Children, teenagers and adults everyone feels anxious at some time or another, it’s a normal part of improvement, for instance, its normal for a child to be afraid of dogs or the dark, but when the fear continues and the severity augments, there is reason for concern Anxiety can be difficult to live with; certainly, some might argue that is a huge understatement. There are different types of anxiety disorder, and each approach with its unique challenges and obstacles. All of them appear under the term anxiety because they share certain commonalities, such as extreme worry and panic, disruptive thought patterns, and a mass of mental and emotional anxiety symptoms. Foreign language anxiety (FLA) or as it's called scientifically Xenoglossophobia it's originally a Greek word xeno (meaning foreign), glosso (meaning language) and phobia (meaning fear). Language anxiety can be defined as the fear or apprehension occurring when a learner is expected to perform in the foreign or second language stated Gardner & Macintyre) 1993(. It's also the worry and negative emotional reaction when learning or using a second language (Macintyre, 1999).and it's also defined as a complex construct that deals with learners' psychology in terms of their feeling, self-esteem, and self-confidence (Clement 1980) Language anxiety is the feeling of unease, worry, nervousness and apprehension experienced when learning or using a second language. These sentiments may be caused by any second language context, whether related to the production skills of speaking and writing, or the receptive skills of reading and listening, will be discussing it further more. Speiberger (1976, cited in Wang, 2005, p. 13) distinguished anxiety from fear by pointing out that although anxiety and fear are both "unpleasant emotional reactions to the stimulus conditions perceived as threatening," fear is usually derived from a "real, objective danger in the external environment" while the threatening stimulus of anxiety may not be known.
Research shows that the type of situational anxiety that is felt by students in foreign language classes is different from other types of anxieties (Macintyre & Gardner, 1991b; Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986, Horwitz, 2001; Scovel; 1978).
It becomes reliably associated with the language class and differentiated from other contexts, second language learning (SLL) can be traumatic for many learners. "Many people who are good learners in other subject's areas can experience anxiety when learning a SL. They also identified three approaches to the study of anxiety, which are:
trait anxiety, state anxiety, and situation-specific anxiety
" (Macintyre and Gardner 1991, p. 87 92), which will be discussed more specifically in this paper. Another facet of anxiety is divided in two
, facilitating anxieties
which motivate the learner to 'fight' the new learning task; it gears the learner emotionally for approval behavior. And
motivates the learner to 'flee' the new learning task; it stimulates the individual emotionally to adopt avoidance behavior. (Scovel, T. m1978)
According to (Abu-Rabia 2004), "the foreign language learner characterized as having anxiety is usually worried, physically insecure, and unable to engage in situational learning. 3
Different studies have shown different sources and causes of FLA, for example Horowitz (1986) found three primary sources of FLA,
communication apprehension, fear of negative evaluation and test anxiety
. Also Macintyre and Gardner (1991) tested these types of anxiety and found a relationship where anxiety directly related to SL Performance. While Price (1991) states the other causes such as the difficulty of foreign language classes, personal perception of language aptitude, personality variables, and stressful classroom experiences. Young in 1991-1994 claims that anxiety stems from the learner: the teacher; the instructional practice. The anxiety is caused by personal; interpersonal anxiety; learner's beliefs about language learning; instructor beliefs about language learning; instructor-learner interactions; classroom procedures; and language testing, they are all interrelated. Most common anxiety sypmtoms stage which face classroom students are fear, worry, becoming forgetful, avoidance, trouble concentrating, nervousness, heart palpitations, dread, sweat which in result leads to anger. According to Horwitz (1986, p. 126), anxiety centers on the two basic task requirements of foreign language learning (FLL) : listening and speaking, and difficulty in speaking in class is probably the most frequently cited concern of the anxious foreign language students. On the other hand, Hilleson (1996, cited in Matsuda & Gobel, 2004, p. 22), in his diary study, identified various types of anxiety related to different skill areas: the participants in his research demonstrated anxiety related to not only speaking and listening but also reading and writing. Although research into foreign language anxiety has been almost entirely associated with the oral aspects of language use, there has been a recent trend to identify the relationship between anxiety and other language proficiencies ((Horwitz, 2001, p. 120; Matsuda & Gobel, 2004, p. 22). Horwitz et al. (1986) developed the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) as a 33-item self-report instrument scored on the basis of a 5-point Likert-type scale, from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree." Students respond to statements regarding their reactions to foreign/second language classes. 4
In this review of the literature I shall be studying what several researchers have written about foreign language anxiety in general, and in detail concerning whether language anxiety is a short-term state or a lasting trait or if its situation-specific anxiety, if its harmful debilitating or helpful facilitating, which cause correlate with language anxiety, and how anxiety can be identified in the language classroom. Anxiety sometimes occur in reaction to a particular situation or event (situational or state anxiety), but it can be a major character trait.
