Druides rebus divinis intersunt, sacrifica The Druids are concerned with sacred things, publica ac privata procurant, religiones they attend to public and private sacrifices interpretantur: ad hos magnus numerus and they explain religious questions. A great adulescentium discendi causa concurrit, number of young men flock to them to learn magnoque hi sunt apud eos honore. nam fere and they are held in great honour among de omnibus controversiis publicis privatisque them. For they make decisions about nearly constituunt, et, si quod facinus admissum est, all public and private disputes and if any crime si caedes facta, si de hereditate, de finibus has been committed, if any murder has been controversia est, Druides rem decernunt, done, if there is a dispute about inheritance praemia poenasque constituunt. si quis aut or about boundaries the Druids decide the privatus aut publicus eorum decreto non matter and fix rewards and punishments. If stetit, sacrificiis interdicunt: haec poena apud any public or private individual has disobeyed eos est gravissima. ei quibus ita interdictum their decree, they ban them from 9sacrifices. est numero impiorum ac scelestorum This punishment is the most serious one habentur; eis omnes decedunt, aditum among them. Those who have been banned in sermonemque fugiunt, ne quid ex contagione the way are reckoned in the number of evil incommodi accipiant; neque eis petentibus ius men and criminals. Everyone avoids them and redditur neque honos ullus datur. his autem refuses to approach them or talk with them in omnibus Druidibus praeest unus, qui case they receive some harm from contact summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. hoc with them. Justice is not given to them if they mortuo, aut is qui ex reliquis excellit dignitate ask for it nor is any honour given to them. But succedit, aut, si sunt multi pares, suffragio one man is in change of all these Druids, who Druidum, nonnumquam etiam armis, de has supreme authority among them. When principatu contendunt. disciplina eorum in this man dies either the man who stands out Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam from the rest in merit succeeds him, or if translata esse existimatur, et nunc ei, qui there are many equals, they compete for the diligentius eam rem cognoscere volunt, leadership either by vote of the Druids or plerumque in Britanniam discendi causa sometimes even with weapons. The Druids’ proficiscuntur. training is believed to have been invented in Britain and to have been brought from there to Gaul and now those who want to learn that doctrine more deeply generally set off to Britain to learn. Druides a bello abesse solent neque tributa Druids are accustomed to being exempt from una cum reliquis pendunt; militae vacationem warfare and they do not pay taxes together omniumque rerum immunitatem habent. with the rest of the Gauls. They have Tantis praemiis excitati et sua sponte multi in exemption from military service and freedom disciplinam conveniunt et a parentibus from all duties. Attracted by such great propinquisque mittuntur. magnam ibi rewards many people flock to this training numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur; itaque both of their own accord and are sent by their nonnulli viginti annos in disciplina permanent. parent and relatives. They are said to learn a neque fas esse existimant hos versus litteris great number of verses there by heart; and mandare, cum in reliquis fere rebus Graecis so, some remain in training for twenty years. litteris utantur. id mihi duabus de causis They do not think it right to entrust these instituisse videntur, quod neque in vulgum verses to writing, although in nearly all other disciplinam efferri velint, neque eos, qui things they uses Greek letters. They seem to discunt, litteris confisos minus memoriae me to have established that for two reasons: studere. in primis hoc volunt persuadere, because they do not want their doctrine to be animas non perire, sed ab allis post mortem spread amongst the common people and transire ad alios, atque hoc maxime homines because they do not want those who learn, ad virtutem excitari putant metu mortis relying on the written word, to pay less neglecto. Multa praeterea de sideribus atque attention to memory. In particular they wish eorum motu, de mundi ac terrarum to persuade the people of this: that souls do magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deorum not die but after death pass from one body to immortalium vi ac potestate disputant et another and from this belief especially they iuventuti tradunt. think that men are spurred onto courage, with fear of death disregarded. Moreover, they discuss many things about the stars and their movement, about the size of the universe and the earth, about the nature of things, about the strength and power of the immortal gods and they pass this down to the young people. natio