Q1) What are the three types of language? which one can be considered as the most teachable
and why?
Factual language is the type of language used to communicate facts throughout society, the
linguistic features all components are present and the vocabulary is concrete. You can find
the meaning in the dictionary.
Literary language the purpose to get an emotional respond from the reader. The reader has
to use imagination in order to create a mental picture and the vocabulary is abstract, it
contains metaphorical and idiomatical phrases.
Social language main purpose is to maintain social interaction, make use of idiomatic
phrases , the idiomatic phrases work according to the relationship between the people
involved in the conversation, age, cloths and situations. They lake verbs.
The factual language is the most teachable. Its best suited to the first year or two of a language
course, it’s also the medium for discussing and understanding the conversations of literary and social
Q2) What is the scope of discourse analysis?
Discourse analysis is concerned and focus on the description of grammatical forms and
communicative function in both spoken and written discourse.
Q3) View of language & view of learning?
View of language – is for communication. in order to find out a type of language which could be
considered as a starting point for learning. McEldoweny has identified three types of language
according to their general purpose, They are factual, Literary and social language. It determans what
we teach.
View of learning- is psychological process mental process. Learning is a cognitive process. In
presenting language learning material, the teacher need to take into account certain psychological
factors the learning process are memory and motivation. What does it mean when we say we have
learned something? It means that it stays in our mind to the extent that we can produce it whenever
needed. This implies that it has been transferred from STM to LTM. This transfer to the LTM will not
occur unless there is an adequate repletion of any given item. The repetition must be spaced and
meaningful. It’s how we teach (classroom methodology)
Q4) How did she achieve her object?
By identifying the linguistic features of each type of language.
The types of language relevant to the learners everyday life.
The relevant of transactional language to educational and international communication.
Q5) Why is here approach pedagogical?
She tried to focus “what type of language is relevant to early stages of learning, and why the
linguistic feature is regular”.
It’s relevant to learners everyday life.
It’s relevant to education.
It’s relevant to international communication.
It’s that every Academic subject has.
Q6) T.A & D.A?
Text analysis- is a piece of any natural language. More than one sentence combine formally to form
a coherent whole. Text analysis deals with linguistic forms it takes the formal features of the
Discourse analysis- directs the learners attention to the language function as well as linguistic
features. D.A is the study of language in communication text or the function use of language. It focus
on the description of the grammatical forms and their communicative function in both spoken and
written discourse.
Q7) What does Significant mean?
Means learner pay attention to it so learners must pay attention to what they repeat. If the learners
pay attention they should make an effort if they are making effort for example : to listen to lecture,
that means they are learning.
Attention requires effort > learners will make an effort when they are motivated effort requires
Q8) Factual language?( the importance of discourse in language learning) ?
Factual language divides into grammatical words and lexical words.
Grammatical words( code words) have very little meaning , no reference in real words [ing, ed, s pl.,
s third person, articles, pronouns…]
Different to learn> we should associate meaning with them >putting them in discourse.
Lexical words (content words) have reference in the eal word and can find their meaning in the
to help the students to use lang. effectively, we should provide them with linguistic context rather
than a series of marks.
Q9) Discuss the input---Transitions---output model of the second language learning.
This model was originated by McEldowney
The aim of the input in this model is to provide a body of information in a form of listening or
reading a text. The input is higher than the students present linguistic level because our receptive
skill develops faster than our production skill.
Transition stage: Deals with tasks it consist of two parts notes and visuals. Finally the Output stage: is
a simpler version of input, the learners reproduction of input information in a form of speaking and
writing. Listening> Speaking/ Reading> Writing
Q10) What is the main tent of the Discourse--Based Approach for Learning and Teaching Another
The main tenet of the D.B.A is that there is a need to train all learners to communicate effectively in
the language which is completely neutral, unmarked in any form by creed, race, culture, and social
Q11) What do we mean when we say that learning is cognitive process? In D.B.A [ pedagogical
Output is rarely exactly the same as the input. The language learning is an active reconstruction of
the input.
This leads to the language for the input should be carefully controlled in order to provide a biases for
correct production.
Q12) what does it mean to integrate the skill?
To recycle the same input through more than one skill.
Example of teaching:
Listening> the input should be spoken language
If you want to teach reading :
Reading [input written language]
Comprehension question
language focus
If you want to teach speaking:
[need background knowledge]
Provide stimulus
Listening to a text
diagrams/ tables
If you want to teach writing
Writing [need background knowledge]
Provide stimulus
Writing to a text
diagrams/ tables
Q13) Types of discourse?
McEldowney identified three types of discourse in factual language
Instruction> imperative + models
Description> there are 5 different types
General and Specific > present simple of stative verbs
Natural process> present simple of dynamic verbs, present perfect , present progressive.
Man-made process> passive of dynamic present simple, past process.
Narration> past simple of stative (‘ve verb),past progressive.
Narration> past simple of dynamic verbs, past progressive, past perfect.
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