Whenever people have a mental block against learning a foreign language, even if they are highly motivated and brilliant learners in other educational subjects, each time they seem to be suffering from an anxiety reaction that blocks their ability to perform successfully in a foreign language class and find learning the target language tremendously stressful, they can be referred to as suffering from a phenomenon known as "foreign language anxiety." There is a complex psychological construct of many variables in anxiety; most none variables are trait anxiety , state anxiety and situation-specific anxiety (Dornyei, 2005). In 1960s the distinction between a personal trait of anxiety and the states anxiety has been demarcated, and the two anxiety variables have been further detailed with the development of measuring instruments.
Some researchers say that state anxiety is an unpleasant emotional arousal in face of threatening demands or danger, when dealing with specific situations, or a particular object or event. State anxiety happens when the person makes a mental estimation of some type of threat. When the object or condition that seems threatening goes away, the person will no longer feel anxious, hence, state anxiety refers to impermanent condition in reaction to some perceived threat. Language anxiety can start as transitory episodes of fear in a situation in which the student has to perform in the language; at this time, anxiety is simply a passing state. It's a "transitory state or condition of the organism that varies in intensity and fluctuates over time"(Spielberger, 1966, p.12) Example of that: It's normal for the L2 learner to feel anxious when he is been called in class, before the exam, or when he is speaking with a native speaker of the target language, but only if it's short-term and then proceeds normally. (Spielberger, 1983) said "it's an apprehension expected at a particular moment in time as a response to a definite situation".
He even examined state anxiety in different conditions and discovered that "females are more emotionally stable than males in their reactions to highly stressful or relaxing circumstances". State anxiety is easily the state anyone can be in. 2.
Trait anxiety according to some researchers refers to "relatively stable individual differences in anxiety-proneness, that is, to differences between people in the tendency to perceive stressful situations as dangerous or threatening and to respond to such situations with elevations in the intensity of their state anxiety reactions". 5
This type of anxiety simply refers to a general level of pressure that is characteristic of a personality. Trait anxiety shows a discrepancy according to how individuals have habituated themselves to respond to and control the stress. The cause of anxiety to one person might not affect any emotion in another. People with high level and suffer from trait anxiety are usually tense and anxious. It tends to build over time; it can be the result of nervous disorder. According to most researchers and psychologist anxiety may be consciously or unconsciously quality. Same as state anxiety, trait anxiety happens is reaction to a perceived threat, but it differs in its intensity, duration and the range of situations in which it arises. Trait anxiety has been referred to as "constant condition without a time limitation" (Levitt, 1980, p.11) This anxiety is related to health. For example, individuals whose self-rating of health is favorable, score lower in anxiety (Forsberg & Bjorvell, 1993). Still, the relationship between state and trait is much more complex, anxiety can be the cause of illness, or the effect of illness. It also refers to the differences between people in conditions of their tendency to knowledge state anxiety in response to the expectation of a threat. A person who suffers from high level of trait anxiety occurrence more intense degrees of state anxiety to specific situations than most people does and experience anxiety toward a large group of situations or objects than most people. Hence, trait anxiety describes a personality characteristic a rather than a brief emotion. Some people who are naturally shy, nervous and self-conscious may already suffer from trait anxiety and it's the general feature of being anxious.
MacIntyre (1999) suggested a type of anxiety called situation-specific anxiety which is experienced only in a particular and specific situation. According to him, foreign language learners environment is a situation-specific anxiety and its felt when someone is required to use a foreign language. And according to Horwitz et al.(1986) foreign language classroom anxiety is a typical situation-specific anxiety.