omnis Gallorum est magnopere The entire nation of the Gauls is deeply dedita religionibus, atque ob eam causam ei, devoted to religion and because of that qui sunt affecti gravioribus morbis quique in reason those who have been affect by more proeliis periculisque versantur, aut pro serious illnesses and those who are engaged victimis homines immolant aut se in battles or dangers either sacrifice men as immolaturos esse vovent administrisque ad sacrificial victims or vow that they will ea sacrificia Druidibus utuntur, quod, nisi pro sacrifice them and they employ Druids as vita hominis reddatur hominis vita, non posse assistants for these sacrifices because they deorum immortalium numen placari think that, unless a man’s life is offered up for arbitrantur: publiceque eiusdem generis a man’s life the divine power of the immortal habent instituta sacrificia. alli simulacra gods cannot be appeased, and they have ingenti magnitudine habent, quorum membra sacrifices established publicly of this same viminibus contexta vivis hominibus complent; sort. Some have images of immense size simulacris incensis homines flamma whose limbs, woven from willow branches, circumventi pereunt. supplicia eorum qui in they fill with living men. When the images furto aut in latrocinio aut aliqua noxia sint have been set on fire, the men die engulfed in comprehensi gratiora deis immortalibus esse flames. They think that the punishment of arbitrantur; sed, cum copia eius generis those who have been caught in theft or in defecit, etiam ad innocentium supplicia robbery or in some other offense are more descendunt. pleasing to the immortal gods but when the supply of that kind of men has run out, they even stoop to the execution of innocent men. Suetonius igitur Monam insulam, incolis Therefore, Suetonius prepared to attack validam et receptaculum perfugarum, aggredi Mona, the island of Anglesey, well supplied parat: navibus pedites equites vado secuit aut with inhabitants and a haven for refugees. adnates equis transierunt. stabat pro litore The infantry crossed on boats, the cavalry diversa acies, densa armis virisque followed in the shallows or swimming next to intercursantibus feminis; quae in modum their horses. The varied battle-line was Furiarum veste ferali, crinibus deiectis faces standing on the shore, close-packed with praeferebant; Druidesque circum, preces diras armed men, with women running about sublatis ad caelum minibus funderntes between them, who in funeral clothes, in the novitiate aspectus perculerunt milites it manner of Furies, with their hair dishevelled, wuase haerentibus membris immobile corpus were brandishing torches, and round about vulnerius praeberent. deinde hortante duce et the Druids, with their hands raised to the sky, se ipsi stimulantes ne muliebre et fanatiucm pouring out terrible curses, overawed our agmen timerent, inferunt signa sternuntque soldiers by the strangeness of the sight so obvios et igni suo incolcunt. praesidium that, as if with paralysed limbs they presented posthac impositum est victis excisique sunt their unmoving bodies to wounds. Then with luci superstitionibus sacri: nam Druides cruore their general urging them on and they captivo adolere aras et hominum fibris themselves spurring themselves on not to consulere deos fas habebant. fear a column of women and fanatics, they carried the standards forward and cut down those in their way and enveloped them in their own fire. After this a garrison was imposed on the conquered men and the groves sacred to these savage superstitions were cut down; for the Druids considered it right to make offerings on the altars with the blood of captive and to consult the gods with human intestines. rex Icenorum Prautagus, divitiis diu clarus, Prasutagus, the king of the Iceni, famous for a Caesarem heredem duasque filias scripserat, long time for his wealth, had made Caesar his tali obsequio ratus et regnum et domum heir along with his two daughters, thinking suam procul iniuria futuram esse. quod contra that by such obedience both his kingdom and vertit, adeo ut regnum a centurionibus, his home would be far from harm. And this domus a servis velut capta vastarentur. iam turned out quite the opposite, to such an primum uxor eius Boudica verberata et filiae extent that his kingdom was plundered by the stupro violatae sunt: principes omnes centurions and his home by his slaves, as if it Icenorum, quasi Romani totam regionem had been captured. Now at first his wife muneri accepissent, avitis bonis exuuntur, et Boudica was beaten and his daughters were propinqui regis inter servos habebantur. qua violated by rape, all the chiefs of the Iceni, as contumelia et metu graviorum permoti, quod if the Romans had received the whole region in formam provinciae cesserant, rapiunt arma; as a gift, were deprived of their ancestral commoti sunt ad rebellionem Trinobantes et goods and the relatives of the