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FOURTH COURSE
Developmental
Language Skills
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Grammar
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Usage
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Mechanics
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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston
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Teachers using ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE may photocopy blackline masters in
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ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE, HOLT, HRW, and the “Owl Design” are trademarks
licensed to Holt, Rinehart and Winston, registered in the United States of America
and/or other jurisdictions.
Printed in the United States of America
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Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited.
Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this
publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format.
ISBN 978-0-03-099198-1
ISBN 0-03-099198-6
1 2 3 4 5 6 018 13 12 11 10 09
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Contents
Using This Workbook ....................................................vi
Symbols for Revising and Proofreading ....................vii
Chapter 1
PARTS OF SPEECH OVERVIEW:
IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTION
Nouns..................................................................................1
Pronouns A: Personal Pronouns,
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns............................3
Pronouns B: Demonstrative
and Interrogative Pronouns ......................................5
Pronouns C: Relative Pronouns ....................................7
Pronouns D: Indefinite Pronouns..................................9
Adjectives ........................................................................11
Verbs A: Main Verbs and Helping Verbs ..................13
Verbs B: Action Verbs ....................................................15
Verbs C: Linking Verbs ..................................................17
Verbs D: Transitive Verbs and Intransitive Verbs ....19
Adverbs ............................................................................21
Prepositions......................................................................23
Conjunctions and Interjections ....................................25
Chapter 2
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
THE PARTS OF A SENTENCE:
SUBJECTS, PREDICATES, COMPLEMENTS
The Subject ......................................................................27
The Predicate ..................................................................29
Predicate Nominatives ..................................................31
Predicate Adjectives ......................................................33
Direct Objects ..................................................................35
Indirect Objects................................................................37
Classifying Sentences by Purpose ..............................39
Chapter 3
THE PHRASE:
PREPOSITIONAL,VERBAL,
AND APPOSITIVE PHRASES
Prepositional Phrases A: Adjective Phrases ..............41
Chapter 4
THE CLAUSE:
INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSES
The Adjective Clause......................................................53
The Adverb Clause ........................................................55
The Noun Clause ............................................................57
Sentence Structure A: Simple Sentences
and Compound Sentences ......................................59
Sentence Structure B: Complex Sentences
and Compound-Complex Sentences ....................61
Chapter 5
AGREEMENT:
SUBJECT AND VERB, PRONOUN AND ANTECEDENT
Agreement of Subject and Verb A:
Singular, Plural, and Compound Subjects............63
Agreement of Subject and Verb B:
Indefinite Pronouns, Don’t and Doesn’t ................65
Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent A:
Number and Gender, Compound Antecedents ..67
Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent B:
Indefinite Pronouns ..................................................69
Chapter 6
USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY:
NOMINATIVE, OBJECTIVE, AND POSSESSIVE CASE;
CLEAR REFERENCE
Case Forms of Personal Pronouns A:
The Nominative Case ..............................................71
Case Forms of Personal Pronouns B:
The Objective Case ....................................................73
Case Forms of Personal Pronouns C:
The Possessive Case ..................................................75
Special Problems in Pronoun Usage ..........................77
Clear Reference A: Ambiguous Reference ................79
Clear Reference B: General Reference ........................81
Prepositional Phrases B: Adverb Phrases ..................43
The Participle and the Participial Phrase ..................45
The Gerund and the Gerund Phrase ..........................47
The Infinitive and the Infinitive Phrase ....................49
The Appositive and the Appositive Phrase ..............51
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Contents
Chapter 7
Chapter 11
USING VERBS CORRECTLY:
PRINCIPAL PARTS,TENSE,VOICE, MOOD
The Principal Parts of Verbs A: Regular Verbs ........83
The Principal Parts of Verbs B: Irregular Verbs ........85
Lie and Lay; Sit and Set; Rise and Raise ......................87
Tense..................................................................................89
The Progressive Form ....................................................91
The Uses of the Tenses ..................................................93
Consistency of Tense......................................................95
Active and Passive Voice ..............................................97
PUNCTUATION:
END MARKS AND COMMAS
End Marks and Abbreviations ..................................127
Commas A: Items in a Series......................................129
Commas B: Compound Sentences............................131
Commas C: Nonessential Phrases and Clauses ....133
Commas D: Introductory Words, Phrases, and
Clauses ......................................................................135
Commas E: Sentence Interrupters ............................137
Chapter 8
PUNCTUATION:
SEMICOLONS AND COLONS
Semicolons ....................................................................139
Colons ............................................................................141
Chapter 9
A GLOSSARY OF USAGE:
COMMON USAGE PROBLEMS
Glossary of Usage A ....................................................105
Glossary of Usage B ....................................................107
Glossary of Usage C ....................................................109
Glossary of Usage D ....................................................111
Chapter 10
CAPITALIZATION:
STANDARD USES OF CAPITALIZATION
Capitalization A: First Words, The Pronoun I
and Interjection O, Salutation
and Closing of Letters ............................................113
Capitalization B: Proper Nouns and Proper
Adjectives, Names and Initials ............................115
Capitalization C: Geographical Names....................117
Capitalization D: Organizations, Businesses and
Business Products, Buildings ................................119
Capitalization E: Monuments, Historical Events,
Nationalities..............................................................121
Capitalization F: Religions, Transportation,
Heavenly Bodies, School Subjects........................123
Capitalization G: Titles of Persons and Creative
Works ........................................................................125
iv
Chapter 13
PUNCTUATION:
ITALICS, QUOTATION MARKS, AND ELLIPSIS POINTS
Italics ..............................................................................143
Quotation Marks A: Direct Quotations....................145
Quotation Marks B: Titles ..........................................147
Ellipsis Points ................................................................149
Chapter 14
PUNCTUATION: APOSTROPHES, HYPHENS,
DASHES, PARENTHESES, BRACKETS
Apostrophes ..................................................................151
Hyphens and Dashes ..................................................153
Parentheses and Brackets............................................155
Chapter 15
SPELLING:
IMPROVING YOUR SPELLING
Words with ie and ei ....................................................157
Prefixes and Suffixes ....................................................159
Plurals of Nouns ..........................................................161
Words Often Confused A............................................163
Words Often Confused B ............................................165
Words Often Confused C............................................167
Chapter 16
CORRECTING COMMON ERRORS:
KEY LANGUAGE SKILLS REVIEW
Common Errors Review..............................................169
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
USING MODIFIERS CORRECTLY:
FORMS, COMPARISON, AND PLACEMENT
Degrees of Comparison ................................................99
Placement of Modifiers A: Dangling Modifiers ....101
Placement of Modifiers B: Misplaced Modifiers....103
Chapter 12
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Using This Workbook
The worksheets in this workbook provide instruction, practice, and reinforcement for Elements of
Language and Language Skills Practice.
This workbook is designed to supplement Language Skills Practice by providing additional
instruction and practice to students who have not yet mastered the rules and topics covered in
Elements of Language.
You will find throughout the workbook several special features, which have been added to aid
students’ mastery of grammar, usage, and mechanics. The special features include notes,
reminders, tips, points of instruction after instructional and exercise examples, and guided practice
for the first one or two items in each exercise.
• Notes provide students with pertinent information related to the rule or topic covered on a
given worksheet.
• Reminders review grammatical terms and concepts that were covered on previous
worksheets.
• Tips provide students with tangible aids for understanding abstract concepts. These tips
include mnemonic devices, identification tests, and recognition strategies.
• Points of Instruction explain how the rule or topic applies to the instructional and exercise
examples provided.
• Guided Practice helps students with the first one or two items of each exercise by asking
questions that guide students to the correct answer.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Teacher’s Notes and an Answer Key are provided on the Teacher One Stop™ DVD-ROM with
ExamView® Test Generator.
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Symbols for Revising and Proofreading
Symbol
Example
Meaning of Symbol
Fifty-first street
Capitalize a lowercase letter.
/
Jerry’s Aunt
/
Lowercase a capital letter.
^
differ^ant
^
The capital Ohio
^
e
Change a letter.
of
^
Insert a missing word, letter,
or punctuation mark.
lake
^
beside the river
Replace a word.
Where’s the the key?
/
tr
Leave out a word, letter,
or punctuation mark.
an invisibile
/ guest
Leave out and close up.
a close friend ship
Close up space.
thier
Change the order of letters.
Avoid having too many
Transfer the circled words.
corrections of your paper
(Write tr in nearby margin.)
in the final version.
^
Begin a new paragraph.
.
Stay well .
Add a period.
^,
Of course you may be wrong.
Add a comma.
#
#
icehockey
Add a space.
:
one of the following :
Add a colon.
Maria Simmons, M.D.^
;
Add a semicolon.
^;
^,
Jim Fiorello, Ph.D.
=
a great=grandmother
^
Pauls’ car
stet
On the fifteenth of July
....
’
^
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
“Hi,” he smiled.
Add a hyphen.
Add an apostrophe.
Keep the crossed-out material.
(Write stet in nearby margin.)
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Nouns
1a. A noun names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
PERSONS Mark J. Ritson and his mother are meeting that writer.
PLACES Is Madrid in Spain?
THINGS The chess pieces spilled down the stairs.
IDEAS Should freedom be valued over duty?
Compound Nouns
A compound noun consists of two or more words that together name a person, a place, a thing,
or an idea. The parts of a compound noun may be written as one word, as separate words, or
as a hyphenated word.
ONE WORD There are grasshoppers in the greenhouse.
SEPARATE WORDS Rain clouds shaded the sun deck.
HYPHENATED WORDS That spot-check was a real eye-opener.
EXERCISE A Underline each noun in the following sentences.
Examples 1. Freedom and responsibility go together. [The words freedom and responsibility are
nouns because they name ideas.]
2. In the nursery, several newborns cried inside clear boxes on wheels. [The noun
nursery names a place, the noun newborns names people, and the nouns boxes and
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
wheels name things.]
1. My sister-in-law and my mother once studied with the professor. [Which three words name
people?]
2. Happiness often results from hard work. [Which word names an idea? Which word names a
thing?]
3. A familiar voice broke through the darkness and called to Mr. Clark.
4. Beams of light danced on the water.
5. The results surprised even the scientist on the project.
6. Behind the gates of the castle stood the well-dressed king and queen.
7. Actually, good ideas cost more than a dime.
8. The park was outside of the city near a creek.
9. The difficulty of the task did not stop the programmers.
10. Put on your life jacket, and then the boat can leave the dock.
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Common and Proper Nouns
A common noun names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas. A proper noun
names a particular person, place, thing, or idea. Generally, common nouns are not capitalized;
proper nouns are capitalized.
COMMON NOUNS My sister is meeting the governor in town. [Sister and governor could refer
to any one of a group of people. Town could refer to any town. Each
noun in this sentence is a common noun.]
PROPER NOUNS Paula is meeting Governor Hoover in Los Angeles. [Paula and Governor
Hoover name specific people, and Los Angeles names a specific place.
Each noun in this sentence is a proper noun.]
EXERCISE B Underline each noun in the following sentences. Draw a second line under each proper noun.
Examples 1. Has Julie read the book called The Phantom Tollbooth yet? [Julie is a proper noun
because it names a specific person. Book is a noun because it names a thing, and it is a
common noun because the word book could refer to any book. The compound noun
The Phantom Tollbooth names a specific book, so it is a proper noun.]
2. My home is in the Napa Valley of California. [Home is a common noun because it
names an unspecified place. Napa Valley and California are proper nouns because they
name specific places.]
11. What are the first few words of “The Star-Spangled Banner”? [Which word names a type of
12. Meet the team at Cornerstone Grill on Saturday. [Which word names a thing? Which word
names a specific place? Which word names a specific time?]
13. China exports large quantities of goods to the United States.
14. The invention of the automobile made possible a new way of life.
15. The reporter from KZZZ held the microphone close to the man.
16. Jesse enjoys reading books about chemistry and physics.
17. Did Mayor Turner give a reason for her decision?
18. Dr. Hans Parker will speak at the conference in the morning.
19. Was Mrs. Malone really at the White House last winter, Mary?
20. My mom and Carla have become good friends.
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thing? Which compound noun names a specific thing?]
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Pronouns A
1b. A pronoun takes the place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
EXAMPLE Sam and she were invited, but he couldn’t attend. [She takes the place of a
specific female, and he takes the place of Sam.]
The word or word group that a pronoun stands for is called the antecedent of the pronoun.
The antecedent of a pronoun is not always known or stated.
EXAMPLES Sam and she were invited, but he couldn’t attend. [The pronoun he takes
the place of Sam, so Sam is the antecedent.]
Sam and she were invited, but he couldn’t attend. [The female that the
pronoun she takes the place of hasn’t been named in this sentence, so the
antecedent is unknown.]
Personal Pronouns
A personal pronoun refers to the one speaking, the one spoken to, or the one spoken about.
SINGULAR
FIRST PERSON I, me, my, mine
SECOND PERSON you, your, yours
THIRD PERSON he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its
PLURAL
we, us, our, ours
you, your, yours
they, them, their, theirs
EXERCISE A Underline each personal pronoun in the following sentences. A sentence may have more
than one pronoun.
Examples 1. Yes, take it to the librarian. [The personal pronoun it replaces an object that has not
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
been named.]
2. Did the customers lose their receipts? [The personal pronoun their refers to the noun
customers.]
1. After Mr. Reed graduated from college, he entered the Peace Corps. [Which word replaces Mr.
Reed?]
2. An umbrella was found in the hallway, and it was mine. [Which word replaces an object?
Which word refers to a person not named?]
3. I hadn’t thought about the problem from his point of view.
4. The tools needed to build the bookshelf are they.
5. Teresa asked her dad about them.
6. Did Eric and you get the ice for my cooler?
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7. Give me a chance at bat.
8. It is a kind of wildlife that is common at this park.
9. For us, physics class is interesting.
10. Will she be the new manager on your shift?
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns
Reflexive and intensive pronouns take the same forms.
REFLEXIVE AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS
FIRST PERSON myself, ourselves
SECOND PERSON yourself, yourselves
THIRD PERSON himself, herself, itself, themselves
A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of a sentence and functions as a complement or as an
object of a preposition.
EXAMPLES I made a sandwich for myself. [Myself is the object of the preposition for.]
I made myself a sandwich. [Myself is a complement—the indirect object of
the verb made.]
An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent and has no grammatical function in the
sentence. In other words, an intensive pronoun is not a complement or an object. Intensive
pronouns can be removed from a sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence.
EXAMPLE I, myself, made the sandwich. [Myself could be removed without changing
EXERCISE B Complete the following sentences by filling each blank with a reflexive or intensive pronoun
that makes sense.
Example 1. Unfortunately, the table
itself
must be repaired. [Itself is the intensive pronoun
used to emphasize an object.]
11. They
must make that decision. [Which intensive pronoun can emphasize They?]
12. Yes, Dylan wrote the play all by
13. The students
will design their costumes for the play.
14. I prefer another type of career for
15. The composer
4
.
.
conducted the symphony.
Fourth Course
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
the meaning of the sentence. The pronoun myself is intensive because it
merely emphasizes I.]
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Pronouns B
Demonstrative Pronouns
A demonstrative pronoun points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. The demonstrative
pronouns are this, that, these, and those.
EXAMPLES Those are two students from Eva’s school. [Those is a demonstrative pronoun
because it points out the students.]
However, this is a better spot for our picnic blanket. [This is a demonstrative
pronoun because it points out the spot.]
Are the shirts that are hanging on these on sale? [These is a demonstrative
pronoun because it points out the objects the shirts are hanging on.]
Ricardo, that is a great plan! [That is a demonstrative pronoun because it
points out the plan.]
TIP
You can remember demonstrative pronouns by remembering what the word demonstration
means. A demonstration shows how to do something, so a demonstrative pronoun shows
or points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
EXAMPLE These are very old trees. [The speaker is probably pointing to some trees,
just as someone would do in a demonstration. The pronoun These is
demonstrative.]
EXERCISE A Underline each demonstrative pronoun in the following sentences. Some sentences have
more than one demonstrative pronoun.
Examples 1. The finest items in the auction are those. [Those is the word that points out which
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
items are meant, so it is a demonstrative pronoun.]
2. Dinner was just a little of this and a bit of that. [This and that are words that point out
which food was meant, so they are demonstrative pronouns.]
1. Please give these a catalog number. [Which ones need a catalog number?]
2. What a day this was! [Which day was meant?]
3. Would you pay fifteen dollars for these?
4. This is just one example of her brilliant use of symbolism.
5. That is an expression I’ve never heard before.
6. As soon as the second relay runner hands you that, run!
7. Deliver both these and those to Mr. Stephen’s office.
8. Will our assignments be these on the list?
9. We must make that our top priority.
10. The only cups left are those in the storeroom, and the only napkins are these.
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Interrogative Pronouns
An interrogative pronoun introduces a question. The interrogative pronouns are who, whom,
which, what, and whose.
EXAMPLES Who owns these books? [Who introduces a question, so it is an
interrogative pronoun.]
By whom was this book written? [Whom introduces a question.]
Which of these books is yours? [Which introduces a question.]
What is the book about? [What introduces a question.]
Whose are these books on my desk? [Whose introduces a question.]
TIP
To spot an interrogative pronoun, look for a question mark. If a sentence ends in a
question mark and begins with who, whom, which, what, or whose, then that pronoun is
probably an interrogative pronoun. If a sentence does not end in a question mark, then
the sentence probably does not have an interrogative pronoun.
EXAMPLES Who won the art contest? [This sentence ends in a question mark. Who is
an interrogative pronoun because it introduces the question.]
She is the girl who won the art contest. [This sentence ends in a period.
Since no question is asked, the word who is not used as an interrogative
pronoun.]
EXERCISE B Underline each interrogative pronoun in the following sentences.
Example 1. Which of these rivers is located in South America? [Which introduces a question
about rivers, so Which is an interrogative pronoun.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
11. By whom were you contacted about the petition? [Which word introduces a question about
a person?]
12. Who was the author of the book Roots?
13. What did Mr. Dolan say about the new schedule?
14. With whom are you staying on your trip to Utah?
15. What is the capital of Saudi Arabia?
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Pronouns C
Relative Pronouns
A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause. The relative pronouns are that, which, who,
whom, and whose.
EXAMPLES The clerk who is waiting on us was smiling. [Who introduces the clause who
is waiting on us, so who is a relative pronoun.]
Look! There is the dog that our neighbors lost last week. [That introduces
the clause that our neighbors lost last week, so that is a relative pronoun.]
REMINDER
A subordinate clause has a subject and a verb but does not express a complete
thought. A subordinate clause cannot stand alone, so it must be attached to a sentence.
BY ITSELF though we were seeing the movie for the first time [This word group has a
subject, we, and a verb, were seeing. The word group is incomplete by
itself, so it is a subordinate clause.]
IN A SENTENCE Though we were seeing the movie for the first time, we thought it would
become a favorite. [The subordinate clause Though we were seeing the
movie for the first time has been attached to the sentence We thought it
would become a favorite.]
EXERCISE A Circle the relative pronoun in each of the following sentences. Hint: Each subordinate clause
has been underlined for you.
Examples 1. Is your neighbor the one who attended high school in Madrid? [The word who
introduces the subordinate clause who attended high school in Madrid, so who is a relative
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
pronoun.]
2. The front yard, which had been bare, was lined with flowers. [The word which
introduces the subordinate clause which had been bare, so which is a relative pronoun.]
1. The guitar strings that you wanted are here. [Which word introduces the subordinate clause that
you wanted?]
2. Is that your friend whom you met at summer camp? [Which word begins a subordinate clause?]
3. Pistachios, which originated in Asia, are now grown in California.
4. The Cheyenne, who fought at Little Bighorn, once lived near there.
5. Anyone who signed up for drama class will be transferred to Room 215.
6. Plants that require a great deal of water are not advisable in this area.
7. Lawrence Douglas Wilder, who became the first African American governor in 1990, also ran
for president.
8. Did S. I. Hayakawa, who is an author, also serve as a senator?
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9. Salmon, which live in salt water but spawn in fresh water, flourished in the Northwest.
10. The address will be given by Art Walker, whom the class has elected as their spokesperson.
To find a relative pronoun, look for the words that, which, who, whom, and whose. If you find
one of these words in a sentence, ask yourself, “Does this pronoun connect one part of the
sentence to another?” If the answer is yes, then the word that, which, who, whom, or whose is
probably a relative pronoun.
EXAMPLES The solution that we created has worked well. [The word that connects one
part of the sentence, that we created, to another, The solution has worked
well. Therefore, that is a relative pronoun.]
That was the best spaghetti ever! [The word That does not connect one part
of a sentence to another, so That is not a relative pronoun.]
EXERCISE B Circle the relative pronoun in each of the following sentences.
Examples 1. The apples that Sandy bought were grown in Washington State. [That introduces
the subordinate clause that Sandy bought, so that is a relative pronoun.]
2. Our favorite cousin, who overslept this morning, will join us on the hike later.
[Who introduces the subordinate clause who overslept this morning, so who is a relative
pronoun.]
11. Megan enjoys the lessons that she studies in geography class. [Which word introduces a
12. People who like flowers often study each state’s official flower. [Which word introduces a
subordinate clause?]
13. My uncle, whom I visit often, lives near California’s Redwood National Park.
14. At the party, please put the food on the table that has sturdy legs.
15. New Mexico, which we call the Land of Enchantment, has some good ski hills.
16. Some of the students who went to the museum missed the dinosaur exhibit.
17. Birds covered the walkway that had been sprinkled with birdseed.
18. Leaves that koalas eat come from the eucalyptus tree.
19. All contestants whom we call up to the stage will receive a prize.
20. One scientist who studied chimpanzees is Jane Goodall.
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subordinate clause?]
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Pronouns D
Indefinite Pronouns
Most pronouns refer to certain persons, places, things, or ideas. An indefinite pronoun refers to
one or more persons, places, things, or ideas that may or may not be specifically named in a
sentence. An indefinite pronoun does not refer to a definite person, place, thing, or idea.
COMMON INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
all
anything
everybody
more
none
other
something
another
both
everyone
most
no one
several
such
any
each
everything
much
nothing
some
anybody
each other
few
neither
one
somebody
anyone
either
many
nobody
one another
someone
EXAMPLES The invitation says we can wear any of the costumes we want to the party.
[Any refers to a nonspecific kind of costume, so any is an indefinite
pronoun.]
Did someone drink the last of the milk already? [Someone does not name a
specific person, so someone is an indefinite pronoun.]
A few of the trails had paw prints in the dirt. [Few refers to the number of
trails, but since few does not name a specific number of trails, it is an
indefinite pronoun.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
TIP
You can recognize an indefinite pronoun more easily if you remember what the word
indefinite means. Indefinite means “not definite, undefined, not specific.” Whenever you
see a pronoun that does not refer to anything or anyone in particular, that pronoun is
probably an indefinite pronoun.
EXERCISE A Underline the indefinite pronoun in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. Nearly everything the actors said made the students laugh. [Everything is an
indefinite pronoun because it refers to a thing that is unspecified.]
1. On the table were several of the latest magazines. [Which word refers to an amount that isn’t
specified?]
2. Believe me, not just anyone can make deliveries! [Which word refers to a person that isn’t
specified?]
3. Neither of those rivers is as long as the Nile.
4. Please show both of these gentlemen the way to the office.
5. Of all of our applicants, only you can speak Spanish and English.
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Even though indefinite pronouns may not refer to specified persons, places, things, or
ideas, they are still used in the same ways as other pronouns. In a sentence, indefinite
pronouns can appear as subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, predicate nominatives,
or objects of prepositions.
EXAMPLES No one at the dinner table had change for a ten-dollar bill. [No one is an
indefinite pronoun used as the subject of the sentence.]
Please find someone to be your partner for the class activity. [The indefinite
pronoun someone is used as the direct object of the verb find.]
The woman on the parade’s float gave many of us key chains. [The
indefinite pronoun many is used as an indirect object explaining to
whom the key chains were given.]
Was that all? [The indefinite pronoun all is used as a predicate nominative
of the verb Was.]
Krista, you may deliver this note to either of the sisters. [The indefinite
pronoun either is used as an object of the preposition to.]
EXERCISE B Underline each indefinite pronoun in the following sentences. Hint: Some sentences have
more than one indefinite pronoun.
Example 1. That island has birds living near each of its coves. [The word each refers to an
unspecified number of coves, so it is an indefinite pronoun.]
6. Rick can make friends with just about anyone. [Which word refers to an unspecified person?]
7. The solution must be something that involves everyone in the group.
9. We can do nothing about the problem, or we can pull together and accomplish something.
10. The Ruiz twins decided to donate clothes to somebody who would need them.
EXERCISE C Fill in each blank with an indefinite pronoun that makes sense. Hint: Some items have more
than one correct answer.
Example 1.
Many
of the light bulbs were burned out, so I changed them. [Many is an indefi-
nite pronoun that tells, in a nonspecific way, how many light bulbs were burned out.]
11.
of the performers forgot a line during the show, and the director was proud of
them. [What is an indefinite pronoun that makes sense as the subject of this sentence?]
12. Did Deb find
13.
to take her place in the softball game she’ll miss next week?
who attends Jackson High School is allowed to try out for the soccer team.
14. Take a bagel or a muffin, but please do not take
15. Of the national parks on this list,
10
.
have guided tours available.
Fourth Course
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8. The meteorologist says this will be another of our rainiest weekends.
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Adjectives
1c.
An adjective modifies (or describes) a noun or a pronoun.
ADJECTIVES The first act will be a comedian. [The word first is an adjective because it
describes the noun act.]
The first one will be a comedian. [The word first is an adjective because it
describes the pronoun one.]
Adjectives tell what kind, which one, how many, or how much.
WHAT KIND interesting class [The adjective interesting tells what kind of class.]
WHICH ONE this class [The adjective this tells which class.]
HOW MANY several classes [The adjective several tells how many classes.]
HOW MUCH entire class [The adjective entire tells how much of a class.]
An adjective may appear before or after the word it describes.
BEFORE The careful technician checked the circuits. [The adjective careful appears
before technician, the word it describes.]
AFTER The technician was careful and checked the circuits. [The adjective careful
appears after technician, the word it describes.]
NOTE
The words a, an, and the are adjectives. These words are a special type of adjectives
called articles.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
EXAMPLE The class did not have a textbook. [The tells which class, and a tells which
textbook. The and a are articles.]
EXERCISE A Underline each adjective in the following sentences. Do not underline the articles a, an, or
the. Hint: Most sentences contain more than one adjective.
Examples 1. Strange and mysterious were the ancient symbols on the wall. [The words strange,
mysterious, and ancient all describe the noun symbols, so these descriptive words are
adjectives.]
2. Can you stay optimistic in the face of difficulty? [The word optimistic describes the
pronoun you, so optimistic is an adjective.]
1. Brilliant beams of bright sunlight dotted the trail. [Which word describes beams? Which word
describes sunlight?]
2. Over the years, the house had grown old and seemingly lonely. [Which two words describe the
house?]
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3. One of the fuses must be bad.
4. Don’t worry; our dog is friendly.
5. Soft lights illuminated the small stage.
6. According to the newspaper, the movie was tedious, dull, and meaningless.
7. The nubby bark of the hollow log was becoming uncomfortable.
8. In the dusty trunk, we found photographs from the 1920s.
9. Warm and clear were the waters of the Bahamas.
10. An unfamiliar melody caught the attention of the walkers.
REMINDER
A word’s part of speech depends on how it is used in a sentence. Many words that
can be used as adjectives can also function as other parts of speech.
ADJECTIVE This CD-ROM contains an encyclopedia. [This is an adjective because it
tells which CD-ROM.]
PRONOUN This is the CD-ROM that contains an encyclopedia. [This is a pronoun
because it stands for a specific thing and does not describe another word.]
ADJECTIVE Computer programs can help teach languages. [The word Computer is an
adjective because it tells what kind of programs.]
NOUN Computers can help teach languages. [The word Computers is a noun
because it names a thing.]
the. Most sentences have more than one adjective. Hint: Remember that some words that can be used
as pronouns can also be used as adjectives.
Example 1. Few students in these schools are strangers to computers. [Few is an adjective
because it tells how many students, and these is an adjective because it tells which
schools.]
11. Little sisters can be troublesome but also can be enjoyable. [Which three words describe sisters?]
12. Vegetarian cafes were experiencing a boom at that time.
13. A wooden Kenyan statue sat on a small table in the hall.
14. With a lurch, the door opened and revealed a huge space with bare walls.
15. A Cuban dancer won the competition.
12
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EXERCISE B Underline each adjective in the following sentences. Do not underline the articles a, an, or
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Verbs A
Main Verbs
1d. A verb expresses action or a state of being.
ACTION Tera bakes the family bread on Saturday. [Bakes is the action happening in
the sentence, so bakes is a verb.]
STATE OF BEING Her bread tastes delicious. [Tastes shows the bread’s state of being, so
tastes is a verb.]
Tera is the baker of the family. [Is shows Tera’s state of being, so is is a verb.]
A sentence may have more than one verb.
EXAMPLES I bake bread on Saturday and rest on Sunday. [Bake and rest are verbs
because they express action.]
I think it’s ready! [Think is a verb because it expresses action. The
contraction It’s stands for It is, so the verb is is part of the contraction.
Is is a verb because it expresses a state of being.]
EXERCISE A Underline each verb in the following sentences. Some sentences contain more than one
verb. Hint: Remember that a verb can appear in a contraction.
Examples 1. Pull down the menu, and select format. [Pull and select are the actions of the
sentence, so they are the verbs.]
2. I’m the only Spanish speaker in my family. [I’m stands for I am. The word am is a
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
verb because it shows a person’s state of being.]
1. Close the door, please. [What is the action that is happening in the sentence?]
2. Is your mother home? [Which word shows the mother’s state of being?]
3. We’re so happy about your good fortune.
4. How wonderful your new home seems!
5. Puffy, white clouds appeared in the sky above us.
6. Never talk or laugh with your mouth full.
7. Hand me those needle-nose pliers, Lucy.
8. This calculator requires AA batteries.
9. Crocodiles lounge on the muddy riverbank and watch for prey.
10. Nancy considered her alternatives and chose a course of action.
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Helping Verbs
One or more helping verbs work with a main verb to create a verb phrase. A main verb is the
word that shows action or a state of being.
VERB PHRASES The bread must have been baking long enough. [The main verb is baking.
The helping verbs are must have been. Together, these words make up the
verb phrase must have been baking.]
Will you bake bread with me? [Even though you separates the helping
verb Will and the main verb bake, Will bake is a verb phrase..]
I’ll bake bread for the family on Saturday. [The contraction I’ll stands for I
will, and the helping verb will is part of the verb phrase will bake.]
NOTE
The words not, never, and ever and the contraction –n’t are not part of verb phrases.
They are adverbs.
ADVERB Please don’t open the oven right now. [Not, which is part of the contraction
for do not, is an adverb that describes the verb phrase do open.]
EXERCISE B Underline the verb phrase in each of the following sentences. Do not underline the adverbs
not and never or the contraction –n’t. Hint:The parts of a verb phrase may be separated by other words.
Examples 1. Shouldn’t that five have been a two, Roger? [Should have been is a verb phrase. Been
is the main verb, and should and have are the helping verbs. The contraction Shouldn’t
stands for Should not, and not is an adverb.]
2. Researchers have been examining that possibility for some time. [Have been
helping verbs.]
11. Do not cross the solid white line on the road. [Which two words tell the action of this sentence?
Hint: Remember that not is an adverb and not part of a verb phrase.]
12. Will these green apples turn red? [Which two words show the state of being of the apples?]
13. Yes, sir, your order is being processed.
14. Actually, the message must have never even been sent.
15. Luke would have traveled to New York last summer.
16. Oh, I must have been thinking of Istanbul.
17. The young girl has placed all the horse figurines up on the windowsill.
18. Hasn’t the teacher approved of your science project?
19. Will you be the lead singer next year?
20. Did anything about the book surprise you?
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examining is a verb phrase. Examining is the main verb, and have and been are the
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Verbs B
Action Verbs
Some verbs are called action verbs. An action verb expresses either physical or mental activity.
Physical activity is something that a person, animal, or object can do. Mental activity is
something that people or animals can do with their minds. In other words, an action verb is a
word that tells what the subject of a sentence did, does, or will do.
PHYSICAL Players run, jump, and shoot hoops. [Run, jump, and shoot are used as
action verbs. All three of these verbs express physical activity.]
MENTAL Students study, read, or research in study hall. [Study, read, and research are
used as action verbs. All three of these verbs express mental activity.]
REMINDER
When you identify action verbs, remember to include any helping verbs. Helping
verbs are added to the main verb to help the main verb express action or a state of
being.
EXAMPLES Did you think of a solution to our problem? [Did think expresses action.
Did is a helping verb, and think is the main verb.]
That same bird has been returning to Lake Edward for years. [Has been
returning expresses action. Has and been are the helping verbs, and
returning is the main verb.]
EXERCISE A Underline the action verb in each of the following sentences. Hint: Remember to underline
any helping verbs.
Examples 1. Can you imagine such a sight? [Can imagine expresses a mental action, so it is an
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
action verb.]
2. With her dog on its leash, Keisha walked down the street. [Walked expresses a
physical action, so it is an action verb.]
1. All the bread had been baked by Friday afternoon. [Which word expresses physical action?]
2. She had dreamed of snow on the dunes. [Which word expresses mental action?]
3. Tall oak pillars supported the ceiling.
4. The mother bird fed a worm to her babies.
5. Name the principal port in Japan.
6. In a tight tuck, the Olympic gymnast flipped backward on the beam.
7. Will you call about the exhibit at the science museum?
8. A swirl of mosquitoes buzzed near Christopher’s ankles.
9. In Mrs. Burke’s neighborhood, airplanes fly overhead during the day.
10. The school principal considered our idea very seriously.
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To find action verbs in a sentence, look for words that show what is happening in the sentence.
Look at each word you’ve identified, and then ask yourself, “Does the verb show physical or
mental action?” If the answer is yes, then the verb is probably an action verb.
ACTION VERBS I looked through the telescope. [Looked is an action verb because it shows
a physical action.]
He has tasted the soup. [Has tasted is an action verb because it shows
physical action.]
Our shortstop thought quickly and threw the ball to the catcher. [Thought is
an action verb because it shows mental action. Threw is an action verb
because it shows physical action.]
EXERCISE B Underline each action verb in the following sentences. Hint: Remember to underline any
helping verbs.
Example 1. Our dog Shadow will stand perfectly still while he looks at a chipmunk. [Will stand
and looks express physical activity, so they are action verbs.]
11. Sound the alarm, Bobby! [Which word shows an action?]
12. With a deep breath, she smelled the salt water from the ocean.
13. A sailor on the deck had already sighted the mist of an island.
14. The divers felt their way along the cave wall.
15. Just taste this orange right from the tree in our own yard.
EXERCISE C Complete each of the following sentences by filling the blank with an action verb that
Example 1. The track star amazed the crowd when he
broke
the world record. [Broke
expresses a physical activity, so it is an action verb.]
16. Darla, please
the door before a bug flies in here. [What is a physical action that makes
sense in the blank?]
17. After thinking about it for three days, Thomas
18. Did the wind
loudly throughout the thunderstorm?
19. Several of the passengers cheered when the airplane
20. During the festival, hundreds of hot-air balloons
16
that he would try out for the play.
safely after the long flight.
through the sky.
Fourth Course
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
makes sense. Hint: Each item has more than one answer that could be appropriate.
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Verbs C
Linking Verbs
Some verbs are called linking verbs. A linking verb connects the subject to a word or word
group that identifies or describes the subject.
As you may remember, an action verb is a word that tells what the subject of a sentence did,
does, or will do. Some verbs are linking verbs. Instead of telling what the subject does, linking
verbs are followed by a word or words that rename or describe the subject.
COMMONLY USED LINKING VERBS
appear
seem
look
become
smell
remain
feel
sound
taste
grow
stay
turn
EXAMPLES Players must be students at this school. [Must be is a linking verb. It is
called a linking verb because it links the word students to the subject
Players. Students identifies the subject Players.]
Players stay enthusiastic. [Stay is a linking verb. It is called a linking verb
because it links the word enthusiastic to the subject Players. Enthusiastic
describes the subject Players.]
EXERCISE A Underline the linking verb in each of the following sentences. Hint: Remember to underline
any helping verbs.
Examples 1. Uncle Joe remained a chief petty officer for thirty years. [Remained links Uncle Joe to
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
a chief petty officer, so remained is a linking verb.]
2. If the spaghetti tastes too mild, add some pepper flakes. [The linking verb tastes links
spaghetti to the word that describes it, mild.]
1. Did those trigonometry problems look hard to you? [Which words link problems to a word that
describes the problems?]
2. Hey, that tune sounds familiar to me. [Which word links tune to a word that describes the tune?]
3. Diego became curious about the design of those bridges.
4. Somehow, the restaurant’s enormous freezer did not seem cold enough.
5. Wow! Some masks at the costume party looked rather festive.
6. Yes, my dear, this sushi is raw fish, rice, and seaweed.
7. Wow! That popcorn certainly smells good.
8. To the sailors, the sight of land was a relief.
9. Doesn’t this Egyptian cotton feel soft?
10. Grandmother’s noodles always taste delicious.
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Some verbs can be used as action verbs or as linking verbs. To tell the difference between
action verbs and linking verbs, look at the verb and ask yourself, “Does the verb express
physical or mental action?” If the answer is yes, then the verb is an action verb.
ACTION VERB I looked through the telescope. [In this sentence, looked expresses a
physical action that I did.]
LINKING VERB The moon looked rough. [In this sentence, looked connects the subject
moon with the adjective rough. The moon is not looking at anything, so
looked does not express physical action.]
ACTION VERB He tasted the soup. [In this sentence, tasted expresses physical action that
he did.]
LINKING VERB The soup tasted good. [In this sentence, tasted links the words soup and
good. The subject, soup, is not tasting anything, so tasted does not express
physical action.]
EXERCISE B Underline the linking verb in each of the following sentences. Hint: Remember to underline
any helping verbs.
Examples 1. Mrs. Rena remained a resident of Canada for thirty years. [Remained links Mrs. Rena
to resident, so remained is a linking verb.]
2. Flood zones can be risky places for houses. [Can be links Flood zones to places, so can
be is a linking verb.]
11. The tabletop still feels rough, even after Jenna sanded it. [Is the tabletop actually feeling
link Jenna to it?]
12. After the storm, the lake finally looked calm. [Is the lake actually looking at something, or does
looked link lake to calm?]
13. Does this van appear new to you?
14. Public discussions about plans for the new highway will be controversial.
15. Armadillos can sound loud when they move through brush.
16. A famous painting can seem more impressive when viewed from up close.
17. Most two-year-olds are happier after they’ve taken their daily nap.
18. Make sure the tennis racket feels right before you buy it.
19. Hey, the piano sounds out of tune.
20. What will you have become ten years from now?
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something, or does feels link tabletop to rough? Did Jenna actually sand something, or does sanded
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Verbs D
Transitive Verbs and Intransitive Verbs
A transitive verb has an object—a word that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.
An object may be a noun or a pronoun.
EXAMPLES Bake these potatoes at four hundred degrees. [The object of the transitive
verb Bake is the noun potatoes.]
When the package arrived, Steven opened it eagerly. [The object of opened
is the pronoun it.]
An intransitive verb does not have an object.
EXAMPLES Janet walked carefully across the rope bridge. [The verb walked does not
have an object.]
This tree seems healthier. [The verb seems does not have an object.]
NOTE
In order to identify transitive and intransitive verbs, you must be able to identify the
objects of verbs—direct objects and indirect objects. The object of a verb will usually be
a noun or a pronoun. To identify the object of a verb, ask what? or whom? after the verb.
EXAMPLE Follow him. [The pronoun him is the object. Him answers the question
Follow whom? Follow has an object; therefore, follow is a transitive verb.]
EXERCISE A Underline the verb in each of the following sentences. Then, circle the object or objects of
that verb. When you are underlining verbs, remember to underline any helping verbs. Hint: Some verbs
do not have objects.
Examples 1. Surveyors measured the distance between the two points. [Measured what?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Distance. Therefore, distance is the object of the verb measured.]
2. A full moon shone down on the travelers. [Shone what? The sentence doesn’t say
that the moon shone something, so the verb shone has no object. Down is not a noun or
a pronoun, so it couldn’t possibly be an object.]
1. Did you remember the mustard and catsup? [Does something receive the action of the verb? Is
there an answer to the question,“Did you remember what?”]
2. Wow! That trash can smelled awful! [Awful is an adjective. Can an adjective be an object?]
3. Zack saw snow for the first time that night.
4. A lone cello sounded sad and mysterious in the darkness.
5. Nick hardened the special clay in the oven.
6. At the sound of the electric can opener, three cats ran into the kitchen.
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7. Mr. Zolas drives a van with a purple pinstripe.
8. That beagle can smell even the faintest scents.
9. Last Saturday, we made an overseas call to Bianca.
10. Would you please forward my mail?
TIP
Think of the words that share the prefix trans–: transportation, transit, transaction,
transformation. These words all refer to some kind of movement from one thing or place to
another. Likewise, a transitive verb transmits action from a subject to an object. An
intransitive verb may express action, but it does not transmit action. (Remember, the same
verb may be transitive in one sentence and intransitive in another.)
TRANSITIVE VERB We ate potatoes. [This verb has an object—potatoes. It is transitive.]
INTRANSITIVE VERB We ate early. [This verb has no objects. It is intransitive.]
EXERCISE B Identify each underlined verb in the following sentences by writing T for transitive or I for
intransitive on the lines provided. Hint:Transitive verbs have objects, and intransitive verbs do not.
Examples
T
1. Ask her the question on your mind. [Her and question are objects of the
verb ask.]
I
2. They were asking for donations for the new bleachers. [Only prepositional
phrases follow this verb. Were asking has no object.]
11. A woman with a scarf over her head lit the candles. [Lit what? Candles. Candles is the
12. What a wonderful surprise this is! [Is expresses a state of being. Is has no object.]
13. Have you ever seen a dolphin up close?
14. The turtle was moving very slowly.
15. Get the hose from the shed, please.
16. From a rooftop perch, a tabby cat presided over the market’s activities.
17. What are the differences between fraternal and identical twins?
18. Sandpaper comes in several degrees of roughness.
19. Tell him about the change in plans.
20. In the last stall on the right was Mrs. Cho’s favorite horse.
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object of the verb lit.]
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Adverbs
1e. An adverb modifies (or describes) a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
EXAMPLE They talked today. [Today is an adverb because it describes the verb
talked.]
An adverb tells how, when, where, or to what extent (how much, how long, or how often).
HOW They talked excitedly. [Excitedly is an adverb that tells how they talked.]
HOW LONG They talked briefly. [Briefly is an adverb that tells how long they talked.]
HOW OFTEN They frequently talk. [Frequently is an adverb that tells how often they
talk.]
TIP
Many adverbs that tell how end in the letters –ly.
EXAMPLE In a hurry, the family quickly ate their soup. [Quickly is an adverb that tells
how the family ate.]
EXERCISE A Underline the adverb in each of the following sentences. Hint: Each of the following
sentences contains an adverb that describes a verb.
Example 1. The geese flew noisily over the lake. [Noisily is an adverb that tells how the geese flew.
Flew is a verb.]