This ideas gave rise to concept of so-called 'situation-specific' anxiety. The final "can be considered to be the probability of becoming anxious in a particular type of situation, such as during tests The author Oh (1990) thought of FLA as a "situation-specific anxiety (that) students experience in the classroom which is characterized by self-centred thoughts, feelings of inadequacy, fear of failure, and emotional reactions in the language classroom" (p.56) Situation-specific anxiety can be studied as trait anxiety limited to a particular context. It can't be stable all the time sometimes it conflicts with several of situations. That is, this type of anxiety is fascinated by a specific situation or event over time, such as taking test, speaking in public, class participation, talking with a native speaker in their native language, solving physical problems. MacIntyre and Gardner (1991) suggest that "foreign language anxiety should be studied with this type of anxiety situation-specific measures because of the features. MacIntyre and Gardner (1991a) considered that the situation-specific approach "offers more to the understanding of anxiety because the respondents are queried about various aspects of 6
the situation" (p. 91).although this approach has the drawback that the anxiety-provoking situation may be thought of in a vary general sense (e.g. shyness), in a more restricted sense (e.g., communication apprehension) o extremely precisely (e.g., stage fright) (examples from MacIntyre and Gardner, 1991a, p.91), these authors considered that the situation-specific approach to the study of foreign or second language anxiety offers "more meaningful and consistent results" (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991a, p.92) Scovel noted that Chastain (1975) had concluded that mild amounts of anxiety could be beneficial while too much anxiety could be harmful. Scovel suggested that the mild amount anxiety which produced beneficial results could be thought of as facilitative anxiety, while overly high levels of anxiety which produced harmful results could be thought of debilitative.
Most language researchers state that a helpful type of anxiety exists; some language research shows a negative relationship between anxiety and performance. The negative kind of anxiety is something called "debilitating anxiety", because it harms learners' performance in many ways, both indirectly through worry and self-doubt and directly by reducing participation and creating obvious avoidance of the language. Harmful anxiety can be related to plummeting motivation, negative attitudes and beliefs, and language performance difficulties. Gardner and MacIntyre stated that the strongest (negative) correlation of language achievement is anxiety (1993). The relationship between language anxiety and language performance is not simple. Yong (1991) explained that sometimes language anxiety is negatively related to one skill and not another. Ganschow, Sparks, Anderson, Javorsky, Skiller and Patton (1994) suggested that high anxiety might be a result of language learning problems rather than the cause.
Most researchers recommended that language anxiety was actually 'helpful' or 'facilitating' in some ways, such as keeping students alert (Scovel 1978). Facilitating anxiety, as the name implies, is thought to be a kind of anxiety that improves learning and performance, where as debilitating anxiety is related to poor learning and performance. In citing Alpert and others, MacIntyre (1995, p.92) wrote that "whereas distractions caused by self-related cognition can explain the negative effects of anxiety on cognitive activity, it has been suggested that some anxiety may actually improve performance" Language researchers hold different views about the existence or significance of helpful anxiety. Horwitz (1990) stated that anxiety is only helpful for very simple learning tasks, but not with more complicated learning such as language learning. 7
These are two real-life examples of language anxiety in the first story; S's anxiety caused him to drop out of the program and lose a prospective career in Russian, in the second story, M recognized his anxiety and did something positive about it. Unfortunately, when learners experience language anxiety, S's reaction -giving up- is more frequent than M's response. Language anxiety is fear or apprehension occurring when a learner is expected to perform in the second or foreign language (Gardner and MacIntyre 1993). This anxiety is linked directly to performing in the target language, so it is not just a general performance anxiety (Gardner and MacIntyre 1993; Horwitz, Horwitz and cope 1986). Language anxiety ranks high among factors influencing language learning, regard-less of whether the setting is informal ( learning language 'on the streets') or formal(in the language classroom). Chastain (1975) found conflicting results when investigating the correlation between language test scores and anxiety, which led him to conclude that mild anxiety, could be beneficial (cf. Kleinmann 1977). This issue of facilitating versus debilitating anxiety (Alpert & Haber 1960; Bailey 1983) may be central to research on anxiety in SLA (Scovel 1978:132) and was examined by Bailey (1983:93) through analysis of diary studies, in which the relationship between competitiveness and anxiety appeared to result in either an unsuccessful or successful self-image. In this model (figure 1, below), the successful self-image and the unsuccessful self-image subjected to facilitating anxiety enter a cycle of enhanced learning and positive (mostly internal) rewards. The unsuccessful self-image subjected to debilitative anxiety however, enters a different cycle of perceived failure, which can be broken by future facilitating anxiety (if the learner continues in the language course): o
Competitiveness and second language learner bailey 1983
There are numerous anxiety-provoking situations in the language classroom. Horwitz et al. (1986) identified three components of foreign language classroom anxiety: a.
