from solution, within
living cells and by recrystallization.
Q.10.What are the various methods of Mining?
Ans.There are two main methods of Mining.
1-Open-cast Mining : Open-pit mining, open-cut mining or opencast mining is a surface mining
technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or
borrow.
2-Underground Mining: There are two types of underground mining.
i.
ii.
Adit Mining: An adit is an opening or passage.Adit mining is done in hilly districts
where a mineral seam is exposed on a hill side.
Shaft Mining: Vertical shafts are dug down to the minerals, especially for coal. Tunnels
are then dug horizontally to the layers or seams of the minerals which is then removed
through the tunnels. This method is expensive and can be dangerous.
Q.11.What are the uses of the various metallic minerals?
Sr
1
Metallic Minerals
Chromite
2
3
4
5
6
Iron ore
Copper
Manganese
Bauxite
Celestite
uses
Chromite gives hardness and electrical resistance to steel.It is used for
bridges and railway carriages.
Steel making ,construction and the transport industry.
Making electrical wires and other electrical appliances.
Used in making dry batteries and paints.
It is used in making utensils,tins and cans etc.
It is used in making ceramics,paints and plastics.
Q.12.What are the uses of the various non- metallic minerals?
Sr
1
Non-Metallic
Minerals
Sulphur
uses
It is used in chemical industry to manufacture sulphuric
acids,paints,explosive material and fertilizers.
2
Magnetite
It is used in the manufacture of cement and pharmaceuticals.
3
Clays
It is used in the ceramic industry and steel.
4
Natural gas
It is used domestically and commercially for cooking and energy
purpose.
5
Mineral oil
It is used as power source, as a lubricant for machines and as motor
fuel.
6
Coal
It is used for power generation.
_______________________________The End_____________________________________
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