1. Proudly, he took the crown in his own hands. [Which word tells how something was done?]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
2. The lawn mower stopped working yesterday.
3. Bald eagles are rarely sighted in this area.
4. Six people around the table were staring intently at some graphs.
5. You may begin the test now.
An adverb can describe an adjective.
EXAMPLE That blue jacket is surprisingly inexpensive. [Surprisingly is an adverb that
describes the adjective inexpensive.]
EXERCISE B Underline the adverb in each of the following sentences. Hint: Each of the following
sentences contains an adverb that describes an adjective.
Example 1. That was quite kind of you, ma’am. [The adverb quite describes the adjective kind.]
6. Everyone, please be especially quiet when we enter the museum. [Which word describes the
adjective quiet?]
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7. Our proposal, sir, met with an exceptionally good response.
8. Extremely dangerous, this mountain range has claimed many lives.
9. The most organized applicant will get this job.
10. An especially colorful garden would improve our yard.
An adverb can describe another adverb.
EXAMPLE Quite often, they talk. [Often is an adverb that describes the verb talk.
Quite is an adverb that describes another adverb, often.]
NOTE
A contraction can contain an adverb.
EXAMPLE They don’t talk. [Don’t stands for do not. Since not is an adverb describing
the verb do talk, the contraction contains an adverb.]
EXERCISE C Underline each adverb in the following sentences. Each sentence contains more than one
adverb. Hint:The following sentences contain adverbs that describe verbs and other adverbs.
Example 1. Yes, Stanton has always arrived rather promptly. [The adverbs always and promptly
describe the verb has arrived. The adverb rather describes the adverb promptly.]
11. Can you believe we’re almost there, kids? [Which word describes the verb are in the contraction
we’re? Which word describes the adverb there?]
12. Handle these slides more carefully in the future.
14. The children danced rather merrily during the folk festival.
15. Must you play those drums consistently loudly?
EXERCISE D Underline each adverb in the following sentences. Then, draw an arrow to the word that
each adverb describes.
Example 1. Yes, the Lakota Sioux once camped here. [The adverbs once and here describe the verb
camped.]
16. The twins watched the stranger curiously. [Which word tells how something was done?]
17. Traffic is usually light at this time of day.
18. She takes her art very seriously.
19. Play with the dog outside.
20. Would you explain the math formula again?
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13. Miss Turner is frequently away on business.
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Prepositions
1f.
A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun, called the object of
the preposition, to another word.
Memorizing several of the prepositions is a good way to help you know them when you see
them.
COMMONLY USED PREPOSITIONS
above
by
in spite of
according to
for
of
at
from
on
before
in
to
below
in addition to
until
Prepositions show relationships between words.
EXAMPLES She arrived before lunch. [The preposition before shows the relationship
between arrived and lunch.]
She arrived during lunch. [The preposition during shows the relationship
between arrived and lunch.]
Please get ready for dinner. [The preposition for shows the relationship
between ready and dinner.]
Did you write a letter to her? [The preposition to shows the relationship
between write and her.]
Everyone except her was there. [The preposition except shows the
relationship between everyone and her.]
EXERCISE A Underline the preposition in each of the following sentences. Remember to underline all
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
parts of a compound preposition.
Examples 1. Without goggles, the welder could damage his eyes. [The preposition Without shows
a relationship between goggles and could damage.]
2. Their ball rolled in front of the house. [The compound preposition in front of shows
the relationship between rolled and house.]
1. A bicycle with five speeds would be best. [What word relates bicycle to speeds?]
2. Can that gecko jump over the stone, Richard? [What word shows what can jump has to do with
stone?]
3. The store across the street sells art supplies and hardware.
4. The winner will be the person with the lowest score.
5. During the performance, no one will be admitted.
6. A moray eel was hiding among the rocks.
7. Palm trees, in addition to native flowers, were planted.
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8. Wait until dark.
9. In spite of countless obstacles, Wilma Rudolph triumphed.
10. Weren’t some of the slides usable?
Changing the preposition can change the relationship between words.
EXAMPLES He was sitting behind the table. [The preposition behind shows the
relationship between table and sitting.]
He was sitting beside the table. [The preposition beside changes the
relationship between table and sitting.]
He was sitting in front of the table. [The preposition in front of changes the
relationship between table and sitting again.]
NOTE
A word’s part of speech depends on how the word is used in a sentence. Words that can
be used as prepositions can also be used as other parts of speech.
PREPOSITION I had never seen an ostrich before that day. [Day is the object of the
preposition before.]
ADVERB I had never seen an ostrich before. [Before has no object. Before is an adverb.]
EXERCISE B Underline the preposition in each of the following sentences. Remember that a preposition
must have an object. Adverbs do not have objects.
Examples 1. After that, Athens attained its real power. [Which word shows a relationship in time?]
2. The study of the past protects the future. [Which word expresses the relationship
11. Lisa just got a letter from Senator Lee. [Which word relates Senator Lee to letter?]
12. At that time, social changes affected Europe. [Which word specifies the relationship between
affected and that time?]
13. Wow! Your little brother runs fast for a six-year-old.
14. The shirts that have white tags go on the bottom shelf.
15. Who is the girl standing between Barbara and Jean?
16. The knight would encounter many adventures in faraway lands.
17. According to Dad, we haven’t finished our chores.
18. We were surprised because Dad sprinkled cinnamon on the carrots.
19. Mrs. Shepard took the first exit off the interstate and then turned right.
20. Just then, a red balloon floated by my window.
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between study and past?]
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Conjunctions and Interjections
Conjunctions
1g. A conjunction joins words or word groups.
Coordinating conjunctions join words or word groups that are used in the same way. The
coordinating conjunctions are and, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet.
EXAMPLES Mike and Dave have pets. [Two words are joined.]
Mike walks his dog at the park or on Main Street. [Two phrases are joined.]
Mike has a pet, but Dave doesn’t have one. [Two clauses are joined.]
EXERCISE A Underline each conjunction in the following sentences.
Example 1. The old brick road will be torn up and resurfaced with asphalt. [The conjunction and
connects the words torn and resurfaced.]
1. The power was off, so the model train didn’t move. [Which word connects the two clauses?]
2. Push the plus key but not the equals key.
3. Your role in the play is small yet important.
4. Why not put some special effects or voice-overs on your video?
5. An informal yet elegant restaurant opened at the airport.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that join words or word groups that are
used in the same way. The correlative conjunctions are both . . . and, either . . . or, neither . . . nor,
not only . . . but also, and whether . . . or.
EXAMPLES Neither pet snakes nor pet tarantulas require much work. [Two nouns are
joined.]
We can adopt a puppy either from our neighbor or from the pound. [Two
phrases are joined.]
Not only does Mike have a cat, but he also has a dog. [Two clauses are
joined.]
EXERCISE B Underline each pair of correlative conjunctions in the following sentences. Hint: Correlative
conjunctions are pairs of words that work together to introduce two alternatives.
Example 1. Tell me whether we are going to the library or my house. [The words whether and or
work together to introduce the two alternatives.]
6. Neither swamp buggies nor motorboats are allowed in this environmentally sensitive area.
[Which two words work together to connect swamp buggies and motorboats?]
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7. Both cars and speedboats will be on display at the convention center.
8. His walls were covered not only with posters but also with photographs, news clippings, and
other mementos.
9. Decide whether you’ll paint houses or plant trees, then sign the volunteer sheet.
10. She had been neither to Chicago nor out of the county.
Interjections
1h. An interjection expresses emotion. An interjection has no grammatical relation to the rest of the
sentence. In other words, an interjection is not a subject, verb, object, modifier, preposition, or
conjunction. Without the interjection, the sentence still makes sense. Common interjections
include ah, ouch, ugh, wow, oops, hey, and oh.
STRONG EMOTION Yikes! What a big spider! [Yikes is an interjection that expresses strong
emotion.]
MILD EMOTION There’s an, oh my, excessively large spider. [Oh my is an interjection that
interrupts the rest of the sentence.]
MILD EMOTION Hey, your tarantula’s loose again. [Hey is an interjection that expresses mild
emotion.]
Notice that an interjection is usually set off from the rest of the sentence by an exclamation
point or by a comma or commas. Interjections set off by commas can be easy to spot because
they interrupt the rest of the sentence.
Example 1. Ugh, this milk is sour. [Ugh is an interjection that expresses emotion.]
11. It’s, oh, about five hundred miles from here to Miami. [Which word interrupts the sentence but
expresses no meaning other than an emotional one?]
12. Ow! That was my toe under your foot.
13. Whoa! The sun is brighter than usual today.
14. The solution, well, is not that simple.
15. My, the storm uprooted a tree at Valleyview Park.
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EXERCISE C Underline each interjection in the following sentences.
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The Subject
Simple Subjects
2b. Sentences consist of two basic parts: subjects and predicates.
2c.
The main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about is called the simple
subject.
EXAMPLES The lamp on the desk needs a new light bulb. [What needs a new light
bulb? The lamp does. Lamp is the subject of the sentence.]
When will Aunt Jesse pick us up? [Who will pick us up? Aunt Jesse will.
Aunt Jesse is the subject of the sentence.]
TIP
The simple subject is never in a prepositional phrase, which consists of a preposition and
the noun or pronoun that follows it. Some common prepositions are about, among, at, for,
from, in, of, under, and with. To find the simple subject, cross out any prepositional phrases.
EXAMPLE The lamp on the desk needs a new light bulb. [Lamp is the subject, not desk.]
EXERCISE A Underline the simple subject in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. These ancient tools were recently discovered east of town. [What were discovered?
Tools were. Tools is the subject of the sentence.]
1. Earthworms have segmented bodies. [What have segmented bodies?]
2. When is Dena moving to Baltimore?
3. The pillows on the couch were handmade.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
4. Every morning, my mother works in the garden.
5. Those lanterns on the patio are very unusual.
Complete Subjects
The complete subject is made up of all the words that tell whom or what the sentence is about.
EXAMPLES The lamp on the desk needs a new light bulb. [What needs a new light
bulb? The lamp does. Lamp is the simple subject. The and on the desk
describe the lamp. The lamp on the desk is the complete subject.]
Near the fishing pier were several pelicans. [What were near the fishing
pier? Pelicans were. Pelicans is the simple subject. Several describes
pelicans. Several pelicans is the complete subject.]
NOTE
Sometimes the simple subject is also the complete subject.
EXAMPLE Saxophones are often used in jazz music. [Saxophones is the simple and the
complete subject.]
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EXERCISE B Underline the complete subject in each of the following sentences. Then, underline the
simple subject a second time. Hint: In some sentences, the simple subject and the complete subject will
be the same.
Example 1. The message light on the phone is blinking. [The sentence is about the complete
subject The message light on the phone. The simple subject is light.]
6. Will Peter audition for the leading role in Death of a Salesman? [Who is the sentence about?]
7. The recipe for Aunt Rosa’s rosemary chicken has been passed down for generations.
8. How long will the clearance sale last?
9. High in the blue sky above us flew a lone eagle.
10. A backpack with red stripes was left in the locker room.
Compound Subjects
2f.
A compound subject consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that
have the same verb.
EXAMPLES The sandals, sunscreen, and beach towels are in the canvas bag. [The parts
of the compound subject sandals, sunscreen, and towels are joined by the
conjunction and. They have the same verb, are.]
Has the veterinarian or her assistant spoken with you yet? [The parts of
the compound subject veterinarian and assistant are joined by the
conjunction or. They have the same verb, Has spoken.]
circle the conjunction.
Example 1. Alex, Nina, and I will cover that part of the project. [Who will cover that part of the
project? Alex, Nina, and I will. The parts of the compound subject Alex, Nina, and I are
joined by the conjunction and.]
11. Are you or Diego riding in the van with Mark? [Who is the sentence about? Which word
connects the parts of the compound subject?]
12. The art supplies and canvases are in the storage cabinet.
13. Has Mrs. Edwards or her husband arrived yet?
14. Butterflies and bees are attracted to these flowers.
15. A monitor, speakers, and a printer came with the computer.
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EXERCISE C Underline the parts of the compound subject in each of the following sentences. Then,
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The Predicate
Simple Predicates
2b. Sentences consist of two basic parts: subjects and predicates.
2d. The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells something about the
subject.
A verb expresses action or a state of being.
SIMPLE PREDICATES Corn grows well in our state. [Grows is the simple predicate and tells what
corn does.]
The recycling bin is under the sink. [Is is the simple predicate and tells
about the recycling bin.]
REMINDER
A simple predicate can be a one-word verb or a verb phrase.
EXAMPLES The student council meets every Wednesday. [Meets is the simple predicate
and tells what the student council does.]
Has your group completed the chemistry experiment? [Has completed is the
simple predicate and asks what your group did.]
EXERCISE A Underline the simple predicate in each of the following sentences. Be sure to underline all
parts of a verb phrase.
Example 1. The canyon walls appeared almost blue in the morning light. [The simple predicate
appeared tells about the canyon wall.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
1. Our new puppy played with its toy for hours. [What did the puppy do?]
2. The passengers were enjoying the train ride through the countryside.
3. During the weekend, we canoed on Lake Austin.
4. Have you read the review of the play in the school newspaper?
5. The police officer was directing traffic.
Complete Predicates
The complete predicate consists of the verb and all the words that modify the verb and complete
its meaning.
COMPLETE PREDICATE Corn grows well in our state. [The simple predicate is grows. The complete
predicate is grows well in our state.]
NOTE
Sometimes the simple predicate is also the complete predicate.
EXAMPLE My baby sister is sleeping. [Is sleeping is the simple predicate and the
complete predicate.]
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The predicate usually comes after the subject. Sometimes, however, part or all of the predicate
comes before the subject.
EXAMPLES Last week, the grocery store celebrated its twentieth anniversary.
Not far from our house is the community pool.
EXERCISE B Underline the complete predicate in the following sentences. Then, draw a second line
under the simple predicate. Hint:The simple predicate may be a one-word verb or a verb phrase.
Example 1. Everyone should take notes during the presentation. [Should take notes during the
presentation is the complete predicate. The simple predicate is should take.]
6. My older brother will graduate from college in two weeks. [What will my older brother do?]
7. The banana nut bread tasted wonderful.
8. Is the debate tournament this weekend?
9. After the award ceremony, a reception will be held in the cafeteria.
10. On the top shelf in the pantry is the bag of cat food.
2g. A compound verb consists of two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have
the same subject.
compound verb is finished, made, and wrote. The parts of the compound
verb are joined by the conjunction and.]
Would you clear the table and load the dishwasher? [The compound verb
is Would clear and load. The parts of the compound verb are joined by the
conjunction and.]
EXERCISE C Underline the simple predicate, or verb, in each of the following sentences. Be sure to
underline each part of a compound verb and all parts of a verb phrase.
Example 1. Did you take the ferry or walk across the bridge? [The simple predicate is the
compound verb Did take and walk.]
11. The architect reviewed the design for the new building and made a few corrections. [What did
the architect do?]
12. Each contestant will be photographed and will receive a certificate of participation.
13. Will the children’s parade start on Main Street and end on Fairview Avenue?
14. The jury discussed the case for five hours and decided in favor of the defendant.
15. Should I multiply or divide by three?
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EXAMPLES I finished the book, made a few notes, and wrote my report. [The
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Predicate Nominatives
Every sentence has a subject and a verb. Many sentences have other words that complete the
meaning of the verb. These words are called complements. Predicate nominatives are one kind
of complement.
2i(1) A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the
subject or refers to it.
A predicate nominative appears only in a sentence that has a linking verb. Common linking
verbs include is, was, will be, could have been, and has been.
EXAMPLES My favorite rose is the American Beauty. [The noun American Beauty
identifies the subject rose.]
The winner of the poetry contest is he. [The pronoun he identifies the
subject winner.]
EXERCISE A In each of the following sentences, the linking verb has been underlined for you. Circle the
predicate nominative in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. One basic military maneuver is the about-face. [About-face identifies the subject,
maneuver. About-face is the predicate nominative.]
1. The band director is a very dedicated and patient teacher. [Which word in the predicate
completes the meaning of the linking verb is and identifies the subject director?]
2. In 1989, the winner of the Newbery Medal was Joyful Noise: Poems for Two Voices.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
3. The new counselor is she.
4. One of the most mysterious archaeological sites is Machu Picchu.
5. The first female U.S. senator was Hattie Wyatt Caraway from Arkansas.
TIP
To find the predicate nominative in a question, turn the question into a statement.
QUESTION Will Mr. Acker be the construction supervisor?
S
V
PN
STATEMENT Mr. Acker will be the construction supervisor. [The word order of the
statement makes it easier to tell that supervisor is the predicate
nominative.]
EXERCISE B Underline the linking verbs in each of the following sentences. Then, circle the predicate
nominatives.
Example 1. Is Leah the president of the freshman class? [President completes the meaning of the
linking verb Is and identifies the subject Leah. President is the predicate nominative.]
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6. That sailboat is The Dancing Dolphin. [Which word is the linking verb? Which word group in the
predicate identifies the subject sailboat?]
7. Is Mount Fuji the highest mountain in Japan?
8. The first day in the new building will be Monday.
9. Was that necklace a gift from your grandmother?
10. My uncle and my grandfather were firefighters.
A linking verb may have more than one predicate nominative. Two or more predicate
nominatives of the same linking verb are called a compound predicate nominative.
EXAMPLE My favorite roses are the American Beauty and the Tropicana. [Both nouns,
American Beauty and Tropicana, identify the subject roses.]
EXERCISE C Underline the predicate nominatives in each of the following sentences. Hint: Some
predicate nominatives will be compound.
Examples 1. Is your favorite time of year autumn or summer? [Autumn and summer both identify
the subject time. Autumn and summer are both predicate nominatives.]
2. Painting is one of my hobbies. [One refers to the subject painting. One is the predicate
nominative.]
11. The person in the red car must have been she. [Which word in the predicate identifies the subject
12. My favorite musical instruments are the cello and the saxophone. [Which words in the predicate
identify the subject instruments?]
13. Have you always been a classical music fan?
14. The basketball team has been the state champion for the past two years.
15. She was the captain of the dive team and the editor of the school newspaper.
16. In the front yard, the trees are elms and oaks.
17. Was the answer on the last question True or False?
18. Our best singers are Isabel and he.
19. The winner of the dog show was a Dalmatian.
20. Will the name of the new building be Logan Hall or Logan Performing Arts Center?
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person?]
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Predicate Adjectives
2i(2) A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that modifies the subject of a
sentence or a clause.
Like a predicate nominative, a predicate adjective completes the meaning of a linking verb.
Common linking verbs include is, are, seem, appear, feel, sound, and smell.
EXAMPLES My grandmother is very kind. [The adjective kind describes the subject
grandmother and completes the meaning of the linking verb is. Kind is the
predicate adjective.]
Doesn’t dinner smell delicious? [The adjective delicious describes the
subject dinner and completes the meaning of the linking verb Does smell.
Delicious is the predicate adjective.]
REMINDER
An adjective is a word that describes a person, place, thing, or idea. An adjective
usually answers the question what kind? how many? or which one?
EXERCISE A In each of the following sentences, the linking verbs have been underlined for you. Circle
the predicate adjectives in each sentence.
Example 1. The spaghetti sauce tasted spicy. [The adjective spicy completes the meaning of the
linking verb tasted and describes the subject sauce. Spicy is the predicate adjective.]
1. Everyone was sleepy after a day at the beach. [Which word in the predicate completes the
meaning of the linking verb was and describes the subject Everyone?]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
2. The milk smells sour.
3. Did Gail seem nervous before the tryouts?
4. This morning, the bus was early.
5. The line outside the ticket office was long!
A linking verb may have more than one predicate adjective. Two or more predicate adjectives
that complete the meaning of the same linking verb are called a compound predicate adjective.
EXAMPLE How thoughtful and lovely this is! [The adjectives thoughtful and lovely
both describe the subject this and complete the meaning of the linking
verb is.]
EXERCISE B Underline the linking verbs in each of the following sentences. Then, circle the predicate
adjectives. Hint: Some predicate adjectives will be compound.
Example 1. The vase was beautiful but fragile. [The adjectives beautiful and fragile complete the
meaning of the linking verb was and describe the subject vase.]
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6. The trees along the path were tall and thick. [Which word is the linking verb? Which words in the
predicate describe the subject trees?]
7. The glow from the kerosene lantern was soft and yellow.
8. Isn’t Greg artistic and inventive?
9. How lucky you are!
10. That computer game about Egypt was difficult but fun.
NOTE
Do not mistake an adverb for a predicate adjective. Most adverbs modify a verb.
Predicate adjectives do not modify verbs. Predicate adjectives describe people, places,
things, and ideas.
ADVERB The crowd cheered loudly. [Loudly describes the verb cheered. Loudly tells
how they cheered.]
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE The crowd’s cheers were loud. [Loud completes the meaning of the linking
verb were and describes the subject cheers. Loud tells what kind of cheers.]
EXERCISE C Underline the predicate adjectives in each of the following sentences. Hint: Some sentences
may have compound predicate adjectives.
Examples 1. The kittens were playful and adorable. [The adjectives playful and adorable complete
the meaning of the linking verb were and describe the subject kittens. Playful and
adorable are the predicate adjectives.]
the linking verb is and describes the subject San Francisco. Beautiful is the predicate
adjective.]
11. The moving box was thick and strong. [Which words in the predicate describe the subject box?]
12. After a good night’s rest, I felt alert. [Which word in the predicate describes the subject I?]
13. Doesn’t the bread taste delicious?
14. How bright those neon lights are!
15. The hardwood floors in our house are beautiful.
16. During the class discussion, many students were talkative.
17. The speakers in your car sound strange.
18. How annoying that noise is!
19. The car was old and unreliable.
20. After the exercise class, I was hot and sweaty.
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2. How beautiful San Francisco is! [The adjective beautiful completes the meaning of
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Direct Objects
2j.
A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of a
verb or shows the result of the action.
A direct object answers the question whom? or what? after a verb.
V
S
V
DO
EXAMPLES Does the computer need more memory? [Does the computer need what?
Does it need memory. Memory is the direct object.]
S V DO
Leslie saw them yesterday. [Leslie saw whom? She saw them. Them is the
direct object.]
S
V
DO
Last summer, my family visited the Grand Canyon. [My family visited
what? They visited the Grand Canyon. Grand Canyon is the direct object.]
NOTE
A direct object may come before the subject and the verb.
DO S V
EXAMPLE What a wonderful job you did! [You did what? You did a wonderful job.
Job is the direct object.]
EXERCISE A In each of the following sentences, the verbs have been underlined for you. Circle the direct
objects in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. How often do you lift weights? [Lift what? Lift weights. Weights is the direct object.]
1. The book was missing five pages. [Which word answers the question The book was missing what?]
2. That frog just caught a fly.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
3. What a great bargain you got!
4. Has Janet completed the survey?
5. The strawberries stained the countertop.
TIP
Direct objects are never found in prepositional phrases.
OP
EXAMPLES Luisa was writing in her journal. [Journal is part of the prepositional
phrase in her journal. The sentence has no direct object.]
DO
Luisa was writing a short story. [Luisa was writing what? Writing a story.
Story is the direct object.]
EXERCISE B Underline the verb in each of the following sentences. Then, circle the direct object in each
of the following sentences. Be sure to underline all words in a verb phrase.
Examples 1. Describe your primary goal. [Describe what? Describe your goal. Goal is the direct
object.]
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2. Have you finished the assignment? [Have finished what? Have finished the
assignment. Assignment is the direct object.]
6. My younger sister has seen The Land Before Time several times. [Which words are verbs? Which
word group answers the question My younger sister has seen what?]
7. A large umbrella provided shade. [Which word is the verb? Which word answers the question A
large umbrella provided what?]
8. Did the bee sting you?
9. My grandmother’s dog follows her everywhere.
10. He took a picture of the Washington sky.
11. Should we unplug the computer?
12. The squirrels were gathering acorns.
13. Have you read To Kill a Mockingbird?
14. I challenged them to a rematch.
15. The man at the information desk gave me a map of the city.
An action verb may have more than one direct object. Two or more direct objects of the same
action verb are called a compound direct object.
EXERCISE C Underline the direct objects in each of the following sentences. Hint: Some sentences have
compound direct objects.
Example 1. Did you feed the dog and the cat this morning? [Did you feed what? Did you feed the
dog and cat. Dog and cat are the direct objects.]
16. We paved the patio and the garden path. [Which words answer the question We paved what?]
17. Did he call Mr. Parker and her?
18. What wonderful stories O. Henry wrote!
19. Move this desk and those boxes to the main office.
20. Have you ever taken a picture of yourself?
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EXAMPLE The winners of the contest received t-shirts and CDs.
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Indirect Objects
2k. An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that often appears in sentences containing
direct objects. An indirect object tells to whom or to what (or for whom or for what) the action of
a verb is done.
An indirect object answers the question to whom? or to what? (or for whom? or for what?) after
the verb.
V
V
IO
DO
EXAMPLES Will you paint my aunt a picture of her cat? [Paint a picture for whom? For
my aunt. Aunt is the indirect object.]
V IO DO
Please bring me a glass of water. [Bring a glass of water to whom? To me.
Me is the indirect object.]
V
IO
DO
The student council gave the Parent-Teacher Association a certificate of
appreciation. [Gave a certificate to whom? To the Parent-Teacher
Association. Parent-Teacher Association is the indirect object.]
EXERCISE A Underline the indirect objects in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. Would you lend Tom a pencil for the exam? [Lend a pencil to whom? To Tom. Tom is
the indirect object.]
1. Who gave your little brother the coloring book? [Which word answers the question Gave the
coloring book to whom?]
2. Would you sing me that song about peace?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
3. Please send us a postcard from Jamaica, Alice.
4. Can you hand your sister that wrench?
5. For a solid hour, Lamont told them funny tales about his life in Alaska.
NOTE
If the word to or for is used, the noun or pronoun following it is a part of a prepositional
phrase and cannot be an indirect object.
OP
EXAMPLES Give a test form to each student. [Student is part of the prepositional
phrase to each student. This sentence has no indirect object.]
IO
Give each student a test form. [Give a test form to whom? To each student.
Student is the indirect object.]
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EXERCISE B Underline the indirect object in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. I made my father a tool chest. [Made a tool chest for whom? For my father. Father is
the indirect object.]
6. Mr. Phan’s dog brings him the newspaper every morning.
7. Throw me the ball!
8. She had promised her nephew a gift certificate.
9. Order the department paper and pencils.
10. The mockingbird fed its chick a worm.
An action verb may have more than one indirect object. Two or more indirect objects of the
same action verb are called a compound indirect object.
EXAMPLE Give Mr. Lassiter and Ms. French copies of the test form.
EXERCISE C Underline the indirect objects in each of the following sentences. Hint: Some sentences will
have compound indirect objects.
Examples 1. Lena tells everyone that story about the phone and the parrot. [Tells the story to
whom? To everyone. Everyone is the indirect object.]
2. Bring Dr. Berry and his patient the x-rays. [Bring the x-rays to whom? To Dr. Berry and
11. The road improvements will cost the county and the state three million dollars. [Which words
answer the question will cost three million dollars for whom?]
12. The booster club made the coaches and athletes a hearty breakfast. [Which words answer the
question made a breakfast for whom?]
13. Mr. Earl taught Raul and Cindy the basics of tractor maintenance.
14. Feed the birds more bird seed.
15. Mrs. Williams paid Hank and Hillary fifty dollars for yard work!
16. Will you bring the manager today’s receipts?
17. Mr. Yen and Mrs. Childress will write me letters of recommendation.
18. Yes, my grandmother made my sister and me our very own quilts.
19. Tell the judge and jury your story, sir.
20. How often should I give my dog a bath?
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his patient. Dr. Berry and patient are the indirect objects.]
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Classifying Sentences by Purpose
2l.
Depending on its purpose, a sentence may be classified as declarative, imperative, interrogative,
or exclamatory.
(1) A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.
EXAMPLES Our team won the game. [statement]
The cat climbed the fence. [statement]
(2) An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end
with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point.
EXAMPLES Please carry the bags to the car. [request]
Shut the door as you leave. [command]
TIP
Often, when people state a strong command, they speak more loudly than when they
state a simple command or make a request. When you write, you can show this change in
volume by using an exclamation point.
EXAMPLE Don’t track mud into the house! [strong command]
NOTE
The subject of a command is always you. When you doesn’t appear in the sentence, you
is called the understood subject.
EXAMPLES (You) Please carry the bags out to the car. [request]
(You) Shut the door as you leave. [command]
(You) Don’t track mud into the house! [strong command]
The word you is the understood subject even when the person spoken to is addressed by name.
EXAMPLE Isabel, (you) please take these ballots to the principal’s office. [In this request,
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Isabel is used to get the listener’s attention. You, not Isabel, is the subject.]
EXERCISE A On the lines provided, write DEC if the sentence is declarative or IMP if the sentence is
imperative.
Examples
IMP
1. Look out! [This sentence expresses a strong command.]
DEC
2. Guppies, a West Indies variety of fish, are common pets. [This sentence
expresses a statement.]
1. The California poppy is California’s state flower. [Does the sentence express a statement
or a command?]
2. Name each of this solar system’s planets. [Does the sentence express a statement or a
command?]
3. I thought the book was better than the movie.
4. Olympic National Park is located in Washington.
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5. Ring the bell for service.
6. Watch your step!
7. The Greek poet Homer wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey.
8. Get that cat off the kitchen counter!
9. We watched the lightning light up the night sky.
10. The monarch butterfly’s migration pattern crosses North America.
(3) An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.
EXAMPLE Did our team win the game? [question]
(4) An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an
exclamation point.
EXAMPLES We won the game! [exclamation]
What a great game that was! [exclamation]
How wonderfully those guys played! [exclamation]
EXERCISE B Punctuate each of the following sentences with an appropriate end mark: a period, a
question mark, or an exclamation point. Then, on the line provided, classify each sentence by writing
DEC for declarative, IMP for imperative, INT for interrogative, or EXC for exclamatory.
Examples
IMP
1. Open the door slowly, please. [This sentence expresses a request.]
INT
2. When does the library open on Saturday? [This sentence expresses a
11. Pass the salad, please [Does the sentence express a statement or a command?]
12. Were the first Olympic Games held in Greece [Does this sentence express a question or
an exclamation?]
13. How creative you are
14. Which bus should I take to get to the airport
15. Identify each bone in the leg and foot
16. The symbol for gold is Au
17. I finally figured out the riddle
18. Where did you put my dictionary
19. Pedro won six tickets to the concert
20. The strawberry was covered with ants
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question.]
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Prepositional Phrases A
3b. A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers
of that object.
REMINDER
Prepositions are words that show the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to
another word.
SOME COMMONLY USED PREPOSITIONS
according to
before
from
of
after
below
in
since
against
along
around
beside
by
during
in front of
instead of
next to
toward
until
with
P
O
EXAMPLES Has anyone seen our suitcase with the broken handle? [Handle is the
object of the preposition with, and broken modifies handle.]
P
O
P
O
During the early morning, a train usually rumbles past the school.
[Morning is the object of the preposition During, early modifies morning,
and school is the object of the preposition past.]
P
O
P
O
According to Lillian, this book is about dogs and cats. [Lillian is the object
of the compound preposition According to, and dogs and cats form the
compound object of the preposition about.]
EXERCISE A Draw a line under the prepositional phrases in each of the following sentences. Then, draw
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
a second line under each object of a preposition. Hint: Some sentences contain more than one
prepositional phrase.
Example 1. Can I buy the outfit that’s inside the glass case next to the front door? [Case is the
object of the preposition inside, and glass is an adjective modifying case. Door is the
object of the preposition next to, and front is an adjective modifying door.]
1. According to the study, a traffic signal should be installed next to the hospital. [Have you
underlined two prepositional phrases and their objects?]
2. Set the orange cones along the edge of the field beside the track.
3. After the trip, were the beach towels covered in sand and sunscreen?
4. Electric current, during this experiment, will flow around a closed circuit.
5. Jessica is riding a blue skateboard with long, red flames painted on its top.
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Adjective Phrases
3c.
A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun is called an adjective phrase. An
adjective phrase tells what kind or which one.
EXAMPLE I read a book by Jack London. [The adjective phrase by Jack London
modifies the noun book by telling which book.]
Two or more adjective phrases may modify the same noun or pronoun, and an adjective
phrase may also modify the object of another prepositional phrase.
EXAMPLES The Call of the Wild is a story by a best-selling author about a dog’s survival.
[Both adjective phrases, by a best-selling author and about a dog’s survival,
tell which story.]
The pet dog becomes a sled dog with brutal owners from the Klondike.
[The adjective phrase with brutal owners modifies dog, and the adjective
phrase from the Klondike modifies the object of the first adjective phrase,
owners.]
EXERCISE B Draw a line under the adjective phrases in each of the following sentences. Then, circle the
noun or pronoun that each adjective phrase modifies. Hint: Some sentences contain more than one
adjective phrase.
Examples 1. This is a program with many options. [This adjective phrase tells what kind of
program.]
6. Save our neighbors some of our apples and pears. [Which word group modifies an indefinite
pronoun?]
7. The flags in the stadium fluttered as the breeze picked up. [Which word group modifies a plural
noun?]
8. Everyone except Clara and me will be there.
9. People in the audience laughed when the comedians began dancing.
10. Bring me the notepad on the counter, please.
11. Ants are amazing insects with clear divisions of labor.
12. The benches near the bus stop are usually empty.
13. It is the one with the gold label.
14. Are you sure that this is the right park on Fourth Street?
15. Mateo carefully vacuumed the edge of the carpet along the baseboards.
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2. The house on the hill has a better view. [This adjective phrase tells which house.]
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Prepositional Phrases B
3b. A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers
of that object.
REMINDER
Prepositions are words that show the relationship of a noun and pronoun to
another word.
SOME COMMONLY USED PREPOSITIONS
according to
before
from
of
after
below
in
since
against
beside
in front of
toward
along
by
instead of
until
around
during
next to
with
Adverb Phrases
3d. A prepositional phase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an adverb phrase.
Like adverbs, adverb phrases tell when, where, why, how, or to what extent about a verb, an
adverb, or an adjective.
EXAMPLES Lita reads for pleasure. [The adverb phrase for pleasure modifies the verb
reads by telling why Lita reads.]
The crew rebuilt the engine quickly under the circumstances. [The adverb
phrase under the circumstances modifies the adverb quickly by telling
under what condition the crew rebuilt the engine quickly.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Graceful in front of the setting sun, the geese flew away. [The adverb
phrase in front of the setting sun modifies the adjective Graceful by telling
where the geese were graceful.]
EXERCISE A Underline each adverb phrase in the following sentences.
Example 1. During the previews and the movie, they sat silently. [The adverb phrase During the
previews and the movie modifies the verb sat by telling when they sat.]
1. Hey, your little brother plays baseball well for a third-grader. [Which word group modifies an
adverb by telling how?]
2. Without a diagram, we knew where the battery was located.
3. Five quarters are lying in front of that grate.
4. The car is pretty dusty from that last sandstorm.
5. Why don’t you sit next to me and Yoko?
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Adverb phrases may come before or after the words they modify, and more than one adverb
phrase may modify the same word.
EXAMPLES In the morning, Miguel jogs before school. [Both adverb phrases modify
the verb jogs, but In the morning comes before the verb while before school
comes after it.]
Miguel jogs in the morning before school. [Both adverb phrases, in the
morning and before school, modify the verb jogs.]
EXERCISE B Underline the adverb phrase in each of the following sentences. Then, draw two lines under
the verb, adverb, or adjective that the adverb phrase modifies.
Examples 1. The car stopped with a screech. [The adverb phrase with a screech modifies the verb
stopped by telling how the car stopped.]
2. Before the fifth grade, didn’t Jody like broccoli? [The adverb phrase Before the fifth
grade modifies the verb did like by telling when Jody liked broccoli.]
6. The cattle wandered beyond the gate. [Have you drawn a line under the adverb phrase telling
where about a verb? Have you drawn two lines under the verb that the phrase modifies?]
7. Shouldn’t we return the toaster because of the scratch? [Have you drawn a line under the adverb
phrase telling why about a verb? Have you drawn two lines under the verb that the phrase
modifies?]
8. My little sister sits between our parents on long rides.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
9. The swim team won the second freestyle race by one-quarter second.
10. Along the pond’s edges, silvery minnows darted.
11. Under the sofa we found my library book.
12. The holiday decorations are in the storage room.
13. Calm for such a young dog, Max watched us play catch.
14. For luck, Chen kept the rusted horseshoe he found.
15. Green against the plant’s leaves, the lizard cautiously waited.
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The Participle and the Participial Phrase
The Participle
3e. A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective.
There are two kinds of participles, present participles and past participles. Present participles
end in –ing. Most past participles end in –d or –ed, although some are formed in other ways.
EXAMPLES Used furniture can be a good decorating option. [The past participle Used
modifies the noun furniture, and the present participle decorating
modifies the noun option.]
Kim’s winning attitude stems from her belief that there is no such thing as a
lost cause. [The present participle winning modifies the noun attitude,
and the past participle irregularly formed lost modifies the noun cause.]
The trained dogs should take the stage at any given moment. [The past
participle trained modifies the noun dogs, and the irregularly formed past
participle given modifies the noun moment.]
EXERCISE A Underline any participles used as adjectives in the following sentences. Hint: Sentences
may have more than one participle.
Example 1. The faded photograph reminded Ms. Caroline of her thrilling past. [The past
participle faded modifies photograph, and the present participle thrilling modifies past.]
1. The smell of baking bread filled the house. [Which word helps to describe a noun in this sentence?]
2. The hiking group rested under a blazing sun.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
3. Should we add two beaten eggs to the simmering mixture?
4. The purring cat sat lazily watching the lit candle.
5. A budding friendship may be lost over a broken promise or betrayed confidence.
The Participial Phrase
3f.
A participial phrase consists of a participle and any modifiers or complements the participle
has. The entire phrase is used as an adjective.
EXAMPLES Dr.Pandit’s lecture covering the Constitution and the Bill of Rights intrigued
Dennis. [The participle covering has a complement, the Constitution and
the Bill of Rights. The entire phrase modifies the noun lecture.]
Wondering about her ideas, Dennis asked her a few questions. [The
participle Wondering is modified by the adverb phrase about her ideas.
The participial phrase modifies the noun Dennis.]
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When placed at the beginning of a sentence, a participial phrase is followed by a comma.
[The participle Surprised is
modified by the adverb phrase by his curiosity, and the entire phrase
modifies the pronoun she.]
EXAMPLE Surprised by his curiosity,she answered him.
EXERCISE B Underline each participial phrase in the following sentences. Then, draw two lines under the
noun or pronoun that the participial phrase modifies.
Examples 1. The cat, adopted by a friendly family, had been at the shelter for more than a
month. [The past participle adopted and the prepositional phrase by a friendly family
together form a participial phrase that modifies the noun cat.]
2. Building quickly, the clouds towered overhead. [The present participle Building and
its modifier quickly form a participial phrase that modifies the noun clouds.]
6. Most courses are open to anyone registered at our school. [Have you underlined the past
participle and prepositional phrase that together form a participial phrase in this sentence? Have you
drawn two lines under the pronoun modified by the phrase?]
7. Following quietly, the wolf watched her cubs as they played. [Have you underlined the present
participle and adverb that together form a participial phrase in this sentence? Have you drawn two
lines under the noun modified by the phrase?]
9. Because of a defect, CDs bearing this imprint must be sent back to the manufacturer.
10. The newspaper received a number of letters from readers concerned about the issue.
11. Celebrated on January 6, Three Kings’ Day means presents to the children of Puerto Rico.
12. Do you know anyone acquainted with this neighborhood?
13. Beside a stream filled with salmon, the bears took up their positions.
14. Someone watching for the guest of honor’s arrival was at the door.
15. The director’s experimental version of Romeo and Juliet will be staged on a set resembling a
space station near Jupiter.
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8. Won’t the person programming the video game have to work carefully with the artists?
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The Gerund and the Gerund Phrase
The Gerund
3g. A gerund is a verb form that ends in –ing and that is used as a noun.
A gerund can be used as a subject, a predicate nominative, a direct object, an indirect object, or
an object of a preposition.
SUBJECT Dancing has always been her favorite activity.
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE Her usual pastime is dancing.
DIRECT OBJECT Doesn’t she teach dancing at a local studio?
INDIRECT OBJECT You should give dancing a try!
OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION After dancing, she likes to take a brisk walk.
NOTE
Both gerunds and present participles end in –ing. To tell them apart, decide how the
word is used in the sentence. If the word is used as a noun, it is a gerund. If the word is
used as an adjective, it is a present participle.
EXAMPLES Growing children will enjoy digging. [Growing is used as an adjective
describing children, so it is a present participle. Digging is used as a
noun telling what the children will enjoy, so it must be a gerund.]
The pacing dogs were barking at my singing. [Pacing is used as an
adjective describing dogs, so it is a present participle. Barking is part
of the verb phrase were barking, so it is used as a verb. Singing is the
object of the preposition at, so it is used as a gerund.]
EXERCISE A Underline each gerund in the following sentences.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Examples 1. Do you like dancing? [The gerund dancing functions as the direct object of the verb
Do like.]
2. Sleeping occupies a lot of Tani’s time. [The gerund Sleeping is the subject of the verb
occupies.]
1. Give baby-sitting your full attention. [Which word functions as the indirect object of the verb
Give?]
2. How easy diving looks! [Which word functions as the subject of this sentence?]
3. The field is so muddy that the halfbacks will have to really watch out for slipping.
4. Cooking has become a popular activity around our house.
5. When is Lio going to finish her exploring?
6. The helicopter’s pilot wants to continue flying.
7. On our scavenger hunt, what great scrounging we did!
8. Soon after he took up the sport, his main interest became riding.
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9. Sometimes sleeping can be good for the soul.
10. Try to take traveling less seriously.
The Gerund Phrase
3h. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any modifiers or complements the gerund has. The
entire phrase is used as a noun.
SUBJECT Searching for fossils is one of his hobbies.
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE Part of his routine on hikes is searching carefully.
DIRECT OBJECT He’s even tried searching in urban areas.
INDIRECT OBJECT He’s given searching for fossils renewed popularity.
OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION Before searching in creek beds, he packs a snakebite kit.
EXERCISE B Underline each gerund phrase in the following sentences.
Examples 1. Navigating by the stars can be an exciting activity for a mariner or pilot. [The
gerund phrase acts as the sentence’s subject.]
2. Megan started collecting stamps a long time ago. [The gerund phrase acts as the
direct object of the verb started.]
11. Training your puppy may result in a better-behaved adult dog. [Which group of words acts as
the subject of this sentence?]
acts as the object of a preposition in this sentence?]
13. Alexis is going to give listening to classical music another chance.
14. Briefly, Stacy found herself disturbed by shouting from the stands.
15. Maisie said, “I enjoyed talking to you and Mr. Wells.”
16. Running for political office can be expensive.
17. One bond between Mom and Chad has always been watching hockey games together.
18. Now the mouse seems to be giving darting across the room a try.
19. The frog outside my window enjoys croaking during the early evening.
20. Isn’t your hobby trading baseball cards?
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12. By telling a mysterious tale, the librarian kept his visitors interested. [Which group of words
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The Infinitive and the Infinitive Phrase
The Infinitive
3i.
An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives
begin with to.
NOUN To win is their ambition. [To win is the subject.]
He likes to write. [To write is the direct object.]