This component refers to “a type of shyness characterized by fear of or anxiety about communicating with people” Communication apprehension is divided into four categories of trait, situational, audience based, and context-based. Trait apprehension is just that: it is a part of the person's personality, usually stemming from shyness or general quietness. In any given situation, regardless of the variables, a person with trait communication apprehension will feel uncomfortable. Situational communication apprehension arises when a person finds himself or herself in a unique set of circumstances: something that is truly novel. An example of this could be the defense of one's thesis or dissertation. Even though a person could test low on a communication apprehension scale. Audience based communication apprehension occur when one person experiences fear or nervousness when having to speak to a particular person or group of people. With this type of communication apprehension, a person could feasibly communicate without problems to his/her spouse, but not feel comfortable talking to his/her boss, co-workers, parents, in laws, or any other person or group. The last category of communication apprehension is context-based. This means that a person experiences communication apprehension every time that he/she is in a given context. This could be at meetings, within small groups, one-to-one talks, or in the classroom .
Fear of negative evaluation
The second component is fear of negative evaluation, which is broadly defined by Horwitz et al. (1986) as an apprehension about others’ evaluations, avoidance of evaluative situations, and the expectation that others will evaluate one negatively. Fear of negative evaluation is broader in scope it is not just limited to test-taking situations and the academic subject matters. Moreover, it may take place in any social, evaluative situations, such as interviewing for a job or speaking in foreign language classes. Many previous studies (Alrabai, 2014a; Linh, 2011; Na, 2007; Zhang, 2010) have experimentally identified negative attitudes toward English class as a source of FLA. There are a variety of causes of negative attitudes toward foreign language classes. Khodadady and Khajavy (2013) found that learners who lacked motivation to learn the foreign language had negative attitudes toward English class as well as English communication fear, fear of negative evaluation, and discomfort in class. In the absence of direct contact with native speakers of English in Libya, Libyan learners do not generally use English for communicative purposes but rather study it as a requirement for educational or career purposes. However, this diminishes the value of learning English in 9
Libya learners’ views, and it generates their negative attitudes toward learning this language .
Test anxiety is the third component of FLA, and it refers to "an apprehension over academic evaluation” (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1989, p. 42). This component is part of social anxiety, mostly in an evaluative condition where the students are asked to communicate in the target language. Nevertheless, test anxiety can occur in non communicative situations too. Test anxiety is 'the tendency to become alarmed about the consequences of inadequate performance on a test or other evaluation'(Sarason1984), regardless of whether the fears are realistic, students with test anxiety frequently experience cognitive interference(Sarason 1984) and have a difficult time focusing on the task at hand(Aida1994). This anxiety source is one of a very difficult learner reaction that both mental and physical elements to it. A test usually takes place during the semester or at the of the semester, many students are usually busy with their homework and other activities. The problem that faces all anxious students is often when they are not able to show or write all what they have studied for the test because they forget grammatical material which must be combined at the same time (Horwitz et al. ,1986, p. 126) According to Chaniotis and et al., test anxiety may be defined as "an individual's somatic, cognitive and behavioural response, which stimulates negative feelings about an evaluation. As negative feelings are meant an inability to think, recall information, tension, and difficulty in understanding simple test questions or direction on an examination"(201, p.201) Test can be a valuable tool for providing information that is related to several concerns in language teaching process. They can provide evidence of the results of learning and instruction, and hence feedback on the effectiveness of the teaching programs itself However, there are lots of sources of foreign language anxiety other than the previous three, for instance; Young (1991) qualified foreign language classroom anxiety to six sources' personal and interpersonal anxiety, learner beliefs about language learning, instructor beliefs about language learning, instructor-learner interactions, classroom procedures, and language testing. Moreover, Horwitz (2001) recognized that the lack of perceived teacher support is a major factor that can evoke a learner's anxiety.
