Q1) What are the three types of language? which one can be considered as the most teachable and why? - - - Factual language is the type of language used to communicate facts throughout society, the linguistic features all components are present and the vocabulary is concrete. You can find the meaning in the dictionary. Literary language the purpose to get an emotional respond from the reader. The reader has to use imagination in order to create a mental picture and the vocabulary is abstract, it contains metaphorical and idiomatical phrases. Social language main purpose is to maintain social interaction, make use of idiomatic phrases , the idiomatic phrases work according to the relationship between the people involved in the conversation, age, cloths and situations. They lake verbs. The factual language is the most teachable. Its best suited to the first year or two of a language course, it’s also the medium for discussing and understanding the conversations of literary and social forms. Q2) What is the scope of discourse analysis? Discourse analysis is concerned and focus on the description of grammatical forms and communicative function in both spoken and written discourse. Q3) View of language & view of learning? View of language – is for communication. in order to find out a type of language which could be considered as a starting point for learning. McEldoweny has identified three types of language according to their general purpose, They are factual, Literary and social language. It determans what we teach. View of learning- is psychological process mental process. Learning is a cognitive process. In presenting language learning material, the teacher need to take into account certain psychological factors the learning process are memory and motivation. What does it mean when we say we have learned something? It means that it stays in our mind to the extent that we can produce it whenever needed. This implies that it has been transferred from STM to LTM. This transfer to the LTM will not occur unless there is an adequate repletion of any given item. The repetition must be spaced and meaningful. It’s how we teach (classroom methodology) Q4) How did she achieve her object? - By identifying the linguistic features of each type of language. The types of language relevant to the learners everyday life. The relevant of transactional language to educational and international communication. Q5) Why is here approach pedagogical? - She tried to focus “what type of language is relevant to early stages of learning, and why the linguistic feature is regular”. It’s relevant to learners everyday life. It’s relevant to education. - It’s relevant to international communication. It’s that every Academic subject has. Q6) T.A & D.A? Text analysis- is a piece of any natural language. More than one sentence combine formally to form a coherent whole. Text analysis deals with linguistic forms it takes the formal features of the language. Discourse analysis- directs the learners attention to the language function as well as linguistic features. D.A is the study of language in communication text or the function use of language. It focus on the description of the grammatical forms and their communicative function in both spoken and written discourse. Q7) What does Significant mean? Means learner pay attention to it so learners must pay attention to what they repeat. If the learners pay attention they should make an effort if they are making effort for example : to listen to lecture, that means they are learning. Attention requires effort > learners will make an effort when they are motivated effort requires motivation. Q8) Factual language?( the importance of discourse in language learning) ? Factual language divides into grammatical words and lexical words. Grammatical words( code words) have very little meaning , no reference in real words [ing, ed, s pl., s third person, articles, pronouns…] Different to learn> we should associate meaning with them >putting them in discourse. Lexical words (content words) have reference in the eal word and can find their meaning in the dictionary. to help the students to use lang. effectively, we should provide them with linguistic context rather than a series of marks. Q9) Discuss the input---Transitions---output model of the second language learning. This model was originated by McEldowney The aim of the input in this model is to provide a body of information in a form of listening or reading a text. The input is higher than the students present linguistic level because our receptive skill develops faster than our production skill. Transition stage: Deals with tasks it consist of two parts notes and visuals. Finally the Output stage: is a simpler version of input, the learners reproduction of input information in a form of speaking and writing. Listening> Speaking/ Reading> Writing Q10) What is the main tent of the Discourse--Based Approach for Learning and Teaching Another Language. The main tenet of the D.B.A is that there is a need to train all learners to communicate effectively in the language which is completely neutral, unmarked in any form by creed, race, culture, and social statues. Q11) What do we mean when we say that learning is cognitive process? In D.B.A [ pedagogical approach] Output is rarely exactly the same as the input. The language learning is an active reconstruction of the input. This leads to the language for the input should be carefully controlled in order to provide a biases for correct production. Q12) what does it mean to integrate the skill? To recycle the same input through more than one skill. Example of teaching: Listening> the input should be spoken language Listening Speaking If you want to teach reading : Reading [input written language] Comprehension question Visual language focus Writing If you want to teach speaking: speaking [need background knowledge] Provide stimulus Listening to a text visual diagrams/ tables pictures If you want to teach writing Writing [need background knowledge] Provide stimulus Writing to a text visual diagrams/ tables pictures Q13) Types of discourse? McEldowney identified three types of discourse in factual language Instruction> imperative + models Description> there are 5 different types - General and Specific > present simple of stative verbs Natural process> present simple of dynamic verbs, present perfect , present progressive. Man-made process> passive of dynamic present simple, past process. Narration> past simple of stative (‘ve verb),past progressive. Narration> past simple of dynamic verbs, past progressive, past perfect.