ADJECTIVE A few letters to mail remain in the outbox. [To mail modifies letters.]
ADVERB Her sister is coming to talk. [To talk modifies the verb is coming.]
It felt good to rest. [To rest modifies the adjective good.]
The lizard moved too quickly to catch. [To catch modifies the adverb quickly.]
Sometimes, to, which is known as the sign of the infinitive, is omitted.
EXAMPLES The players decided to wave and [to] smile.
I think I’ll help her [to] tune that engine.
EXERCISE A Underline each infinitive in the following sentences. Hint: A sentence may have more than
one infinitive.
Example 1. To prepare, follow these simple steps. [The infinitive To prepare acts as an adverb
modifying the verb follow.]
1. Before beginning the experiment, there are a number of things to consider. [Have you
underlined the infinitive that modifies a noun in this sentence?]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
2. Has it started to snow yet?
3. To win is Lily’s only goal in today’s race.
4. Carefully built to last, that old dock will be there for years to come.
5. That may have been this summer’s movie to see.
The Infinitive Phrase
3j.
An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any modifiers or complements the infinitive has.
The entire phrase can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
NOUN To drive well was one of her goals. [The infinitive To drive acts as the
subject of the sentence and is modified by the adverb well.]
Does he like to write short stories or to read them? [The infinitive to
write acts as a direct object of the verb Does like and has its own direct
object, short stories. The infinitive to read also acts as a direct object of
Does like and has its own direct object, them.]
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ADJECTIVE Bianca still has a few letters to write before noon. [To write modifies the
word letters and is modified by the prepositional phrase before noon.]
ADVERB E-mail is easy to send to friends. [To send modifies the word easy and is
modified by the prepositional phrase to friends.]
NOTE
The word to may begin either infinitive or prepositional phrases. In general, when a
noun or pronoun follows to, the word group is a prepositional phrase, and when a verb
form follows to, the word group is an infinitive.
INFINITIVE PHRASE The dog sniffed to find its toy. [To is followed by the verb form find. To
find is an infinitive used as an adverb explaining why the dog sniffed.]
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE The dog trotted to its toy. [To is followed by the object of the
prepositional phrase, toy, and the modifier of toy, its. To its toy is an
adverb phrase explaining where the dog trotted.]
EXERCISE B Underline each infinitive phrase in the following sentences. Hint: A sentence may have
more than one infinitive phrase.
Examples 1. To confirm our reservations, should we dial the number to the hotel? [The infinitive
phrase acts as an adverb explaining why we should call the number. To, in the phrase to
the hotel, is a preposition and not part of an infinitive.]
2. On the table are the papers to file before five. [The infinitive phrase includes the
prepositional phrase before five.]
6. To discover such a thing must be wonderful! [Have you underlined the infinitive and its direct
7. The alternator belt has started to whine during acceleration. [Have you underlined the infinitive
and the prepositional phrase that modifies it?]
8. I just called to say hello.
9. Do you want to play the inning or watch from the bench?
10. Was this essay written to persuade readers, to entertain them, or to describe an event?
11. The buds on these trees look ready to sprout into leaves.
12. The children laughed to see the baby goats’ antics.
13. It was easy to find the problem’s solution.
14. My aunt always tells me, “It is better to begin the journey than put it off.”
15. The water has begun to boil vigorously, so it’s time to start the spaghetti.
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object?]
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The Appositive and the Appositive Phrase
The Appositive
3k. An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or
describe it.
EXAMPLES Our teacher Mrs.Thomas was born in Guatemala. [The compound proper
noun Mrs. Thomas is an appositive identifying teacher.]
All of the research materials, newspapers, are in the kitchen. [Newspapers is
an appositive identifying the pronoun All.]
EXERCISE A Underline each appositive in the following sentences.
Examples 1. Is your research on the poet T. S. Eliot finished? [T. S. Eliot is an appositive helping to
identify which poet.]
2. The next breed, Arabian, is known for its smooth gait. [The appositive Arabian
identifies which breed.]
1. The term Elysian Fields refers to classical mythology’s blissful afterlife. [Which compound
proper noun identifies term?]
2. The movie stars’ gowns, originals, were worth a fortune. [Which word helps to identify gowns?]
3. Antonio’s friend, “Brain,” knew the answer.
4. Did the explorer Erik the Red discover Greenland?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
5. Here are our photographs from the 1950s, portraits.
6. They were practicing on lutelike instruments, sitars.
7. Has he fed his cat Gershwin its dinner?
8. The order will arrive tomorrow, Thursday, afternoon.
9. Marla goes everywhere with her friend Gene.
10. Today, we will see a film classic, The Red Balloon.
The Appositive Phrase
3l.
An appositive phrase consists of an appositive and any modifiers it has.
An appositive phrase usually follows the noun or pronoun it identifies or describes.
Sometimes, though, an appositive phrase precedes the noun or pronoun.
EXAMPLES Ms. Creech, a local storyteller, will be visiting the library on Thursday. [The
appositive phrase identifying Ms. Creech includes the article a, the
adjective local, and the noun storyteller.]
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A wonderful storyteller, Ms. Creech usually entertains dozens of listeners.
[The appositive phrase includes the article A, the adjective wonderful, and
the noun storyteller, and the phrase precedes the noun it identifies.]
Appositives and appositive phrases that are not essential to the meaning of a sentence are set
off with commas. An appositive that is essential to the meaning of the sentence, identifying
which one of two or more items, should not be set off with commas.
ESSENTIAL Dwayne’s friend Julius Tetrone is visiting this weekend. [The appositive is
essential to understanding which friend, so it is not set off with commas.]
NONESSENTIAL Julius Tetrone,one of Dwayne’s friends,is visiting this weekend. [Because
the appositive is not necessary to the meaning of the sentence, it is set
off with commas.]
EXERCISE B Underline the appositive phrase in each of the following sentences.
Examples 1. A bold painter with a fondness for color, she rocketed to fame. [The appositive
phrase precedes the pronoun it identifies and includes the article A, the noun painter, the
adjective bold, and the adjective phrase with a fondness for color.]
2. I live on Fifty-seventh Street, the greatest place in the world. [The appositive phrase
includes the article the, the noun place, the adjective greatest, and the prepositional
phrase in the world.]
11. Hiram R. Revels, the first African American senator, took Jefferson Davis’s former seat in the
12. Doesn’t Sonia Quintana, photographer for the yearbook, have a home darkroom? [What word
group identifies Sonia Quintana?]
13. The restaurant serves a daily special, a vegetable medley with ranch dip.
14. Right away, we fell in love with the house, a three-story fixer-upper with a wooden frame and
gingerbread trim.
15. The dormitory room was furnished with two chairs, both from a local flea market.
16. She was Juana Inés de la Cruz, a woman of letters and a student of science in the 1600s.
17. A gift from my grandmother, the Chinese vase is several hundred years old.
18. The arctic region from Siberia to Greenland, the longest piece of land in the world with one
language and culture, is unique.
19. The song was written by my brother, a student of Irish folk music.
20. A new perspective, a bird’s-eye view of the situation, might help.
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Senate. [What phrase helps to identify the sentence’s subject, Hiram R. Revels?]
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The Adjective Clause
4d. An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies (or describes) a noun or a pronoun.
An adjective clause tells what kind or which one.
WHAT KIND We have six puppies that are three weeks old. [The adjective clause tells
what kind of puppies. The word group acts as an adjective that describes
the noun puppies.]
WHICH ONE Will you name the one that is wagging its tail? [The boldfaced word
group tells which one. The word group acts as an adjective that describes
the pronoun one.]
An adjective clause is usually introduced by a relative pronoun, such as who, whom, whose,
which, or that. A relative pronoun relates an adjective clause to the word or word group that
the clause describes.
EXAMPLES The ad seeks a worker who can speak Spanish and English. [The adjective
clause who can speak Spanish and English describes worker. The clause tells
what kind of worker is wanted. The relative pronoun who introduces the
adjective clause.]
Hartford Kennels, which breeds setters, is nearby. [The adjective clause
which breeds setters describes the subject Hartford Kennels. The relative
pronoun which introduces the adjective clause.]
EXERCISE A Underline each adjective clause in the following sentences.
Examples 1. List the sources from which you got your information. [The word group from which
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
you got your information describes sources and tells which ones. The relative pronoun is
which. Which also serves as the object of the preposition from in the adjective clause.]
2. Put your trust only in those who have earned it. [The word group who have earned it
describes those and tells which ones. The relative pronoun is who.]
1. Draw the subject that interests you most. [This clause modifies the direct object subject and tells
what kind of subject.]
2. The candidate whom the committee chooses will get the job. [What word group tells which
candidate?]
3. Their band still needs someone who can play the guitar.
4. I’ll introduce them to the teacher who sponsors the program.
5. Yes, this is the one whose car design won an award.
6. Isn’t that the man for whom those shoes were named?
7. Green and tan are the colors that the designer suggested.
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8. Trees line the running trail that is next to Washington Lake.
9. Follow the brown signs that lead to the campground.
10. For first period, find the room to which you have been assigned.
Occasionally, the word where introduces an adjective clause.
EXAMPLE Here is the kennel where the puppies were born.
TIP
Understanding adjective clauses is easier if you understand adjectives. Adjectives describe
nouns and pronouns, and adjective clauses do exactly the same thing.
ADJECTIVES I want a friendly and playful dog. [Friendly and playful describe dog.]
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE I want a dog that is friendly and playful. [The whole adjective clause
describes dog.]
EXERCISE B Underline the adjective clause in the following sentences.
Examples 1. The scanner that the library has is also a copier. [Adjectives can tell which one. This
adjective clause tells which scanner.]
2. Did you mark the places where changes must be made? [Adjectives can tell what
kind. This adjective clause tells what kind of place.]
11. Have you met Mr. Riley, who taught my shop class last year? [Which words work as a group to
describe Mr. Riley?]
as a group to describe reasons?]
13. Did Sondra lend the book to the girl who is her lab partner?
14. Where is the carpenter whom she has hired?
15. Monterey, which features spectacular scenery, is a popular vacation spot.
16. Would you buy a pair of socks that are striped with every color of the rainbow?
17. Someone that Mr. Brown knows has an instruction manual for that program.
18. Nicole remained the captain of the basketball team, which won the championship last year.
19. The new soccer uniforms, which Sam likes better than the last ones, are dark blue.
20. Kelly is the sister of the artist of whom you spoke.
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12. For reasons that remain unknown, the king refused their simple requests. [Which words work
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The Adverb Clause
4e. An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies (or describes) a verb, an adjective, or an
adverb.
EXAMPLES Before I run, I stretch. [The adverb clause describes the verb stretch.]
To me, a run is more fun than an aerobics class. [The adverb clause
describes the adjective fun.]
I run more often than I lift weights. [The adverb clause describes the
adverb often.]
An adverb clause tells how, when, where, why, to what extent, or under what conditions. All of the
following examples have adverb clauses that describe the verb run.
HOW I run as if I were in a race.
WHEN I run a mile before breakfast is served.
WHERE I run where there are trees and grass.
WHY I run so that I can stay in shape.
TO WHAT EXTENT I run faster than I could last year.
UNDER WHAT CONDITIONS I run whether it rains or shines.
EXERCISE A Underline the adverb clause in each of the following sentences.
Examples 1. Since Mr. Hanly took over, class certainly has changed. [This adverb clause tells
when the change happened.]
2. Read Chapter 23 so that you’ll be ready for the quiz. [This adverb clause tells why
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 23 should be read.]
1. If history had been different, how would you be different? [Which part of the sentence has a
subject and a verb and tells under what conditions?]
2. Because it was in an unfamiliar place, the dog would not leave the pet carrier. [Which part of
the sentence has a subject and a verb and tells why?]
3. As Juanita prepared for the math competition, her confidence grew.
4. The orange juice container is empty, even though it had been full only yesterday.
5. Even though few people knew the poem, most understood it right away.
6. If you are tired, why don’t you take a nap?
7. I painted my room green because that’s my favorite color.
8. The mystery will remain unsolved until scientists interpret the lab results.
9. Whenever there is a crisis, Martin immediately takes charge of the situation.
10. Because the wildlife needs to be protected, no cars are allowed in the park.
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An adverb clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction. A subordinating conjunction
is a word that shows the relationship between the adverb clause and the word or words that
the clause describes. Notice how the whole meaning of the sentence changes when the
subordinating conjunction changes.
EXAMPLES I jog after it rains.
I jog when it rains.
I jog until it rains.
I jog while it rains.
I jog as soon as it rains.
I jog if it rains.
When an adverb clause introduces a sentence, the clause is followed by a comma. An adverb
clause at the end of a sentence usually does not require a comma before it.
EXAMPLES After it rains, I jog. [The adverb clause After it rains describes the verb jog.
Because the adverb clause introduces the sentence, it should be followed
by a comma.]
I jog after it rains. [Because the adverb clause after it rains comes at the
end of the sentence, it does not need a comma before it.]
EXERCISE B Underline the adverb clause in each of the following sentences. Then, circle each
subordinating conjunction.
Examples 1. Impatient because the bus was late, Lonnie paced back and forth. [The adverb
clause because the bus was late describes the adjective Impatient by telling why.]
2. If the weather is good, the sailboat race will start at noon. [This adverb clause If the
weather is good describes the verb will start by telling under what conditions.]
when the leaves turn yellow?]
12. The baby broke into smiles because her mother had walked in the room. [Why did the baby
start smiling?]
13. Although many researchers have tried, no one has duplicated the scientists’ results.
14. Because everyone else was asleep, we talked quietly.
15. Will we take a walk as soon as David puts on his shoes?
16. Whenever an important news story comes out, Marissa knows about it first.
17. The train arrived sooner than we had expected.
18. Oh, the computer has not run slowly since we installed more memory.
19. Since one table leg was too short, the table wobbled easily.
20. Unfortunately, the party was more expensive than we had expected.
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11. When the plant gets too much water, the leaves turn yellow. [Which words work together to tell
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The Noun Clause
4f.
A noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun.
A noun clause may be used as a subject, a predicate nominative, a direct object, an indirect
object, or the object of a preposition. As you might have noticed, noun clauses are used in all
the same ways that nouns are used. Below is a list of words that often introduce noun clauses,
followed by examples of how noun clauses are used.
COMMON INTRODUCTORY WORDS
how
where
whoever
that
whether
whom
what
which
whomever
whatever
whichever
whose
when
who
why
SUBJECT Who built that ancient monument is still a mystery. [The noun clause
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE
DIRECT OBJECT
INDIRECT OBJECT
OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION
Who built that ancient monument is used as the subject of the sentence.]
The winner will be whomever the judges choose. [The noun clause
whomever the judges choose is used as a predicate nominative in the
sentence.]
Do you know when the Middle Ages began? [The noun clause when
the Middle Ages began is used as a direct object in the sentence.]
Please give whatever this book suggests some consideration. [The
noun clause whatever this book suggests is used as an indirect object in
the sentence.]
I’m saving for what I want. [The noun clause what I want is used as
the object of a preposition in the sentence.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
EXERCISE A Underline the noun clause in each of the following sentences.
Examples 1. Tell us what the Dominican Republic is like, Raul. [The word group what the
Dominican Republic is like is a noun clause because it acts as the direct object of Tell.]
2. Yes, they’ll make whoever asks custom shelves. [The word group whoever asks is a
noun clause because it acts as the indirect object of will make.]
1. Did he say when the car will be ready? [Which word group is used as a direct object?]
2. What the baby needs is a warmer blanket. [Which word group is used as the subject?]
3. Can you tell which one is the original photograph?
4. Which path would lead home was the question.
5. Did Grandma get what she wanted for her birthday?
6. Each band member must remember where he or she should stand on the field.
7. Choose whichever font looks best.
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8. Actually, they wrote a book about how the discovery was made.
9. Rich natural resources are why they came to this area.
10. Tell whoever comes in the store about our special.
TIP
To recognize a noun clause, try replacing any clause with the word it. If the sentence still
makes sense, then the clause you’ve replaced is probably a noun clause.
NOUN CLAUSE What I want is my own room. [It is my own room makes sense. Therefore,
the boldfaced clause is a noun clause. The clause is the subject.]
ADVERB CLAUSE After Jane goes to college, I may get my own room. [It, I may get my own
room does not make sense. Therefore, the boldfaced clause is not a noun
clause. Instead, it is an adverb clause that describes the verb may get.]
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE I want a room that is my own. [I want a room it does not make sense.
Therefore, the boldfaced clause is not a noun clause. Instead, it is an
adjective clause that describes room.]
EXERCISE B Underline the noun clause in each of the following sentences.
Examples 1. Show us how you solved that equation. [The word group how you solved that
equation is a noun clause introduced by the word how. The clause has a subject, you, and
its verb, solved.]
2. Did Diego tell Mom that Mrs. Smith called earlier? [The word group that Mrs. Smith
called earlier is a noun clause introduced by the word that. The clause has a subject, Mrs.
11. Our first question is who will be the next editor of the school paper. [Which words act as a noun
clause that is a predicate nominative? This clause renames the subject question.]
12. The movie shows how the firefighter rescued the children. [Which words act as a noun clause?
This noun clause is the direct object of the verb shows.]
13. My mom said that this would happen.
14. So, that was what the baby wanted!
15. Are you satisfied with what you have accomplished so far?
16. Sure, these brochures are for whoever wants one.
17. The topic of our dinner conversation was whether or not Lee could go on the class trip.
18. What gift to take to the housewarming party was the question of the day.
19. They were talking about where the new railroad tracks will run.
20. Give whoever is elected the keys to the file cabinets.
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Smith, and a verb, called.]
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Sentence Structure A
The structure of a sentence is determined by the number and type of clauses it has.
4g. A sentence can be classified, depending on its structure, as simple, compound, complex, or
compound-complex.
Simple Sentences
A simple sentence contains one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.
S
V
EXAMPLES Mr. Romano designed the treehouse. [This is an independent clause
because it makes sense on its own and has a subject, Mr. Romano, and its
verb, designed.]
S
V
V
V
Mr. Romano designed the treehouse but has not built it yet. [This
independent clause makes sense on its own and has a subject, Mr.
Romano, and a compound verb, designed and has built.]
Compound Sentences
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A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clauses.
A compound sentence may be divided by a comma and a coordinating conjunction such as
and, but, for, yet, so, nor, or or. Sometimes, a semicolon separates the clauses.
S V
S V
S V
EXAMPLES He wore cowboy boots, she wore sandals, and I wore tennis shoes. [This
sentence has three independent clauses. Commas separate these clauses,
and the coordinating conjunction and signals the last independent clause.]
S V
S V
He wore cowboy boots; she wore sandals. [This sentence has two
independent clauses. A semicolon divides the clauses, so no coordinating
conjunction is needed.]
EXERCISE A Identify the structure of each of the following sentences. On the lines provided, write S for a
simple sentence or CD for a compound sentence.
Examples
S
1. Rocks and stones marked the trail and pointed the way. [This is a simple
sentence with a compound subject and a compound verb. Both subjects, rocks
and stones, have the same verbs, marked and pointed.]
CD
2. Either you will, or you won’t; there’s no in-between position. [This sentence
has three independent clauses, so it is a compound sentence.]
1. Dozens of paper cranes in all colors sat on the table, and the recycling can had only a
few sheets of colored paper in it. [How many independent clauses are in the sentence?]
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2. Do the buses or subway run near there? [How many independent clauses are in the
sentence?]
3. A string of pearls is expensive, so a knot is tied in the string between each pearl.
4. The tourists held up their binoculars, and an eagle soared above them.
5. Modern art inspires many people but confuses some others.
6. The barn is down the road a couple of miles from here.
7. This is a dress rehearsal, everybody, so do your best.
8. Will Psychology I or World Studies II be offered next semester?
9. Slowly, transfer the solution into the beaker.
10. The human eye can be fooled; just look at these optical illusions.
NOTE
Do not confuse a simple sentence with a compound subject or verb with a compound
sentence.
S
S
V
SIMPLE SENTENCE He and his friends wore cowboy boots. [This sentence has a compound
subject, He and friends, but only one verb, wore.]
S V
S
V
COMPOUND SENTENCE He wore cowboy boots, and his friends did, too. [This sentence has two
independent clauses—He wore cowboy boots and his friends did, too. Each
clause could stand alone as a complete sentence.]
into a compound sentence. Use proofreading symbols to make your changes.
, but
Example 1. Mt. Rainier is a tall mountain. It is not the tallest mountain in the world. [Both of
^
these simple sentences can become one compound sentence. A comma and the
conjunction but join these two sentences together.]
11. The soccer coach and her team practiced every day for months. They won the championship.
[How can the word so be used to join these two sentences together?]
12. Can raccoons swim? Do they not know how?
13. Our city’s Fourth of July parade was a massive project. Hundreds of floats were presented.
14. Meet the class in this room at 8:00 A.M. on Friday for the field trip. We’ll leave the building
by 8:30 A.M.
15. Wilma used to spend money quickly. Now she prefers to save it.
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EXERCISE B Use a conjunction and a comma to combine each of the following pairs of simple sentences
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Sentence Structure B
4g. A sentence can be classified, depending on its structure, as simple, compound, complex, or
compound-complex.
Complex Sentences
A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause. In
the following example, the independent clause has been underlined once, and the subordinate
clause has been underlined twice.
EXAMPLE Although Ed likes to watch movies, he usually prefers to read. [Although Ed
likes to watch movies is a subordinate clause. This clause cannot stand
alone as a sentence, but it does have a subject and its verb. He usually
prefers to read is an independent clause. This clause has a subject and its
verb, and it can stand alone as a sentence.]
EXERCISE A Underline each independent clause once and each subordinate clause twice in the sentences
that follow. Hint: All items are complex sentences.
Example 1. When the bell rang, students poured into the hallways. [Students poured into the
hallways is an independent clause because it has a subject and a verb , and it could make
sense on its own. When the bell rang is a subordinate clause because it has a subject and a
verb, but it does not make sense on its own.]
1. When the train approached the railroad crossing, the train whistle blew loudly. [Which part of
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
the sentence would not make sense on its own? Which part would make sense on its own?]
2. I will visit you every day while you are in the hospital.
3. While the electricity was out, did Carlton light some candles?
4. If the ice in the cooler melts, move the water bottles into the refrigerator.
5. Myra’s confidence grew as the third game of the tennis match progressed.
Compound-Complex Sentences
A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one
subordinate clause.
EXAMPLE Although Ed likes to watch movies, he usually prefers to read; however, he
doesn’t like to watch movies based on books. [This sentence has two
independent clauses and one subordinate clause.]
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EXERCISE B Identify each of the following sentences as complex or compound-complex. First, underline
all independent clauses once and all subordinate clauses twice. Then, write CX for complex or CD-CX for
compound-complex on each line provided.
Example CD-CX 1. When my brother went to college, I got his room, and it is great! [This
sentence has two independent clauses and one subordinate clause. It is a
compound-complex sentence.]
6. Since Aunt Chi got her convertible, she drives it every day, yet she will not put the top
down. [How many independent and subordinate clauses are in the sentence?]
7. If Ida washes the dishes this evening, Ken will dry them.
8. Because she has been saving money all year, Nina is proud of her savings account.
9. Hundreds of pigeons lived in the tower, and every one of them knew the lady who fed
them every day.
10. Eric has had little time for games since he opened his lawn business.
EXERCISE C Identify each of the following sentences as complex or compound-complex. Write CX for
complex or CD-CX for compound-complex on the line provided.
Example CD-CX 1. If you can try out for the play, I can, and I will. [This sentence is compoundcomplex because it has two independent clauses—I can and I will—and one
subordinate clause, If you can try out for the play.]
have more than one independent clause?]
12. That’s right; although this leaf may look plain, it will look much more interesting under
the microscope.
13. Because the gray fence hid the yard from public view, the children wondered who
lived in the house on the corner.
14. The tractor, which is a model from the 1940s, still runs fine.
15. The tour of downtown is interesting; my favorite stop on the tour is the street that has
several offbeat stores and restaurants.
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11. Although our neighbors have a satellite dish, we don’t have one. [Does this sentence
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Agreement of Subject and Verb A
5a. A verb should agree in number with its subject.
A word that is singular in number refers to one person, place, thing, or idea. A word that is
plural refers to more than one person, place, thing, or idea. A verb and a subject agree when
they have the same number.
Singular and Plural Subjects
Singular subjects take singular verbs, and plural subjects take plural verbs.
EXAMPLES The clock chimes every hour. [The singular verb chimes agrees with the
singular subject clock.]
Two girls in the orchestra play the oboe. [The plural verb play agrees with
the plural subject girls.]
Seven ears of corn are lying on the table. [The plural helping verb are
agrees with the plural subject ears.]
EXERCISE A Underline the verb form in parentheses that agrees in number with the subject in each of
the following sentences. Hint:The subject has been underlined for you.
Example 1. Melanie (is, are) studying cactuses in her spare time. [The singular helping verb is
agrees with the singular subject Melanie.]
1. The members of our football team (has, have) been lifting weights after school. [Is the subject of
this sentence singular or plural?]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
2. Spiders (has, have) eight legs.
3. Mississippi (lies, lie) between Louisiana and Alabama.
4. (Does, Do) this flashlight need new batteries?
5. Peaches (grows, grow) well in warmer climates.
Compound Subjects
A compound subject consists of two or more subjects that are joined by the connecting words
and, or, or nor, and that have the same verb.
EXAMPLE Carol and Jeremy take piano lessons from Mrs.Winters. [Carol and Jeremy
form a compound subject because both share the same verb, take.]
5c.
Subjects joined by and generally take a plural verb.
EXAMPLE Cheese, yogurt, and milk are all dairy products. [The parts of this
compound subject, Cheese, yogurt, and milk, are joined by and, so the
subject takes the plural verb are.]
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5d. Singular subjects joined by or or nor take a singular verb. Plural subjects joined by or or nor take
a plural verb.
EXAMPLES Either Lisa or her sister studies Italian. [The singular verb studies agrees
with the two singular subjects Lisa and sister.]
Neither the shelves nor the brackets are available. [The plural verb are
agrees with the two plural subjects, shelves and brackets.]
5e. When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the
subject nearer the verb.
EXAMPLES My parents or my grandmother has the key to the gate. [The singular
subject grandmother is nearer the verb, so the verb is singular.]
My grandmother or my parents have the key to the gate. [The plural
subject parents is nearer the verb, so the verb is plural.]
EXERCISE B Circle each part of the compound subject in each of the following sentences. Then,
underline the verb form in parentheses that agrees with the compound subject.
Examples 1. (Is, Are) the window and door closed? [The singular subjects window and door are
joined by and, so the verb form should be plural.]
2. Either Coach McGee or her assistants (was, were) expecting a phone call. [The
compound subjects are joined by or. The plural part of the compound subject, assistants,
is nearer the verb, so the verb form should be plural.]
joined by and take singular or plural verbs?]
7. Neither the box nor the drawers (contain, contains) the part we need. [Which part of the
compound subject joined by nor should the verb agree with?]
8. Jody or Monica (is, are) going to the store.
9. Lewis and Clark (was, were) famous American explorers.
10. The dog or the children (have, has) been playing with the garden hose again.
11. Either a robin or a sparrow (occupies, occupy) the nest outside my window.
12. Pasta or rice (is, are) part of Phoebe’s daily diet.
13. On scheduled evenings, the students and Ms. Soyer (gazes, gaze) at stars through
a telescope.
14. Neither rain nor heavy winds (has, have) damaged the building.
15. The trees and the stream (look, looks) peaceful in the morning sunlight.
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6. The art paper and the charcoal pencils (belong, belongs) in the cabinet. [Do compound subjects
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Agreement of Subject and Verb B
Indefinite Pronouns
5b. Some indefinite pronouns are singular; others are plural. Certain indefinite pronouns may be
either singular or plural, depending on how they are used.
The indefinite pronouns anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything,
neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something are singular.
EXAMPLE Everyone expects rain. [Everyone is singular, so it takes a singular verb.]
EXERCISE A Circle the subject in each of the following sentences. Then, underline the verb form in
parentheses that agrees with the subject.
Example 1. (Does, Do) anyone in the building know how this machine works? [Anyone is a
singular subject, so it takes the singular helping verb Does.]
1. Neither of these computers (works, work) properly. [Is the subject singular or plural?]
2. (Has, Have) everyone signed the guest book?
3. One of the cats always (scratches, scratch) the furniture.
4. Each of the fruit salads (has, have) been eaten.
5. (Does, Do) either of these CD players use batteries?
The indefinite pronouns both, few, many, and several are plural.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
EXAMPLE Both enjoy camping. [Both refers to two things, so it takes a plural verb.]
EXERCISE B Circle the subject in each of the following sentences. Then, underline the verb form in
parentheses that agrees with the subject.
Example 1. Several of the parents in our area (is, are) hosting exchange students. [The plural
subject Several should take the plural helping verb are.]
6. Many of the endangered giant pandas (live, lives) in China. [Is the subject of this sentence
singular or plural?]
7. Together, both of Ellen’s cousins (visits, visit) Maine in the fall.
8. Only a few of the onion bulbs (has, have) sprouted.
9. Due to their instincts, several (dig, digs) their own dens.
10. After the thunderstorm, both of the phones (quit, quits) working.
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The following indefinite pronouns may be either singular or plural, depending on how they
are used in a sentence: all, any, more, most, none, and some.
EXAMPLES Most of the lecture on dinosaurs was interesting. [Most refers to a single
lecture, so it takes the singular verb was.]
Most of the lectures on dinosaurs were interesting. [Most refers to more
than one lecture, so it takes the plural verb were.]
EXERCISE C Circle the subject in each of the following sentences. Then, underline the verb form in
parentheses that agrees with the subject.
Example 1. All of the containers (was, were) sealed tightly. [All refers to the plural noun containers,
so it takes the plural verb were.]
11. None of that story (sounds, sound) believable. [Does the subject of this sentence refer to a plural or
singular noun?]
12. (Has, Have) any of the buses arrived yet?
13. All of the orange (has, have) been eaten.
14. Some of China’s natural resources (is, are) minerals, coal, tungsten, and tin.
15. To help finish quickly, more of us (have, has) been assigned to the project.
Don’t and Doesn’t
5l.
The contractions don’t and doesn’t should agree with their subjects.
the singular subject Neta.]
We don’t live far from the museum. [The contraction don’t agrees with the
plural subject We.]
EXERCISE D Circle the subject of each of the following sentences. Then, underline the verb form in
parentheses that agrees with the subject.
Example 1. Why (don’t, doesn’t) you ask for directions to their house? [The verb don’t agrees with
the subject you.]
16. (Don’t, Doesn’t) the actors work well with each other? [Is the subject singular or plural?]
17. Charlie (doesn’t, don’t) have a camera that we can use.
18. I (doesn’t, don’t) raise parakeets any more.
19. (Don’t, Doesn’t) tales of Viking visits to North America appear in Viking epic stories?
20. The knife (doesn’t, don’t) require sharpening.
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EXAMPLES Neta doesn’t write letters very often. [The contraction doesn’t agrees with
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Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent A
5p. A pronoun should agree in both number and gender with its antecedent.
REMINDER
A pronoun takes the place of a noun or another pronoun. That noun or other
pronoun is called the pronoun’s antecedent.
Use singular pronouns to refer to singular antecedents. Use plural pronouns to refer to plural
antecedents.
EXAMPLES Scott played his guitar at the banquet. [The singular pronoun his agrees
with the singular antecedent Scott.]
The divers checked their gear carefully. [The plural pronoun their agrees
with the plural antecedent divers.]
EXERCISE A Circle the antecedent in each of the following sentences. Then, underline the pronoun in
parentheses that agrees with the antecedent.
Example 1. Stacie wrote (her, their) name on the test. [The singular pronoun her agrees with the
singular antecedent Stacie.]
1. Where will the Bartons spend (his, their) holiday? [What is the antecedent? Is the antecedent
singular or plural?]
2. Camels store fat, rather than water, in (its, their) humps.
3. Before (she, they) left the campsite, did Laurel put out the campfire?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
4. Lake Superior takes (its, their) name from a French term meaning “Upper Lake.”
5. Council members discussed (his, their) plans for the coming year.
Some singular pronouns indicate gender—masculine, feminine, or neuter (neither masculine nor
feminine).
MASCULINE Wesley is washing his car. [The masculine pronoun his agrees with the
masculine antecedent Wesley.]
FEMININE Does Madeline ride her bike to school? [The feminine pronoun her agrees
with the feminine antecedent Madeline.]
NEUTER Because the roof was damaged, it had to be replaced. [The neuter pronoun
it agrees with the neuter antecedent roof.]
EXERCISE B Write an appropriate pronoun form on the line provided in each of the following sentences.
Make sure that your pronouns agree in number and gender with their antecedents. Hint: Antecedents
have been underlined for you.
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Example 1. After Nick left the house,
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he
went to the bowling alley. [He is a singular pronoun
that agrees with the masculine singular antecedent Nick.]
6. Mary set
own glass on the table. [What is the antecedent? Is the antecedent masculine or
feminine?]
7. The airline attendant tagged the luggage and put
on the plane.
8. Pete picked up his laundry and took it with
.
9. Whenever Susan goes to Washington, D.C.,
always visits the Smithsonian’s National
Museum of Natural History.
10. Does each brother have
own room?
Compound Antecedents
5r.
Pronouns agree with compound antecedents according to the following rules.
(1) Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and.
EXAMPLE Jeff and Sidney wore their raincoats and galoshes. [The plural pronoun
their agrees with the compound antecedent Jeff and Sidney.]
(2) Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor.
EXAMPLE Neither Laura nor Angie has bought her ticket yet. [Because the two
EXERCISE C Circle each part of the compound antecedent in each of the following sentences. Then,
underline the pronoun in parentheses that agrees with the compound antecedent.
Example 1. Many people eat apples and bananas because of (its, their) nutritional value. [The
compound antecedent apples and bananas is plural, so the plural pronoun their agrees
with the antecedent.]
11. Either Greg or Jason needs help with (his, their) math assignment. [What is the compound
antecedent? How are the parts of the compound antecedent joined?]
12. Bottles and cans should be placed in (its, their) own recycling bin.
13. Did Alex and Shane enter (his, their) sailboats in the race?
14. Neither Julie nor Jane had (her, their) picture taken.
15. Opossums and wombats carry (its, their) young inside pouches.
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antecedents, Laura and Angie, are singular and joined by nor, they take
the singular pronoun her.]
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Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent B
Indefinite Pronouns
5q. Indefinite pronouns agree with their antecedents according to the following rules.
(1) The indefinite pronouns anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything,
neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something are singular.
EXAMPLE Someone on the men’s baseball team forgot his glove. [The singular
pronoun his agrees with the singular antecedent Someone.]
NOTE
If you don’t know whether the antecedent is masculine or feminine, or if the antecedent
refers to both genders, use his or her.
EXAMPLES Did somebody leave his or her car’s lights on? [Because the gender of the
singular pronoun somebody is unknown, his or her renames the
antecedent.]
Everybody brought his or her book today. [Because the singular pronoun
Everybody refers to both genders, his or her renames the antecedent.]
(2) The indefinite pronouns both, few, many, and several are plural.
EXAMPLE Several of the customers returned their purchases. [The plural pronoun
their agrees with the plural antecedent Several.]
EXERCISE A Circle the antecedent in each of the following sentences. Then, underline the pronoun in
parentheses that agrees with it.
Examples 1. Everyone finished (his or her, their) project on time. [His or her agrees with the singular
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
antecedent Everyone.]
2. Several of the water-skiers rented (his or her, their) skis from the boat shop. [The
plural pronoun their agrees with the plural antecedent Several.]
1. Has either of your brothers taken (his, their) driving test? [Is the antecedent plural or singular?]
2. Why are so few of the band members wearing (his or her, their) uniforms? [Is the antecedent
plural or singular?]
3. No one is wearing (his or her, their) watch today.
4. Everything in the display case is priced according to (its, their) size.
5. Because both of the boys knew the song, (he, they) sang it together.
6. Many of our citizens exercise (his or her, their) right to vote.
7. Is one of the skillets missing (its, their) lid?
8. Several of the countries in Europe replaced (its, their) own currencies with the euro.
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9. If somebody calls, tell (him or her, them) that I’ll be home in an hour.
10. Few of the dancers in the company missed (his or her, their) training session.
(3) The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be singular or plural depending
on how they are used in a sentence.
When the pronoun refers to a singular word, it is singular. When the pronoun refers to a plural
word, it is plural.
SINGULAR None of the building was safe, so the wrecking crew destroyed it. [It is used
because None refers to only one building.]
PLURAL None of the buildings were safe, so the wrecking crew destroyed them.
[Them is used because None refers to more than one building.]
EXERCISE B Circle the antecedent in each of the following sentences. Then, underline the pronoun in
parentheses that agrees with it.
Examples 1. If any of the paper cups are left, save (it, them) for the party. [Them is used because
any refers to the plural noun cups.]
2. Is most of the book interesting because (its, their) story is exciting? [Its is used
because most refers to the singular noun book.]
11. None of the casserole remains, so (it, they) must have been delicious. [Does the subject of this
sentence refer to a plural word or to a singular word?]
subject of this sentence refer to a plural word or to a singular word?]
13. If all of the apples are ripe, I will use (it, them) in the Waldorf salad.
14. Do most of your neighbors sit on (his or her, their) front porches in the evening?
15. Some of the tropical rain forests have been cleared for (its, their) lumber.
16. All of the contestants in the art show may pick up (their, his or her) paintings on Monday.
17. If you’re interested in buying (it, them), more of the tickets are available in the library.
18. When any of the order arrives, (it, they) will need to be unpacked and checked for quality.
19. Now, more of our visitors are satisfied with (his or her, their) tours of the museum.
20. Because most of the tile has been shipped, (it, they) should arrive within a week.
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12. Some of the firm’s history is unknown because (it, they) was lost during the 1860s. [Does the
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Case Forms of Personal Pronouns A:
The Nominative Case
Subjects
6a. A subject of a verb should be in the nominative case.
The subject of a verb tells whom or what the sentence is about. Nominative case pronouns
include I, you, he, she, it, we, and they.
EXAMPLES He usually rides the bus to school. [He is the subject of the verb rides.]
Did Mary and she study at the library? [Mary and she make up the
compound subject of the verb Did study.]
TIP
To determine which pronoun to use for a compound subject, try each form by itself as the
subject of the verb. Then, choose the form that sounds better.
EXAMPLE (She, Her) and (I, me) decorated the gymnasium.
ASK She decorated or Her decorated? I decorated or me decorated?
ANSWER She and I decorated the gymnasium. [She decorated and I decorated sound
better, so she and I are the pronouns to use as parts of the compound
subject.]
EXERCISE A Underline the appropriate form of the pronoun in parentheses in each of the following
sentences.
Examples 1. Leon and (he, him) rode their skateboards through the park. [Leon and he is the
compound subject of the verb rode.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
2. Does (she, her) play basketball for the team? [She is the subject of the verb Does play.]
1. Has (she, her) ever been to the art museum? [Which pronoun can be a subject of the verb Has been?]
2. Danny and (I, me) rehearsed our lines together. [Try each pronoun by itself. Which sounds better?]
3. (They, Them) brought the watermelon to the picnic.
4. The Robertsons and (we, us) had a garage sale.
5. Do (he, him) and (she, her) sit in the same row?
6. Last week, (she, her) and Pauline adopted a stray cat.
7. (We, Us) are building a footbridge across the creek.
8. Because it’s been snowing, (they, them) have had to stay indoors.
9. Yesterday afternoon, Len, Willie and (he, him), practiced their free throws.
10. Should (they, them) water the garden and mow the lawn?
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The Predicate Nominative
6b. A predicate nominative should be in the nominative case.
A predicate nominative completes the meaning of a linking verb and refers to the subject of
the verb. A personal pronoun used as a predicate nominative usually completes the meaning
of a form of the verb be. Common forms of the verb be are am, is, are, was, were, be, been, and
being.
EXAMPLE The choir’s director is she. [She completes the meaning of the verb is and
refers to the subject director.]
Is the apartment manager he? [He completes the meaning of the verb is
and refers to the subject manager.]
TIP
To help you decide which pronoun form to use as a predicate nominative, try each form
of the pronoun as the subject of the verb. Then, choose the form that sounds better.
EXAMPLE The first runner to cross the finish line was (he, him).
ASK He was or Him was?
ANSWER The first runner to cross the finish line was he. [He was sounds better, so he
is the pronoun to use as the predicate nominative.]
EXERCISE B Underline the appropriate form of the pronoun in parentheses in each of the following
sentences.
Examples 1. It was (he, him) who painted the portrait. [He completes the meaning of the verb was.]
2. It will be (me, I)! [I completes the meaning of the verb will be.]
is the librarian or Her is the librarian?]
12. The schools that raised the most money are (they, them). [Which pronoun is in the nominative
case?]
13. The tournament champions are (we, us).
14. Are the supreme court justices (they, them)?
15. The chief engineer on the project is (she, her).
16. She knocked on the door and said, “It is (I, me).”
17. Your choice should be (they, them).
18. The person responsible for your order has been (he, him).
19. The first group of people with entry passes will be (we, us).
20. The trees that will grow tallest are (they, them).
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11. Is the librarian (she, her)? [Try each pronoun as the subject of the verb. Which sounds better—She
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Case Forms of Personal Pronouns B: The Objective Case
Direct Objects
6c.
A direct object should be in the objective case.
Objective case pronouns include me, you, him, her, it, us, and them.
A direct object answers the question Who or what receives the action of an action verb? When a
pronoun receives the action of an action verb, an objective case pronoun should be used as the
direct object.
EXAMPLES During practice, Sarah watched us. [Sarah watched whom? The pronoun us
receives the action of the verb watched.]
Please roll up the rugs and take them outside. [Take what outside? The
pronoun them receives the action of the verb take.]
TIP
To choose the correct pronoun when there is more than one direct object, try each pronoun by itself in the sentence. Which pronoun sounds right?
EXAMPLE The camp director praised (she, her) and (I, me).
ASK The camp director praised she or The camp director praised her?
The camp director praised I or The camp director praised me?
ANSWER The camp director praised her and me. [Praised her and praised me sound
better than the other two choices, so her and me are the pronouns to use
as direct objects.]
EXERCISE A Underline the appropriate form of the pronoun or pronouns in parentheses in each of the
following sentences.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Example 1. Did you invite (she, her) for dinner? [Did you invite she doesn’t sound right. Use the
objective case her.]
1. The magnificent fireworks display delighted (we, us)! [Try each pronoun by itself. Which
pronoun sounds right?]
2. Has anyone seen (she, her) or (he, him) this morning?
3. The tropical fish at the aquarium interested (they, them).
4. Ms. Davidson greeted (he, him) and (I, me) at the door.
5. When we launched our model rockets, our science teacher helped (we, us).
Indirect Objects
6d. An indirect object should be in the objective case.
Many sentences that contain direct objects also contain indirect objects. An indirect object may
come between a direct object and an action verb. An indirect object answers the question, To
whom or to what, or for whom or for what is the action of the verb done?
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EXAMPLE Grandmother often tells us stories about her childhood. [To whom does
Grandmother tell stories? The pronoun us is the indirect object and
comes before the direct object stories.]
EXERCISE B Underline the appropriate form of the pronoun or pronouns in parentheses in each of the
following sentences.
Example 1. Did Denise buy (they, them) a travel guide for their vacation? [Them is the indirect
object that tells for whom Denise did buy the travel guide.]