According to Wilson (2006, p.93), various writings about language anxiety indicated that it is difficult to determine whether anxiety is a cause or an effect of poor language learning and achievement. She claimed that researchers who have used correlation procedures in their study of language anxiety have been unable to confirm the directionality of cause and effect. 10
Causes of anxiety can be a result of genetic and mental factors that are intertwined in a complex manner. Academic anxiety is also associated with other emotional or behavioural disorders (Smith, 2009) In order to reduce or avoid the negative influence of foreign language anxiety, it is helpful for us to explore the sources of foreign language anxiety, which can help us better explain the effects of anxiety on foreign language learning and also help English teachers find practical and effective teaching programs and strategies. Having reviewed the literature on language anxiety (Bailey, 1983) Previous research (Price, 1991; Shabani, 2012; von Wőrde, 2003; Young, 1990) has acknowledged that the language teacher is considered the key player in students’ anxiety. EFL teacher characteristics and behaviour in the Saudi context are considered major factors that evoke student anxiety (see Al-Saraj, 2013). Several studies (Oxford, 1999; Philips, 1992; Reid, 1995; Samimy, 1994; Young, 1999) noted as well that speaking activities, teachers’ unsympathetic teaching styles, pessimistic classroom experiences, learners’ incapability to comprehend, learners’ learning styles, and the learning context are all sources of learners’ anxiety in language classes. And some researchers include the absence of teacher support, lack of time personal attention, intolerance with learner errors, overcorrection of students' and thee sense of being judged by the teacher or wanting to impress the teacher. Language anxiety can be the result of some unscientific or impractical beliefs of both learners and their teachers (Oxford, 1993). Sometimes when the learners’ expectation or beliefs on foreign language learning are unrealistic, frustration and stress are inevitable and accordingly anxiety appears .
Teaching procedures is one of the major causes of FLA in the Libya's EFL context. The traditional grammar translation teaching method is frequently used, which focuses primarily on grammatical accuracy in the written rather than spoken form of the language. Some activities, particularly those that demand that students speak in front of the class, have been found to be highly anxiety provoking. The assessment procedures used in Libya EFL classes, including those that depend mostly on written tests, and the continuous evaluation and overcorrection of learners’ errors, considerably contribute to learners’ anxiety. Besides, many EFL instructors in this situation make the classroom a time for performance rather than a time for learning. The strict and formal learning environment in Libya is a fundamental factor in learner anxiety. In Libya EFL students consider classroom as a place where mistakes are observed and failures are pointed out Tanveer’s (2007) study reported that they found the language classroom extremely stressful because it was formal, their performance was constantly monitored and evaluated by their teacher and peers, and they were generally blamed for the errors they made in class. One male student said, “I get conscious, don’t want to make mistakes in the class, teacher will put this in the mind and will give grades at the end...” Who reported that speaking was perceived as the most anxiety-provoking aspect of language learning among the Saudi female university students who took part in her study. Wu (2010) 11
pointed out that one of the striking reasons for learner reticence in EFL contexts was the lack of experience in speaking English because most L2 learners communicate in their mother language outside of the classroom. Wu added that students in this environment lack confidence in their spoken English and become anxious when they need to use English as a vehicle for communication. This is true for Libyan learners of English Language because in Libya and most countries where English is spoken as a foreign language, students do not have the opportunity to practice the language in their daily time and exposure to it is least. The only place in which Libyan learners are able to practice English is at school or work, which is not the best place for practicing the language. Schools are usually anxiety-provoking contexts because in most circumstances, learners are required to perform in front of their teachers, and been put on the spot erratically, the student will be frightened of making a mistake, worry about failing exams, may have their mistakes corrected in a harsh and embarrassing way, or frequently correct the student’s poor pronunciation and may have fear of their low skills in the foreign language. These traditions raise the feelings of anxiety in learners and make it hard for them to communicate in the language class MacIntyre and Gardner (1991) stated that anxiety regarding second/foreign language learning and performance affect at least five domains: academically (high levels of FLA are associated with low levels of academic achievement in second/foreign language learning), socially (learners with higher language anxiety have the tendency to avoid interpersonal communication more often than less anxious learners), cognitively (anxiety can prevent certain information from entering a learner’s cognitive processing system, influencing both the speed and accuracy of learning), personally (language learning could become a painful experience that reduces one’s self-esteem or self-confidence as a learner), and in terms of communication output (communication may be interrupted by the “freezing-up” moments that students encounter when they feel anxious).