king were qui alii, nondum servitio fracti, recipere treated among the slaves. Alarmed by this libertatem occultis coniurationibus humiliation and by fear of more serious things pepigerant. acerrimum in veteranos odium; because they had been reduced to the state qui in coloniam Camulodunum nuper deducti of a province, they took up arms; the pellebant domibus Trinobantes, exturbabant Trinobantes were roused to rebellion and agris, captivos vel servos appellabant; others, who not yet broken by slavery, vowed militesque superbiam saevitiamque to recapture their freedom through secret veteranorum incitabant similitudine vitae et conspiracies. The fiercest hatred was towards spe eiusdem licentiae. ad hoc, templum divo the veterans, who, having recently been Claudio exstructum quasi arx aeternae brought into the colony of Camulodonum, dominationis aspiciebatur, electique were driving the Trinobantes from their sacerdotes specie religionis omnes fortunas homes, expelling them from their fields and suas effundebant. nec calling them captives or slaves; and the difficile videbatur delere coloniam nullis munimentis saeptam; soldiers were encouraging the arrogance and quod ducibus nostris parum provisum erat, the violence of the veterans, owing to the cum amoenitati prius quam usui similarity in their lifestyles and in hope of the consuluissent. iam Suetonio erant quarta same freedom to misbehave. In addition to decima legio cum vexillariis vicensimae et e this the temple constructed to the divine proximis auxiliares, decem ferme milia Claudius was regarded as a citadel of eternal armatorum: contendere et acie congredi domination and the priests who had been parat. eligitque locum angustis faucibus et a chosen were pouring out all of their fortunes tergo silvis clausum; sciebat enim nihil under the pretence of religion. Nor did it hostium esse nisi in fronte, et apertam esse seem difficult to destroy a colony surrounded planitiem sine metu insidiarum. igitur by no fortifications. A fact which had been legionarii instructi sunt frequentes ordinibus, considered too little by our leaders, since they levi armatura circumstante; equites had payed attention to its pleasantness rather conglobati pro cornibus adstiterunt. at than its practicality. Now Suetonius had the Britannorum copiae passim per catervas et fourteenth legion with detachments of the turmas exultabant, tanta multitudo quanta twentieth and auxiliaries from the non alias, et animo adeo feroci ut coniuges neighbouring area, almost 10,000 armed men. quoque testes victoriae secum He prepared to hurry and join battle. And he choose a place with a narrow entrance and closed in from behind by woods; for he knew that there were no enemy except in front of him and that the plain was open with no fear of ambush therefore the legionaries were drawn up densely in their lines, with the light troops surrounding them; the cavalry stood by massed together in front of the wings. But the troops of the Britons were rushing out wildly everywhere through troops of soldiers and cavalry. Such a number as never before and with spirit so fierce that they also dragged their wives along with them as witnesses of their victory and they placed them on the wagons which they had put at the edge of the plane. traherent, plaustrisque imponerent quae ad And now at first the legion, giving no ground extremam planitiem posuerant. ac primum and defended by the narrowness of the legio gradu immota et angustiis loci defensa, location, after it had used up its weapons, postquam in appropinquantes hostes certo with accurate throws at the approaching iactu tela exhauserat, tamquam cuneo erupit. enemy charged in wedge formation. The auxiliares quoque impetum faciunt; et equites auxiliaries also made an attack and the protentis hastis perfringunt quod obvium et cavalry, with their spears stretched forth validum erat. ceteri terga praebuerunt, difficili broke through that which was in their way effugio, quia circumiecta plaustra saepserant and strong. The others turned tail but their abitus. et milites ne feminis quidem escape was difficult because the wagons parcebant, confixaque telis etiam iumenta which had been placed around them blocked corporum cumulum auxerant. eo die milites their escape routes and the soldiers spared laudem claram et parem antiquis victoriis not even the women and even the baggage pepererunt: qippe sunt qui paulo minus quam animals, pierced with weapons, had increased octoginta milia Britannorum cecidisse tradant, the heap of bodies. On that day the soldiers militum quadringentis ferme interfectis nec acquired glory which was famous and equal to multo amplius vulneratis. Boudica vitam the victories of old. Indeed, there are those veneno finivit. who say that a few less that 80,000 of the Britons had fallen and that about 400 of our soldiers were killed and not many more were wounded, Boudica ended her life with poison.