6. Will the committee award (they, them) a trophy? [Which pronoun is in the objective case?]
7. Uncle Randy showed (he, him) and (I, me) his antique pocket watch.
8. Did you bring (I, me) a souvenir from New York?
9. Mr. Lions teaches (we, us) chess on Tuesdays.
10. Monica gave (she, her) a music box for her birthday.
Objects of Prepositions
6e. An object of a preposition should be in the objective case.
An object of a preposition is the noun or pronoun that follows a preposition. A prepositional
phrase consists of a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.
Some commonly used prepositions are in, to, for, from, behind, around, above, with, and next to.
After school, Lance came home with us. [The pronoun us is the object of
the preposition with.]
EXERCISE C Underline the appropriate form of the pronoun or pronouns in parentheses in each of the
following sentences.
Example 1. He set his briefcase down beside (he, him). [The pronoun him is the object of the
preposition beside.]
11. We took our coats and backpacks with (we, us) on the train. [Which pronoun is in the objective
case?]
12. Did Lacy sit next to Jennifer and (they, them) in the cafeteria?
13. Patricia stood behind (he, him) and (I, me).
14. The counselor gave good advice to (she, her) and (I, me).
15. Has anyone received a letter from (he, him)?
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EXAMPLES I sent a postcard to her. [The pronoun her is the object of the preposition to.]
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Case Forms of Personal Pronouns C:
The Possessive Case
Personal pronouns in the possessive case are used to show ownership or possession.
Possessive pronouns include my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, and theirs.
The possessive pronouns mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, and theirs can be used in the same way
that the personal pronouns in the nominative and objective cases are used.
SUBJECT Mine is the one on the end of the row.
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE The gift box with the red bow is yours.
DIRECT OBJECT Sharon left hers in the car.
INDIRECT OBJECT His dad leant ours a lawn mower.
OBJECT OF PREPOSITION Our orchestra conductor sent an invitation to theirs.
EXERCISE A Write an appropriate possessive pronoun in the space provided in each of the following
sentences. Some items have more than one possible answer.
Example 1. The bicycle with the blue handlebars is
his
. [His is a predicate nominative that
tells whose bicycle.]
1. I brought my binoculars with me, but Gerald left
at home. [Whose binoculars did
Gerald forget?]
2. My grandfather showed me
3.
collection of records.
is the one with the stripes.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
4. Our teacher mailed a thank-you note to
5. His friends showed
.
how to play backgammon.
The possessive pronouns my, your, his, her, its, our, and their are sometimes used to describe
nouns and pronouns. (Some teachers prefer to call the possessive pronouns my, your, his, her,
its, our, and their possessive adjectives. Follow your teacher’s instructions when using these
terms.)
EXAMPLES My jacket is warm. [My describes jacket. My is a possessive pronoun
because it shows ownership.]
Is this his book? [His describes book. His is a possessive pronoun because
it shows ownership.]
EXERCISE B Complete each of the following sentences by filling the blank with a possessive pronoun
that shows ownership and makes sense.
Example 1. Mrs. Douglas calls
her
grandchildren every weekend. [Her is a pronoun that
shows ownership and makes sense.]
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6. Did Darren find
7. They hung
10. Have you finished
continued
bicycle helmet? [What possessive pronoun makes sense in the sentence?]
coats on the coat rack by the door.
8. When will she pick up
9. I hope that
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DATE
photographs?
mother sends me a package soon.
essay yet?
A noun or pronoun preceding a gerund generally should be in the possessive case.
A gerund is the –ing form of a verb that functions as a noun. Because a gerund functions as a
noun, a noun or pronoun that comes before a gerund should be in the possessive case in order
to modify the gerund.
EXAMPLE The teachers encouraged the students’ [or their] tutoring the younger
children. [The gerund tutoring functions as a noun, so the pronoun their
is in the possessive case.]
NOTE
Be careful not to confuse a gerund with a present participle, which is also a verb form
that ends in –ing. Remember that a gerund functions as a noun; a present participle,
however, functions as an adjective or as part of a verb phrase. A noun or pronoun that
comes before a present participle should generally not be in the possessive case.
EXAMPLE We hear birds [or them] singing happily every morning. [Birds comes before
the present participle singing, so the pronoun them is not in the
possessive case.]
Example 1. (Me, My) working on weekends has helped me earn extra money. [Working functions
as a noun and is the subject of the sentence. My must be in the possessive case in order
to modify the gerund working.]
11. My parents worry about (me, my) handling dangerous chemicals in the lab. [Does handling
function as a noun?]
12. Has (him, his) extra studying helped his grades?
13. (She, Her) living in the country has improved her health.
14. Does (us, our) talking disturb you?
15. (You, Your) learning CPR may help you save someone’s life.
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EXERCISE C Underline the appropriate pronoun in parentheses in each of the following sentences.
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Special Problems in Pronoun Usage
The Relative Pronouns Who and Whom
6i.
The use of who or whom in a subordinate clause depends on how the pronoun functions in the
clause.
Who and whoever are in the nominative case. Whom and whomever are in the objective case. To
decide which form to use, find the subordinate clause and then determine how the pronoun is
used in that clause—as a subject, a predicate nominative, a direct object, an indirect object, or
an object of a preposition.
If the pronoun is used as a subject or a predicate nominative in the subordinate clause, the
pronoun should be in the nominative case.
EXAMPLE Georgia gave me the phone number of the man who organizes the softball
league. [Because who is the subject of the subordinate clause who
organizes the softball league, it is in the nominative case.]
EXERCISE A Underline the appropriate form of the pronoun in parentheses in each of the following
sentences.
Example 1. Do you know (who, whom) the last person to leave the building was? [Who is a
predicate nominative: the last person was who. It should be in the nominative case.]
1. Neil Armstrong was the first person (who, whom) walked on the moon. [Is the pronoun a
subject or an object of the verb walked?]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
2. Do you know (who, whom) the ship’s captain is?
3. (Whoever, Whomever) finds the missing puppy should call the owner immediately.
4. I’m not certain (who, whom) the guests of honor are.
5. The woman (who, whom) greeted us at the entrance is the vice-president.
If the pronoun is a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition in the subordinate
clause, then the pronoun should be in the objective case.
EXAMPLES Alan, whom I saw at the store, is an electrician. [Whom is the direct object of
the verb saw in the subordinate clause whom I saw at the store.]
This is a woman for whom we feel great admiration. [Whom is the object of
the preposition for.]
EXERCISE B Underline the appropriate form of the pronoun in parentheses in each of the following
sentences.
Example 1. Michelle, with (who, whom) I carpool to dance class, is a senior. [Whom is the object of
the preposition with.]
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6. Lynn, (who, whom) I met at camp, lives in Sacramento. [Is the pronoun a subject or object of the
verb met?]
7. The family for (who, whom) we are housesitting has gone to Germany.
8. Ms. Atkins is the person to (who, whom) you should submit your application.
9. From (who, whom) do you take karate lessons?
10. Suzi, to (who, whom) we sent a card, is graduating from high school.
Appositives
6j.
A pronoun used as an appositive should be in the same case as the word to which it refers.
An appositive appears next to another noun or pronoun. The appositive identifies or describes
that noun or pronoun.
EXAMPLE The two finalists, he and I, will compete tomorrow. [The pronouns he and I
identify the noun finalists, so he and I are called appositives.]
Every appositive should be in the same case as the noun or pronoun the appositive identifies.
If the appositive identifies a word in the nominative case, then the appositive should be
nominative. If the appositive identifies a word in the objective case, then the appositive should
be objective.
she are in the nominative case because he and she refer to the subject
passengers.]
OBJECTIVE Ms. Douglas gave instructions to the opposing squads, them and us. [The
pronouns them and us are in the objective case because they refer to
squads, the object of the preposition to.]
EXERCISE C Underline the appropriate form of the pronoun in parentheses in each of the following
sentences.
Example 1. The conductor held a section rehearsal for (we, us) cello players. [The pronoun us is
the object of the preposition for, so the pronoun should be in the objective case. The
noun players is the appositive that describes the pronoun us.]
11. The coach gave the team captains, Drew and (he, him), some last-minute pointers. [Captains is
an indirect object. Which case should be used for an appositive of captains?]
12. The first two parking spaces are reserved for the Volunteers of the Month, Kayla and (I, me).
13. Should (we, us) cyclists park our bikes at the end of the street?
14. The new students—Noreen, Marvin, and (I, me)—received an enthusiastic welcome.
15. Our youth group gave a surprise party for our sponsors, Ms. Davis and (he, him).
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NOMINATIVE The youngest passengers, he and she, boarded first. [The pronouns he and
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Clear Reference A
6l.
A pronoun should refer clearly to its antecedent.
By itself, a pronoun usually has no definite meaning. A pronoun takes the place of another
word or word group. This word or word group is called the antecedent of the pronoun. A pronoun’s meaning is clear only when the antecedent is known.
EXAMPLES Clara and Jacob finally met their new neighbors. [Their takes the place of
Clara and Jacob. Clara and Jacob are the antecedents of their.]
After Raymond mowed the lawn, he trimmed the hedges. [He takes the
place of Raymond. Raymond is the antecedent of he.]
EXERCISE A Draw an arrow from the underlined pronoun to its antecedent in each sentence.
Example 1. The bushes in the garden have been trimmed, but they still need to be watered.
[They takes the place of bushes. Bushes is the antecedent of the pronoun they.]
1. Have the Hensons reserved their hotel room? [What word does their take the place of?]
2. Nina made a shopping list, and then she went to the store.
3. After school, Charlene went shopping with her mother.
4. Have we already passed our favorite restaurant?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
5. Gloria lent her CD to Beth so that Beth could listen to it.
Ambiguous Reference
Avoid an ambiguous reference, which occurs when any one of two or more words can be a
pronoun’s antecedent.
AMBIGUOUS Clark called Shaun while he was at work. [Who was at work, Clark or
Shaun?]
CLEAR While Clark was at work, he called Shaun. [The pronoun he clearly refers to
the antecedent Clark.]
CLEAR While Shaun was at work, Clark called him. [The pronoun him clearly refers
to the antecedent Shaun.]
TIP
One way to eliminate ambiguous reference is to replace the pronoun with a noun.
Another way to avoid ambiguous reference is to rearrange the sentence to clarify the
pronoun’s antecedent.
AMBIGUOUS Dave sent his dad a letter while he was away. [Who was away, Dave or his
dad?]
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CLEAR Dave sent his dad a letter while his dad was away. [Replacing the pronoun
he with the noun dad fixes the ambiguous reference.]
CLEAR While Dave was away, he sent his dad a letter. [Rearranging the sentence
clarifies the antecedent and makes it clear that the pronouns he and his
refer to Dave.]
EXERCISE B Revise each of the following sentences to eliminate ambiguous references. You may need
to add, delete, or rearrange words.
Examples 1. While she was at lunch, Eileen paged Carla. [Who was at lunch, Eileen or Carla?]
While Eileen was at lunch, she paged Carla.
2. Jordan phoned Alex about the homework assignment because he missed school
today. [Who missed school, Jordan or Alex?]
Because Jordan missed school today, he phoned Alex about the homework assignment.
6. Mrs. Gibson handed Amanda her sweater. [Whose sweater is it, Mrs. Gibson’s or Amanda’s?]
7. Gloria told Anna she was an hour early. [Who was an hour early, Gloria or Anna?]
8. Fred and Jason went to the market to help out his aunt.
10. When faculty members receive their schedules, they should be posted on their doors.
11. While Jane visited her grandmother, they looked at a photo of her as a child.
12. Has Greg given Marty his car keys?
13. Fruits are healthier than sugary snacks because they contain many nutrients.
14. She took the books off the shelves because they were falling apart.
15. Maria wanted to put her ticket in her purse, but she couldn’t find it.
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9. We did not take the boat to the dock while it was being repaired.
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Clear Reference B
6l.
A pronoun should refer clearly to its antecedent.
As you may remember, a pronoun by itself usually has no definite meaning. A pronoun
usually stands for another word or word group called its antecedent. In your writing, you
should always be able to identify clearly a pronoun’s antecedent.
EXAMPLES Jay enjoys lifting weights in his spare time. [His takes the place of Jay. Jay is
the antecedent of his.]
Did Cameron and Nick bring their scuba gear? [Their takes the place of
Cameron and Nick. Cameron and Nick are the antecedents of their.]
EXERCISE A Draw an arrow from the underlined pronoun in each sentence to its antecedent.
Example 1. Anita did her homework, and then she went to sleep. [The pronoun she refers to
Anita. Anita is the antecedent of she.]
1. When Roy and Zachary ride their skateboards, they wear blue safety helmets. [What words
does they take the place of?]
2. Isabella learned algebra from her aunt.
3. The computer crashed, but the technicians repaired it right away.
4. The cats that live there seem to think that the porch belongs to them.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
5. When Roger started working at the store, did he have to buy a uniform?
General Reference
Avoid a general reference. A general reference is the use of a pronoun that refers to a general idea
rather than to a specific antecedent.
GENERAL The girls visited several different cities, which was educational. [Which does
not clearly refer to any word in the sentence.]
CLEAR The girls’ visit to several different cities was educational.
CLEAR The girls visited several different cities. Their trip was educational.
Most general reference errors result from the misuse of the pronouns it, this, that, which, and
such. When you use one of these pronouns, especially in writing, make sure that the pronoun
has a clear antecedent.
GENERAL In 1958, Bobbie opened a shoe store. That is what launched the family
business. [That has no clear antecedent. To what specifically might that
refer?]
CLEAR In 1958,Bobbie opened a shoe store. That event launched the family business.
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EXERCISE B Each of the following items contains a general reference error. Revise each item to fix the
general reference error. You may need to add, delete, or rearrange words.
Example 1. I tried to fix the radio, but it was unsuccessful. [It does not clearly refer to any word in
the sentence, so it should be replaced by the noun efforts.]
I tried to fix the radio, but my efforts were unsuccessful.
2. I played soccer in the rain, which is why I’m muddy. [Which does not clearly refer to
any word in the sentence, so the words should be rearranged.]
I am muddy because I played soccer in the rain.
6. Caleb overslept this morning. That is why he missed the bus. [What specifically does That
refer to?]
7. We had hoped to see some dolphins on our boat trip, but it didn’t happen. [What didn’t happen?]
8. Nelda studied for her history quiz, which is why she knew the answers.
9. Grady found the keys inside the drawer. That is how he opened the cabinet.
11. Benjamin Franklin may have flown a kite during a thunderstorm. That may be how he proved
his theories about electricity.
12. Our biology class will study genetics next semester. I am looking forward to that.
13. If everyone recycled, that would reduce waste substantially.
14. Nadine had a dental appointment, which explains why she left early.
15. If more people would participate in neighborhood watch programs, it might reduce crime.
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10. We didn’t win the basketball game, but it was close.
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The Principal Parts of Verbs A
Regular Verbs
Every verb has four principal parts, and each principal part is a different form of the same verb.
7a. The four principal parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the
past participle.
Principal parts of a verb are important because each principal part is used to show when the
verb’s action happened.
7b. A regular verb generally forms its past and past participle by adding –d or –ed to the base form.
All verbs form their present participle by adding –ing to the base form. In the following chart,
helping verbs are shown in brackets because present participles and past participles cannot be
used as verbs unless they are used along with helping verbs.
BASE FORM
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
PAST
PAST PARTICIPLE
answer
march
want
relax
[is] answering
[is] marching
[is] wanting
[is] relaxing
answered
marched
wanted
relaxed
[have] answered
[have] marched
[have] wanted
[have] relaxed
REMINDER
When you are using the past and past participle forms of a regular verb, be sure
not to leave off the –d or –ed ending.
NONSTANDARD Neil use to teach swim lessons. [Use is not the standard past form. A –d
needs to be added to the verb.]
STANDARD Neil used to teach swim lessons. [Used is the standard past form.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
EXERCISE A Complete the following chart by writing the present participle, the past, and the past
participle of each verb that is provided.
Example 1. talk [is]
BASE
FORM
1. earn
PRESENT
PARTICIPLE
[is]
talking
talked
PAST
[have]
talked
PAST
PARTICIPLE
[have]
[What needs to be added to earn to make each of the three other forms?]
2. claim
[is]
[have]
3. prevail
[is]
[have]
4. challenge [is]
[have]
5. live
[have]
[is]
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A few regular verbs have alternate past and past participle forms that end in –t. The regular
verbs deal and mean always form the past and past participle by adding –t.
EXAMPLES Last night I dreamt that a frog had leapt into the bedroom. [The past form
of dream can be spelled dreamed or dreamt. The past participle of leap can
be leapt or leaped.]
I meant to tell you that we have dealt with that company before. [The past
form of mean is always meant. The past participle of deal is always dealt.]
NOTE
Most regular verbs that end in e drop the e before adding –ing. Some regular verbs
double the final consonant before adding –ing or –ed.
EXAMPLE While Crystal chatted with her interviewee, a device on the table was
recording the conversation. [Chat is a regular verb that doubles the final
consonant before –ed is added. The regular verb record just adds –ing.]
EXERCISE B Complete each of the following sentences by writing the past form or the past participle
form of the verb that is given in parentheses.
Examples 1. (batter) The fierce winds have battered the houses along the shore. [Batter is a
regular verb, so its past participle form is made by adding –ed to batter.]
2. (glide)
The skater
glided
gracefully over the ice. [Glide is a regular verb, so its
past form is made by adding –d to glide.]
6. (score)
Chelsea
the winning goal of the soccer championship. [Score is a regular
verb. To make its past form, what letter do you need to add to the end?]
Who
off the light? [How do you form the past of a verb whose base form
does not end in e?]
8. (close)
The post office
at noon today.
9. (shatter) The vase
when it hit the floor.
10. (mean)
He had
11. (reach)
The temperature has
12. (hike)
Last weekend, Jason and Ben
13. (gather) We
to take his binoculars with him.
on part of the Appalachian Trail.
fresh strawberries from a local farm.
14. (trim)
Mr. Shepherd has
15. (type)
I
84
a record high today.
the hedges along the sidewalk.
my history paper on the computer.
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7. (turn)
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The Principal Parts of Verbs B
Irregular Verbs
7c.
An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some way other than by adding –d or –ed
to the base form.
There is no set rule for making the past and past participle forms of irregular verbs. Even so,
some patterns exist. An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in one of the following
ways.
(1) Changing consonants
BASE FORM
EXAMPLES build
lend
PAST
PAST PARTICIPLE
built
lent
[have] built
[have] lent
fought
rang
[have] fought
[have] rung
brought
went
[have] brought
[have] gone
put
cut
[have] put
[have] cut
(2) Changing vowels
EXAMPLES fight
ring
(3) Changing vowels and consonants
EXAMPLES bring
go
(4) Making no change
EXAMPLES put
cut
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
COMMONLY USED IRREGULAR VERBS
BASE FORM
PAST
PAST PARTICIPLE
begin
break
send
set
write
began
broke
sent
set
wrote
[have] begun
[have] broken
[have] sent
[have] set
[have] written
EXERCISE A Complete the following chart by writing the past form and the past participle form of each
verb that is provided. Hint:The following verbs are irregular verbs.
Examples 1. catch
caught
[have]
caught
2. swim
swam
[have]
swum
BASE
FORM
PAST
1. make
PAST
PARTICIPLE
[have]
[Which letters of make will need to change in order to form its principal parts?]
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2. freeze
[have]
3. know
[have]
4. forgive
[have]
5. say
[have]
6. burst
[have]
7. choose
[have]
8. sell
[have]
9. grow
[have]
10. sleep
[have]
TIP
DATE
People sometimes try to make irregular verbs follow the regular pattern. Verb forms such
as catched, teached, thinked, and drived are nonstandard. Check a dictionary if you are not
sure whether a verb is regular or irregular. The dictionary entries for irregular verbs list
the principal parts. If an entry for a verb does not list the principal parts, then the verb is
regular.
EXERCISE B Underline the correct verb form in parentheses in each of the following sentences.
Examples 1. Samantha has (goed, gone) to her art class. [The past participle form of go is gone.]
2. We (began, beginned) our presentation with a demonstration. [The past form of begin
11. Has Kenneth (becomed, become) a cabin leader yet? [How is the past participle of become formed?]
12. The geometry teacher (drawed, drew) a diagram on the chalkboard. [How is the past form of
draw formed?]
13. The hotel staff (leaved, left) a mint on my pillow.
14. Have you ever (rided, ridden) an elephant?
15. The martial arts instructor (teached, taught) us how to break boards.
16. I would have (writed, written) her a letter, but I couldn’t find her address.
17. A mosquito just (flew, flied) past my ear.
18. Has anyone here ever (runned, run) for public office?
19. Brent (finded, found) his missing shoe under his bed.
20. Has the mail (comed, come) yet?
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is began.]
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Lie and Lay; Sit and Set; Rise and Raise
Lie and Lay
The verb lie means “to rest,” “to recline,” or “to be in a place.” Lie does not take a direct object.
The verb lay means “to put (something) in a place.” Lay usually takes a direct object.
BASE FORM
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
PAST
PAST PARTICIPLE
lie
lay
[is] lying
[is] laying
lay
laid
[have] lain
[have] laid
EXAMPLES My shoes were lying on the floor. [The verb lie does not take a direct object.]
The conveyor belt laid the suitcases on the baggage-claim carousel. [The
conveyor belt laid what? The verb lay takes a direct object, suitcases.]
TIP
Remember that lay means “to put (something) in a place.” When you are not certain
whether to use lay or lie, replace the verb with a form of put. If the sentence makes sense
with put, you should use lay. If not, you should use lie.
EXAMPLE The coach is (lying, laying) down the chalk for the base lines.
TEST The coach is putting down the chalk for the base lines. [Replace the verb
with a form of put. Does the sentence make sense?]
ANSWER The coach is laying down the chalk for the base lines. [Putting makes sense
in this sentence, so laying is the correct verb form.]
EXERCISE A In each of the following sentences, underline the appropriate verb in parentheses.
Example 1. Canada (lies, lays) north of the United States. [The verb cannot be replaced by put, so
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
the answer is lies.]
1. Who (lay, laid) the book on top of my papers? [Can you substitute put for the verb?]
2. The faded shirt had been (lying, laying) in the sun for days.
3. (Lay, Lie) the quilt on top of the cedar chest.
4. Did Janelle (lie, lay) her keys on the coffee table?
5. Gordon found a dollar that was (lying, laying) on the sidewalk.
Sit and Set
The verb sit means “to rest in a seated, upright position” or “to be in a place.” Sit usually does
not take a direct object. The verb set means “to put (something) in a place.” Set usually takes a
direct object.
BASE FORM
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
PAST
PAST PARTICIPLE
sit
set
[is] sitting
[is] setting
sat
set
[have] sat
[have] set
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EXAMPLES May I sit in this chair? [Sit means “to rest in a seated, upright position.”
There is no direct object with sit.]
Gloria set the magazine on the counter. [Set means “to put (something) in
a place.” Magazine is the direct object of set.]
EXERCISE B Underline the appropriate form of the verb in parentheses in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. Did Michelle (set, sit) the water pitcher on the table? [The meaning is “to put
(something) in a place,” so set is the correct verb.]
6. Is anyone (setting, sitting) beside Gerald? [Is the meaning “to rest in a seated, upright position” or
“to put (something) in a place”?]
7. We (set, sat) our sleeping bags inside the tent.
8. Please (set, sit) down your pencils when you are finished with the test.
9. How long has that squirrel been (setting, sitting) on the tree branch?
10. I hope that we can (set, sit) in the front row!
Rise and Raise
BASE FORM
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
PAST
PAST PARTICIPLE
rise
raise
[is] rising
[is] raising
rose
raised
[have] risen
[have] raised
EXAMPLES The screaming fans rose to their feet. [Rose means “got up.” There is no
direct object with rose.]
The screaming fans raised their arms in victory. [Raised means “lifted.” The
direct object of raised is arms.]
EXERCISE C Underline the appropriate verb in parentheses in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. (Rise, Raise) your hand if you have a question. [The meaning is “to lift,” so Raise is the
correct verb.]
11. The river (rises, raises) quickly during a rainstorm. [Is the meaning “to go up” or “to lift”?]
12. The temperature has (risen, raised) ten degrees since this morning.
13. The attendant (rose, raised) the drawbridge so the ship could pass.
14. The branches on the weeping willow tree gently (rose, raised) and fell with the wind.
15. Would you please (rise, raise) the window and let in some fresh air?
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The verb rise means “to go up” or “to get up.” Rise does not take a direct object. The verb raise
means “to lift” or “to cause (something) to rise.” Raise usually takes a direct object.
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Tense
7d. The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or the state of being that is expressed by the
verb.
Each verb in English has six tenses: present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, and
future perfect. These tenses are formed from the four principal parts of verbs.
REMINDER
Every verb has four different forms called the principal parts. The four principal
parts of verbs are made by changing some letters of a verb’s base form.
BASE FORM
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
PAST
PAST PARTICIPLE
dance
take
[is] dancing
[is] taking
danced
took
[have] danced
[have] taken
Each of the six tenses shows a different way of expressing time.
PRESENT Every day, the actor rehearses his lines. [The present tense verb rehearses
PRESENT PERFECT
PAST
PAST PERFECT
FUTURE
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
FUTURE PERFECT
shows an action that is happening now.]
The actor has rehearsed his lines several times. [The present perfect tense
verb has rehearsed shows an action that happened sometime before now
and may be continuing now.]
Yesterday, the actor rehearsed his lines. [The past tense verb rehearsed
shows an action that happened in the past.]
Before he went on stage, the actor had rehearsed his lines many times. [The
past perfect verb had rehearsed shows an action that happened before a
specific time in the past.]
The actor will rehearse his lines tomorrow. [The future tense verb will
rehearse shows an action that will happen in the future.]
By the time the play opens, the actor will have rehearsed his lines many
times. [The future perfect tense verb will have rehearsed shows an action
that will have happened before a specific time in the future.]
EXERCISE A Identify the tense of the underlined verb in each of the following sentences. On the line provided, write present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, or future perfect.
Examples 1. By the end of our hike, we will have walked three miles.
future perfect
[Will
have walked indicates an action that will have happened before a specific time in the
future, the end of the hike.]
2. The drill team marched in the parade.
past
[Marched indicates an
action that happened in the past.]
1. Nancy plays the guitar and the banjo.
2. Next week, our class will visit the planetarium.
[When is the action happening?]
[Does the word will relate to
past, present, or future?]
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3. Who left this package on the doorstep?
4. Richard has read Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird three times.
5. Ten years from now, technology will have provided surprising medical improvements.
6. Mr. Jenkins discovered that he had deleted a file from his computer.
7. Sarah takes aerobics classes on Monday evenings.
8. By the time you reach the station, the bus will have arrived.
9. Dinosaurs became extinct for reasons that are complex and mysterious.
10. She has lived here since November.
EXERCISE B Complete each of the following sentences by writing the verb tense in parentheses on the
line provided.
Examples 1. The officers
have delegated
tasks to the volunteers. (present perfect tense of
delegate) [The verb delegate forms its present perfect tense by adding have to the past
participle form delegated.]
thought
2. Until yesterday, I
that Nicki was her middle name. (past tense
of think) [The verb think forms its past tense with the past form thought.]
11. The Watsons
the next book club meeting. (future tense of host) [What
12. That tree
in this yard for over forty years. (present perfect tense of stand)
[Does the present perfect tense need a helping verb?]
13. Who
paper plates and napkins to the picnic? (future tense of bring)
14. Long ago, the ocean
15. Eliza
this part of the continent. (past tense of cover)
a solo in the community talent show. (past tense of sing)
16. The exchange students from Brazil
17. The old printer for the library’s computer
home in May. (future tense of return)
documents more slowly than the
new printer does. (past tense of print)
18. Linda
Latin since she was a child. (present perfect tense of study)
19. At the end of this week, the kitten
in our family for six months. (future
perfect tense of be)
20. Before Ann used oil paints, she
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helping verb is used for future tense?]
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The Progressive Form
Each of the six tenses has a form called the progressive form, which expresses continuing
action or state of being. The progressive form is made up of the appropriate tense of the verb
be and the present participle of a verb. The present participle is the –ing form of the verb. Here
are three of the progressive forms of tenses.
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE Our beagle is chasing that cat. [The present tense action, chase,
is continuing.]
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Our beagle has been chasing that cat. [The present perfect
tense action, has chased, is continuing.]
PAST PROGRESSIVE Our beagle was chasing that cat. [The past tense action, chase, is
continuing.]
EXERCISE A Complete each of the following sentences by writing the progressive form of the verb in
parentheses on the line provided. Hint: Remember to use helping verbs with the main verb.
Are
Example 1.
both of your sisters
competing
in the district spelling bee this
year? (compete) [The present progressive form of the verb compete is Are competing.]
1. The famous tower in Pisa
since the Middle Ages. (lean) [How do you
form the present perfect progressive of lean?]
2. Small birds
across the sky. (streak)
3. That cat
on the windowsill all day! (lie)
4. In the photo, a grizzly bear
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
5.
the news reporter
in the river for salmon. (wait)
that same story again? (repeat)
Three more progressive forms of tenses are past perfect progressive, future progressive, and future
perfect progressive. Making the progressive forms of these tenses is the same as it is for the other
tenses: The progressive form is made up of the appropriate tense of the verb be and the present
participle of the main verb.
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Our beagle had been chasing that cat. [The past perfect tense
action, had chased, is continuing.]
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE Our beagle will be chasing that cat. [The future tense action,
will chase, is continuing.]
FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Soon, our beagle will have been chasing that cat for ten minutes.
[The future perfect tense action, will have chased, is continuing.]
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EXERCISE B Complete each of the following sentences by writing the progressive form of the verb in
parentheses on the line provided. Hint: Remember to use helping verbs with the main verb.
Example 1. By noon, we
had been addressing
envelopes for two hours. (address) [The past
perfect progressive form of address is had been addressing.]
6.
that factory
car parts ever since the 1950s? (produce)
[How do you form the present perfect progressive of produce?]
7. After dinner, the toddlers
a game on the lawn. (play)
8. In two months, Mom
in the choir for three years. (participate)
9. Tanya and Raul
food at a shelter on Thanksgiving. (serve)
10. Before the major discovery, detectives
that particular case for several
years. (research)
EXERCISE C Identify the tense of the underlined verb in each of the following sentences. On the line
provided, write present progressive, past progressive, future progressive, present perfect progressive, past
perfect progressive, or future perfect progressive.
Example 1. Monarch butterflies have been migrating to this area for years.
present perfect progressive
[The action started in the past and is continuing.
Therefore, the verb is in the present perfect progressive tense.]
11. In the next few years, the castle on the hill will be reopening as a museum.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
[When will the action be happening? Will the action be
continuing?]
12. Are you reading the novel that Mr. Rios recommended?
[When is the action happening? Is the action continuing?]
13. Deer have been gathering on this lawn in the late evenings.
14. The photographer had been working for the magazine for a decade.
15. This glacier has been moving gradually over this wide section of rocks.
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The Uses of the Tenses
7e. Each of the six tenses has its own uses.
As you may remember, each verb in English has six tenses: present, past, future, present
perfect, past perfect, and future perfect. A verb’s tenses indicate different ways of expressing
time. In other words, a verb’s tense shows when something happened.
The present tense shows an action or a state of being that is occurring now, at the present time.
EXAMPLE Stephanie takes violin lessons. [Takes is in the present tense. Stephanie
currently takes violin lessons.]
The past tense shows an action or state of being that occurred in the past and did not continue
into the present.
EXAMPLE The captain gave us a tour of the ship. [Gave shows an action that happened
in the past.]
The future tense shows an action or a state of being that will occur. The future tense is usually
formed by adding the helping verb will or shall to the main verb.
EXAMPLE I will send you a postcard when I arrive. [Will send shows an action that
will be happening in the future.]
EXERCISE A Identify the tense of the underlined verb in each of the following sentences. On the line
provided, write present, past, or future.
Example 1. Last week, many students hoped for an invitation to the event.
past
[The
action of the sentence, hoped, happened in the past. Therefore, the verb is in the past
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
tense.]
1. Dr. Earle, the anthropologist, will research this area for a few years.
[Is the action
of the verb happening now, in the past, or in the future?]
2. What was wrong with the dishwasher?
3. How do sharks communicate?
4. Professor Goldberg will deliver the keynote address next weekend.
5. Cathy showed the tour group where to go.
The present perfect tense shows an action or a state of being that occurred at an indefinite time
in the past. In other words, this tense shows action that happened sometime before now and
may be continuing now. The present perfect tense is usually formed with the helping verb have
or has and the past participle of a verb.
EXAMPLE We have seen this movie. [Have seen indicates an action that occurred at
an indefinite time in the past.]
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The past perfect tense shows an action or a state of being that ended before another past action
or state of being happened. The past perfect tense is usually formed with the helping verb had
and the past participle of the verb.
EXAMPLE Phillip discovered that his mother had lived here as a child. [Had lived
describes an action that ended before another past action, the
discovering, happened.]
The future perfect tense shows an action or a state of being that will end before another future
action or state of being. The future tense is usually formed with the helping verbs shall have or
will have and the past participle of a verb.
EXAMPLE By tomorrow, we will have finished painting the house. [Will have finished
indicates an action that will end before another future state of being.]
EXERCISE B Identify the tense of the underlined verb in each of the following sentences. On the line
provided, write present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, or future perfect. Also indicate if the tense
is in the progressive form.
Examples 1. Wade has been landscaping the yard.
present perfect progressive
[The helping
verb has is used with the present perfect tense. The helping verb been and the –ing at
the end of the verb show that this is the progressive form.]
2. Delores had seen us from a distance.
past perfect
[The helping
verb had is used with the past perfect tense.]
6. The Stewarts moved to Nevada.
[Which tense of the verb move
7. Dennis and Linda will register the guests.
[Which tense of the
verb register is used?]
8. By the afternoon, the direction of the wind had shifted.
9. The supervisor discovered that he had been reading the plans upside down.
10. Kelsie was waiting for us at the gate.
11. I learned the art of sculpting.
12. Are they planning a brunch for their garden club?
13. By evening, the archaeologists will have unearthed a few treasures.
14. The lion defended its territory.
15. Will the plane depart on schedule?
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is used?]
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Consistency of Tense
7f.
Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.
As you know, the tense of a verb shows when an action or state of being occurs. When you
describe events that occur at the same time, use verbs in the same tense.
EXAMPLES Jerry shouted and threw his arms in the air as he won the tennis match.
[All three actions happened at the same time in the past, so all three
verbs are in the past tense.]
Jerry shouts and throws his arms in the air as he wins the tennis match. [All
three actions are happening now, so all three verbs are in the present
tense.]
EXERCISE A Revise each of the following sentences so that all of the verbs in the sentence are in the
same tense. Write your revised sentences on the lines provided.
Examples 1. Yesterday, Marvin loses his sunglasses while he was at the beach. [The adverb
Yesterday indicates that the action occurred in the past. Change the present tense verb
loses to the past tense lost.]
Yesterday, Marvin lost his sunglasses while he was at the beach.
2. The choir rehearses on Thursdays and usually invited the public. [Change the past
tense verb invited to the present tense invites to be consistent with the present tense
verb rehearses.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
The choir rehearses on Thursdays and usually invites the public.
1. Tomorrow, we will order the flowers and are meeting with the caterer. [What tense is suggested
by Tomorrow? Which verb is not consistent with that tense?]
2. Last summer, Anthony played soccer and joins the swim team. [What tense is suggested by Last
summer? Which verb is not consistent with that tense?]
3. Most people live and will work in the same town.
4. During the game, the fans cheer and waved banners.
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5. Jean reads German and spoke Italian.
6. The council members meet only when there was a problem.
7. Eileen always took her cell phone with her when she goes to the store.
8. Did you see which way my dog has run?
9. The balloon makes a loud noise when it burst.
10. Is Jesse sick, or was he just tired?
When describing events that occur at different times, use verbs in different tenses to show the
sequence of events.
past tense mentioned is correct because the action of mentioning
happened in the past. The past perfect tense had made is correct because
the action of making was completed before the action of mentioning.]
Laurie is knitting a scarf for her brother and will give it to him for his
birthday. [The present progressive tense is knitting is correct because the
action of knitting is occurring now. The future tense will give is correct
because the action of giving will happen in the future.]
EXERCISE B Make the following sentences clearer by correcting the tense of the underlined verb. Cross
out the underlined verb, and write the appropriate verb above it.
will remove
Example 1. Jessica hopes that the doctor removed her cast tomorrow. [The action of removing will
happen in the future, so the future tense verb will remove is appropriate.]
11. The building inspector found a fracture that worsened if it isn’t repaired. [When does the
action of worsening occur?]
12. Next week, our history teacher will tell us what happens during World War II.
13. I will mop the floor after I swept it.
14. Dale works at the mall, but after tomorrow he will have been working at the supermarket.
15. Will you tell Evan that Brad was moving to Portland two weeks ago?
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EXAMPLES Barbara mentioned that she had made an appointment for tomorrow. [The
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Active and Passive Voice
7h. When the subject of a verb performs the action, the verb is in the active voice. When the subject of a verb receives the action, the verb is in the passive voice.
ACTIVE VOICE The mechanic rotated the tires on that car. [The verb rotated is in the
active voice because the subject, mechanic, performs the action.]
PASSIVE VOICE The tires on that car were rotated by the mechanic. [The verb were rotated
is in the passive voice because the subject, tires, receives the action.]
ACTIVE VOICE The critics rated those films. [The verb rated is active because the subject,
critics, performs the action.]
PASSIVE VOICE Those films were rated by the critics. [The verb were rated is passive
because the subject, films, receives the action.]
TIP
Choosing between the active voice and the passive voice is a matter of style. Nevertheless,
sometimes the passive voice can sound awkward or weak.
PASSIVE VOICE Lunch will be made by me. [This sentence sounds awkward. The passive
voice is too wordy for this otherwise simple sentence.]
ACTIVE VOICE I will make lunch. [This active voice makes the sentence simpler, and it
sounds more natural.]
EXERCISE A Identify the voice of each of the following underlined verbs by writing active or passive on
the line provided.
Examples
active
1. We tossed the horseshoes at the iron stake. [The verb is in the active
voice because the subject We performs the action.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
passive
2. The instructions are given at the top of the page. [The verb is in the
passive voice because the subject instructions receives the action.]
1. The crumbling building was demolished by the wrecking crew. [What is the
subject? Does the subject perform the action or receive the action?]
2. Howard took a picture of the Washington Monument. [Is the subject performing
the action?]
3. Some useful sewing techniques were demonstrated at the craft show.
4. The wheelbarrow was covered with mud.
5. Rosalind has taught physics at the community college for years.
6. The children played soccer after school.
7. A versatile product, beeswax is used in candles, cosmetics, and art.
8. The spider spun an intricate web over the doorway.
9. Did Nancy lend her pen to Christine?
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10. The woodcarvings were crafted in fine detail.
A verb in the active voice has a direct object. A direct object tells who or what receives the
action of the verb. A verb in the passive voice does not have a direct object.
S
DO
ACTIVE VOICE The state police will enforce the speed limit. [The subject police performs
the action; the direct object limit receives the action.]
S
PASSIVE VOICE The speed limit will be enforced by the state police. [The subject limit
receives the action; the verb does not have a direct object.]
A verb in the passive voice is made by combining a form of the verb be and the past participle
form of the verb. A verb in the passive voice is sometimes followed by a prepositional phrase
that begins with by and tells who or what performs the action.
EXAMPLES The quilts for the auction were donated. [Were is a form of the verb be.
Donated is the past participle of the verb donate. Were donated is in the
passive voice. The performer of the action, or who donated the quilts, is
not stated.]
The quilts for the auction were donated by the Heritage Society. [The
subject quilts receives the action described by the verb. The performer of
the action is the Heritage Society. The object of the preposition by is
Heritage Society.]
EXERCISE B Identify the verb in each of the following sentences as active or passive. Then, if the verb is
in the passive voice, revise the sentence so that the verb is in the active voice. If the verb is in the active
voice, revise the sentence so that the verb is in the passive voice.
subject barn receives the action.]
passive—My grandfather built that barn.
11. Did Pattie develop the film? [Does the subject of the verb perform or receive the action?]
12. Crossing guards help the children cross the street.
13. Many highways are lined by billboards.
14. In the Civil War, the Confederate army was defeated by the Union army.
15. Conservationists planted those seedlings.
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Example 1. That barn was built by my grandfather. [The verb was built is passive because the
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Degrees of Comparison
8b. Modifiers change form to show comparison.
The three degrees of comparison are positive, comparative, and superlative.
Regular Comparison
POSITIVE
ONE SYLLABLE fine
TWO SYLLABLES sticky
fully
THREE OR MORE SYLLABLES thoroughly
considerate
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
finer
stickier
more fully
more thoroughly
more considerate
finest
stickiest
most fully
most thoroughly
most considerate
To show a decrease in the qualities modifiers express, use less in forming the comparative
degree and least in forming the superlative degree.
POSITIVE
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
fortunate
less fortunate
least fortunate
EXERCISE A Write the comparative and superlative degrees of the modifiers on the lines provided
according to the instructions given in each of the items below.
Example 1. decreasing degrees of late
Comparative
Superlative
less late
least late
[The decreasing degrees of late are formed by using less and least.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Comparative
Superlative
1. increasing degrees of helpful
[How many syllables are in helpful? Which of the two possible correct choices sounds right?]
2. increasing degrees of complicated
3. decreasing degrees of lucky
4. increasing degrees of alert
5. increasing degrees of high
Irregular Comparison
Some modifiers in the comparative and superlative degrees are formed in different ways.
POSITIVE
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
bad, badly, ill
good, well
little
worse
better
less
worst
best
least
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far
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more
farther or further
most
farthest or furthest
EXERCISE B Underline the appropriate comparative or superlative form of the modifier given in
parentheses in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. The weather is (badder, worse) today than it was yesterday. [The comparative form of
bad is worse.]
6. Don has many baseball cards, but his brother has (more, manier). [How is the comparative
degree of many formed?]
7. Of all the musicians in the orchestra, Lee plays her instrument (best, goodest).
8. My trip to London was the (much, most) exciting of my life!
9. Claudia has (less, littler) time to practice on Wednesdays than on Thursdays.
10. Seattle is (more far, farther) away from our city than Denver is.
Use of Comparative and Superlative Forms
When comparing two things, use the comparative degree. When comparing more than two
things, use the superlative degree.
EXAMPLES I think that skiing is more exciting than bowling. [Two sports, skiing and
EXERCISE C Underline the appropriate comparative or superlative form of the modifier given in
parentheses in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. Is Kim the (more, most) energetic debater on the team? [Because more than two things
are being compared, the superlative degree is used.]
11. Isn’t the Mississippi River (longer, longest) than the Rio Grande? [How many things are being
compared in this sentence?]
12. This cartoon is one of the (funnier, funniest) cartoons ever written!
13. The (larger, largest) ocean animal is the blue whale.
14. Of these two pairs of shoes, which is (less, least) comfortable?
15. Because of his repairs, Roberto’s engine runs (more, most) smoothly ‘than Michael’s.
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bowling, are being compared, so the comparative degree is used.]
I think that skiing is the most exciting sport. [Skiing is being compared to
all other sports, so the superlative degree is used.]
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Placement of Modifiers A: Dangling Modifiers
00a.