Anxious person overestimate how likely it is that an unpleasant event will happen. - They overestimate how bad the consequences will be if the event does happen -They underestimate their ability to cope with the anxiety and the unpleasant event. Anxiety is the belief that you cannot control your own experience how you respond to a person or situation is determined as much by patterns stored in your unconscious as it is by external controls. Empirical research has identified many features of anxious learners. Burden (2004) assumed that anxious students are often concerned about the impressions that others form of them. When these students are confronted in a classroom with a learning situation that makes them uncomfortable, they may choose to withdraw from the activity. Burden added that some learners believe they cannot perform in English and thus form negative expectations, which in turn lead to decreased effort and the avoidance of opportunities to enhance their 12
communication skills. Additionally, anxious foreign language students are generally less willing to participate in learning activities and perform worse than non-anxious students (Aida, 1994; MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991). Moreover, Price (1991) described anxious language learners as those having manifestations in class that include panic, indecision, anger, and a sense of diminished personality. The psychological construct of foreign language anxiety is multidimensional (Horwitz, 1986; Young, 1991). Ohata (2005, p. 139) argued that “language anxiety cannot be defined in a linear manner; instead, it can be better constructed as a complex psychological phenomenon influenced by many different factors.” Williams and Andrade (2008, p.184) summarized several variables possibly related to this specific type of anxiety and grouped them in two main categories: Learner variables: ability (both perceived and actual), age, attitudes, beliefs, culture, gender, learning styles, and personality variables Situational variables: course level, course organization, course activities, instructor behaviour and attitudes, and social interaction among learners Von Worde (2003) gave some examples of "physical" manifestations of anxiety in foreign language students. Some "physical" reactions were "headaches", "clammy hands, cold fingers", "shaking, sweating", "pounding heart" and "foot taping, desk drumming". Some learner's comments were: "I clamp up, I get very tense and I start balling my fists", "my stomach gets in knots", "I get all red", "I get really tired", and "I kind of turtle up and hide from the teacher" (pp. 4-5)
No teacher can guarantee that a class will be anxiety-free; however, teachers should be aware of trying to minimize the anxiety in the classroom to strengthen language learning efficiency. The most noticed signs of anxious students are: -irritability/ tiredness -absenteeism -frequent somatic complaints -decline in grades -withdrawal from peer group -use of alcohol/drugs -poor coping with everyday stress -calling home frequently/ reassurance seeking -angry outbursts/ suicidal ideation 13
As this instrument has been employed so widely ( in its original form, or translated, or adapted)and with such consistent results since it first appeared, as it has been observed to be very reliable (Horwitz1986). It's a self-report instrument, was developed by ( Horwitz, Horwitz, and Scopes (1986) specifically for the purpose of capturing this distinctive type of anxiety by measuring learners’ anxious feelings in foreign language classroom settings. As means of evaluating this particular kind of anxiety creating in the process a scale that would be used by a multitude of researchers from then on. Scovel (1978) had considered anxiety "not as a simple, unitary construct, but as a cluster of affective states, influenced by factors which are intrinsic and extrinsic to the foreign language learner" (p.134). The first study to propose an anxiety construct that was specific to the situation of language learning was Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope's (1986). These authors called this construct Foreign Language Anxiety, which they submitted was "responsible for students" negative emotional reactions to language learning" (Horwitz, 2001, p.114). As ways of measuring anxiety experienced in the language classroom were sparse at that time. They identified three components of foreign language classroom anxiety: communication apprehension, fear of negative evaluation, and test anxiety. To measure the anxiety, they designed the 33-item Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS .)(FLCAS: a five point, 33-item Likert Scale questionnaire scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) designed to assess the degree to which students feel anxious during foreign language classroom instruction) developed by Horwitz et al. (1986) Horwitz et al. (1986) noted that the 33 items in the FLCAS related to the three main sources of FLA: communication apprehension (items 1, 4, 9, 14, 15, 18, 24, 27, 29, 30, and 32), test anxiety (items 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, and 28), and fear of negative evaluation (items 2, 7, 13, 19, 23, 31, and 33). The FLCAS’s reliability was confirmed by Horwitz (1986), Other studies have also reported the reliability of the FLCAS (Aida, 1994; Cheng, Horwitz, & Schallert, 1999; Elkhafaifi, 2005; Saito, Horwitz, & Garza, 1999; Zhang, 2010).
Writing is a language skill that is essential to academic success. Since it is an active, productive skill, students learning to write in a foreign language face multiple challenges. For this group, writing requires thinking strategies that allow the individual to express him or herself competently in the other language, and is a complex activity that requires a certain level of linguistics knowledge, writing conventions, vocabulary and grammar. The complexity of writing as a task tends to heighten anxiety levels in students who are taking writing courses. This anxiety can often motivate the student or lead to discouragement, and thus may result in negative attitudes towards writing (Gere, 1987; Sharples, 1993). Most language learners at all levels believe that writing is one of the most difficult language skills to master (Kurt & Atay, 2007; Latif, 2007; MacIntyre, & Gardner, 1989, 1991; Sağlam, 1993; Shrewsbury, 1995).