8g. Avoid using dangling modifiers.
A dangling modifier is a modifying word or word group that does not clearly and logically
modify another word or word group in a sentence.
DANGLING While painting the house, paint spilled onto the sidewalk. [Was the paint
CLEAR
DANGLING
CLEAR
DANGLING
CLEAR
painting the house?]
While painting the house, I spilled paint onto the sidewalk.
Exhausted, a break was taken. [Was the break exhausted?]
Exhausted, the search party took a break.
Gazing calmly into the water, the stream rushed noisily past. [Did the
stream gaze calmly into the water?]
Gazing calmly into the water, we listened as the stream rushed noisily past.
EXERCISE A Underline the dangling modifier in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. Reaching the top of the mountain, some magnificent views were enjoyed. [The word
group Reaching the top of the mountain is dangling because its subject is missing.]
1. Shifting his weight suddenly, the canoe tipped over. [Did the canoe shift its weight?]
2. While delivering newspapers, the two Great Danes barked.
3. Having lived near the cliffs for several years, the area was quite familiar.
4. Although nervous, Ms. Oakley’s speech was a success.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
5. Climbing to the top of the stairs, the toddler’s shoe fell off his foot.
6. Having asked for assistance, the computer was quickly repaired.
7. Cracked after a fall, Christy used glue for her repairs.
8. Having sold us new umbrellas, the rain didn’t bother us at all.
9. Hungry after so much work, a well-cooked meal was wanted.
10. After marching for so long, a brief rest was called for.
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Most dangling modifiers come at the beginnings of sentences. There are at least two ways to
correct such dangling modifiers: (1) Add a subject to the word group that comes at the
beginning of the sentence; or (2) Place the word being modified immediately after the comma
that follows the word group at the beginning of the sentence.
DANGLING While driving home from work, Alan’s car ran out of gas. [Was the car driving
home from work?]
CLEAR While Alan was driving home from work, his car ran out of gas. [The subject
Alan is added to the word group that begins the sentence.]
DANGLING Concerned for our safety, a self-defense class was taught to us. [Was the
self-defense class concerned for our safety?]
CLEAR Concerned for our safety, the officer taught us a self-defense class. [The
subject officer is added immediately after the comma that follows the
word group that begins the sentence.]
EXERCISE B Underline the dangling modifier in each of the following sentences. Then, on the line
provided, rewrite each sentence to eliminate the dangling modifier.
Example 1. After tabulating the results, the winner was announced. [In order to eliminate the
dangling modifier, a subject can be added to the phrase that begins the sentence.]
After the judges tabulated the results, the winner was announced.
11. While exploring the cave, some ancient writings were discovered. [Who was exploring the cave?]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
12. After receiving a catalog, five dollars was sent to the company’s headquarters.
13. Completing several space walks, the damaged satellite was repaired.
14. Visiting Mackinac Island in Lake Huron, a boat can be taken.
15. After running around with muddy paws, the rug had to be vacuumed.
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Placement of Modifiers B: Misplaced Modifiers
8h. Avoid using misplaced modifiers.
A misplaced modifier is a modifying word or word group that seems to modify the wrong
word or word group in a sentence. To avoid misplaced modifiers, place words, phrases, or
clauses as near as possible to the words they modify.
Misplaced One-Word Modifiers
MISPLACED Distracted, the baseball sailed past the center fielder. [Was the baseball
distracted?]
CLEAR The baseball sailed past the distracted center fielder.
NOTE
To show clearly the meaning you intend, place one-word modifiers such as almost, even,
hardly, just, merely, nearly, not, and only directly before the words they modify.
EXAMPLES We wash clothes only on Saturdays. [Saturdays are the only days we
wash clothes.]
We wash only clothes on Saturdays. [On Saturdays, we wash nothing but
clothes.]
We only wash clothes on Saturdays. [On Saturdays, we don’t do anything
but wash clothes.]
EXERCISE A Circle the misplaced modifier in each of the following sentences. Then, draw an arrow to
where the modifier should go in the sentence.
Example 1. Those squirrels just moved into that tree three weeks ago. [Logically, just does not
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
modify moved, but instead modifies three–they moved just three weeks ago.]
1. Lost, the ranger station was a welcome sight to the campers. [Is the ranger station lost?]
2. I have almost visited every state in the Union.
3. Imaginative, the art kit entertained the child for hours.
4. Because Karen wasn’t staying long, she only brought one suitcase.
5. Sturdy, the copiers nearly worked for twenty-three hours a day.
Misplaced Phrase and Clause Modifiers
Place adjective phrases, adverb phrases, and verbal phrases near the words they modify.
MISPLACED Glen filmed a rare bird perching in the tree with his video camera. [Was the
bird perching with the video camera?]
CLEAR With his video camera, Glen filmed a rare bird perching in the tree.
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Place adjective and adverb clauses near the words they modify.
MISPLACED Olympic athletes receive gold medals who win their events. [Medals do not
win events.]
CLEAR Olympic athletes who win their events receive gold medals.
MISPLACED For lunch I ate tomato soup and crackers, which is my favorite soup.
[Crackers are not a soup.]
CLEAR For lunch I ate tomato soup, which is my favorite soup, and crackers.
EXERCISE B Circle the misplaced phrase or clause modifier in each of the following sentences. Then,
draw an arrow to where the modifying phrase or clause should go in the sentence.
Examples 1. Bart built a model of the Eiffel Tower using toothpicks. [Bart, not the Eiffel Tower,
used toothpicks.]
2. The carpenters forgot their tools who were building cabinets. [The carpenters, not
the tools, were building the cabinets.]
6. The research assistant sifted through stacks of papers working late into the evening. [Are the
papers working late into the evening?]
7. Kristie couldn’t hear the speaker who made the announcements because she was sitting in the
back row. [Was the speaker sitting in the back row?]
9. We stored the bicycle in the garage with the broken handlebars.
10. Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming, which is still prescribed by doctors today.
11. The computer is making strange noises on the left.
12. Did the detective find any clues to the mystery who took the case?
13. Niagara Falls attracts many tourists lying on the border between Canada and New York State.
14. The car stopped just in time that was skidding on the icy bridge.
15. Redwoods grow on the West Coast of the United States, which are the tallest living trees.
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8. Albert Einstein made many scientific advances developing new theories.
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Glossary of Usage A
accept, except Accept is a verb that means “to receive.” Except may be used as either a verb or
a preposition. As a verb, except means “to excuse” or “to leave out.” As a preposition, except
means “excluding.”
EXAMPLES Ronald accepted the award. [You can replace accepted with received.]
Returning students are excepted from paying the registration fee. [You can
replace excepted with excused.]
Everyone was late except Jill. [You can replace except with excluding.]
ain’t The word ain’t is nonstandard. Do not use ain’t in formal speaking or writing.
EXAMPLE Bobby isn’t [not ain’t] going to the baseball game.
a lot A lot should always be written as two words. A lot is often used informally as a noun
meaning “a large number or amount” or as an adverb meaning “a great deal” or “very much.”
In formal writing and speaking, try to avoid using a lot.
INFORMAL A lot of people attended the celebration.
FORMAL A large number of people attended the celebration.
INFORMAL This week’s vocabulary test was a lot easier than usual.
FORMAL This week’s vocabulary test was much easier than usual.
EXERCISE A Underline the word or word group in parentheses that is correct according to formal,
standard English.
Examples 1. Our school collected (a lot, a large number) of stuffed animals for the children’s
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
shelter. [A lot is informal.]
2. (Ain’t, Aren’t) you taking a sculpting class? [Ain’t is nonstandard.]
1. Will you (accept, except) my help? [Which word means “to receive”?]
2. The injured owl will require (a great deal, a lot) of care. [Which word group is preferred in formal,
standard English?]
3. This is your scarf, (ain’t, isn’t) it?
4. The Humane Society has (a large number, a lot) of animals available for adoption.
5. (Ain’t, Isn’t) this a saltwater aquarium?
6. Does the literary magazine (except, accept) student submissions?
7. Our math teacher is (a lot, much) taller than our science teacher.
8. Are college students over thirty-five years of age (excepted, accepted) from taking a physical
education class?
9. I brought everything for the camping trip (accept, except) my compass.
10. Whales and dolphins (aren’t, ain’t) fish; they are mammals.
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at Do not use at after where.
NONSTANDARD Where is the party at?
STANDARD Where is the party?
between, among Use between when referring to two individuals or items at a time. Use among
when referring to a group rather than to separate individuals or items.
EXAMPLES The lizard scurried between the two potted plants. [Between the two potted
plants refers to two items.]
The news quickly circulated among the class. [Among the class refers to a
group of individuals.]
bring, take Bring means “to come carrying something.” Take means “to go away carrying
something.” Think of bring as related to come and take as related to go.
EXAMPLES Please bring bread when you come for dinner. [Bring is related to come.]
Take a jacket with you when you go to school. [Take is related to go.]
could of Use have, not of, with the helping verbs could, should, would, might, must, and ought.
EXAMPLES Someone could have [not could of ] told me earlier.
Someone could’ve [not could of ] told me earlier.
EXERCISE B Underline the word or word group in parentheses that is correct according to formal,
standard English.
Examples 1. The matter was discussed (between, among) the twenty council members. [Among
the twenty council members refers to a group of individuals.]
[Brings is related to comes.]
11. Libya is located (between, among) Algeria and Egypt. [Is the sentence referring to two items?]
12. Please (bring, take) these magazines with you when you go to Grandma’s house. [Which word
means “to go away carrying something”?]
13. What kind of bird (could of, could have) built this large nest?
14. Pass out the fliers (among, between) the team.
15. (Bring, Take) your appointment card with you when you go to the doctor’s office.
16. Where are the power tools (located, located at)?
17. The fox ran (between, among) the hedge and the fence.
18. Would you (bring, take) me a glass of water when you come back?
19. The tomato plants (should of, should have) been planted last week.
20. Does anyone know where the light switch (is, is at)?
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2. Dad always (brings, takes) us souvenirs when he comes home from a business trip.
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fewer, less Fewer is used with plural nouns and tells “how many.” Less is used with singular
nouns and tells “how much.”
EXAMPLES There are fewer days in February than in March. [Days is a plural noun.]
Paul has less homework this week than he had last week. [Homework is a
singular noun.]
good, well Good is an adjective. Do not use good to modify a verb; use well.
EXAMPLES Angela is a good chess player. [Good is an adjective that tells “what kind”
of player.]
Angela plays chess well. [Well is an adverb that tells “how” Angela plays.]
NOTE
Although it is usually used as an adverb, well is also used as adjective to mean “healthy.”
EXAMPLE Now that he is over his cold, Grady feels well. [Well refers to Grady’s health.]
EXERCISE A Underline the word in parentheses that is correct according to formal, standard English.
Examples 1. How (good, well) do you know Rebecca? [Well is an adverb that tells “to what extent”
you know Rebecca.]
2. I have (fewer, less) pennies than nickels in my pocket. [Pennies is a plural noun.]
1. Those herbs smell very (good, well). [Which word should be used to describe the subject herbs?]
2. Do you have (fewer, less) energy in the afternoon than in the morning? [Is energy singular
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
or plural?]
3. Today, there were (fewer, less) ducks at the pond than yesterday.
4. Which breeds of dogs get along (good, well) with children?
5. Investors showed (fewer, less) interest in the first proposal than in the second.
6. What a (good, well) job you did!
7. Does The Washington Post have (fewer, less) readers than The New York Times?
8. The Rosetta stone is a (good, well) example of ancient writing forms.
9. Smaller cars generally use (fewer, less) fuel than larger cars.
10. Garrett went to the nurse’s office because he didn’t feel (good, well).
hisself, theirself, theirselves These words are nonstandard. Use himself and themselves.
NONSTANDARD Clint gave hisself a haircut.
STANDARD Clint gave himself a haircut.
NONSTANDARD My parents treated theirselves to a romantic dinner.
STANDARD My parents treated themselves to a romantic dinner.
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its, it’s Its means “belonging to it.” It’s is a contraction of it is or it has.
EXAMPLES Each locker has its own combination lock. [Its means “belonging to each
locker.”]
It’s taking longer than I expected. [It’s is a contraction of It is.]
What a wonderful day it’s been! [It’s is a contraction of It has.]
TIP
To determine whether its or it’s is correct in a sentence, try substituting it is or it has. If the
sentence makes sense with the substitution, the contraction it’s is probably correct. If not,
the possessive form its is probably correct.
ORIGINAL (Its, It’s) supposed to rain, so I brought my umbrella. [Does It is make sense?
Yes. It is supposed to rain makes sense.]
CORRECT It’s supposed to rain, so I brought my umbrella.
kind of, sort of In formal speaking and writing, avoid using kind of and sort of. Use rather or
somewhat instead.
INFORMAL The algebra problems were kind of hard to solve.
FORMAL The algebra problems were rather hard to solve.
EXERCISE B Underline the word or word group in parentheses that is correct according to formal,
standard English.
Examples 1. (Its, It’s) been a year since I saw Maxine. [It’s is a contraction of It has.]
2. Jerod poured (hisself, himself) a glass of milk. [Hisself is nonstandard.]
11. The new department store will open (its, it’s) doors tomorrow. [Does the sentence make sense
12. This week’s crossword puzzle was (kind of, rather) difficult. [Which expression is preferred in
formal English?]
13. Did they move the furniture (theirself, themselves)?
14. The city celebrated (its, it’s) hundredth anniversary this year.
15. The puppy seemed (sort of, somewhat) confused by the loud noise.
16. Do you think (its, it’s) too windy to fly our kites?
17. Some modern works of art are (sort of, rather) strange.
18. Kim and Irene sewed their uniforms (theirselves, themselves).
19. Lonnie could see (himself, hisself) in the mirror.
20. The meteorologist predicts that (it’s, its) going to snow tomorrow.
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with it is or it has?]
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than, then Than is a word used in making comparisons. Then means “at that time” or “next.”
EXAMPLES One of my cats is more active than the other. [Than is used to make a
comparison of one cat to the other.]
We loaded the car and then headed for the mountains. [Then indicates that
we headed for the mountains after we loaded the car.]
their, there, they’re Their means “belonging to them.” There is used to mean “at that place” or
to begin a sentence. They’re is a contraction of they are.
EXAMPLES All riders are required to wear their helmets during the bike ride. [Their
means “belonging to the riders.”]
Have you ever been there? [There means “at that place.”]
There is a post office across from city hall. [There is used to begin a sentence.]
Do you know when they’re leaving for the beach? [They’re is a contraction
of they are.]
EXERCISE A Underline the word in parentheses that is correct according to formal, standard English.
Example 1. This bowling ball is heavier (than, then) that one. [Than is used to make a comparison
between two bowling balls.]
1. Have (their, there) grandparents arrived from Minnesota? [Which word means “belonging to
them”?]
2. The deer darted across the field, and (than, then) it disappeared into the forest.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
3. (Their, They’re) cleaning out the attic this weekend.
4. Fortunately, the air conditioner is working better now (than, then) it was earlier.
5. (There, Their) are about 450 different varieties of oak trees.
them Do not use them as an adjective. Instead, use those.
NONSTANDARD Set them bowls on the table.
STANDARD Set those bowls on the table.
this here, that there Do not use here or there after this or that.
NONSTANDARD That there crossword puzzle was challenging.
STANDARD That crossword puzzle was challenging.
try and Use try to, not try and.
INFORMAL The manager said he would try and order another one.
FORMAL The manager said he would try to order another one.
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EXERCISE B Underline the word or word group in parentheses that is correct according to formal,
standard English.
Examples 1. (Them, Those) classic cars were restored by my uncle. [Them is nonstandard.]
2. Please (try and, try to) be serious. [Try and is nonstandard.]
6. (This, This here) coin came from Germany. [Which term is preferred in formal, standard English?]
7. I will (try and, try to) notify you when the new books arrive.
8. How long have (those, them) flowers been blooming?
9. Is (that, that there) painting an original or a copy?
10. Please (try and, try to) keep your room clean.
11. How much does (this, this here) bicycle cost?
12. Put (them, those) newspapers in the recycling bin.
13. (That there, That) aquarium is the largest I’ve ever seen.
14. The next shipment should include more of (those, them) cabinets.
15. The raccoons always (try to, try and) get into the trash.
whose, who’s Whose means “belonging to whom.” Who’s is the contraction of who is or who has.
EXAMPLES Whose socks are these? [Whose means “belonging to whom.”]
your, you’re Your means “belonging to you.” You’re is the contraction of you are.
EXAMPLES Your coat is hanging in the closet. [Your means “belonging to you.”]
When you’re in town, stop by for a visit. [You’re is a contraction of you are.]
EXERCISE C Underline the word in parentheses that is correct according to formal, standard English.
Example 1. Do you know (whose, who’s) glasses these are? [Whose means “belonging to whom.”]
16. (Your, You’re) the only person who is familiar with this computer software. [Which word is a
contraction of you are?]
17. I can’t remember (whose, who’s) organizing this year’s fund-raiser.
18. William Sydney Porter, (whose, who’s) pen name was O. Henry, is remembered for his short
stories.
19. (You’re, Your) ideas for the advertising campaign are brilliant!
20. (Who’s, Whose) been to New York City?
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Who’s going to the concert with you? [Who’s is a contraction of who is.]
Leo is the only one who’s received an acceptance letter. [Who’s is a
contraction of who has.]
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Glossary of Usage D
The Double Negative
The use of two or more negative words to express a single negative idea is called a double
negative. Some common negative words include barely, but (meaning “only”), hardly, neither,
never, no, nobody, none, no one, not (–n’t), nothing, nowhere, only, and scarcely. You should avoid
using double negatives in writing and in speaking.
NONSTANDARD We hardly never see Jenny anymore.
STANDARD We hardly ever see Jenny anymore.
NONSTANDARD There isn’t no explanation for what happened.
STANDARD There is no explanation for what happened.
There isn’t any explanation for what happened.
EXERCISE A Underline the word in parentheses that is correct according to formal, standard English.
Examples 1. The music was so loud that Leo (couldn’t, could) barely hear his friends. [Barely is a
negative word, so could should be used.]
2. Edward VI (wasn’t, was) but nine years old when he became the king of England.
[But is a negative word, so was should be used.]
1. (Hasn’t, Has) no one in the class read Langston Hughes’s poem “Harlem”? [Which word should
be used with the negative word no one?]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
2. The grapevine hasn’t produced (any, no) grapes yet. [Which word should be used with the
negative word hasn’t?]
3. My dog (couldn’t, could) hardly wait to go for a walk.
4. Doesn’t (anyone, no one) know the combination to this safe?
5. During the summer, we hardly (ever, never) need to wear a jacket.
6. Haven’t you (ever, never) seen a shooting star?
7. Aren’t there (no, any) raisins left in the box?
8. The bird (couldn’t, could) barely carry the large piece of bread.
9. Carol (had, hadn’t) hardly hung up the phone when it rang again.
10. The carpenter needed a dozen finishing nails, but she couldn’t find (none, any).
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Nonsexist Language
Nonsexist language applies to people in general, whether they are male or female. You should
use nonsexist language rather than gender-specific language when you are referring generally
to people.
GENDER-SPECIFIC Firemen quickly arrived at the scene.
NONSEXIST Firefighters quickly arrived at the scene.
NOTE
If a pronoun’s antecedent may be either masculine or feminine, use both the masculine
and feminine pronouns to refer to that antecedent.
EXAMPLE The salesperson of the month will receive a gift of his or her choice.
[Salesperson may be either masculine or feminine, so both his and her are
used to refer to salesperson.]
EXERCISE B Revise each of the following sentences to eliminate gender-specific terms. You may need to
change a term or reword the sentence.
Example 1. The businessmen planned their meeting for Tuesday afternoon. [The term
businessmen is gender specific. The term executives can be used instead.]
The executives planned their meeting for Tuesday afternoon.
11. The salesman showed us the latest stereo equipment. [What nonsexist word can be used in place
of the gender-specific term salesman?]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
12. Although the weathermen predicted rain, the day was bright and sunny.
13. Isn’t your mother a U.S. congressman?
14. On the job, firemen often risk their lives.
15. Please tell a stewardess if you have any special dietary restrictions.
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Capitalization A
First Words, The Pronoun I and Interjection O, Salutation and
Closing of Letters
10a. Capitalize the first word in every sentence.
EXAMPLE This puppy belongs to my friend Kara. [This is capitalized because it is the
first word in the sentence.]
Begin a quoted sentence with a capital letter, even if the quoted sentence is in the middle of a
longer sentence.
EXAMPLES Miguel asked,“When is our science project due?” [When is capitalized
because it is the first word of the quoted sentence.]
“If we don’t leave now, we will be late for the game,” Maureen said. [If is
capitalized because it is the first word of the quoted sentence.]
EXERCISE A Circle the letter that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. this Christmas, we visited my grandmother and grandfather. [The t in this should be
capitalized because this is the first word of the sentence.]
1. the capital of California is Sacramento. [Which word should be capitalized?]
2. Chi said, “my poem is about homework.”
3. a small, new village developed rather quickly along the river.
4. Paul said, “my grandfather is training for the marathon.”
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
5. “this CD is on sale,” said the salesclerk.
10b. Capitalize the pronoun I and the interjection O.
I is always capitalized, even if it is not the first word of the sentence. Capitalize I when it is
used in contractions, such as I’d, I’ll, or I’ve. The interjection O is used for invocation and is
followed by the name of the person or thing being addressed.
EXAMPLES Summer vacation is almost here, and I can hardly wait. [The pronoun I is
always capitalized, even when it is not the first word of a sentence.]
You pitch in the softball game today, and I’ll pitch tomorrow. [I is always
capitalized, even when it is in a contraction.]
Have you ever read the poem “O Daedalus,Fly Away Home”? [The interjection
O is always capitalized.]
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EXERCISE B Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. This summer, i am attending band camp. [The pronoun I should always be capitalized.]
6. when may i announce the winner? [Which words should be capitalized?]
7. my friend said, “i know your favorite subject is math, but i like history.”
8. Mr. Nelson announced, “now i’m ready for breakfast.”
9. The person i admire the most is my father, so i wrote a poem about him that began, “o Father,
my champion.”
10. since snow is already covering the ground, i hope the city doesn’t get any more tonight.
10c. Capitalize the first word in both the salutation and the closing of a letter.
The salutation is the line near the top of a letter in which you greet the person to whom you
are writing. The closing is a line near the bottom of a letter, just above your signature.
SALUTATIONS Dear Grandma, My dearest granddaughter,
CLOSINGS Yours truly,
NOTE
Sincerely,
When a salutation or closing is more than one word, capitalize the first word and proper
nouns only.
EXAMPLES Dear applicant: [Dear is the only word capitalized because it is the first
EXERCISE C Circle the letter that should be capitalized in each of the following phrases.
Example 1. dear Joe, [D in dear should be capitalized because Dear is the first word of the salutation.]
11. best wishes, [Which word should be capitalized?]
12. sincerely yours,
13. dear President Polanski,
14. yours truly,
15. dear Jane,
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word in the salutation.]
Dear Dr. Miller: [Dear is capitalized because it is the first word. Dr. and
Miller are capitalized because they are parts of a person’s name.]
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Capitalization B
Proper Nouns and Proper Adjectives, Names and Initials
10d. Capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives.
A common noun names a group of or any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas. A
proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea. A proper adjective is formed from
a proper noun and is used to describe a noun or a pronoun.
COMMON NOUNS state
religion
Judaism
Jewish holiday
PROPER NOUNS Alaska
PROPER ADJECTIVES Alaskan wildlife
writer
Charles Dickens
Dickensian characters
EXAMPLES Our class is taking a field trip to Mansfield City Hall. [Mansfield City Hall is
the name of a particular building and is capitalized.]
My uncle brought my mother some Irish lace. [Irish is a proper adjective
formed from the proper noun Ireland.]
EXERCISE A In each of the following pairs, circle the word or word group that is capitalized correctly.
Examples 1. Australian beef
Beef from australia
[Australian is a proper adjective that refers to a particular place.]
2. a Bridge in Brooklyn
Brooklyn Bridge
[Brooklyn Bridge is a proper noun that refers to a particular thing.]
1. Rhode Island
the State of rhode island
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
[Which word group is a proper noun that is correctly capitalized?]
2. chinese Art
Chinese art
[Which word group contains a proper adjective that is correctly capitalized?]
3. sears Tower in Chicago
Sears Tower in Chicago
4. Tiger Woods
tiger Woods
5. kenyan Athlete
Kenyan athlete
6. John Philip Sousa
John Philip sousa
7. rosa parks
Rosa Parks
8. peruvian Weaving
Peruvian weaving
9. Rocky Mountains
Rocky mountains
10. Windham Wildcats
Windham wildcats
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10d(1–2). Capitalize the names of persons and animals. Capitalize initials in names and
abbreviations that come before or after names.
PERSONS Carl Sagan
ANIMALS Thumper
E. B. White
Lassie
Cal Ripken, Jr.
Flipper
EXAMPLES Melissa often takes her dog Lucy to the park. [Melissa is the name of a
particular person, and Lucy is the name of a particular animal. Names
are capitalized.]
EXERCISE B Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences.
Examples 1. My uncle’s full name is juan manuel sanchez, jr. [Juan, Manuel, Sanchez, and Jr.
should all be capitalized because they are all parts of a name.]
2. We named our new puppy joey. [Joey is a name and should be capitalized.]
11. My teacher is mrs. lin. [Which words are part of someone’s name and should be capitalized?]
12. The goalie for our soccer team is dan. [Which word is someone’s name and should be capitalized?]
13. The sixth-graders enjoyed watching the movie about the dog named beethoven.
14. Our teacher read the class a poem by robert frost.
15. The class hamster, bucky, eats sunflower seeds.
16. The photograph shows a scientist, sam c. garcia, cleaning mud from artifacts.
17. How many countries in africa border the Atlantic Ocean?
19. The family members agreed that fluffy would be a good name for their new cat.
20. Last week, stephen j. jones was elected mayor.
EXERCISE C Provide a proper noun for each of the following common nouns. Write your responses in
the blanks provided.
Example 1. author
Bill Bryson
[Bill Bryson is capitalized because it is the name of
a particular author.]
21. city
[Should the name of a city be capitalized?]
22. country
23. holiday
24. weekday
25. professional athlete
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18. An astronomer, gabrielle p. freeman, spoke at the observatory today.
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Capitalization C
Geographical Names
10d(3). Capitalize geographical names.
Geographical names are proper nouns and should be capitalized. Geographical names are the
names of towns, cities, counties, parishes, townships, provinces, states, regions, countries,
continents, islands, mountains, bodies of water, forests, streets, roads, highways, and other
geographical features.
EXAMPLES Springfield [town]
Boston [city]
Travis County [county]
the South [region]
China [country]
Antarctica [continent]
the Alps [mountains]
Baker Highway [highway]
EXERCISE A Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. Two years ago, we lived on pinto street. [Pinto Street should be capitalized because it
is the name of a particular street.]
1. The crew set sail on the atlantic ocean. [Which words are the name of a particular ocean and
should be capitalized?]
2. The United States is on the continent of north america.
3. Doesn’t your pen pal Julian live in jamaica?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
4. Turn left on brentwood street and look for signs to the museum.
5. The new road that the city council members voted on will start here and go all the way to
hennepin county.
When words such as north, west, or southeast are used in the name of a region, they are
capitalized. When such words are used to tell direction, they are not capitalized.
EXAMPLES His brother used to live on the West Coast. [West Coast is the name of a
region, and it is capitalized.]
The gym is on the west side of the campus. [The word west is not capitalized
because it tells direction.]
NOTE
The second word in a hyphenated number is not capitalized.
EXAMPLE Forty-second Street [S in second is not capitalized because it is the second
word in a hyphenated number.]
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EXERCISE B Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences. If a
sentence is already correct, write C on the line provided.
Example
C
1. The sandwich shop is down the street and north of the bike shop. [North is
not capitalized because it tells direction and is not part of the name of a region.]
6. Chandra’s mother once lived in the area of the country sometimes known as the corn
belt. [Which words are the name of a region and should be capitalized?]
7. The coffee shop is on twenty-fourth Street.
8. The route of this year’s 10-kilometer race will begin near the picnic area at valleydale
pond.
9. The state of vermont borders canada.
10. Be careful when you bike across the street that is just east of the lake.
Words such as city, island, park, and street are capitalized only when they are part of a name.
EXAMPLES a high school in River City
a picnic at Pleasant Park
a high school in the city
a picnic at the park
EXERCISE C Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences. If a
sentence is already correct, write C on the line provided.
Example
1. That dog ran down madison avenue. [Madison Avenue is the name of a
11. The Ruiz family stopped at silver city on their vacation last year. [Which words are the
name of a city and should be capitalized?]
12. At the elementary school’s carnival in highland park, activities included a dunking
booth and a face-painting station.
13. What would you want to take with you if you were marooned on a desert island?
14. A popular tourist spot in louisiana is lake pontchartrain.
15. What kinds of birds are native to the hawaiian islands?
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particular street and should be capitalized.]
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Capitalization D
Organizations, Businesses and Business Products, Buildings
10d(4). Capitalize the names of organizations, teams, institutions, and government bodies.
Government bodies are things such as the Senate and Congress and any government-sponsored
programs. Institutions are places such as specific hospitals, military branches, colleges, and
museums.
EXAMPLES American Academy of Pediatrics [organization]
Bradford Bears [team]
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare [government body]
National Geographic Society [institution]
NOTE
Sometimes names of organizations, institutions, and government bodies are abbreviated
to a set of initials. These initials are capitalized.
EXAMPLES Department of Public Safety
Future Farmers of America
DPS
FFA
EXERCISE A Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. Joel’s dad works for the f b i. [FBI stands for Federal Bureau of Investigation; therefore, all
three letters should be capitalized.]
1. My youngest sister is a pitcher for a team called the little cougars. [Which words are the name
of a team and should be capitalized?]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
2. An officer in the united states marines spoke to our class today.
3. The main branch of the university of texas is located in Austin.
4. Dr. Bledsoe is a member of the american medical association.
5. Isn’t memorial general hospital well known throughout the state for its architectural design?
10d(5). Capitalize the names of businesses and brand names of business products.
Do not capitalize the name of a type of product.
EXAMPLES Regal Records [name of a business]
Apple Macintosh [brand name of a business product]
Nature Valley granola bars [The brand name, Nature Valley, is capitalized,
but not the type of product, granola bars.]
EXERCISE B Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences.
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Example 1. The toddlers were eating kix cereal. [The brand name Kix should be capitalized. The
word cereal should not be capitalized.]
6. A ford explorer was pictured in the magazine ad. [Which words are a brand name of a business
product and should be capitalized?]
7. My aunt’s new business is called food flair.
8. The antique computer at the library is a compaq presario.
9. Dave gave me a kleenex tissue after I sneezed.
10. My dad invented a new labor-saving device, the vacuumeister.
10d(6). Capitalize the names of buildings and other structures.
EXAMPLES Eiffel Tower [structure]
Palace of Versailles [building]
Museum of Modern Art [building]
Stonehenge [structure]
EXERCISE C Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in the following sentences.
Example 1. We went to the movie première at the paramount theater. [Paramount Theater should
be capitalized because it is the name of a particular building.]
11. Next year I am going to dewey high school. [Which words are the name of a particular building
and should be capitalized?]
13. Mr. Feldman is a volunteer at baptist memorial hospital.
14. That big building over there is the trump tower.
15. The famous golden gate bridge is one of the many landmarks of San Francisco.
EXERCISE D Provide a proper noun for each of the following common nouns. Write your answers on the
lines provided.
Example 1. government body
House of Representatives
16. brand name of a business product
[Should the brand name of a
business product be capitalized?]
17. team
18. business
19. building
20. organization
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12. The repair shop is located in the clark building.
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Capitalization E
Monuments, Historical Events, Nationalities
10d(7). Capitalize the names of monuments, memorials, and awards.
EXAMPLES Washington Monument [monument]
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier [memorial]
Pulitzer Prize [award]
EXERCISE A Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in the following sentences.
Example 1. I saw the jefferson memorial last year. [The words jefferson and memorial should be
capitalized because they name a monument.]
1. The children’s bookstore nearby has a window display of newbery medal winners. [Which
words are the name of an award and should be capitalized?]
2. Tourists can learn a lot the national civil rights museum in Memphis, Tennessee.
3. Who do you think will win an academy award this year?
4. Seamus Heaney won the nobel prize.
5. I am going to visit the lincoln memorial in Washington, D.C.
10d(8). Capitalize the names of historical events and periods, special events, and holidays and other
calendar items.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
EXAMPLES War of 1812 [historical event]
Industrial Age [historical period]
Bastille Day [holiday]
Summer Olympics [special event]
Monday [calendar item]
October [calendar item]
EXERCISE B Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. On f riday, the architectural plans for the new art museum were revealed. [Friday
should be capitalized because it is a day of the week.]
6. Soldiers will be honored during a service on memorial day. [Which words are the name of a
holiday and should be capitalized?]
7. Large signs at the park are advertising this year’s concert series, which is called blues on the
green.
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8. Were Shanti’s grandparents alive during the great depression?
9. The athletes have been training for the winter olympics for many years.
10. Please turn in all completed applications by february 15.
11. What are your plans for labor day?
12. The renaissance was a period of great achievements in science and literature.
13. What a surprise you’ll get on wednesday!
14. In march the weather is usually warm enough for gardening.
15. Will there be a fireworks display this fourth of july?
10d(9). Capitalize the names of nationalities, races, and peoples.
EXAMPLES Navajo [peoples]
African American [race]
Italian [nationality]
EXERCISE C Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in the following sentences.
Example 1. I attended a german festival with my friend Jane. [German should be capitalized
because it is the name of a nationality.]
16. Our new neighbor is japanese. [Which word is the name of a nationality and should be
17. We saw many beautiful paintings by a sioux artist.
18. The choir sang a few austrian songs.
19. On the Batemans’ coffee table is a book with colorful photos of australian animals.
20. The patient is a caucasian female.
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capitalized?]
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Capitalization F
Religions, Transportation, Heavenly Bodies, School Subjects
10d(10). Capitalize the names of religions and their followers, holy days and celebrations, sacred
writings, and specific deities.
Sacred writings are the scriptures of a religion, such as the Bible. Deities are the religious figures
that people worship.
EXAMPLES Buddhism [religion]
Easter [holy day]
Talmud [sacred writing]
Baptist [religious follower]
Allah [deity]
EXERCISE A Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. My uncle is a presbyterian pastor. [Presbyterian should be capitalized because it is the
name of a religious follower.]
1. I attended a christmas service at my church. [Which word is the name of a holy day and should
be capitalized?]
2. The first book of the bible is genesis.
3. A jewish holiday called passover observes the release of ancient Hebrews from slavery.
4. Will Mia’s cousin get married at the baptist church on Burnet Street?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
5. The primary religion of India is hinduism.
10d(11). Capitalize the names of ships, trains, aircraft, and spacecraft.
EXAMPLES Queen Elizabeth 2 [ship]
Spruce Goose [aircraft]
City of New Orleans [train]
Mir [space station]
EXERCISE B Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. Many tenth-graders saw a documentary about the titanic. [Titanic should be
capitalized because it is the name of a particular ship.]
6. We saw a replica of the first airplane, the flyer I, at the museum. [Which word is the name of a
particular aircraft and should be capitalized?]
7. Is skylab the name of the space station that fell to earth?
8. Mr. Lawless has owned his car, bertha, for five years.
9. Tickets for the special trip on the train round rock express were available last weekend.
10. My aunt and uncle took a cruise on the neptune princess.
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10d(12). Capitalize the names of planets, stars, constellations, and other heavenly bodies.
EXAMPLES Jupiter [planet]
Milky Way [galaxy]
NOTE
Alpha Centauri [star]
Big Dipper [constellation]
The words sun and moon are generally not capitalized.
EXERCISE C Circle the letter that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences. If a sentence
is already correct, write C on the line provided.
1. We learned all about neptune at the planetarium today. [Neptune should be
Example
capitalized because it is the name of a planet.]
11. Catherine looked up at the sky and pointed out andromeda. [Which word is the name of
a constellation and should be capitalized?]
12. The one constellation I can always identify is orion.
13. One of Jupiter’s moons is named io.
14. People should never look directly at the sun.
15. Is the planet mercury the nearest to the sun?
Capitalize the name of school subjects if the course name is followed by a number, and
capitalize the names of language classes. Do not capitalize general school subjects.
Spanish [language class]
science [general school subject]
EXERCISE D Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in the following sentences. If a sentence
is already correct, write C on the line provided.
Example
C
1. What was the topic of chemistry class yesterday? [Chemistry should be lowercase because it is not followed by a number.]
16. Lee’s favorite class is art 101. [Is the course name followed by a number? Should it be
capitalized?]
17. Students in French impressed the school by raising money for several charities.
18. If you need help with algebra II homework, please meet with one of the tutors.
19. The latin classes at Jefferson High School have had three different teachers in four years.
20. Do you like your history class?
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EXAMPLES Math 101 [course name followed by a number]
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Capitalization G
Titles of Persons and Creative Works
10f. Capitalize titles.
(1) Capitalize a person’s title when the title comes before the person’s name.
The title can be spelled out or abbreviated, but it is always capitalized before a name. When a
title is used alone, it is lowercase. If the title addresses someone directly, it is capitalized.
EXAMPLES In a few minutes, President Ward will speak to our class. [President is a title
that comes before a name and is capitalized.]
Please deliver the envelope to Mrs. Serafini. [Mrs. is a title that comes
before a name and is capitalized.]
The hospital is hiring a new doctor in the pediatrics department. [Doctor is
lowercase because it is not followed by a person’s name.]
How long will I need to wear the leg cast, Doctor? [Doctor is capitalized
because it is used to address someone directly.]
EXERCISE A Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences. If a
sentence is already correct, write C on the line provided.
Example
1. Tell dr. Garcia how you are feeling. [Dr. should be capitalized because it is
someone’s title, and it comes before a name.]
1. Before the meeting, president Ames spoke to the committee. [Which word is a title that
comes before a person’s name and should be capitalized?]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
2. Didn’t Willis say that his favorite teacher is professor Donaldson?
3. There’s an emergency at the skating rink, doctor!
4. Our next-door neighbor, mr. dawson, has a lovely flower garden.
5. The successful hardware store down the street is run by Mrs. Cho.
(2) Capitalize a word showing a family relationship when the word is used before or in place of a
person’s name, unless the word follows a possessive noun or pronoun.
NOTE
Words that show a family relationship are mom, dad, grandma, aunt, uncle, and other
such words. Possessives are words such as my, our, your, his, her, its, and their.
EXAMPLES Aunt Sally
my aunt Sally
Uncle Phil
his uncle Phil
Mom
their mom
Dad
Mike’s dad
EXERCISE B Circle the letter that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences. If a sentence
is already correct, write C on the line provided.
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C
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1. I can’t wait to see my uncle Phillip. [Uncle should not be capitalized because it
follows my, a possessive pronoun.]
6. Will you tell us a story about Ireland, grandma? [Which word showing a family
relationship is used in place of a person’s name?]
7. Tomorrow, uncle Thomas will be volunteering at a home-building site.
8. What time should we meet your cousin at the movie theater?
9. Your most recent art show went quite well, mom.
10. Well, Dad, five people have already signed up for next weekend’s canoe trip.
(3) Capitalize the first and last words and all other important words in titles and subtitles.
Words that are not important in a title or subtitle and should not be capitalized are articles (a,
an, and the), short prepositions with fewer than five letters (such as of, to, in, for, from, and with),
and coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet).
EXAMPLE Peter and the Wolf [The words and and the are not capitalized because and
is a coordinating conjunction, and the is an article.]
NOTE
The first word of a title is always capitalized. If an article, short preposition, or
coordinating conjunction is the first word in a title, it should be capitalized.
EXAMPLES Of Mice and Men [The preposition Of is capitalized in this case because it
EXERCISE C Circle the letter or letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. The name of the winning essay is “the ten best exercises for teenagers.” [The words
the, ten, best, exercises, and teenagers should all be capitalized. The is capitalized because it
is the first word in the title. For is not capitalized because it is a short preposition.]
11. A reproduction of the painting mona lisa had been on display at the Riverdale Gallery. [Which
words are the name of a painting and should be capitalized?]
12. Isn’t his favorite TV show drake and josh?
13. A class activity that kept everyone’s attention was Matt’s reading of the poem “jabberwocky.”
14. Tyra’s younger sister receives nickelodeon magazine.
15. Mr. Ramirez told his students to read Chapter 13, “the revolutionary war.”
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is the first word of the title.]
A Christmas Carol [The article A is capitalized in this case because it is the
first word of the title.]
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End Marks and Abbreviations
End Marks
11a. A statement (a declarative sentence) is followed by a period.
EXAMPLE John is late for his science class. [This sentence ends with a period
because the speaker is making a statement.]
11b. A direct question (an interrogative sentence) is followed by a question mark.
EXAMPLE What time is the birthday party on Saturday? [The speaker is asking a
direct question, so the sentence should end with a question mark.]
11c. An exclamation (an exclamatory sentence or a strong interjection) is followed by an exclamation
point.
Use an exclamation point when the sentence expresses excitement, surprise, or fright. An
interjection is one word that expresses excitement or fright, such as hey, wow, or oh.
EXAMPLE Oh! What beautiful flowers those are! [An exclamation point is used after
Oh because it expresses excitement. An exclamation point is used after
the sentence because it also expresses excitement.]
11d. A request or command (an imperative sentence) is followed by either a period or an exclamation
point.
If the sentence is a request or a mild command, then use a period. If the sentence is a strong
command, then use an exclamation point.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
MILD COMMAND Watch this video. [The person speaking is making a request, so the
sentence needs a period at the end.]
STRONG COMMAND Watch your step! [The person speaking is giving a strong command, so
the sentence needs an exclamation point at the end.]
EXERCISE A Add a period, question mark, or an exclamation point to the following sentences.
Examples 1. How happy you look! [This sentence is an exclamation, so it should end with an
exclamation point.]
2. Maps are available at the bookstore. [This sentence is a statement, so it should end
with a period.]
1. The science test isn’t on Friday [Is the sentence a statement, a question, an exclamation, or a
command?]
2. Look out, there’s a rock falling from the cliff above us [Is the sentence a statement, a question, an
exclamation, or a command?]
3. Which of these books is your favorite
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4. No running is allowed at the pool; slow down right now
5. What did Simira think of the art exhibit
6. Over the years, many immigrants have been inspired by the Statue of Liberty
7. How many times per minute do hummingbirds flap their wings
8. I think I just sprained my ankle—ouch
9. As summer progressed, lawns across the city turned brown
10. Does Aunt Nancy like her new apartment
Abbreviations
Abbreviations are shortened forms of words and phrases. Many abbreviations are followed by
a period. Other abbreviations don’t use a period. These abbreviations include the names of
certain organizations and two-letter state abbreviations on envelopes and letters.
WITH PERIODS Meet in the gym at 7:00 A.M. [A.M. is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase
ante meridiem, which means “before noon.”]
Percy B. Shelley [B is a letter standing for part of someone’s name, so a
period follows the abbreviation.]
Thomas O’Malley, Jr. [Jr. is a title following someone’s name, so a period
follows the abbreviation.]
WITHOUT PERIODS MADD [MADD stands for Mothers Against Drunk Driving.]
EXERCISE B Add periods where they are needed in each of the following sentences. If a sentence is
Example
C
1. The headquarters for NASA are in Houston, Texas. [No periods are needed
between the letters of NASA, which is the abbreviation of National Aeronautics
and Space Administration.]
11. Fred McIntyre, Sr , is a popular professor. [Which word is an abbreviation that should be
followed by a period?]
12. The winner of this year’s poetry contest is A M Castile!
13. Many historians believe that famous epic was created around 800 B C
14. Look in the Yellow Pages for a surgeon named F J Dominguez.
15. All of those invited to the dinner were surprised to learn that he was a member of
the CIA.
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already correct, write C on the line provided.
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Commas A
Items in a Series
11f. Use commas to separate items in a series.
When you list more than two items in a sentence, place a comma after all the items except the
last one.
EXAMPLE Last summer we went to the park, fished in the stream, and hiked on the
mountain. [Three items are listed: went to the park, fished in the stream,
and hiked on the mountain. Commas are needed after the first two items.]
If all the items have and, or, or nor between them, do not put the commas between the items.
EXAMPLE Last summer we went to the park and fished in the stream and hiked on the
mountain. [Since and is between each item, commas are not needed.]
EXERCISE A Add commas where they are needed in each of the following sentences. If a sentence is
already correct, write C on the line provided.
1. The subjects for the history test are the Boston Tea Party, the Revolutionary
Examples
War, and the signing of the Constitution. [Commas should be added after
the first two items in the list.]
C
2. Phil washed the car and vacuumed the mats and shined the windows.
[Since and is between each item, no commas are needed.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
1. Carter has lived in Memphis Houston and Boston. [What items are in a list and should
have commas after them?]
2. Which friend of Jenny’s has the three dogs named Bingo Lucky and Lottie? [What
items are in a list and should have commas after them?]
3. We packed pasta salad potato salad and fruit salad for our picnic.
4. We can see pictures and dinosaurs and artifacts at the museum.
5. My mother planted roses marigolds and daisies.
6. The three girls, Betty and Laquita and Molly, tried out for the tennis team.
7. Please bring an easel paintbrush and paint to art class.
8. Rhode Island California and Iowa are all states.
9. Please get milk cereal and bread at the grocery store.
10. Engineers need to notice details enjoy math and solve problems.
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11g. Use commas to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun.
EXAMPLE Carla knitted a thick, soft, long-sleeved sweater. [The adjectives thick, soft,
and long-sleeved describe the word sweater. These words should be
separated by commas.]
REMINDER
Adjectives are words that describe something. They are words such as pretty,
strong, blue, slow, small, impressive, energetic, and Irish.
When a series of adjectives comes before a compound noun, do not use a comma between the
last adjective and the compound noun.
EXAMPLE The interesting, fun art class met on Saturday. [The adjectives interesting
and fun describe the compound noun art class. A comma separates
interesting and fun.]
NOTE
Adjectives in a series require commas between them. Don’t be fooled by words that
look like adjectives but are not. Be careful not to use commas between adjectives and
the adverbs that modify them.
EXAMPLE Paula made an unusual, dark green apron in home economics class. [The
adverb dark modifies the adjective green, so no comma is needed after
dark. A comma is needed between unusual and green, which are both
adjectives that describe the noun apron.]
EXERCISE B Add commas where they are needed in each of the following sentences. If a sentence is
already correct, write C on the line provided.
Example
1. Customers enjoyed the hot, spicy Chinese food. [Hot and spicy are both
by a comma.]
11. We saw a long suspenseful movie at the theater today. [Which adjectives describe the
noun movie and should be separated by a comma?]
12. Who were the most talented creative artists at the show?
13. I like that bright red paint for the bedroom wall.
14. Puff is a white fluffy friendly cat.
15. The radio was playing soft peaceful music.
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adjectives that describe the compound noun Chinese food, so they are separated
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Commas B
Compound Sentences
11h. Use a comma before and, but, for, nor, or, so, or yet when the conjunction joins independent
clauses.
EXAMPLES We attended the pep rally, and then we went to the football game. [We
attended the pep rally and then we went to the football game are two independent clauses. The conjunction and joins them, so a comma is needed
before the conjunction.]
Boston is a busy city, but New York may be a busier one. [Boston is a busy
city and New York may be a busier one are two independent clauses. The
conjunction but joins them, so a comma is needed before the conjunction.]
REMINDER
An independent clause is a group of words that expresses a complete thought and
that has a subject and its verb. Independent clauses can stand alone as sentences,
or they can be joined with other clauses to make a sentence.
EXERCISE A Add commas where they are needed in each of the following sentences.
Examples 1. Tony tossed the ball, and Susan caught it. [A comma is needed before the
conjunction because and joins two independent clauses.]
2. Will the storm hit Detroit, or will the rains bypass the city? [A comma is needed
before the conjunction because or joins two independent clauses.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
1. Paul did not paint the garage nor did he clean the attic. [Does the conjunction nor join two
independent clauses?]
2. Alan wants a mouse as a pet but Teresa wants a hamster. [Does the conjunction but join two
independent clauses?]
3. The sophomore class will hold a car wash or they will organize a bake sale.
4. The tour guide told us about the history of the city yet we still had many questions.
5. I am studying for the math test but I will be reading my novel next.
6. I can bring charcoal to the pool party or you can bring it.
7. Pedro is drawing the design and Sean is writing the story.
8. We watched a show about interior design so we have many good ideas for this room.
9. Mrs. Karon bought a keyboard for she is taking piano lessons.
10. Don’t forget your homework and don’t be late for school.
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Do not use a comma before the conjunction and, but, for, nor, or, so, or yet unless the conjunction
joins two independent clauses.
EXAMPLE We listened to the radio and ate our sandwiches. [We listened to the radio is
an independent clause, but ate our sandwiches is not. Do not place a
comma before and.]
EXERCISE B Add a comma where it is needed in each of the following sentences. If a sentence is already
correct, write C on the line provided.
Example
C
1. We read a book and watched a movie. [A comma is not needed in this
sentence because the conjunction and does not join two independent clauses.]
11. I studied for my history test but forgot about my biology quiz. [Does the conjunction
but join two independent clauses?]
12. The dog ran after the ball and brought it back.
13. My little sister blew out the candles so everyone at the party clapped their hands.
14. My mother built the treehouse and Mrs. Tan planted the garden.
15. Should we plant vegetables or grow a flower garden?
EXERCISE C Combine the following pairs of sentences by using a comma and a conjunction (and, but, for,
nor, or, so, or yet) to join each pair of independent clauses.
Example 1. Did the concert get cancelled? Has it been postponed? [A comma and the conjunction
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
or have been used to join the two independent clauses.]
Did the concert get cancelled, or has it been postponed?
16. Turn down the television. Turn it off entirely.
17. Kendra won the 100-meter dash. She got a blue ribbon.
18. The football soared through the air. It finally went through the goal posts.
19. Friday was supposed to be rainy. It was sunny all day.
20. Should we cook spaghetti? Should we make sandwiches?
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Commas C
Nonessential Phrases and Clauses
11i. Use commas to set off nonessential subordinate clauses and nonessential participial phrases.
A nonessential clause or nonessential phrase is a word group that does not change the basic
meaning of a sentence. In other words, the meaning of the sentence would be clear even if the
nonessential word group were removed.
EXAMPLES Jim, who made the best grade on the last test, will help us study for the
next test. [The subordinate clause who made the best grade on the last test
can be removed from the sentence, and the sentence will still make
sense. Therefore, the clause is nonessential and is set off by commas.]
The Kelsos’ house, painted a bright red, stood out in the neighborhood.
[The participial phrase painted a bright red can be removed from the
sentence, and the sentence will still make sense. Therefore, the phrase is
nonessential and is set off by commas.]
EXERCISE A Add commas where they are needed in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. Janie, who is my best friend, moved away last summer. [The subordinate clause
who is my best friend can be removed from the sentence, and the sentence will still make
sense. The clause is nonessential and should be set off by commas.]
1. Dad energized by his morning jog made us breakfast this morning. [Which words could be
removed from the sentence? Would the sentence still make sense?]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
2. Our two puppies which like to play tumble over their own feet sometimes. [Which words
could be removed from the sentence? Would the sentence still make sense?]
3. The sun which was shining brightly improved our moods.
4. The telephone woke Mr. Grady who was snoring softly.
5. His shoes shined and polished went well with his uniform.
6. That blue chair which is rather old has been on the balcony all summer.
7. The tree shedding leaves and branches looked as if it would fall.
8. Grandma smiling widely stepped off the airplane.
9. Jacob breathing heavily finished the marathon.
10. The bee buzzing incredibly loudly followed us.
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An essential subordinate clause or participial phrase is not set off by commas because it helps
the sentence make sense. An essential word group shouldn’t be separated from the rest of the
sentence.
EXAMPLES The girl who is from Sacramento won the spelling bee. [The subordinate
clause who is from Sacramento is important to the meaning of the
sentence. Without this word group, we would not know which girl won
the spelling bee. This clause is essential and is not set off by commas.]
Actors wishing to audition for the school play will meet here at 4:00 P.M.
[The participial phrase wishing to audition for the school play is important
to the meaning of the sentence. Without this word group, we would not
know which actors are meant. This phrase is essential and is not set off
by commas.]
EXERCISE B Add commas where they are needed in each of the following sentences. If a sentence is
already correct, write C on the line provided.
Examples
C
1. The boy who is standing next to the lockers is my brother. [The subordinate
clause who is standing next to the lockers is important to the meaning of the
sentence because this word group tells us which boy is meant. The clause is
essential and should not be set off from the rest of the sentence by commas.]
2. Julie, running in the third lane, is expected to win the race. [The participial
phrase running in the third lane can be removed from the sentence, and the
from the rest of the sentence by commas.]
11. The poem written by my aunt is on page seven. [Without the word group written by my
aunt, do you still know which poem is meant?]
12. Gracie’s science project which was on the blue table won the prize. [Without the word
group which was on the blue table, do you still know which project is meant?]
13. The day that it rained hard I was two blocks away from home.
14. Customers using coupons must go to that cashier.
15. The new movie panned by critics is still sold out.
16. Uncle Joe who grew up in Texas says the hot weather doesn’t bother him.
17. Students sitting in the first two rows will have to move to the back of the room.
18. Trees that lose their leaves every year are called deciduous.
19. Jamie’s horse which lives in a stable near her house is nine years old.
20. David cleaning out his desk found the missing book.
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sentence will still make sense. The phrase is nonessential and should be set off
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Commas D
Introductory Words, Phrases, and Clauses
11j. Use a comma after certain introductory elements.
Use a comma to set off a mild exclamation such as well, oh, or why at the beginning of a
sentence. Other introductory words such as yes and no are also set off by commas. Use a
comma after an introductory participle or participial phrase.
EXAMPLES Yes, the trip to the wildlife park was fun. [Yes is an introductory word that
begins the sentence. Yes is set off from the rest of the sentence by a
comma.]
Shaking off water, the dog went into the house. [The introductory
participial phrase Shaking off water is set off from the rest of the sentence
by a comma.]
EXERCISE A Add commas where they are needed in each of the following sentences.
Examples 1. Oh, I don’t know about that. [Oh is an introductory word. It should be separated from
the rest of the sentence by a comma.]
2. Spinning in a circle, the little girl fell onto the grass. [Spinning in a circle is an
introductory participial phrase. The phrase should be separated from the rest of the
sentence by a comma.]
1. Yes I do like your new haircut. [Which word is an introductory word that should be separated
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
from the rest of the sentence by a comma?]
2. Weaving from side to side the skateboarder went through the obstacle course. [Which word
group is an introductory participial phrase and should be followed by a comma?]
3. Slowly a large stingray swam along the reef.
4. Formed by a glacier this valley has fertile farm land.
5. Waiting patiently Chris was ready for his driver’s test.
6. Appearing quickly the digital image brightened the computer screen.
7. Why that was the funniest show I have ever seen!
8. Shining brightly the lighthouse beam can be seen for miles.
9. Smiling Gary showed us his “Best Actor” trophy.
10. Looking at her work again Lena decided to revise her layout.
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Use a comma after an introductory prepositional phrase if the phrase is long or if two or more
phrases appear together. Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause.
EXAMPLES Through the back door and down the back steps, you will find the
garbage cans. [Through the back door and down the back steps are
introductory prepositional phrases. Since two phrases begin the
sentence, a comma is needed to separate the phrases from the rest of
the sentence.]
After we eat lunch, we will go to the park. [After we eat lunch is an
introductory adverb clause that tells when we will go to the park. It
should be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.]
EXERCISE B Insert commas where they are needed in each of the following sentences.
Examples 1. Beside the picnic table and the lawn chair, we found the picnic basket. [Beside the
picnic table and the lawn chair is a long introductory prepositional phrase, and a comma is
needed after it.]
2. When you get to the post office, turn left. [When you get to the post office is an
introductory adverb clause and needs a comma after it.]
11. On top of Mom’s suitcase in the closet you will find her hat. [Is a comma needed after two
introductory prepositional phrases?]
12. After I finish my homework I am going for a walk. [Is a comma needed after the introductory
13. For last year’s Fourth of July holiday didn’t the neighbors decorate their yard with tiny flags?
14. As the train pulled away from the station my sister waved goodbye.
15. From the lush mountains to the rugged valley the view was beautiful.
16. On a hill in the center of town that castle is a noticeable landmark.
17. When you go into the kitchen please take this plate with you.
18. As soon as Terrell turned six years old he joined the Little League team.
19. Before you get started on your essay please read the guidelines.
20. Because the wind is blowing steadily the blades of the windmill are spinning.
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adverb clause After I finish my homework?]
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Commas E
Sentence Interrupters
11k. Use commas to set off an expression that interrupts a sentence.
Use commas to set off nonessential appositives and nonessential appositive phrases.
EXAMPLES My dog, a beagle, looks like Snoopy from the Peanuts cartoon. [The
appositive beagle identifies the noun dog. The sentence makes sense
without the appositive. Therefore, the appositive is nonessential and is
set off from the rest of the sentence by commas.]
This kitten, the liveliest one of the litter, is very cute. [The appositive
phrase the liveliest one of the litter identifies the noun kitten. The sentence
makes sense without the appositive phrase. Therefore, the appositive
phrase is nonessential and is set off from the rest of the sentence by
commas.]
An essential appositive or appositive phrase is a word or word group that is important to the
meaning of the sentence. If you remove an essential appositive or appositive phrase from the
sentence, the sentence will be incomplete.
EXAMPLE My friend Owen is the youngest of four children. [Since the speaker
probably has more than one friend, the appositive Owen is important to
the meaning of the sentence. The appositive is not set off from the rest of
the sentence by commas.]
EXERCISE A Add commas where they are needed in each of the following sentences. If a sentence is
already correct, write C on the line provided.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Example
C
1. My cat Jessie is the youngest cat I own. [Since the speaker has more than one
cat, the name Jessie is important to the sentence. It should not be separated from
the rest of the sentence by commas.]
1. My paternal grandfather Sean Ward is a firefighter. [Does the speaker have only one
paternal grandfather? If so, the appositive Sean Ward should be set off by commas.]
2. This bike the blue one is mine.
3. Tomorrow night, Saturday the twenty-seventh, is Tera’s birthday.
4. Her math textbook a heavy book is sitting on the table.
5. The cafe Trail’s End Diner serves large, healthful muffins.
Use commas to set off words in direct address. When you use direct address, you say someone’s
name to get that person’s attention.
EXAMPLES Mom, I have a piano lesson today after school. [Mom is a noun of direct
address because the speaker is talking to Mom directly. Mom
should be followed by a comma.]
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This weekend, students, I hope you will spend some time studying for the
quiz. [Students is a noun of direct address because the speaker is talking
to the students directly. Students should be separated from the rest of the
sentence by commas.]
EXERCISE B Add commas where they are needed in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. May we play catch in the yard today, Dad? [Dad is a noun of direct address and
should be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.]
6. Come inside the house Rover. [What word is a noun of direct address and should be separated
from the rest of the sentence by a comma?]
7. If you practice more Sarah you will soon learn to play the guitar.
8. This amusement park Sir is the best one I have ever seen!
9. How many pages is your English essay Julie?
10. I am so glad you are visiting us Grandma.
Use commas to set off parenthetical expressions. A parenthetical expression is a word or word
group that interrupts the sentence to make a comment. Parenthetical expressions include
words such as however, on the other hand, and for example.
sentence. It should be set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma.]
Another theory, on the other hand, is that the skeleton is 11,000 years old.
[On the other hand interrupts the sentence and should be set off from the
rest of the sentence by commas.]
We believed him, of course. [Of course interrupts the sentence. It should
be set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma.]
EXERCISE C Insert commas where they are needed in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. This movie, however, looks exciting. [However interrupts the sentence and should be
separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.]
11. This wood for instance is the correct type for a bird feeder. [What words interrupt the sentence
and should be set off from the rest of the sentence by commas?]
12. Meanwhile the two boys had broken the secret code.
13. Golden retrievers are generally speaking smart and friendly dogs.
14. We are meeting at the gym at 3:00 P.M. I believe.
15. Is this new camera in fact more lightweight than last year’s model?
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EXAMPLES In fact, he was offering us half his sandwich. [In fact interrupts the
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Semicolons
12a. Use a semicolon between closely related independent clauses that are not joined by a
coordinating conjunction such as and, but, for, nor, or, so, or yet.
EXAMPLE It rained today; I’m glad I brought my umbrella. [A semicolon appears
between two closely related independent clauses.]
Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb or by a
transitional expression. A semicolon should precede the conjunctive adverb or transitional
expression, and a comma should follow it.
EXAMPLES I missed the lecture; therefore, I borrowed class notes from Sue.
[A semicolon appears between two independent clauses joined by a
conjunctive adverb. A comma follows the conjunctive adverb.]
The equation wasn’t hard to solve; in fact, the solution was easy to find.
[A semicolon appears between two independent clauses joined by a
transitional expression. A comma follows the transitional expression.]
REMINDER
Conjunctive adverbs and transitional expressions show readers how linked independent clauses are related to each other. Common conjunctive adverbs include
however, nevertheless, instead, consequently, and therefore. Common transitional
expressions include as a result, for example, in addition, in fact, and on the other hand.
EXERCISE A Use proofreading symbols to add semicolons where they are needed in each of the
following sentences.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Examples 1. I wanted to go to a movie however, my little sister wanted to go to an amusement
^;
park. [The two independent clauses should be joined by a semicolon and the
conjunctive adverb however. A comma follows however.]
2. A small plane is circling the landing field, the pilot must be waiting to land. [The
^;
two independent clauses should be joined by a semicolon.]
1. Today, the sun was shining the cat went for a walk outside. [Does a semicolon join the two
independent clauses in this sentence?]
2. The thermostat broke, consequently, the car overheated. [Do a semicolon and a conjunctive
adverb join the two independent clauses in this sentence?]
3. It was not an easy test nevertheless, she thinks she passed it.
4. Zack likes his new bicycle after all, it has fifteen speeds.
5. The press has to be level, otherwise, the drill holes will be at the wrong angle.
6. There was a brief flurry of snow, then, it began to drizzle.
7. Tom is trying out for the basketball team he plays well.
8. The ’32 sedan should win the car show, on the other hand, so should the ’31 coupe.
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9. I like bright colors for instance, my room is bright blue.
10. A light on that radio tower is out, someone needs to call in the repair crew.
Use a semicolon, rather than a comma, to separate independent clauses joined by a
coordinating conjunction when the independent clauses contain commas that may be confusing. Use a semicolon between items in a series if the items contain commas.
EXAMPLES The baby ate his supper, took his bath, and heard a story; and his mother
tucked him in, sang him a lullaby, and kissed him goodnight. [Because the
two independent clauses contain commas, they are joined by a
semicolon.]
I addressed the letters to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Phoenix, Arizona; and
Frankfurt, Germany. [Because the items in the series contain commas,
semicolons are used to separate the items.]
EXERCISE B Use proofreading symbols to add semicolons where they are needed in each of the
following sentences. If the sentence is already punctuated correctly, write C on the line provided.
Example
C
1. These records indicate that long distance phone calls were made to that
number on November 6, 8, and 17, 2009; and January 19, 22, 25, and 30,
2010. [The items in this list contain commas, so semicolons should separate the
items.]
11. The package was routed through Memphis, Tennessee, New Orleans, Louisiana, and
12. Because I needed reference books, a photocopier, and a quiet place to work, I went to
the library; and because Carmela needed a thesaurus, periodicals, and a computer, she
came with me.
13. The scheduled meeting dates are Friday, January 26, Saturday, January 27, and Friday,
February 2.
14. The food donation bags need to be delivered to 1104 Oak Street, 124 Maple, 1932 Piney
Woods, and 476 Shady Green.
15. This file cabinet contains paper clips, both large and small, highlighters in assorted
colors, pens, including red, blue, green and black ballpoints, and several types of file
folders.
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Houston, Texas. [Should the items in this series be separated by semicolons?]
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Colons
12e. Use colons to tell readers to “note what follows.” Use colons before lists of items, especially after
expressions such as the following and as follows.
EXAMPLE The shelter needs these supplies: bath soap, shampoo, toothpaste, paper
towels, and assorted canned goods. [The colon tells readers that a list of
items will follow.]
Use colons to introduce long, formal statements or quotations.
EXAMPLE The council announced the following: “The proposed change to zoning, after
thorough and thoughtful discussion, has been rejected.” [The colon tells
readers that a formal quotation follows. Because the quotation is a complete sentence, it begins with a capital letter.]
NOTE
Do not use a colon between a verb and its complements or between a preposition and
its objects.
INCORRECT For Tuesday’s field trip, wear: comfortable shoes, cotton socks, a hat, and
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
hiking apparel. [The colon separates the verb wear from its complements,
the direct objects shoes, socks, hat, and apparel.]
CORRECT For Tuesday’s field trip, wear these: comfortable shoes, cotton socks, a hat, and
hiking apparel. [The colon no longer separates the verb wear from its
new complement, these.]
INCORRECT The truck has been loaded with: books, a desk, two lamps, and a chair. [The
colon separates the preposition with from its objects, books, desk, lamps,
and chair.]
CORRECT The truck has been loaded with office materials: books, a desk, two lamps,
and a chair. [The colon no longer separates the preposition with from its
new object, materials.]
EXERCISE A Use proofreading symbols to correct any incorrect punctuation and to insert correct
punctuation where needed in the following sentences.
Example 1. Of whales, Estelle wrote this : “It’s their size that sometimes astonishes me.” [A colon
should introduce this formal quotation.]
1. Vivette’s locker has a few decorations similar to yours; a small poster, an origami swan, a
couple of family photographs, and a superhero action figure. [Should a colon introduce the list
of items in this sentence?]
2. Tomorrow, each of you is expected to bring the raw materials that you’ll need in order to build
a simple electric motor, three strands of wire, a magnet, two large paper clips, and a battery.
3. In a letter to M. Standford, Lien Sing wrote; “The necessary data has been gathered. Now we
await funding before we can begin the process of discovering what that data actually means.”
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4. Speaking directly to the play’s audience, the character Anne Benson reveals the following
“That puddle of water, so far from any stream or river, seemed to be a quiet gift dropped to
Earth, a shimmering and muddy pool of life-giving moisture with which I might survive the
desert’s noonday sun.”
5. Today, City Manager Manuela Mora announced new water restrictions—“Due to unusually
dry conditions, we are asking citizens to further decrease their levels of water consumption.
We are requiring that local residents suspend the use of sprinklers and sprinkler systems.”
Use colons before statements that explain or clarify preceding statements.
EXAMPLE The housing development will be completed on time: Most of the homes
have been carpeted, and the remainder are scheduled to be carpeted within
the next two weeks. [The second statement explains the idea of the first
sentence. Because the second statement is a complete sentence, it begins
with a capital letter.]
Also use colons in certain conventional situations: between the hour and minute when writing
time, between chapter and verse in Biblical references, between a title and its subtitle, and after
the salutation of a business letter.
EXAMPLES I’ll meet you outside your science class at 12:30 p.m. [hour and minute]
EXERCISE B Use proofreading symbols to correct any incorrect punctuation and to insert correct
punctuation where needed in the following items.
Example 1. Abra wrote a great essay titled “Summertime,: When Time Seems to Fly.” [A colon,
^
not a comma, is needed between the title and subtitle of the essay.]
6. Marguerite finally cleaned out her book pack, A pair of running shoes, two overdue library
books, and an old bottle of water had made it heavy. [Does the second sentence explain the first
sentence? Should a colon separate the two sentences?]
7. “Easy Answers—Three Simple Steps Toward Healthier Living”
8. To get to the bus terminal on time, you’ll have to get up by 7 15 A.M.
9. Dear President Reid—
10. The Bible verse Proverbs 19–8 is inspirational.
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Have you read Matthew 5:44? [chapter and verse of the Bible]
Forgotten Duties: Leadership’s Limits [title and subtitle]
Dear Major Leslau: [salutation of business letter]
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Italics
13a. Use italics (underlining) for titles and subtitles of books, plays, long poems, periodicals, works of
art, movies,TV series, and long musical works and recordings.
BOOK Today: Essays in Politics
WORK OF ART David
PLAY Antigone
MOVIE I Never Sang for My Father
LONG POEM Don Juan
PERIODICAL Newsweek
TV SERIES I Love Lucy
LONG MUSICAL WORK Chichester Psalms
EXERCISE A Underline the word or word group that should be italicized in each of the following
sentences.
Examples 1. Isn’t American Idol on tonight? [American Idol is the title of a television series and
should be underlined.]
2. The colors in Lord of the Southern Dipper, a work of Chinese art, are vibrant. [Lord
of the Southern Dipper is the title of a work of art and should be underlined.]
1. Antonio Vivaldi’s long musical work, The Four Seasons, includes musical representations of
the sounds of nature. [Should the title of a long musical work be underlined?]
2. My sister is reading the book Charlie and the Chocolate Factory for the second time. [Should
the title of a book be underlined?]
3. Back issues of the magazine The Sciences are available in the library.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
4. My brother is playing the role of Stage Manager in Thornton Wilder’s play Our Town.
5. Do you like the painting Irises by Vincent van Gogh?
6. Where the Lilies Bloom is a book about a family’s struggle to stay together.
7. He went home to watch the television show Deal or No Deal.
8. Does Sarah really think that Shrek, a movie about a nasty, green ogre, is romantic?
9. My English teacher said that reading The Waste Land, a long poem by T. S. Eliot, is a challenge.
10. Because the movie is about scientific exploration, Teresa’s science class is going to watch
Galapagos.
13b. Use italics (underlining) for the names of ships, trains, aircraft, and spacecraft.
SHIP HMS Beagle
TRAIN the Stourbridge Lion
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AIRCRAFT Flyer III
SPACECRAFT Friendship 7
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EXERCISE B Underline the word or word group that should be italicized in each of the following
sentences.
Example 1. The first ship to use steam power while crossing the ocean was the Savannah.
[Savannah is the name of a ship and should be underlined.]
11. The Orient-Express was a luxury train that once traveled along a 1,700 mile route. [Should the
name of a train be underlined?]
12. Air Force One is the jet used to provide transportation for the president of the United States.
13. Was Luna 9, an unmanned Soviet probe, the first spacecraft to make a soft landing on the moon?
14. One of the first steamboats, the Charlotte Dundas, was put to commercial use in 1802.
15. After six years in orbit, the U.S. space station Skylab re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere on
July 11, 1979.
13c. Use italics (underlining) for words, letters, symbols, and numerals referred to as such and for
foreign words that have not been adopted into English.
it is italicized.]
How many e’s are in Tennessee? [Both the letter e and the word Tennessee
are referred to as such, so both are italicized.]
Is the symbol @ used in most e-mail addresses? [Because the symbol @ is
referred to as such, it is underlined (italicized).]
The Latin phrase carpe diem means “seize the day.” [The phrase carpe diem
consists of foreign words that have not been adopted into English, so it
is italicized.]
EXERCISE C Underline the words, letters, symbols, or numerals that should be italicized in each of the
following sentences. Hint: Some sentences contain more than one word, letter, symbol, or numeral that
should be underlined.
Example 1. Press # after you have entered the number of the extension you wish to reach.
[Because the symbol # is referred to as such, it should be underlined.]
16. Please write either yes or no as your answer to each question. [What words are being used as
words and should be underlined?]
17. The word for potato in French is pomme de terre, and in Spanish it is potata.
18. Write the numeral 52 after the equal sign.
19. Does the word canceled have one l or two?
20. The chalk is smudged, but it looks like there is a ∑ in front of the in the equation.
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EXAMPLES Write the number 3 in that column. [Because 3 is referred to as a numeral,
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Quotation Marks A
Direct Quotations
13d. Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation—a person’s exact words.
Quotation marks begin and end a direct quotation. A direct quotation generally begins with a
capital letter.
EXAMPLES “Tonight, read the short story. Then, tomorrow morning we’ll begin
organizing our essays about the story,” said Mrs. Rodriguez. [Quotation
marks begin and end Mrs. Rodriguez’s exact words.]
Cora asked, “Should I take that class next year?” [Cora’s exact words are
enclosed by quotation marks and her sentence begins with a capital
letter.]
NOTE
Often a sentence contains an indirect quotation, or a writer’s rewording of what someone has written or said, rather than the speaker’s exact words. An indirect quotation is
not set off with quotation marks.
DIRECT QUOTATION Henry said, “We shouldn’t be late to the game.” [Quotation marks begin
and end Henry’s exact words.]
INDIRECT QUOTATION Henry said that we shouldn’t be late to the game. [Because the sentence
does not contain Henry’s exact words, there are no quotation marks.]
EXERCISE A Using proofreading symbols, insert quotation marks where they are needed in each of the
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
following sentences. If a sentence is already correct, write C on the line provided.
^
Examples
1. Garrett Dawson writes,“What we choose to explore helps define who we
^
are.” [Mr. Dawson’s exact words should be set off with quotation marks.]
C
2. Marguerite said that she was tired and needed a nap. [The sentence
contains an indirect quotation, so it does not need quotation marks.]
1. I like your new bicycle. Did you get it for your birthday? asked Jane. [Where should
quotation marks be placed to enclose Jane’s exact words?]
2. According to Rosa, our assignments are due on Friday. [Does an indirect quotation need
quotation marks?]
3. We should go outside and get some fresh air, Tom said.
4. A Chinese philosopher remarked, I have just three things to teach: simplicity, patience,
and compassion.
5. The fireflies look pretty on this starry night, said Monique.
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6. Mom said that your room needs to be vacuumed.
7. Professor David Adams Leeming says that Greek drama came from religious rituals.
8. During the ceremony Ben gasped, Quit making me laugh!
9. In Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, an angry Brutus asks, Was that done like Cassius?
Should I have answered Caius Cassius so?
10. The brochure promises that we’ll get to swim, hike, cook out, and play volleyball.
When an interrupting expression, such as said Amy or Hugh remarked, divides a quoted
sentence into two parts, the second part of the quote begins with a lowercase letter. A direct
can be set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma, a question mark, or an exclamation
point, but not by a period.
EXAMPLES “My favorite art form is sculpture,” said John, “but I also like pottery.”
[The expression said John interrupts the direct quotation, so the second
part of the quotation begins with a lowercase letter.]
“I planted the garden all by myself!” said Millicent. [Because the
exclamation point is part of the direct quotation, it appears inside the
quotation marks.]
EXERCISE B Insert quotation marks where they are needed in each of the following sentences.
^
^
^
^
Example 1.“The school dance will be festive,” said Jacob. “I helped plan the decorations.”
second part of the quote begins with a capital letter because it is a complete sentence.]
11. When you go to the library, said Yvonne, please take this book with you. [Where should
quotation marks be placed to enclose Yvonne’s exact words?]
12. I miss my aunt in Boston, said Paul. She is a funny person.
13. May I borrow your blue sweater? asked my little sister.
14. Thanks for finding my lost math book! I exclaimed.
15. When you get home, said Dad, we’ll leave for the soccer game.
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[Quotation marks should come before and after each part of Jacob’s exact words. The
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Quotation Marks B
Titles
13g. Use quotation marks to enclose titles (including subtitles) of short works such as short stories,
poems, essays, articles, songs, episodes of TV series, and chapters and other parts of books and
periodicals.
SHORT STORY “Boys and Girls”
POEM “Mother to Son”
ESSAY “The Man in the Water”
ARTICLE “The Unknown Rebel”
SONG “I’ve Been Working on the Railroad”
TV EPISODE “Say Uncle”
BOOK CHAPTER “The Beginning of Civilization:Trying Times”
NOTE
When commas or periods are used with quotation marks, they are placed within the
closing quotation marks. When colons or semicolons are used with quotation marks,
they are placed outside the closing quotation marks.
EXAMPLES We read the chapter “After Hollywood,” and then we discussed the story
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
“Stars in Their Eyes.” [The comma and period appear within the closing
quotation marks.]
The following students will be reading the story “The Book of Sand”:
Jessica, Ryan, Chet, and Carlos. [The colon appears outside the closing
quotation marks.]
My aunt loves the song “O Superman”; in fact, she’s memorized its lyrics.
[The semicolon appears outside the closing quotation marks.]
EXERCISE A Insert quotation marks where they are needed in each of the following sentences.
^
^
Examples 1. Theo missed the end of “Time Travel”; it’s an episode of Nova. [The name of the television episode should be in quotation marks, and the semicolon should appear outside
the closing quotation marks.]
^
^
2. I read the essay “Students Need Plenty of Rest,” which my teacher wrote for the
school newspaper. [The name of the essay should be in quotation marks, and the
comma should appear within the closing quotation marks.]
1. My favorite short story is Two Kinds. [What words are the title of a short story and should be
enclosed in quotation marks? Should the period appear within the closing quotation marks?]
2. When I read Doris Lessing’s story Through the Tunnel, I found myself holding my breath!
[What words are the title of a short story and should be enclosed in quotation marks? Should the
comma appear within the closing quotation marks?]
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3. Mr. Minard assigned pages 479–84 of the chapter Making a Point.
4. The article Recycling and You discusses the importance of recycling.
5. The headline in today’s newspaper was this: Pollution Levels Decrease.
6. I like Anne Sexton’s poem Courage.
7. We danced to the song Telstar at my cousin’s wedding reception.
8. That actor stars in tonight’s episode of The Smiths, Robbery.
9. Shamika can play an arrangement of the song Take Five on the piano.
10. Was the short story The First Seven Years written by Bernard Malamud?
NOTE
A question mark or an exclamation point is placed inside the closing quotation marks if
the quotation itself is a question or an exclamation. Otherwise, a question mark or an
exclamation point is placed outside the closing quotation marks.
EXAMPLES “I won!” Ruth shouted in surprise. [Because Ruth’s quotation is itself an
exclamation, the exclamation point appears within the closing quotation
marks.]
Did I hear you say, “Dinner’s almost ready”? [Because the quotation itself
is not a question, the question mark appears outside the closing
quotation marks.]
EXERCISE B On each of the lines provided, write a title that corresponds to the underlined noun in the
Example 1. Have you read the poem
“Hanging Fire”
? [The title of the poem,“Hanging
Fire,” should be enclosed by quotation marks. Because the title is not a question, the
question mark should appear outside the quotation marks.]
11. Everyone in class watched
, the show’s latest episode, last night.
[Have you included quotation marks around the title of the television episode you’ve chosen?
Should the comma appear within the closing quotation marks?]
12. I absolutely love the song
13. This magazine article,
!
, discusses an average teenager’s spending
habits.
14.
, the fourth chapter in our history book, discusses the growth of cities.
15. Does Sheila think that everyone over eighteen years of age should read the short story
?
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sentence. Be sure to use quotation marks correctly in the sentence. You can make up the names for any
titles you may need.
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Ellipsis Points
13j. Use ellipsis points ( . . . ) to mark omissions from quoted material.
When you use direct quotations in your papers, you are quoting another person’s exact words.
If you choose to leave words out of the direct quotation, use three spaced ellipsis points to
show where you have left them out. Remember to include spaces before, after, and between
the points of the ellipsis.
ORIGINAL These are the scientific ideas that lead to technological advancement.
QUOTED Of certain ideas,Tanya Wheatly said,“These . . . lead to technological
advancement.” [Three spaced ellipsis points show where the words are
the scientific ideas that have been left out of the quoted sentence.]
EXERCISE A Use proofreader’s marks to omit the underlined words and phrases in the following
sentences. Insert ellipses where they are needed, placing #’s where spaces should appear.
#.#.#.#
Example 1. The quick, brown fox jumped over the lazy dog. [Ellipsis points should replace quick,
brown and spaces should appear before, after, and between the points of the ellipsis.]
1. It’s a very long way from here at the edge of the forest to the meadow. [Have you deleted the
underlined phrase, inserted ellipsis points, and indicated where spaces should be?]
2. The greatest moment thus far in her life was when she won an Olympic medal.
3. If you have lost a brown, spotted dog, please come to the entrance gate.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
4. We sang so many songs, such as “Row, Row, Row, Your Boat,” that the bus driver suggested
that we listen to the radio.
5. When the detectives arrived at the abandoned warehouse, the counterfeiters had already gone,
taking the evidence with them.
When you omit words from the beginning of a sentence within a quoted passage, keep the
punctuation of the sentence before it and follow that punctuation with three spaced ellipsis
points.
ORIGINAL The morning fogs had lifted. The sailors could see the horizon again, and the
sun sparkled atop the waves.
QUOTED “The morning fogs had lifted. . . . and the sun sparkled atop the waves.”
[The period at the end of the first sentence is followed with three spaced
ellipsis points.]
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To omit words at the end of a sentence within a quoted passage, or to leave out one or more
sentences from within a quoted passage, keep the sentence’s end punctuation and follow it
with three spaced ellipsis points.
ORIGINAL This tank is too small for the number of fish we’ve just bought.
QUOTED “This tank is too small. . . .” [Three spaced ellipsis points follow the
period that ends the sentence.]
ORIGINAL The boys rode to the park. They rested. Then, since it was a nice day, they
played a quick game of basketball.
QUOTED “The boys rode to the park. . . . Then, since it was a nice day, they played a
quick game of basketball. [Three spaced ellipsis points follow the period
of the first sentence. The second sentence has been omitted.]
NOTE
Any time a writer changes the contents of a direct quotation, the change is indicated by
enclosing it within brackets.
ORIGINAL The backhoe scooped up dirt. We watched as it dumped it to one side.
QUOTED “The backhoe scooped up dirt. . . . [I]t dumped it to one side.” [The
beginning of the second sentence in the direct quotation has been
omitted, but the remaining portion of the sentence should begin with a
capital letter; therefore, a capital I has been placed in brackets to show
that it has been substituted for the lowercase i of it.]
EXERCISE B Use proofreader’s marks to omit the underlined words and phrases in the following
sentences. Insert ellipsis points where they are needed, placing #’s where spaces should appear. Use
brackets to enclose any changes made to the quoted material.
#.#.#.#[I]
Example 1. The ranch house was painted a bright blue. The color was unusual, but it was
the period in the first sentence, and a capital I should be placed in brackets to indicate that
the lowercase i of it has been replaced by a capital letter.]
6. The new art gallery will be of interest to students. Many colorful, interesting exhibits are
housed there. [Have you inserted ellipsis points to show where words have been left out, indicated
where spaces should be, and used brackets to indicate changes to the quoted material?]
7. The cat silently stalked the green-and-blue butterfly fluttering outside the window.
8. How exciting can a movie be? This week’s hottest new release offers an answer. It can be very
exciting! Deliveries, an epic adventure film, is the most fast-paced, must-see movie of the
summer.
9. “We found an answer that had been buried in historical detail,” said Carl Pierce.
10. Who said, “Remember that time is money”?
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appealing to the people who lived there. [Three spaced ellipsis points should follow
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Apostrophes
14a. To form the possessive of most singular nouns, add an apostrophe and an s.
EXAMPLE The television’s remote control is on the table. [Television is singular. To
make television possessive, an apostrophe and an s are added.]
14b. To form the possessive case of a plural noun ending in s, add only the apostrophe.
If the plural noun doesn’t end in s, add an apostrophe and an s.
EXAMPLES We saw five spiders’ webs in the backyard. [Spiders is plural and ends in s.
To make spiders possessive, only an apostrophe is added.]
On the shores of the pond, there were many geese’s feathers. [Geese is
plural, but it does not end an s. To make geese possessive, an apostrophe
and an s are added.]
EXERCISE A Write the possessive form of each of the following words on the line provided.
Example 1. dolphin
dolphin’s
[To make the singular word dolphin possessive, an apostrophe
and an s are added.]
1. shepherd
[Is the word shepherd singular or plural?]
2. Dena
3. children
4. kangaroos
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
5. pantry
14c. Do not use an apostrophe with possessive personal pronouns or with the possessive pronoun
whose.
Possessive personal pronouns are the words my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours,
your, yours, their, and theirs.
EXAMPLE Whose jacket is this? Is it yours or Steven’s? [The possessive pronoun
14d.
Whose and the possessive personal pronoun yours do not have
apostrophes. The possessive noun Steven’s is formed using an
apostrophe and an s.]
To form the possessive of an indefinite pronoun, add an apostrophe and an s.
Indefinite pronouns are words such as anybody, anything, everybody, everyone, nobody, no one,
somebody, and something.
EXAMPLE The teacher asked for everyone’s opinion. [The possessive form of everyone
is formed by adding an apostrophe and an s.]
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EXERCISE B On the line provided, complete each of the following sentences by writing the possessive
form of the word in parentheses.
Example (Who) 1.
Whose
skateboard is this? [The possessive form of who is whose. Whose
does not have an apostrophe.]
6. The puppy wagged
(it)
tail when I walked into the room. [Does the
possessive form of the personal pronoun it have an apostrophe?]
(No one)
7.
(she)
8. This tennis racket is
(anybody)
9. It is
(They)
eyes were closed in the photograph.
.
guess what he has planned for the birthday party.
10.
volleyball team is the best in the league.
14g. Use an apostrophe to show where letters, words, or numerals have been omitted in a contraction.
A contraction is a shortened form of a word, word group, or number.
EXAMPLES It is It’s
she will she’ll
of the clock o’clock
1960 ’60
14h. Use an apostrophe and an s to form the plurals of numerals, symbols, all lowercase letters, some
uppercase letters, and some words referred to as words.
EXAMPLES You use too many like’s when you speak. [Like is a word that is used as a
EXERCISE C Add apostrophes where needed in each of the following sentences. Some sentences may
need more than one apostrophe added.
Example 1. I don’t know where I left my skates. [Dont is a contraction and should have an
apostrophe.]
11. Penguins and ostriches cant fly. [Which word is a contraction?]
12. Dont forget to cross your ts and dot your is.
13. Its amazing!
14. How many 7s are in your phone number?
15. Wasnt there a bird’s nest in this tree?
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word, and so it needs an apostrophe and an s.]
Replace all the l’s with 1’s. [The letter l and the number 1 need an
apostrophe and an s.]
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Hyphens and Dashes
14i. Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line.
When you run out of space at the end of a line, divide a word only between syllables. Do not
divide a one-syllable word, and do not divide a word so that one letter stands alone. Divide an
already hyphenated word only at the hyphen.
EXAMPLES In biology, Laura gave a presentation about the Chinese giant salaman-
der, which can grow up to five feet in length. [Salamander is more than one
syllable and can be divided between its syllables, sala • man • der.]