A great deal of this research has focused on anxiety with respect to classroom activities such as speaking and listening, suggesting that oral classroom activities are most problematic and anxiety-provoking for foreign language learners (Horwitz et al., 1986; Steinberg and Horwitz, 1986;MacIntyre and Gardner, 1994a; Price, 1991; Mejı´as et al., 1991). In contrast, Hilleson (1996), in his diary study, observed various types of anxiety related to different skill areas. His participant's demonstrated anxiety related to not only speaking and listening but also reading and writing. Not a lot of clinical research on academic anxiety because many people just pass it off as something normal that students experience (Cunningham, 2008). When dealing with this concept one needs to deal with the following research questions: 1. How does a student with academic anxiety interact with others? 2. How does a student with academic anxiety operate in the classroom? 3. How does a teacher manage a student with academic anxiety? Speaking is anxiety-provoking in foreign language activities. MacIntyre and Gardner (1991d) propose that fear of negative evaluation is closely related to communication apprehension. When students are unsure of what they are saying, fear of negative evaluation occurs and they may doubt their ability to make a proper impression. The inability either to express oneself or to comprehend another person leads to frustration and apprehension 15
Aiping Zhaom (2008),Foreign Language Reading Anxiety: Investigating English-Speaking University Students Learning Chinese as A Foreign Language in the United States Mudasar Jehan ,Anxiety and second language learning lecturer in English University of Gujrat Pakistan Paul Reginald Byrne, II, B.A. 1997, Foreign language communication apprehension of Germans Learning English Peter Cowden Niagara University 2010, Communication and conflict: anxiety and learning. Jean T. Stephenson Wilson, Anxiety in learning English as a foreign language: its associations with student's variables, with overall proficiency, and with performance on an oral test Mei-Ling Lee Chienkuo Technology University, Taiwan, Differences in the Learning Anxieties Affecting College Freshman Students of EFL Han Luo, Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety: A Study of Chinese Language Learners Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M.B., & Cope, J. A. (1986), Foreign language classroom anxiety.
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http://www.healthyplace.com/blogs/anxiety-schmanxiety/2015/01/advantages-of-anxiety disadvantages-of-anxiety/ 18
1. I never feel quite sure of myself when I am speaking in my foreign language class. 2. I don't worry about making mistakes in language class. 3. I tremble when I know that I'm going to be called on in language class. 4. It frightens me when I don't understand what the teacher is saying in the foreign language. 5. It wouldn't bother me at all to take more foreign language classes. 6. During language class, I find myself thinking about things that have nothing to do with the course. 7. I keep thinking that the other students are better at languages than I am. 8. I am usually at ease during tests in my language class. 9. I start to panic when I have to speak without preparation in language class. 10. I worry about the consequences of failing my foreign language class. 11. I don't understand why some people get so upset over foreign language classes. 12. In language class, I can get so nervous I forget things I know. 13. It embarrasses me to volunteer answers in my language class. 14. I would not be nervous speaking the foreign language with native speakers. 15. I get upset when I don't understand what the teacher is correcting. 16. Even if I am well prepared for language class, I feel anxious about it. 17. I often feel like not going to my language class. 18. I feel confident when I speak in foreign language class. 19. I am afraid that my language teacher is ready to correct every mistake I make. 20. I can feel my heart pounding when I'm going to be called on in language class. 21. The more I study for a language test, the more confused I get. 19
22. I don't feel pressure to prepare very well for language class. 23. I always feel that the other students speak the foreign language better than I do. 24. I feel very self‐conscious about speaking the foreign language in front of other students. 25. Language class moves so quickly I worry about getting left behind. 26. I feel more tense and nervous in my language class than in my other classes. 27. I get nervous and confused when I am speaking in my language class. 28. When I'm on my way to language class, I feel very sure and relaxed. 29. I get nervous when I don't understand every word the language teacher says. 30. I feel overwhelmed by the number of rules you have to learn to speak a foreign language 31. I am afraid that the other students will laugh at me when I speak the foreign language. 32. I would probably feel comfortable around native speakers of the foreign language. 33. I get nervous when the language teacher asks questions which I haven't prepared in advance. 20