My parents asked the car salesman which model was the most fuelefficient. [Fuel-efficient is an already hyphenated word and should be
divided at the hyphen.]
TIP
If you are not sure how a word should be hyphenated, check a dictionary.
EXERCISE A On the line following each word, rewrite the word and insert slash marks to indicate where a
word can be hyphenated. If the word should not be hyphenated, write NH on the line.
ex/cit/ing
Example 1. exciting
[Exciting is more than one syllable and can be divided between
any of its syllables, ex • cit • ing.]
1. self-esteem
[Where should an already hyphenated word be divided?]
2. apple
3. dog
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
4. houseboat
5. continue
14k. Use a hyphen with the prefixes all-, ex-, great-, and self-; with the suffixes -elect and -free; and with
all prefixes before a proper noun or proper adjective.
EXAMPLES ex-president [The prefix ex– always needs a hyphen.]
sugar-free [The suffix –free always needs a hyphen.]
pre-Columbian [The prefix pre– needs a hyphen because it comes before
the proper adjective Columbian.]
EXERCISE B Insert a hyphen where it is needed in each of the following items. If an item is already
correct, write C on the line provided.
Example
1. all-natural [A hyphen is always used with the prefix all–.]
6. great grandmother [Should a word with the prefix great– be hyphenated?]
7. governor elect
8. tax free
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9. mid-December
10. self propelled
14m. Use a dash to indicate the beginning and the end of an abrupt break in thought or speech or to
indicate an unfinished thought.
EXAMPLE This idea—and it is a good one—was all Monique’s. [Dashes are used to
show a break in speech or thought.]
14n. Use a dash to mean namely, that is, or in other words, or to otherwise introduce an explanation.
Also, use a dash after the explanation if the sentence continues.
EXAMPLES The summer camp counselors had planned many outdoor activities—row-
ing, hiking, swimming, and bird-watching. [A dash is used to mean namely
and introduces the phrase rowing, hiking, swimming, and bird-watching.]
The science fair—the largest one in the state—takes place on Saturday.
[Dashes are placed before and after the phrase the largest one in the state
because the sentence continues after the explanation.]
EXERCISE C Add dashes where they are needed in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. Mrs. Anderson assigned two projects —write a persuasive speech and read Chapter
12. [A dash is used to mean namely and is needed between projects and write.]
11. The tomatoes I grew them myself tasted delicious. [Which words show a break in thought and
should have dashes before and after them?]
13. It was very cold outside in the low 20’s last night.
14. This summer I hope it is a warm one I am taking swimming lessons.
15. The newspaper staff sold advertising space to several local businesses Stedman’s Photography,
Flowers Galore, and Fantasy Miniature Golf.
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12. Has the tennis match the one that Mark is playing in been postponed?
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Parentheses and Brackets
14o. Use parentheses to enclose informative or explanatory material of minor importance.
Parentheses are used to tell the reader that the information enclosed is not important but
might be interesting or useful to know. Do not enclose important information in parentheses.
EXAMPLES My best friend (born in 1997) had a birthday today. [The words born in
1997 offer more information, but the information is not necessary to
understand the sentence.]
The model volcano Jacob built (a scale model of Mauna Loa) won first
place in the science fair. [The words a scale model of Mauna Loa offer extra
information, but the information is not necessary to understand the
main sentence.]
EXERCISE A Add parentheses where they are needed in each of the following sentences.
Examples 1. During our trip to Texas, we plan to visit Austin (it’s the capital of Texas)and San
Antonio. [The sentence it’s the capital of Texas adds extra information but is not
necessary to understand the sentence, so it should be set off by parentheses.]
2. Your aunt (isn’t she from El Salvador?)is in this picture. [The question isn’t she from El
Salvador? asks for more information but is not necessary to understand the sentence, so it
is set off by parentheses.]
1. My great-grandfather 1920–1999 was a general in the army. [What extra information is not
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
necessary to understand the sentence?]
2. I lived in Springdale that is in Virginia until I was twelve. [What extra information is not
necessary to understand the sentence?]
3. Will the test on Friday cover Chapter 27 the one about Vietnam and Chapter 28?
4. My dog he’s a German shepherd is a great guard dog.
5. Paul his full name is Paul Christopher McIntyre is my cousin.
6. The gymnasium isn’t it left of the cafeteria? is where the play is being performed.
7. Was the swimming pool the old one on Fifth Street closed for repairs last week?
8. That bird I believe that it’s a mockingbird does not seem to like my cat.
9. Ms. Garcia she has been principal for twenty-five years retired today.
10. We planted the climbing rose bush aren’t the blooms beautiful? last year.
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14p. Use brackets to enclose an explanation or added information within quoted or parenthetical
material.
EXAMPLES “I’m not the one who broke it [the vase],” Dan said. [The information in
brackets tell what it is. Dan did not speak the words the vase. The writer
added the information.]
Turn to page 13. (The chart [conjugation of verbs] is located there.) [The
information in brackets adds extra information to the information
already in parentheses.]
EXERCISE B Add brackets where they are needed in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. “The two fractions in this item [item 15] should be reduced,” said Mr. Batali. [The
words item 15 were not part of Mr. Batali’s quoted statement. The writer added these
words to explain which item.]
11. “When you see her Karen, let her know that I am looking for her,” said Jane. [What word was
added by the writer to explain who her is?]
12. Use the map (page 12 Australia) to answer the questions.
13. Leroy pointed to the globe and said, “My grandparents are from that country Nigeria.”
14. “After the meeting, she the counselor encouraged everyone to apply for scholarships,” Louis
said.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
15. The two kittens (Mittens and Smoke the ones on the left) are the cutest.
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Words with ie and ei
15b. Write ie when the sound is long e, except after c.
EXAMPLES believe [The word believe has a long e sound, and ie doesn’t come after a
c. Use ie.]
reprieve [The word reprieve has a long e sound, and ie doesn’t come after
a c. Use ie.]
receive [The word receive has a long e sound, but the letters follow a c.
Use ei when those letters come after a c.]
perceive [The word perceive has a long e sound, but the letters follow a c.
Use ei when those letters come after a c.]
Some words do not follow Rule 15b. Here are a few exceptions.
EXCEPTIONS either, neither, leisure, protein
15c. Write ei when the sound is not long e.
EXAMPLES freight, height , weight
Some words do not follow Rule 15c. Here are a few exceptions.
EXCEPTIONS patience, mischief, ancient
EXERCISE A Complete the following words by writing ie or ei on the lines provided. If you are not sure
how to spell a word, look the word up in a dictionary.
Example 1. v i e w [The word view is spelled with ie.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
1. rel
f [Do the i and the e follow c?]
2. s
ge
3. n
ghbor
4. dec
5. c
REMINDER
ve
ling
The rhyme “i before e except after c or when sounded like a as in neighbor and
weigh” may help you to remember these spelling rules. There are exceptions to
these rules, so check in a dictionary if you are uncertain about how to spell a word
with an i and e combination.
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EXERCISE B Read each of the following sentences. If a word has been misspelled, draw a line through
the word. Then, write the word correctly on the line provided. If no words have been misspelled, then
write C on the line.
Examples
achievement
1. Going to college is an acheivement. [The ie in achievement makes a
long e sound. Therefore, the use of ei was a misspelling.]
C
2. A pier is a structure that stands over water and is supported by
pillars. [No words are misspelled. Pier makes a long e sound, and the
letter combination ie is correct.]
6. Oh no, unless one more player arrives, we will have to forfeit the game!
[Which word should follow the spelling rule that involves i, e, and the long e
sound?]
7. What is the hieght of the Empire State Building? [Which word should follow
the spelling rule that involves i, e, in a word without the long e sound?]
8. Dragons and lions were used as decorations on the sheild.
9. A scale in the produce department wieghs fruits of all kinds.
10. Draped over the couch was a quilt made from pieces of blue and pink fabric.
11. Will Cousin Amy be wearing a viel with her wedding dress?
12. At the beach, several large umbrellas provided some relief from the summer
13. Architecture is a feild that attracts creative workers.
14. Many scientists beleive that this region’s plants and animals are unique.
15. Make sure you get a receipt when you donate this bag of clothes to the shelter.
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heat.
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Prefixes and Suffixes
A prefix is one or more letters added to the beginning of a word. A suffix is one or more letters
added to the end of a word.
15e. When adding a prefix, do not change the spelling of the original word.
EXAMPLE un usual unusual [The prefix un– has been added, but the spelling of
usual has not changed.]
15f. When adding the suffix –ly or –ness, do not change the spelling of the original word.
Words that end in y usually change the y to i before adding –ly and –ness. However, if an
adjective with one syllable (such as shy) ends in y, leave the y before –ly and –ness. The words
true, due, and whole drop the final e before adding –ly.
EXAMPLES joyful ly joyfully [Do not change the spelling of joyful.]
happy ness happiness [Happy ends in y, so the y is changed to i
before adding –ness.]
EXERCISE A Write each of the following words, adding the prefix or suffix given.
Example 1. mis step
misstep
[A prefix is added without changing the spelling of the
original word.]
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
1. il legal
[Does adding the prefix change the spelling of legal?]
2. merry ly
4. whole ness
3. sad ness
5. dis appear
15g. Drop the final silent e before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel.
15h. Keep the final silent e before adding a suffix beginning with a consonant.
EXAMPLES fine ed fined [The suffix begins with the vowel e, so the silent e has
been dropped.]
brave ly bravely [The suffix begins with the consonant l, so the silent
e has been kept.]
EXERCISE B Write each of the following words, adding the suffix given.
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Example 1. pine ing
6. pace ing
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pining
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continued
[The suffix begins with a vowel, so the final silent e is dropped.]
[Does the suffix begin with a vowel or a consonant?]
7. hope less
9. face ing
8. smile ing
10. care ful
15i. For words ending in y preceded by a consonant, change the y to i before adding any suffix that
does not begin with i.
EXAMPLE furry est furriest [Furry ends in a y with a consonant before it. The y
should be changed to an i before adding the suffix.]
15j. For words ending in y preceded by a vowel, keep the y when adding a suffix.
EXAMPLE play ing playing [Play ends in a y with a vowel before it. The y
should be kept before adding the suffix.]
15k. Double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel if the word (1) has
only one syllable or has the accent on the final syllable and (2) ends in a single consonant
preceded by a single vowel.
EXAMPLES begin er beginner [Begin has an accent on the final syllable and
EXERCISE C Write each of the following words, adding the suffix given.
Example 1. cry ed
cried
[Cry ends in a y with a consonant before it. The suffix –ed does
not begin with an i, so the y should be changed to i.]
11. stay ing
[Is the y preceded by a consonant or a vowel?]
12. swim er
14. funny er
13. supply ed
15. forget able
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ends in a single consonant with a single vowel before it. The final
consonant is doubled.]
finish ing finishing [Finish has two syllables and doesn’t have a
single consonant with a single vowel before it. The final consonant
should not be doubled.]
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Plurals of Nouns
15l. The singular form of a noun names one person, place, thing, or idea. The plural form names more
than one. Remembering the following rules will help you spell the plural forms of nouns.
(1) For most nouns, add s.
(2) For nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, or sh, add es.
EXAMPLES boys
bosses
cats
foxes
erasers
Schultzes
giraffes
churches
cars
fishes
(3) For nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel, add s.
(4) For nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change the y to i and add es.
EXAMPLES Mondays [The y is preceded by a vowel. An s is added.]
pennies [The y is preceded by a consonant. The y changes to i and es is
added.]
EXERCISE A Write the plural form of each of the following words. If you don’t know what the plural of a
word is, look up the word in a dictionary.
Example 1. turkey
turkeys
1. fly
[The y is preceded by the vowel e. Only s should be added.]
[Is the y preceded by a consonant or a vowel?]
2. pen
4. box
3. Tuesday
5. dress
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
(5) For some nouns ending in f or fe, add s. For others, change the f or fe to v and add es.
SINGULAR knife
PLURAL knives
leaf
leaves
roof
roofs
belief
beliefs
(6) For nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel, add s.
(7) For most nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, add es.
For words that refer to music and end in o, add only an s. A few nouns ending in an o and
preceded by a consonant have an es.
SINGULAR ratio
PLURAL ratios
Romeo
Romeos
solo
solos
potato
potatoes
EXERCISE B Write the plural form of each of the following words. If you don’t know what the plural of a
word is, look up the word in a dictionary.
Example 1. cello
cellos
[A cello is a musical instrument. For words that refer to music and
end in o, add only an s.]
6. patio
[Is the o preceded by a vowel or a consonant?]
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7. hero
9. wolf
8. alto
10. echo
(8) The plurals of a few nouns are formed irregularly.
(9) For a few nouns, the singular and the plural forms are the same.
SINGULAR man
foot
feet
PLURAL men
moose
moose
Japanese
Japanese
EXERCISE C Write the plural form of each of the following words. If you don’t know what the plural of a
word is, look up the word in a dictionary.
Example 1. tooth
11. Chinese
teeth
[The plural of tooth is teeth.]
[Is the word the same in the plural form as in the singular form?]
12. child
14. deer
13. woman
15. sheep
(10) For most compound nouns, form the plural of only the last word of the compound.
(11) For compound nouns in which one of the words is modified by the other word or words, form
the plural of the word modified.
Compound nouns are made up of more than one word.
brother-in-law
brothers-in-law [In-law modifies brother, so brother is
the word that is plural.]
PLURAL grandchildren
EXERCISE D Write the plural form of each of the following words. If you don’t know what the plural of a
word is, look the word up in the dictionary.
Example 1. runner-up
runners-up
[Up modifies runner, so runner should be the word that is
plural.]
16. beekeeper
[Should the s be added to the end of the word?]
17. president-elect
19. football
18. three-year-old
20. grandmother
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SINGULAR grandchild
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Words Often Confused A
The following words are easily confused with one another because they sound alike but are
spelled differently, or they are spelled the same or nearly the same.
affect [verb] to influence
I hope my advice didn’t affect her decision.
effect [verb] to accomplish, to bring about; [noun] a consequence; a result
That company’s new president will effect many changes. [verb]
One effect of pollution is poor air quality. [noun]
all ready [adjective] all prepared
The Smiths were all ready by the time we got to their house.
already [adverb] previously
They were already at the museum by 3:00 P.M.
EXERCISE A Underline the correct word or word group in parentheses that correctly completes each of
the following sentences.
Example 1. Did Tia’s good mood (affect, effect) you? [The word affect here is a verb meaning “to
influence.”]
1. Are you (all ready, already) to go now? [Which word or word group means “all prepared”?]
2. He was (all ready, already) for the math exam.
3. Hasn’t a cure for that disease (all ready, already) been found?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
4. The (affect, effect) of good study habits is good grades.
5. Last night’s rainstorm (affected, effected) the behavior of several pet dogs in the neighborhood.
all together [adjective] in the same place; [adverb] at the same time
Several jets were all together in their formation in the air show. [adjective]
Children, please stay all together as you walk to the bus. [adverb]
altogether [adverb] entirely
We were altogether tired when we got back from the park.
brake [verb] to slow down or to stop; [noun] a device used to slow down or to stop
Brake slowly and steadily to stop safely. [verb]
We set the brake on the bicycle so that it wouldn’t roll down the hill. [noun]
break [verb] to cause or to come apart, to fracture; [noun] a fracture
Did the dog break that lamp? [verb]
It is a clean break, so we should be able to fix it. [noun]
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EXERCISE B Underline the correct word or word group in parentheses that correctly completes each of
the following sentences.
Example 1. Stay (all together, altogether) in the lobby. [The words all together mean “at the same
place.”]
6. Was her injury a (brake, break) or a sprain? [Which word means “a fracture”?]
7. As you approach the stop sign, press on the (brake, break).
8. An unexpected champion, he was (all together, altogether) thrilled when he won the tournament.
9. When you are on wet pavement, (brake, break) carefully.
10. Oh, no! Did I just (brake, break) that water glass?
choose [verb, rhymes with shoes] to select
I choose you to help me with the decorations.
chose [verb, past form of choose, rhymes with nose] selected
Last week, the committee chose a new Nobel Prize winner.
EXERCISE C Underline the correct word or word group in parentheses in each of the following
sentences.
Example 1. Who will (choose, chose) the next leader of the group? [Choose means “to select.”]
11. He (choose, chose) the movie that we watched last evening. [Which word means “selected”?]
12. Did you (choose, chose) that kitten from all the rest?
13. My hair felt (coarse, course) after swimming in the pool.
14. I love to swim, of (coarse, course).
15. After it (choose, chose) a place to nap, the cat stayed there for an hour.
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coarse [adjective] rough, crude
Lava from a volcano formed these coarse rocks.
course [noun] a part of a meal; a series of studies; a playing field; a path of action [also
used after of to mean naturally or certainly]
The first course of the meal was minestrone soup.
Our course of action is practicing regularly.
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Words Often Confused B
complement [noun] that which makes something whole or complete; [verb] to make
something whole or complete
That color really complements the room. [verb]
compliment [noun] praise, a courteous act or statement; [verb] to express praise or respect
Mr. Garcia complimented me on improving my grades. [verb]
desert [noun, pronounced des’ • ert] a dry region
This summer felt as hot as a desert.
desert [verb, pronounced de • sert’] to leave or abandon
Don’t desert me in this line for the roller coaster!
dessert [noun, pronounced des • sert’] the final, sweet course of a meal
The guests enjoyed peaches and yogurt for dessert.
EXERCISE A Underline the correct word or word group in parentheses for each of the following
sentences.
Example 1. Will this green shirt (complement, compliment) these red pants? [Complement means
“that which makes whole or complete.”]
1. The caravan made its way through the (desert, dessert). [Which word means “a dry region”?]
2. Please do not (desert, dessert) your studies for television.
3. After receiving many (complements, compliments) from her art teacher, Natalia started drawing
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
in her free time.
4. Are you going to eat your (desert, dessert)?
5. Bold yellows in the famous painting (complement, compliment) the deep blue background.
formally [adverb] in a proper or dignified manner, according to strict rules
Several nervous students were formally introduced to the governor.
formerly [adverb] previously, in the past
Bianca’s family formerly lived in Maine.
hear [verb] to receive sounds through the ears
Can you hear my speech in the back of the room?
here [adverb] at this place
Are you going to sit here?
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EXERCISE B Underline the correct word or word group in parentheses in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. Meet us (hear, here) after the football game. [Here means “at this place.”]
6. The dance invitation says to dress (formally, formerly). [Which word means “in a proper or
dignified manner”?]
7. I couldn’t (hear, here) the speaker because I sat too far in the back of the auditorium.
8. During practice, Coach usually stands (hear, here) when she gives us tips on shooting baskets.
9. My mother was (formally, formerly) a detective for the police department.
10. Aha! (Hear, Here) is the book we’ve been trying to find.
its [possessive form of it] belonging to it
The dog chewed on its plastic, toy bone.
it’s [contraction of it is or it has]
It’s (It is) a beautiful day today.
May I say what a pleasure it’s (it has) been working with you.
loose [adjective, rhymes with goose] free; not close together; not firmly fastened
Carla, is one of your baby teeth loose?
lose [verb, rhymes with snooze] to suffer loss of
Please don’t lose your backpack at the park!
EXERCISE C Underline the correct word or word group in parentheses in each of the following sentences.
Example 1. The kitten raised (its, it’s) paw and swatted at the yarn. [Which word means
“belonging to it”?]
11. Ben volunteered to (lead, led) the class in reciting the poem. [Which word means “to go first; to
guide”?]
12. Is the strap on this backpack (loose, lose) again?
13. (Its, It’s) a good idea to stretch before you exercise.
14. The kindergarten teacher (lead, led) the children to the playground.
15. Give the tickets to me if you are afraid you will (loose, lose) them.
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lead [verb, rhymes with need] to go first; to guide
The director plans to lead the chorus in the song “Bye Bye Birdie.”
led [verb, past form of lead]
Through the castle, the tour guide slowly led the group.
lead [noun, rhymes with red] graphite in a pencil; a heavy metal
In the middle of writing my notes, I broke my pencil lead.
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Words Often Confused C
passed [verb, past form of pass] went by, beyond, over, or through
The bus passed several parks on the way to school.
past [noun] time gone by; [adjective] of a former time; [preposition] beyond
In the past, my grandfather was a firefighter. [noun]
Years past were filled with good memories. [adjective]
Walk past the shed, and you’ll find a small bridge that goes over the stream.
[preposition]
peace [noun] calmness (as opposed to strife or war)
The two boys declared peace and shook hands.
piece [noun] a part of something
Please give me a piece of that bread.
EXERCISE A Underline the correct word or word group in parentheses in each of the following
sentences.
Example 1. The baby crawled (passed, past) the chair. [Past is a preposition meaning “beyond.”]
1. Write your address on that (peace, piece) of paper. [Which word means “a part of something”?]
2. Aunt Sheila’s German shepherd galloped (passed, past) the boy.
3. The host enjoyed the (peace, piece) and quiet after the party.
4. All of the confusion I had about math is now in the (passed, past).
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
5. The lost (peace, piece) of the puzzle was under the chair cushion.
quiet [adjective] silent, still
Walking through the park, the group found a quiet place to have their picnic.
quite [adverb] completely, rather, very
Well, isn’t that puppy quite playful?
than [conjunction, used for comparisons]
He practices the violin more than I practice.
then [adverb] at that time; next
The glacier made a cracking sound, and then a huge chunk of ice broke free.
EXERCISE B Underline the correct word or word group in parentheses in each of the following
sentences.
Example 1. She packed lighter (than, then) I packed. [Than is a conjunction used for comparisons.]
6. Please be (quiet, quite) in the library. [Which word means “silent, still”?]
7. Jordan was (quiet, quite) happy with his new bicycle.
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8. Since (than, then), scientists have learned a great deal more about the human brain.
9. Nighttime isn’t entirely (quiet, quite); crickets and frogs can be heard outside the window.
10. Can a cheetah run faster (than, then) a tiger?
their [possessive of they] belonging to them
Their house is the blue one on the corner.
there [adverb] at that place; [also used as an expletive to begin a sentence]
Watch out! That sign says not to go over there. [adverb]
There was a storm last night. [expletive]
they’re [contraction of they are]
They’re going to the museum this Saturday.
to [preposition; also part of the infinitive form of a verb]
He walked to the gymnasium.
too [adverb] also; more than enough
This species of frog faces possible extinction, too.
two [adjective] the sum of one one; [noun] the number between one and three
Finally, Mike decided he’d like a two on the back of his jersey. [noun]
Mike scored two goals in that game. [adjective]
EXERCISE C Underline the correct word or word group in parentheses in each of the following
sentences.
11. (Their, They’re) tennis rackets are sitting by the fence. [Which word means “belonging to them”?]
12. (Too, Two) polar bear cubs were playing in the snow.
13. Set your books on that table over (their, there).
14. (Their, They’re) washing their father’s car.
15. Jacob wanted to go to the movies, (to, too).
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Example 1. Are you going (to, too) the talent show? [To is a preposition.]
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Common Errors Review
Common Usage Errors
Be sure to proofread your writing before you turn it in. Errors in your writing can confuse and
distract your readers, and readers may form a poor impression of a writer who makes careless
errors. Look for mistakes by asking yourself these questions:
Do subjects and verbs agree?
Are verb forms and tenses correct?
Are pronoun references clear?
Are modifiers correct and placed correctly?
Are troublesome words correct?
Is usage appropriate to audience and purpose?
After you make corrections or changes to your writing, read your writing again. Sometimes a
change you make will create a new problem in another part of your writing.
EXERCISE A Use the list of questions above to help you find and correct the common errors in usage in
the following items. Use proofreading symbols to make your corrections.
gone our
Examples 1. Members of my family have went to its family reunion every spring. [The past par^
^
ticiple of the verb go is have gone. Because the antecedent of the pronoun its is the plural
noun members, the possessive pronoun should be plural.]
s
2. Planning the reunion takes months, and my cousin or my sister organize events
^
I
while my uncle and me call relatives. [The parts of the compound subject, cousin and
^
sister, are joined by or, so the subject takes the singular verb organizes. The first person
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
pronoun me is part of a compound subject, so it should be in the nominative case, I.]
1. We met in a campground at the park near the river always. [Is met the correct verb tense? Is
always misplaced?]
2. The most oldest family member at the reunion is my great-grandmother, whose almost ninety
years old. [Is there a double comparison? Is whose used correctly?]
3. Their are usually new family members at every reunion, to.
4. Some of my relatives travels long distances; last year, one of my uncles drived all the way
from New York.
5. I have many cousins, and we all got along good with each other.
6. We usually play alot of softball games, and someone always bring a volleyball net.
7. Us cousins gather at the picnic tables, tired and hungry, in the late afternoon.
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8. All of the food always looks deliciously, and we don’t ever have no leftovers.
9. Each family prepare his or her specialty for the reunion.
10. After the sun goes down, we set around a campfire while one of my aunts plays their guitar.
Common Mechanics Errors
Always check your capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. Use a dictionary if you are not
sure of a spelling or of how to divide a word. Make sure you haven’t confused two words that
sound alike but are spelled differently. These details make a big difference in your writing! Ask
yourself these questions as you proofread your work:
Does every sentence begin with a capital letter?
Are words spelled and divided correctly?
Are all proper nouns capitalized?
Does every sentence end with an appropriate end mark?
Have you placed commas and apostrophes where they are needed?
Are direct quotations and titles capitalized and punctuated correctly?
EXERCISE B Correct the errors in capitalization, punctuation, and spelling in the following items. Use
proofreading symbols to make your corrections.
Example 1. In 1863, a german military officer Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin took a
^,
^,
momentous balloon flight . [German is used as a proper adjective and should be
capitalized. Commas should set off the appositive Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, and the
11. Zeppelin’s name is associated with lighter then air flight, in fact, the word zeppelin is still used
to refer to rigid airships. [Is the compound adjective hyphenated correctly? Is then spelled
correctly? Is the compound sentence punctuated correctly? Is the word being used as a word
italicized?]
12. In 1900 count zeppelin’s first airship flew for 17 minutes over a lake.
13. Later, improved models could fly for 1000s of miles without landing.
14. Count Zeppelin who died in 1917 did not live to see his airships cross the atlantic ocean.
15. One model, which was completed in 1928 crossed the atlantic and made an around the world
flight in 1929.
170
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sentence should end with a period.]
ANSWER KEY
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Chapter 1: Parts of Speech
Overview, pp. 1=26
18. Dr. Hans Parker will speak at the
Nouns, pp. 1=2
19. Was Mrs. Malone really at the White House
conference in the morning.
EXERCISE A
1. My sister-in-law and my mother once
studied with the professor.
last winter, Mary?
20. My mom and Carla have become good
friends.
2. Happiness often results from hard work.
3. A familiar voice broke through the darkness
and called to Mr. Clark.
Pronouns A, pp. 3=4
EXERCISE A
1. After Mr. Reed graduated from college, he
4. Beams of light danced on the water.
5. The results surprised even the scientist on
entered the Peace Corps.
2. An umbrella was found in the hallway, and
the project.
6. Behind the gates of the castle stood the
it was mine.
3. I hadn’t thought about the problem from
well-dressed king and queen.
7. Actually, good ideas cost more than a dime.
his point of view.
4. The tools needed to build the bookshelf are
8. The park was outside of the city near a
creek.
9. The difficulty of the task did not stop the
programmers.
10. Put on your life jacket, and then the boat
can leave the dock.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
EXERCISE B
11. What are the first few words of “The StarSpangled Banner”?
12. Meet the team at Cornerstone Grill on
Saturday.
13. China exports large quantities of goods to
the United States.
14. The invention of the automobile made
possible a new way of life.
15. The reporter from KZZZ held the
microphone close to the man.
16. Jesse enjoys reading books about chemistry
and physics.
17. Did Mayor Turner give a reason for her
decision?
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
they.
5. Teresa asked her dad about them.
6. Did Eric and you get the ice for my cooler?
7. Give me a chance at bat.
8. It is a kind of wildlife that is common at
this park.
9. For us, physics class is interesting.
10. Will she be the new manager on your shift?
EXERCISE B
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
themselves
himself [or herself]
themselves
myself
himself or herself
Pronouns B, pp. 5=6
EXERCISE A
1. Please give these a catalog number.
2. What a day this was!
3. Would you pay fifteen dollars for these?
4. This is just one example of her brilliant use
of symbolism.
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5. That is an expression I’ve never heard
before.
6. As soon as the second relay runner hands
you that, run!
7. Deliver both these and those to Mr.
Stephen’s office.
8. Will our assignments be these on the list?
9. We must make that our top priority.
10. The only cups left are those in the
storeroom, and the only napkins are these.
EXERCISE B
11. By whom were you contacted about the
petition?
12. Who was the author of the book Roots?
13. What did Mr. Dolan say about the new
schedule?
14. With whom are you staying on your trip to
Utah?
15. What is the capital of Saudi Arabia?
Pronouns C, pp. 7=8
EXERCISE A
1. The guitar strings that you wanted are here.
2. Is that your friend whom you met at
summer camp?
3. Pistachios, which originated in Asia, are
now grown in California.
4. The Cheyenne, who fought at Little Bighorn,
once lived near there.
5. Anyone who signed up for drama class will
be transferred to Room 215.
6. Plants that require a great deal of water are
not advisable in this area.
7. Lawrence Douglas Wilder, who became the
first African American governor in 1990,
also ran for president.
2
8. Did S. I. Hayakawa, who is an author, also
serve as a senator?
9. Salmon, which live in salt water but spawn
in fresh water, flourished in the Northwest.
10. The address will be given by Art Walker,
whom the class has elected as their
spokesperson.
EXERCISE B
11. Megan enjoys the lessons that she studies in
geography class.
12. People who like flowers often study each
state’s official flower.
13. My uncle, whom I visit often, lives near
California’s Redwood National Park.
14. At the party, please put the food on the
table that has sturdy legs.
15. New Mexico, which we call the Land of
Enchantment, has some good ski hills.
16. Some of the students who went to the
museum missed the dinosaur exhibit.
17. Birds covered the walkway that had been
sprinkled with birdseed.
18. Leaves that koalas eat come from the
eucalyptus tree.
19. All contestants whom we call up to the
stage will receive a prize.
20. One scientist who studied chimpanzees is
Jane Goodall.
Pronouns D, pp. 9=10
EXERCISE A
1. On the table were several of the latest
magazines.
2. Believe me, not just anyone can make
deliveries!
3. Neither of those rivers is as long as the Nile.
Fourth Course
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4. Please show both of these gentlemen the
EXERCISE A
way to the office.
5. Of all of our applicants, only you can speak
Spanish and English.
trail.
6. Rick can make friends with just about
anyone.
involves everyone in the group.
8. The meteorologist says this will be another
9. We can do nothing about the problem, or
we can pull together and accomplish
4. Don’t worry; our dog is friendly.
6. According to the newspaper, the movie was
tedious, dull, and meaningless.
7. The nubby bark of the hollow log was
something.
10. The Ruiz twins decided to donate clothes to
becoming uncomfortable.
8. In the dusty trunk, we found photographs
somebody who would need them.
from the 1920s.
EXERCISE C
Answers may vary slightly. Sample responses are
provided.
of the performers forgot a line
during the show, and the director was
proud of them.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
3. One of the fuses must be bad.
5. Soft lights illuminated the small stage.
of our rainiest weekends.
12. Did Deb find
to take her
week?
Everybody
9. Warm and clear were the waters of the
Bahamas.
10. An unfamiliar melody caught the attention
of the walkers.
EXERCISE B
someone
place in the softball game she’ll miss next
13.
2. Over the years, the house had grown old
and seemingly lonely.
7. The solution must be something that
11.
Some students may also correctly underline
possessive pronouns.
1. Brilliant beams of bright sunlight dotted the
EXERCISE B
None
Adjectives, pp. 11=12
11. Little sisters can be troublesome but also
can be enjoyable.
12. Vegetarian cafes were experiencing a boom
who attends Jackson High
School is allowed to try out for the soccer
team.
have guided tours available.
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
13. A wooden Kenyan statue sat on a small
table in the hall.
14. Take a bagel or a muffin, but please do not
take both .
15. Of the national parks on this list,
at that time.
most
14. With a lurch, the door opened and revealed
a huge space with bare walls.
15. A Cuban dancer won the competition.
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Verbs A, pp. 13=14
2. She had dreamed of snow on the dunes.
EXERCISE A
3. Tall oak pillars supported the ceiling.
1. Close the door, please.
2. Is your mother home?
3. We’re so happy about your good fortune.
4. How wonderful your new home seems!
5. Puffy, white clouds appeared in the sky
above us.
6. Never talk or laugh with your mouth full.
7. Hand me those needle-nose pliers, Lucy.
8. This calculator requires AA batteries.
9. Crocodiles lounge on the muddy riverbank
and watch for prey.
10. Nancy considered her alternatives and
chose a course of action.
4. The mother bird fed a worm to her babies.
5. Name the principal port in Japan.
6. In a tight tuck, the Olympic gymnast
flipped backward on the beam.
7. Will you call about the exhibit at the science
museum?
8. A swirl of mosquitoes buzzed near
Christopher’s ankles.
9. In Mrs. Burke’s neighborhood, airplanes fly
overhead during the day.
10. The school principal considered our idea
very seriously.
EXERCISE B
EXERCISE B
11. Sound the alarm, Bobby!
11. Do not cross the solid white line on the road.
12. With a deep breath, she smelled the salt
12. Will these green apples turn red?
13. Yes, sir, your order is being processed.
14. Actually, the message must have never
even been sent.
15. Luke would have traveled to New York last
summer.
water from the ocean.
13. A sailor on the deck had already sighted the
mist of an island.
14. The divers felt their way along the cave wall.
15. Just taste this orange right from the tree in
our own yard.
16. Oh, I must have been thinking of Istanbul.
EXERCISE C
17. The young girl has placed all the horse
Answers will vary somewhat. Sample responses are
provided.
figurines up on the windowsill.
18. Hasn’t the teacher approved of your science
project?
19. Will you be the lead singer next year?
20. Did anything about the book surprise you?
Verbs B, pp. 15=16
EXERCISE A
1. All the bread had been baked by Friday
afternoon.
16. Darla, please
close
the door before a
bug flies in here.
17. After thinking about it for three days,
Thomas decided that he would try out
for the play.
18. Did the wind
howl
loudly throughout
the thunderstorm?
19. Several of the passengers cheered when the
airplane landed safely after the long
flight.
4
Fourth Course
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20. During the festival, hundreds of hot-air
balloons floated through the sky.
19. Hey, the piano sounds out of tune.
20. What will you have become ten years from
now?
Verbs C, pp. 17=18
EXERCISE A
1. Did those trigonometry problems look hard
to you?
Verbs D, pp. 19=20
EXERCISE A
1. Did you remember the mustard and catsup?
2. Hey, that tune sounds familiar to me.
2. Wow! That trash can smelled awful!
3. Diego became curious about the design of
3. Zack saw snow for the first time that night.
those bridges.
4. A lone cello sounded sad and mysterious in
4. Somehow, the restaurant’s enormous
freezer did not seem cold enough.
5. Wow! Some masks at the costume party
the darkness.
5. Nick hardened the special clay in the oven.
6. At the sound of the electric can opener,
looked rather festive.
6. Yes, my dear, this sushi is raw fish, rice, and
three cats ran into the kitchen.
7. Mr. Zolas drives a van with a purple
seaweed.
7. Wow! That popcorn certainly smells good.
pinstripe.
8. That beagle can smell even the faintest
8. To the sailors, the sight of land was a relief.
9. Doesn’t this Egyptian cotton feel soft?
scents.
9. Last Saturday, we made an overseas call to
10. Grandmother’s noodles always taste
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
delicious.
Bianca.
10. Would you please forward my mail?
EXERCISE B
EXERCISE B
11. The tabletop still feels rough, even after
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Jenna sanded it.
12. After the storm, the lake finally looked calm.
13. Does this van appear new to you?
14. Public discussions about plans for the new
highway will be controversial.
15. Armadillos can sound loud when they
move through brush.
16. A famous painting can seem more
impressive when viewed from up close.
17. Most two-year-olds are happier after
they’ve taken their daily nap.
18. Make sure the tennis racket feels right
before you buy it.
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
T
I
T
I
T
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
I
I
I
T
I
Adverbs, pp. 21=22
EXERCISE A
1. Proudly, he took the crown in his own
hands.
2. The lawn mower stopped working
yesterday.
3. Bald eagles are rarely sighted in this area.
4. Six people around the table were staring
intently at some graphs.
5. You may begin the test now.
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EXERCISE B
6. Everyone, please be especially quiet when
we enter the museum.
7. Our proposal, sir, met with an exceptionally
good response.
8. Extremely dangerous, this mountain range
has claimed many lives.
9. The most organized applicant will get this
job.
10. An especially colorful garden would
improve our yard.
EXERCISE C
11. Can you believe we’re almost there, kids?
12. Handle these slides more carefully in the
future.
13. Miss Turner is frequently away on business.
14. The children danced rather merrily during
the folk festival.
15. Must you play those drums consistently
loudly?
EXERCISE D
16. The twins watched the stranger curiously.
17. Traffic is usually light at this time of day.
18. She takes her art very seriously.
19. Play with the dog outside.
20. Would you explain the math formula again?
Prepositions, pp. 23=24
EXERCISE A
1. A bicycle with five speeds would be best.
2. Can that gecko jump over the stone,
Richard?
3. The store across the street sells art supplies
and hardware.
4. The winner will be the person with the
5. During the performance, no one will be
admitted.
6. A moray eel was hiding among the rocks.
7. Palm trees, in addition to native flowers,
were planted.
8. Wait until dark.
9. In spite of countless obstacles, Wilma
Rudolph triumphed.
10. Weren’t some of the slides usable?
EXERCISE B
11. Lisa just got a letter from Senator Lee.
12. At that time, social changes affected Europe.
13. Wow! Your little brother runs fast for a
six-year-old.
14. The shirts that have white tags go on the
bottom shelf.
15. Who is the girl standing between Barbara
and Jean?
16. The knight would encounter many
adventures in faraway lands.
17. According to Dad, we haven’t finished our
chores.
18. We were surprised because Dad sprinkled
cinnamon on the carrots.
19. Mrs. Shepard took the first exit off the
interstate and then turned right.
20. Just then, a red balloon floated by my
window.
Conjunctions and Interjections, pp. 25=26
EXERCISE A
1. The power was off, so the model train
didn’t move.
2. Push the plus key but not the equals key.
3. Your role in the play is small yet important.
lowest score.
6
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4. Why not put some special effects or voiceovers on your video?
5. An informal yet elegant restaurant opened
at the airport.
EXERCISE B
6. Neither swamp buggies nor motorboats are
allowed in this environmentally sensitive
area.
7. Both cars and speedboats will be on display
at the convention center.
8. His walls were covered not only with
posters but also with photographs, news
9. Decide whether you’ll paint houses or plant
trees, then sign the volunteer sheet.
10. She had been neither to Chicago nor out of
the county.
EXERCISE C
11. It’s, oh, about five hundred miles from here
to Miami.
12. Ow! That was my toe under your foot.
13. Whoa! The sun is brighter than usual today.
14. The solution, well, is not that simple.
15. My, the storm uprooted a tree at Valleyview
Park.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
clippings, and other mementos.
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
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Chapter 2: The Parts of a Sentence,
pp. 27=40
2. The passengers were enjoying the train ride
The Subject, pp. 27=28
3. During the weekend, we canoed on Lake
through the countryside.
EXERCISE A
1. Earthworms have segmented bodies.
2. When is Dena moving to Baltimore?
3. The pillows on the couch were handmade.
4. Every morning, my mother works in the
garden.
Austin.
4. Have you read the review of the play in the
school newspaper?
5. The police officer was directing traffic.
EXERCISE B
6. My older brother will graduate from college
5. Those lanterns on the patio are very
unusual.
EXERCISE B
6. Will Peter audition for the leading role in
Death of a Salesman?
7. The recipe for Aunt Rosa’s rosemary chicken
has been passed down for generations.
8. How long will the clearance sale last?
9. High in the blue sky above us flew a lone
in two weeks.
7. The banana nut bread tasted wonderful.
8. Is the debate tournament this weekend?
9. After the award ceremony, a reception will
be held in the cafeteria.
10. On the top shelf in the pantry is the bag of
cat food.
EXERCISE C
11. The architect reviewed the design for the
eagle.
10. A backpack with red stripes was left in the
new building and made a few corrections.
12. Each contestant will be photographed and
locker room.
EXERCISE C
11. Are you or Diego riding in the van with
Mark?
12. The art supplies and canvases are in the
storage cabinet.
13. Has Mrs. Edwards or her husband arrived
yet?
will receive a certificate of participation.
13. Will the children’s parade start on Main
Street and end on Fairview Avenue?
14. The jury discussed the case for five hours
and decided in favor of the defendant.
15. Should I multiply or divide by three?
Predicate Nominatives, pp. 31=32
EXERCISE A
14. Butterflies and bees are attracted to these
flowers.
15. A monitor, speakers, and a printer came
with the computer.
The Predicate, pp. 29=30
EXERCISE A
1. Our new puppy played with its toy for
hours.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
teacher
Joyful Noise: Poems for Two Voices
she
Machu Picchu
Hattie Wyatt Caraway
EXERCISE B
6. That sailboat is The Dancing Dolphin.
7. Is Mount Fuji the highest mountain in
Japan?
8
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8. The first day in the new building will be
Monday.
9. Was that necklace a gift from your
grandmother?
10. My uncle and my grandfather were
firefighters.
EXERCISE C
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
she
cello, saxophone
fan
champion
captain, editor
elms, oaks
True, False
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
annoying
old, unreliable
hot, sweaty
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
pages
fly
bargain
survey
countertop
EXERCISE B
6. My younger sister has seen The Land Before
Time several times.
Dalmatian
7. A large umbrella provided shade.
Logan Hall, Logan Performing Arts Center
8. Did the bee sting you?
9. My grandmother’s dog follows her
EXERCISE A
sleepy
sour
everywhere.
10. He took a picture of the Washington sky.
nervous
11. Should we unplug the computer?
early
12. The squirrels were gathering acorns.
long
EXERCISE B
6. The trees along the path were tall and thick.
7. The glow from the kerosene lantern was
soft and yellow.
8. Isn’t Greg artistic and inventive?
9. How lucky you are!
10. That computer game about Egypt was
difficult but fun.
EXERCISE C
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
strange
Direct Objects, pp. 35=36
Isabel, he
Predicate Adjectives, pp. 33=34
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
talkative
13. Have you read To Kill a Mockingbird?
14. I challenged them to a rematch.
15. The man at the information desk gave me a
map of the city.
EXERCISE C
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
patio, path
Mr. Parker, her
stories
desk, boxes
picture
thick, strong
Indirect Objects, pp. 37=38
alert
EXERCISE A
delicious
bright
beautiful
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
1. brother
2. me
3. us
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4. sister
5. them
nephew
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
department
EXERCISE B
chick
11. IMP—Pass the salad, please.
EXERCISE B
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
him
me
EXERCISE C
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
county, state
coaches, athletes
IMP
IMP
DEC
IMP
DEC
DEC
12. INT—Were the first Olympic Games held in
Greece?
Raul, Cindy
13. EXC—How creative you are!
birds
14. INT—Which bus should I take to get to the
Hank, Hillary
manager
me
sister, me
airport?
15. IMP—Identify each bone in the leg and
foot.
judge, jury
16. DEC—The symbol for gold is Au.
dog
17. DEC—I finally figured out the riddle.
Classifying Sentences by Purpose, pp. 39=40
18. INT—Where did you put my dictionary?
EXERCISE A
19. DEC—Pedro won six tickets to the concert.
DEC
IMP
DEC
20. DEC—The strawberry was covered with
ants.
DEC
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
1.
2.
3.
4.
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Chapter 3: The Phrase, pp. 41=52
Prepositional Phrases A, pp. 41=42
EXERCISE A
1. According to the study, a traffic signal
should be installed next to the hospital.
2. Set the orange cones along the edge of the
field beside the track.
3. After the trip, were the beach towels covered
in sand and sunscreen?
4. Electric current, during this experiment,
will flow around a closed circuit.
5. Jessica is riding a blue skateboard with
long, red flames painted on its top.
EXERCISE B
6. Save our neighbors some of our apples and
pears.
7. The flags in the stadium fluttered as the
breeze picked up.
8. Everyone except Clara and me will be
there.
9. People in the audience laughed when the
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
comedians began dancing.
10. Bring me the notepad on the counter, please.
11. Ants are amazing insects with clear
divisions of labor.
12. The benches near the bus stop are usually
empty.
13. It is the one with the gold label.
14. Are you sure that this is the right park on
Fourth Street?
15. Mateo carefully vacuumed the edge of the
carpet along the baseboards.
Prepositional Phrases B, pp. 43=44
EXERCISE A
1. Hey, your little brother plays baseball well
for a third-grader.
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
2. Without a diagram, we knew where the
battery was located.
3. Five quarters are lying in front of that grate.
4. The car is pretty dusty from that last
sandstorm.
5. Why don’t you sit next to me and Yoko?
EXERCISE B
6. The cattle wandered beyond the gate.
7. Shouldn’t we return the toaster because of
the scratch?
8. My little sister sits between our parents on
long rides.
9. The swim team won the second freestyle
race by one-quarter second.
10. Along the pond’s edges, silvery minnows
darted.
11. Under the sofa we found my library book.
12. The holiday decorations are in the storage
room.
13. Calm for such a young dog, Max watched
us play catch.
14. For luck, Chen kept the rusted horseshoe he
found.
15. Green against the plant’s leaves, the lizard
cautiously waited.
The Participle and the Participial Phrase,
pp. 45=46
EXERCISE A
1. The smell of baking bread filled the house.
2. The hiking group rested under a blazing sun.
3. Should we add two beaten eggs to the
simmering mixture?
4. The purring cat sat lazily watching the lit
candle.
5. A budding friendship may be lost over a
broken promise or betrayed confidence.
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EXERCISE B
6. Most courses are open to anyone registered
at our school.
7. Following quietly, the wolf watched her
cubs as they played.
8. Won’t the person programming the video
7. On our scavenger hunt, what great
scrounging we did!
8. Soon after he took up the sport, his main
interest became riding.
9. Sometimes sleeping can be good for the
soul.
game have to work carefully with the
10. Try to take traveling less seriously.
artists?
EXERCISE B
9. Because of a defect, CDs bearing this
imprint must be sent back to the
manufacturer.
10. The newspaper received a number of letters
from readers concerned about the issue.
11. Celebrated on January 6, Three Kings’ Day
means presents to the children of Puerto
Rico.
12. Do you know anyone acquainted with this
neighborhood?
13. Beside a stream filled with salmon, the
bears took up their positions.
14. Someone watching for the guest of honor’s
arrival was at the door.
15. The director’s experimental version of
Romeo and Juliet will be staged on a set
resembling a space station near Jupiter.
The Gerund and the Gerund Phrase, pp. 47=48
EXERCISE A
1. Give baby-sitting your full attention.
2. How easy diving looks!
3. The field is so muddy that the halfbacks
will have to really watch out for slipping.
4. Cooking has become a popular activity
around our house.
11. Training your puppy may result in a
better-behaved adult dog.
12. By telling a mysterious tale, the librarian
kept his visitors interested.
13. Alexis is going to give listening to classical
music another chance.
14. Briefly, Stacy found herself disturbed by
shouting from the stands.
15. Maisie said, “I enjoyed talking to you and
Mr. Wells.”
16. Running for political office can be
expensive.
17. One bond between Mom and Chad has
always been watching hockey games
together.
18. Now the mouse seems to be giving darting
across the room a try.
19. The frog outside my window enjoys
croaking during the early evening.
20. Isn’t your hobby trading baseball cards?
The Infinitive and the Infinitive Phrase,
pp. 49=50
EXERCISE A
1. Before beginning the experiment, there are
a number of things to consider.
5. When is Lio going to finish her exploring?
2. Has it started to snow yet?
6. The helicopter’s pilot wants to continue
3. To win is Lily’s only goal in today’s race.
flying.
12
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4. Carefully built to last, that old dock will be
there for years to come.
5. That may have been this summer’s movie
to see.
EXERCISE B
6. To discover such a thing must be
wonderful!
7. The alternator belt has started to whine
during acceleration.
instruments, sitars
7. Has he fed his cat Gershwin its dinner?
8. The order will arrive tomorrow, Thursday,
afternoon.
9. Marla goes everywhere with her friend
Gene.
10. Today, we will see a film classic, The Red
Balloon.
8. I just called to say hello.
EXERCISE B
9. Do you want to play the inning or watch
11. Hiram R. Revels, the first African American
from the bench?
10. Was this essay written to persuade readers,
to entertain them, or to describe an event?
11. The buds on these trees look ready to
sprout into leaves.
12. The children laughed to see the baby goats’
antics.
13. It was easy to find the problem’s solution.
14. My aunt always tells me, “It is better to
begin the journey than put it off.”
15. The water has begun to boil vigorously, so
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
6. They were practicing on lutelike
it’s time to start the spaghetti.
The Appositive and the Appositive Phrase,
pp. 51=52
EXERCISE A
1. The term Elysian Fields refers to classical
mythology’s blissful afterlife.
2. The movie stars’ gowns, originals, were
worth a fortune.
3. Antonio’s friend, “Brain,” knew the answer.
4. Did the explorer Erik the Red discover
Greenland?
senator, took Jefferson Davis’s former seat
in the Senate.
12. Doesn’t Sonia Quintana, photographer for
the yearbook, have a home darkroom?
13. The restaurant serves a daily special,
a vegetable medley with ranch dip.
14. Right away, we fell in love with the house,
a three-story fixer-upper with a wooden
frame and gingerbread trim.
15. The dormitory room was furnished with
two chairs, both from a local flea market.
16. She was Juana Inés de la Cruz, a woman of
letters and a student of science in the 1600s.
17. A gift from my grandmother, the Chinese
vase is several hundred years old.
18. The arctic region from Siberia to Greenland,
the longest piece of land in the world with
one language and culture, is unique.
19. The song was written by my brother,
a student of Irish folk music.
20. A new perspective, a bird’s-eye view of the
situation, might help.
5. Here are our photographs from the 1950s,
portraits.
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
13
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Page 14
Chapter 4: The Clause, pp. 53=62
18. Nicole remained the captain of the
The Adjective Clause, pp. 53=54
basketball team, which won the
EXERCISE A
championship last year.
1. Draw the subject that interests you most.
2. The candidate whom the committee chooses
will get the job.
3. Their band still needs someone who can
play the guitar.
4. I’ll introduce them to the teacher who
sponsors the program.
5. Yes, this is the one whose car design won
an award.
6. Isn’t that the man for whom those shoes
were named?
7. Green and tan are the colors that the
designer suggested.
8. Trees line the running trail that is next to
Washington Lake.
9. Follow the brown signs that lead to the
campground.
10. For first period, find the room to which you
have been assigned.
EXERCISE B
11. Have you met Mr. Riley, who taught my
shop class last year?
12. For reasons that remain unknown, the king
refused their simple requests.
13. Did Sondra lend the book to the girl who is
her lab partner?
14. Where is the carpenter whom she has hired?
15. Monterey, which features spectacular
scenery, is a popular vacation spot.
16. Would you buy a pair of socks that are
striped with every color of the rainbow?
17. Someone that Mr. Brown knows has an
19. The new soccer uniforms, which Sam likes
better than the last ones, are dark blue.
20. Kelly is the sister of the artist of whom you
spoke.
The Adverb Clause, pp. 55=56
EXERCISE A
1. If history had been different, how would
you be different?
2. Because it was in an unfamiliar place, the
dog would not leave the pet carrier.
3. As Juanita prepared for the math
competition, her confidence grew.
4. The orange juice container is empty, even
though it had been full only yesterday.
5. Even though few people knew the poem,
most understood it right away.
6. If you are tired, why don’t you take a nap?
7. I painted my room green because that’s my
favorite color.
8. The mystery will remain unsolved until
scientists interpret the lab results.
9. Whenever there is a crisis, Martin
immediately takes charge of the situation.
10. Because the wildlife needs to be protected,
no cars are allowed in the park.
EXERCISE B
11. When the plant gets too much water, the
leaves turn yellow.
12. The baby broke into smiles because her
mother had walked in the room.
13. Although many researchers have tried, no
one has duplicated the scientists’ results.
instruction manual for that program.
14
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14. Because everyone else was asleep, we
talked quietly.
EXERCISE B
11. Our first question is who will be the next
editor of the school paper.
15. Will we take a walk as soon as David puts
on his shoes?
12. The movie shows how the firefighter
rescued the children.
16. Whenever an important news story comes
out, Marissa knows about it first.
17. The train arrived sooner than we had
expected.
13. My mom said that this would happen.
14. So, that was what the baby wanted!
15. Are you satisfied with what you have
accomplished so far?
18. Oh, the computer has not run slowly since
we installed more memory.
16. Sure, these brochures are for whoever
wants one.
19. Since one table leg was too short, the table
wobbled easily.
17. The topic of our dinner conversation was
whether or not Lee could go on the class trip.
20. Unfortunately, the party was more
expensive than we had expected.
18. What gift to take to the housewarming
party was the question of the day.
The Noun Clause, pp. 57=58
EXERCISE A
19. They were talking about where the new
1. Did he say when the car will be ready?
2. What the baby needs is a warmer blanket.
railroad tracks will run.
20. Give whoever is elected the keys to the file
cabinets.
3. Can you tell which one is the original
photograph?
4. Which path would lead home was the
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
question.
5. Did Grandma get what she wanted for her
birthday?
6. Each band member must remember where
he or she should stand on the field.
Sentence Structure A, pp. 59=60
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
CD
S
CD
CD
S
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
S
CD
S
S
CD
EXERCISE B
7. Choose whichever font looks best.
Some answers may vary.
8. Actually, they wrote a book about how the
11. The soccer coach and her team practiced
, so
every day for months. They won the
^
championship.
, or
12. Can raccoons swim?^ Do they not know
how?
discovery was made.
9. Rich natural resources are why they came
to this area.
10. Tell whoever comes in the store about our
special.
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
13. Our city’s Fourth of July parade was a
, and
massive project. Hundreds of floats were
^
presented.
15
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CX
14. Meet the class in this room at 8:00 A.M. on
, and
Friday for the field trip. We’ll leave the
^
building by 8:30 A.M.
, but
15. Wilma used to spend money quicky. Now
^
she prefers to save it.
Sentence Structure B, pp. 61=62
7. If Ida washes the dishes this
evening, Ken will dry them.
CX
8. Because she has been saving
money all year, Nina is proud
of her savings account.
CD-CX
9. Hundreds of pigeons lived in
the tower, and every one of
EXERCISE A
1. When the train approached the railroad
them knew the lady who fed
crossing, the train whistle blew loudly.
them every day.
CX
2. I will visit you every day while you are in
the hospital.
games since he opened his lawn
business.
3. While the electricity was out, did Carlton
light some candles?
4. If the ice in the cooler melts, move the
water bottles into the refrigerator.
5. Myra’s confidence grew as the third game
of the tennis match progressed.
10. Eric has had little time for
EXERCISE C
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
CX
CD-CX
CX
CX
CD-CX
EXERCISE B
CD-CX
6. Since Aunt Chi got her
convertible, she drives it every
day, yet she will not put the top
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down.
16
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Chapter 5: Agreement, pp. 63=70
Agreement of Subject and Verb A, pp. 63=64
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
have
have
lies
Does
grow
EXERCISE B
6. The art paper and the charcoal pencils
(belong, belongs) in the cabinet.
7. Neither the box nor the drawers (contain,
contains) the part we need.
8. Jody or Monica (is, are) going to the store.
9. Lewis and Clark (was, were) famous
American explorers.
10. The dog or the children (have, has) been
playing with the garden hose again.
11. Either a robin or a sparrow (occupies, occupy)
the nest outside my window.
12. Pasta or rice (is, are) part of Phoebe’s daily
diet.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
13. On scheduled evenings, the students and
Ms. Soyer (gazes, gaze) at stars through a
telescope.
14. Neither rain nor heavy winds (has, have)
damaged the building.
15. The trees and the stream (look, looks)
peaceful in the morning sunlight.
4. Each of the fruit salads (has, have) been
eaten.
5. (Does, Do) either of these CD players use
batteries?
EXERCISE B
6. Many of the endangered giant pandas (live,
lives) in China.
7. Together, both of Ellen’s cousins (visits,
visit) Maine in the fall.
8. Only a few of the onion bulbs (has, have)
sprouted.
9. Due to their instincts, several (dig, digs)
their own dens.
10. After the thunderstorm, both of the phones
(quit, quits) working.
EXERCISE C
11. None of that story (sounds, sound) believable.
12. (Has, Have) any of the buses arrived yet?
13. All of the orange (has, have) been eaten.
14. Some of China’s natural resources (is, are)
minerals, coal, tungsten, and tin.
15. To help finish quickly, more of us (have, has)
been assigned to the project.
EXERCISE D
16. (Don’t, Doesn’t) the actors work well with
each other?
17. Charlie (doesn’t, don’t) have a camera that
we can use.
Agreement of Subject and Verb B, pp. 65=66
18. I (doesn’t, don’t) raise parakeets any more.
EXERCISE A
19. (Don’t, Doesn’t) tales of Viking visits to
1. Neither of these computers (works, work)
properly.
2. (Has, Have) everyone signed the guest
North America appear in Viking epic
stories?
20. The knife (doesn’t, don’t) require sharpening.
book?
3. One of the cats always (scratches, scratch) the
furniture.
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
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Page 18
Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent A,
pp. 67=68
EXERCISE A
1. Where will the Bartons spend (his, their)
holiday?
2. Camels store fat, rather than water, in (its,
their) humps.
3. Before (she, they) left the campsite, did
Laurel put out the campfire?
4. Lake Superior takes (its, their) name from a
French term meaning “Upper Lake.”
5. Council members discussed (his, their) plans
for the coming year.
EXERCISE B
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
her
it
him
she
his
EXERCISE C
11. Either Greg or Jason needs help with (his,
their) math assignment.
12. Bottles and cans should be placed in (its,
their) own recycling bin.
13. Did Alex and Shane enter (his, their) sailboats in the race?
14. Neither Julie nor Jane had (her, their) picture
taken.
15. Opossums and wombats carry (its, their)
young inside pouches.
Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent B,
pp. 69=70
EXERCISE A
1. Has either of your brothers taken (his, their)
3. No one is wearing (his or her, their) watch
today.
4. Everything in the display case is priced
according to (its, their) size.
5. Because both of the boys knew the song,
(he, they) sang it together.
6. Many of our citizens exercise (his or her,
their) right to vote.
7. Is one of the skillets missing (its, their) lid?
8. Several of the countries in Europe replaced
(its, their) own currencies with the euro.
9. If somebody calls, tell (him or her, them) that
I’ll be home in an hour.
10. Few of the dancers in the company missed
(his or her, their) training session.
EXERCISE B
11. None of the casserole remains, so (it, they)
must have been delicious.
12. Some of the firm’s history is unknown
because (it, they) was lost during the 1860s.
13. If all of the apples are ripe, I will use (it,
them) in the Waldorf salad.
14. Do most of your neighbors sit on (his or her,
their) front porches in the evening?
15. Some of the tropical rain forests have been
cleared for (its, their) lumber.
16. All of the contestants in the art show may
pick up (their, his or her) paintings on
Monday.
17. If you’re interested in buying (it, them),
more of the tickets are available in the
library.
driving test?
2. Why are so few of the band members
wearing (his or her, their) uniforms?
18
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18. When any of the order arrives, (it, they) will
need to be unpacked and checked for
quality.
19. Now, more of our visitors are satisfied with
(his or her, their) tours of the museum.
20. Because most of the tile has been shipped,
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
(it, they) should arrive within a week.
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
19
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Page 20
Chapter 6: Using Pronouns
Correctly, pp. 71=82
Case Forms of Personal Pronouns A, pp. 71=72
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
she
I
They
we
he, she
she
13. him, me
14. her, me
15. him
Case Forms of Personal Pronouns C, pp. 75=76
EXERCISE A
Answers may vary. Sample responses are provided.
1. I brought my binoculars with me, but
Gerald left his at home.
2. My grandfather showed me
collection of records.
We
they
he
they
3.
Mine
is the one with the stripes.
4. Our teacher mailed a thank-you note to
yours .
EXERCISE B
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
she
we
EXERCISE B
they
Answers may vary. Sample responses are provided.
she
6. Did Darren find
I
7. They hung
they
he
we
they
9. I hope that
10. Have you finished
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
us
my
her
photographs?
mother sends me a
package soon.
her, him
him, me
bicycle helmet?
coats on the coat rack
8. When will she pick up
EXERCISE C
them
their
his
by the door.
us
EXERCISE B
your
essay yet?
my
his
Her
our
Your
them
Special Problems in Pronoun Usage, pp. 77=78
him, me
EXERCISE A
me
us
her
EXERCISE C
11. us
12. them
20
how to play
backgammon.
they
EXERCISE A
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
ours
5. His friends showed
Case Forms of Personal Pronouns B, pp. 73=74
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
his
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
who
who
Whoever
who
who
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EXERCISE B
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
whom
14. Because the books were falling apart, she
took them off the shelves.
15. Maria wanted to put her ticket in her purse,
but she couldn’t find the ticket.
whom
Clear Reference B, pp. 81=82
whom
EXERCISE A
whom
whom
EXERCISE C
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
him
me
we
I
him
Clear Reference A, pp. 79=80
EXERCISE A
1. Have the Hensons reserved their hotel
room?
2. Nina made a shopping list, and then she
went to the store.
3. After school, Charlene went shopping with
her mother.
4. Have we already passed our favorite
restaurant?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
5. Gloria lent her CD to Beth so that Beth
could listen to it.
EXERCISE B
Answers will vary. Sample responses are provided.
6. Mrs. Gibson handed Amanda’s sweater to
her.
7. Gloria told Anna, “You are an hour early.”
8. Fred and Jason went to the market to help
out Jason’s aunt.
9. While the boat was being repaired, we did
not take it to the dock.
10. When they receive their schedules, faculty
members should post them on their doors.
11. While Jane visited her grandmother, they
looked at a photo of Jane as a child.
12. Has Greg given Marty Marty’s car keys?
13. Because fruits contain many nutrients, they
are healthier than sugary snacks.
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
1. When Roy and Zachary ride their skateboards, they wear blue safety helmets.
2. Isabella learned algebra from her aunt.
3. The computer crashed, but the technicians
repaired it right away.
4. The cats that live there seem to think that
the porch belongs to them.
5. When Roger started working at the store,
did he have to buy a uniform?
EXERCISE B
Answers will vary. Sample responses are provided.
6. Because Caleb overslept this morning, he
missed the bus.
7. We had hoped to see some dolphins on our
boat trip, but we didn’t see any.
8. Because Nelda studied for her history quiz,
she knew the answers.
9. Because Grady found the keys inside the
drawer, he was able to open the cabinet.
10. We didn’t win the basketball game, but the
score was close.
11. Benjamin Franklin may have proven his
theories about electricity by flying a kite
during a thunderstorm.
12. I am looking forward to studying genetics
in biology class next semester.
13. If everyone recycled, waste would be
reduced substantially.
14. Nadine left early because she had a dental
appointment.
15. Greater participation in neighborhood
watch programs might reduce crime.
21
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Page 22
Chapter 7: Using Verbs Correctly,
pp. 83=98
The Principal Parts of Verbs A, pp. 83=84
EXERCISE A
1. earn
[is]
earning
earned
earned
[have]
2. claim
[is] claiming
[have] claimed
claimed
3. prevail
[is] prevailing
[have] prevailed
prevailed
4. challenge [is] challenging challenged
[have] challenged
5. live
[is]
living
[have]
lived
lived
EXERCISE B
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
scored
turned
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
become
drew
left
ridden
taught
written
flew
run
found
come
Lie and Lay; Sit and Set; Rise and Raise, pp. 87=88
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
laid
lying
Lay
lay
lying
EXERCISE B
closed
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
shattered
meant
reached
hiked
gathered
sitting
set
set
sitting
sit
EXERCISE C
trimmed
typed
The Principal Parts of Verbs B, pp. 85=86
EXERCISE A
1. make
made
[have]
made
2. freeze
froze
[have]
frozen
3. know
knew
[have]
known
4. forgive
forgave
[have]
forgiven
5. say
said
[have]
said
6. burst
burst
[have]
burst
7. choose
chose
[have]
chosen
8. sell
sold
[have]
sold
9. grow
grew
[have]
grown
10. sleep
slept
[have]
slept
22
EXERCISE B
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
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L09NADLS10_022-024.qxd
rises
risen
raised
rose
raise
Tense, pp. 89=90
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
present
future
past
present perfect
future perfect
past perfect
present
future perfect
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9. past
10. present perfect
EXERCISE B
EXERCISE B
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
will host
has stood
will bring
covered
sang
will return
printed
has studied
will have been
had used
past
future
past perfect
past perfect progressive
past progressive
past
present progressive
future perfect
past
future
The Progressive Form, pp. 91=92
Consistency of Tense, pp. 95=96
EXERCISE A
EXERCISE A
Answers may vary. Sample answers are given.
Answers may vary slightly, but verb tense must be
consistent within each sentence.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
has been leaning
past perfect progressive
1. Tomorrow, we will order the flowers and
meet with the caterer.
2. Last summer, Anthony played soccer and
joined the swim team.
3. Most people live and work in the same
town.
4. During the game, the fans cheered and
waved banners.
5. Jean reads German and speaks Italian.
6. The council members meet only when there
is a problem.
7. Eileen always takes her cell phone with her
when she goes to the store.
8. Did you see which way my dog ran?
9. The balloon made a loud noise when it
burst.
10. Is Jesse sick, or is he just tired?
present perfect progressive
EXERCISE B
were streaking
has been lying
was waiting
Is repeating
EXERCISE B
Answers may vary. Sample answers are given.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
4. future
5. past
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Has been producing
will be playing
will have been participating
will be serving
had been researching
EXERCISE C
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
future progressive
present progressive
present perfect progressive
The Uses of the Tenses, pp. 93=94
EXERCISE A
1. future
2. past
3. present
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
11. The building inspector found a fracture that
will worsen
worsened if it isn’t repaired.
12. Next week, our history teacher will tell us
happened
what happens during World War II.
sweep
13. I will mop the floor after I swept it.
23
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Page 24
14. Dale works at the mall, but after tomorrow
will be working (or will work)
he will have been working at the
supermarket.
moved
15. Will you tell Evan that Brad was moving to
Portland two weeks ago?
Active and Passive Voice, pp. 97=98
EXERCISE A
passive
active
passive
passive
active
passive
active
active
passive
EXERCISE B
11. active—Was the film developed by Pattie?
12. active—The children are helped across the
street by crossing guards.
13. passive—Billboards line many highways.
14. passive—In the Civil War, the Union army
defeated the Confederate army.
15. active—Those seedlings were planted by
conservationists.
active
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
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Chapter 8: Using Modifiers Correctly,
pp. 99=104
Degrees of Comparison, pp. 99=100
EXERCISE A
toddler’s shoe fell off his foot.
6. Having asked for assistance, the computer
was quickly repaired.
1. increasing degrees of helpful
more helpful
most helpful
7. Cracked after a fall, Christy used glue for
2. increasing degrees of complicated
more complicated
most complicated
8. Having sold us new umbrellas, the rain
3. decreasing degrees of lucky
less lucky
least lucky
9. Hungry after so much work, a well-cooked
4. increasing degrees of alert
more alert
most alert
5. increasing degrees of high
higher
highest
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
her repairs.
didn’t bother us at all.
meal was wanted.
10. After marching for so long, a brief rest was
called for.
EXERCISE B
EXERCISE B
more
Answers will vary. The following are examples of the
types of sentences students may write.
11. While exploring the cave, some ancient
best
writings were discovered.
most
While exploring the cave, we discovered some
less
farther
EXERCISE C
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
5. Climbing to the top of the stairs, the
11. longer
12. funniest
13. largest
14. less
15.
more of Modifiers A: Dangling Modifiers,
Placement
pp. 101=102
ancient writing.
12. After receiving a catalog, five dollars was
sent to the company’s headquarters.
After receiving a catalog, we sent five dollars
to the company’s headquarters.
13. Completing several spacewalks, the
damaged satellite was repaired.
Completing several spacewalks, the
EXERCISE A
1. Shifting his weight suddenly, the canoe
tipped over.
2. While delivering newspapers, the two
Great Danes barked.
3. Having lived near the cliffs for several years,
the area was quite familiar.
4. Although nervous, Ms. Oakley’s speech
was a success.
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
astronauts repaired the damaged satellite.
14. Visiting Mackinac Island in Lake Huron, a
boat can be taken.
You can visit Mackinac Island in Lake Huron
by taking a boat.
15. After running around with muddy paws,
the rug had to be vacuumed.
After the dog ran around with muddy paws,
the rug had to be vacuumed.
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Placement of Modifiers B: Misplaced Modifiers,
pp. 103=104
EXERCISE A
1. Lost, the ranger station was a welcome
sight to the campers.
2. I have almost visited every state in the
Union.
3. Imaginative, the art kit entertained the child
for hours.
4. Because Karen wasn’t staying long, she
only brought one suitcase.
5. Sturdy, the copiers nearly worked for
twenty-three hours a day.
EXERCISE B
Answers may vary.
6. The research assistant sifted through stacks
of papers working late into the evening.
8. Albert Einstein made many scientific
advances developing new theories.
9. We stored the bicycle in the garage
with the broken handlebars.
10. Penicillin was discovered by Alexander
Fleming, which is still prescribed by doctors
today.
11. The computer is making strange noises
on the left.
12. Did the detective find any clues to the
mystery who took the case?
13. Niagara Falls attracts many tourists
lying on the border between Canada and
New York State.
14. The car stopped just in time that was
skidding on the icy bridge.
15. Redwoods grow on the West Coast of the
the announcements because she was sitting
United States, which are the tallest living
in the back row.
trees.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
7. Kristie couldn’t hear the speaker who made
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Chapter 9: A Glossary of Usage,
pp. 105=112 Glossary of Usage A,
pp. 105=106
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
accept
a great deal
isn’t
a large number
Isn’t
accept
much
excepted
except
aren’t
EXERCISE B
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
between
take
could have
among
Take
located
between
bring
should have
is
Glossary of Usage B, pp. 107=108
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
good
less
fewer
well
less
good
fewer
good
less
well
EXERCISE B
11. its
12. rather
13. themselves
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
its
somewhat
it’s
rather
themselves
himself
it’s
Glossary of Usage C, pp. 109=110
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
their
then
They’re
than
There
EXERCISE B
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
This
try to
those
that
try to
this
those
That
those
try to
EXERCISE C
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
You’re
who’s
whose
Your
Who’s
Glossary of Usage D, pp. 111=112
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Has
any
could
anyone
ever
ever
any
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8. could
9. had
10. any
EXERCISE B
Answers may vary.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
11. The salesperson showed us the latest stereo
equipment.
12. Although the meteorologists predicted rain,
the day was bright and sunny.
13. Isn’t your mother a U.S. representative?
14. On the job, firefighters often risk their lives.
15. Please tell a flight attendant if you have any
special dietary restrictions.
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Chapter 10: Capitalization,
pp. 113=126
Capitalization A, pp. 113=114
8. Peruvian weaving
9. Rocky Mountains
10. Windham Wildcats
EXERCISE A
EXERCISE B
1. the capital of California is Sacramento.
11. My teacher is mrs. lin.
2. Chi said, “my poem is about homework.”
12. The goalie for our soccer team is dan.
3. a small, new village developed rather
13. The sixth-graders enjoyed watching the
quickly along the river.
4. Paul said, “my grandfather is training for
the marathon.”
5. “this CD is on sale,” said the salesclerk.
EXERCISE B
6. when may i announce the winner?
14. Our teacher read the class a poem by robert
f rost.
15. The class hamster, bucky, likes sunflower
seeds.
16. The photograph shows a scientist, sam c .
7. my friend said,“ i know your favorite
garcia, cleaning mud from artifacts.
subject is math, but i like history.”
17. How many countries in africa border the
8. Mr. Nelson announced, “ now i’m ready for
breakfast.”
9. The person i admire the most is my father,
so i wrote a poem about him that began “o
Father, my champion.”
10. since snow is already covering the ground,
i hope the city doesn’t get any more tonight.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
movie about the dog named beethoven.
EXERCISE C
Atlantic Ocean?
18. An astronomer, gabrielle p. f reeman, spoke
at the observatory today.
19. The family members agreed that fluffy
would be a good name for their new cat.
20. Last week, stephen j. jones was elected
mayor.
EXERCISE C
11. best wishes,
Answers will vary. Sample responses are provided.
12. sincerely yours,
21. city
13. dear President Polanski,
22. country
Ireland
14. yours truly,
23. holiday
Easter
15. dear Jane,
24. weekday
Capitalization B, pp. 115=116
25. professional athlete
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Rhode Island
Chinese art
Sears Tower
Tiger Woods
Kenyan athlete
John Philip Sousa
New York
Tuesday
Mia Hamm
Capitalization C, pp. 117=118
EXERCISE A
1. The crew set sail on the atlantic ocean.
2. The United States is on the continent of
north america.
3. Doesn’t your pen pal Julian live in jamaica?
Rosa Parks
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
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Page 30
4. Turn left on brentwood street and look for
5. Isn’t memorial general hospital well
signs to the museum.
known throughout the state for its
architectural design?
5. The new road that the city council members
voted on will start here and go all the way
to hennepin c ounty.
EXERCISE B
6. A f ord explorer was pictured in the
magazine ad.
EXERCISE B
6. Chandra’s mother once lived in the area of
the country sometimes known as the c orn
7. My aunt’s new business is called f ood flair.
8. The antique computer at the library is a
belt.
7. The coffee shop is on twenty-fourth Street.
c ompaq presario.
9. Dave gave me a kleenex tissue after I
8. The route of this year’s 10-kilometer race
will begin near the picnic area at valleydale
sneezed.
10. My dad invented a new labor-saving
pond.
9. The state of vermont borders c anada.
device, the vacuumeister.
EXERCISE C
10. C
11. Next year I am going to dewey high school.
EXERCISE C
12. The repair shop is located in the c lark
11. The Ruiz family stopped at silver c ity on
their vacation last year.
building.
13. Mr. Feldman is a volunteer at baptist
12. At the elementary school’s carnival in
highland park, activities included a
memorial hospital.
14. That big building over there is the trump
dunking booth and a face-painting station.
13. C
tower.
15. The famous golden gate bridge is one of
14. A popular tourist spot in louisiana is lake
pontchartrain.
15. What kinds of birds are native to the
hawaiian islands?
Capitalization D, pp. 119=120
EXERCISE A
1. My youngest sister is a pitcher for a team
called the little c ougars.
2. An officer in the u nited states marines
spoke to our class today.
3. The main branch of the u niversity of texas
is located in Austin.
the many landmarks of San Francisco.
EXERCISE D
Answers will vary. Sample responses are provided.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Rubbermaid trash can
Houston Comets
Express Scripts
Empire State Building
Sierra Club
Capitalization E, pp. 121=122
EXERCISE A
1. The children’s bookstore nearby has a
window display of newbery medal
winners.
4. Dr. Bledsoe is a member of the american
medical association.
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2. Tourists can learn a lot at the national
c ivil rights museum in Memphis,
Tennessee.
3. Who do you think will win an academy
award this year?
4. Seamus Heaney won the nobel prize.
5. I am going to visit the lincoln memorial in
Washington, D.C.
EXERCISE B
6. Soldiers will be honored during a service
on memorial day.
7. Large signs at the park are advertising this
year’s concert series, which is called blues
on the green.
8. Were Shanti’s grandparents alive during the
great depression?
9. The athletes have been training for the
winter olympics for many years.
10. Please turn in all completed applications by
f ebruary 15.
11. What are your plans for labor day?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
12. The renaissance was a period of great
achievements in science and literature.
13. What a surprise you’ll get on wednesday!
14. In march the weather is usually warm
enough for gardening.
15. Will there be a fireworks display this f ourth
of july?
EXERCISE C
16. Our new neighbor is japanese.
17. We saw many beautiful paintings by a
sioux artist.
18. The choir sang a few austrian songs.
19. On the Batemans’ coffee table is a book
with colorful photos of australian animals.
20. The patient is a c aucasian female.
Capitalization F, pp. 123=124
EXERCISE A
1. I attended a c hristmas service at my
church.
2. The first book of the bible is genesis.
3. A jewish holiday called passover observes
the release of ancient Hebrews from slavery.
4. Will Mia’s cousin get married at the baptist
church on Burnet Street?
5. The primary religion of India is hinduism.
EXERCISE B
6. We saw a replica of the first airplane, the
f lyer I, at the museum.
7. Is skylab the name of the space station that
fell to earth?
8. Mr. Lawless has owned his car, bertha, for
five years.
9. Tickets for the special trip on the train
round rock e xpress were available last weekend.
10. My aunt and uncle took a cruise on the
neptune princess.
EXERCISE C
11. Catherine looked up at the sky and pointed
out andromeda.
12. The one constellation I can always identify
is orion.
13. One of Jupiter’s moons is named io.
14. C
15. Is the planet m ercury the nearest to the
sun?
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EXERCISE D
16. Lee’s favorite class is art 101.
17. C
18. If you need help with algebra II homework,
please meet with one of the tutors.
19. The latin classes at Jefferson High School
have had three different teachers in four
years.
EXERCISE B
6. Will you tell us a story about Ireland,
grandma?
7. Tomorrow, u ncle Thomas will be
volunteering at a home-building site.
8. C
9. Your most recent art show went quite well,
mom.
20. C
10. C
Capitalization G, pp. 125=126
EXERCISE C
EXERCISE A
11. A reproduction of the painting mona lisa had
1. Before the meeting, president Ames spoke
to the committee.
2. Didn’t Willis say that his favorite teacher is
professor Donaldson?
3. There’s an emergency at the skating rink,
doctor!
4. Our next-door neighbor, mr. dawson, has a
lovely flower garden.
12. Isn’t his favorite TV show drake and j osh?
13. A class activity that kept everyone’s
attention was Matt’s reading of the poem
“jabberwocky.”
14. Tyra’s younger sister receives nickelodeon
magazine.
15. Mr. Ramirez told his students to read
Chapter 13, “the revolutionary war.”
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
5. C
been on display at the Riverdale Gallery.
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Chapter 11: Punctuation, pp. 127=138
End Marks and Abbreviations, pp. 127=128
EXERCISE A
1. The science test isn’t on Friday.
2. Look out, there’s a rock falling from the cliff
above us!
3. Which of these books is your favorite?
4. No running is allowed at the pool; slow
down right now!
5. What did Simira think of the art exhibit?
6. Over the years, many immigrants have
been inspired by the Statue of Liberty.
7. How many times per minute do
hummingbirds flap their wings?
8. I think I just sprained my ankle—ouch!
9. As summer progressed, lawns across the
city turned brown.
10. Does Aunt Nancy like her new apartment?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
EXERCISE B
11. Fred McIntyre, Sr., is a popular professor.
12. The winner of this year’s poetry contest is
A. M. Castile!
13. Many historians believe that famous epic
was created around 800 B.C.
14. Look in the Yellow Pages for a surgeon
named F. J. Dominguez.
15. C
Commas A, pp. 129=130
EXERCISE A
Optional commas have been underscored.
1. Carter has lived in Memphis, Houston, and
Boston.
2. Which friend of Jenny’s has the three dogs
named Bingo, Lucky, and Lottie?
3. We packed pasta salad, potato salad, and
fruit salad for our picnic.
4. C
5. My mother planted roses, marigolds, and
daisies.
6. C
7. Please bring an easel, paintbrush, and paint
to art class.
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
8. Rhode Island, California, and Iowa are all
states.
9. Please get milk, cereal, and bread at the
grocery store.
10. Engineers need to notice details, enjoy math,
and solve problems.
EXERCISE B
11. We saw a long, suspenseful movie at the
theater today.
12. Who were the most talented, creative artists
at the show?
13. C
14. Puff is a white, fluffy, friendly cat.
15. The radio was playing soft, peaceful music.
Commas B, pp. 131=132
EXERCISE A
1. Paul did not paint the garage, nor did he
clean the attic.
2. Alan wants a mouse as a pet, but Teresa
wants a hamster.
3. The sophomore class will hold a car wash,
or they will organize a bake sale.
4. The tour guide told us about the history of
the city, yet we still had many questions.
5. I am studying for the math test, but I will
be reading my novel next.
6. I can bring charcoal to the pool party, or
you can bring it.
7. Pedro is drawing the design, and Sean is
writing the story.
8. We watched a show about interior design,
so we have many good ideas for this room.
9. Mrs. Karon bought a keyboard, for she is
taking piano lessons.
10. Don’t forget your homework, and don’t be
late for school.
EXERCISE B
11. C
12. C
13. My little sister blew out the candles, so
everyone at the party clapped their hands.
14. My mother built the treehouse, and Mrs.
Tan planted the garden.
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15. C
EXERCISE C
Answers may vary.
16. Turn down the television, or turn it off
entirely.
17. Kendra won the 100-meter dash, so she got
a blue ribbon.
18. The football soared through the air, and it
finally went through the goal posts.
19. Friday was supposed to be rainy, but it was
sunny all day.
20. Should we cook spaghetti, or should we
make sandwiches?
Commas C, pp. 133=134
EXERCISE A
1. Dad, energized by his morning jog, made
us breakfast this morning.
2. Our two puppies, which like to play,
tumble over their own feet sometimes.
3. The sun, which was shining brightly,
improved our moods.
4. The telephone woke Mr. Grady, who was
snoring softly.
5. His shoes, shined and polished, went well
with his uniform.
6. That blue chair, which is rather old, has
been on the balcony all summer.
7. The tree, shedding leaves and branches,
looked as if it would fall.
8. Grandma, smiling widely, stepped off the
airplane.
9. Jacob, breathing heavily, finished the
marathon.
10. The bee, buzzing incredibly loudly,
followed us.
EXERCISE B
11. C
12. Gracie’s science project, which was on the
blue table, won the prize.
13. C
14. C
15. C
34
16. Uncle Joe, who grew up in Texas, says the
hot weather doesn’t bother him.
17. C
18. C
19. Jamie’s horse, which lives in a stable near
her house, is nine years old.
20. David, cleaning out his desk, found the
missing book.
Commas D, pp. 135=136
EXERCISE A
1. Yes, I do like your new haircut.
2. Weaving from side to side, the skateboarder
went through the obstacle course.
3. Slowly, a large stingray swam along the reef.
4. Formed by a glacier, this valley has fertile
farm land.
5. Waiting patiently, Chris was ready for his
driver’s test.
6. Appearing quickly, the digital image
brightened the computer screen.
7. Why, that was the funniest show I have
ever seen!
8. Shining brightly, the lighthouse beam can
be seen for miles.
9. Smiling, Gary showed us his “Best Actor”
trophy.
10. Looking at her work again, Lena decided to
revise her layout.
EXERCISE B
11. On top of mom’s suitcase in the closet, you
will find her hat.
12. After I finish my homework, I am going for
a walk.
13. For last year’s Fourth of July holiday,
didn’t the neighbors decorate their yard
with tiny flags?
14. As the train pulled away from the station,
my sister waved goodbye.
15. From the lush mountains to the rugged
valley, the view was beautiful.
16. On a hill in the center of town, that castle is
a noticeable landmark.
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17. When you go into the kitchen, please take
this plate with you.
18. As soon as Terrell turned six years old, he
joined the Little League team.
19. Before you get started on your essay, please
read the guidelines.
20. Because the wind is blowing steadily, the
blades of the windmill are spinning.
Commas E, pp. 137=138
EXERCISE A
1. My paternal grandfather, Sean Ward, is a
firefighter.
2. This bike, the blue one, is mine.
3. C
4. Her math textbook, a heavy book, is sitting
on the table.
5. C
EXERCISE B
EXERCISE C
11. This wood, for instance, is the correct type
for a bird feeder.
12. Meanwhile, the two boys had broken the
secret code.
13. Golden retrievers are, generally speaking,
smart and friendly dogs.
14. We are meeting at the gym at 3:00 P.M., I
believe.
15. Is this new camera, in fact, more lightweight
than last year’s model?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
6. Come inside the house, Rover.
7. If you practice more, Sarah, you will soon
learn to play the guitar.
8. This amusement park, Sir, is the best one I
have ever seen!
9. How many pages is your English essay,
Julie?
10. I am so glad you are visiting us, Grandma.
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
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Page 36
Chapter 12: Punctuation, pp. 139=142 15.
This file cabinet contains paper clips, both
Semicolons, pp. 139=140
large and small, highlighters in assorted
^;
colors, pens, including red, blue, green and
^;
black ballpoints, and several types of file
^;
folders.
EXERCISE A
1. Today, the sun was shining the cat went for
^;
a walk outside.
2. The thermostat broke, consequently, the car
^;
overheated.
3. It was not an easy test nevertheless, she
^;
thinks she passed it.
4. Zack likes his new bicycle after all, it has
^;
fifteen speeds. or Zack likes his new bicycle
after all, it has fifteen speeds.
^;
5. The press has to be level, otherwise, the drill
^;
holes will be at the wrong angle.
6. There was a brief flurry of snow, then, it
^;
began to drizzle.
7. Tom is trying out for the basketball team he
^;
plays well.
8. The ’32 sedan should win the car show, on
^;
the other hand, so should the ’31 coupe.
Colons, pp. 141=142
EXERCISE A
1. Vivette’s locker has a few decorations
similar to yours;^ a small poster, an origami
:
swan, a couple of family photographs, and
a superhero action figure.
2. Tomorrow, each of you is expected to bring
the raw materials that you’ll need in order
to build a simple electric motor,^ three
:
strands of wire, a magnet, two large paper
clips, and a battery.
3. In a letter to M. Standford, Lien Sing
wrote;^ “The necessary data has been
:
gathered. Now we await funding before we
can begin the process of discovering what
that data actually means.”
9. I like bright colors for instance, my room is
^;
bright blue.
4. Speaking directly to the play’s audience,
10. A light on that radio tower is out, someone
^;
needs to call in the repair crew.
following : “That puddle of water, so far
EXERCISE B
quiet gift dropped to Earth, a shimmering
11. The package was routed through Memphis,
and muddy pool of life-giving moisture
Tennessee, New Orleans, Louisiana, and
^;
^;
Houston, Texas.
with which I might survive the desert’s
12. C
13. The scheduled meeting dates are Friday,
January 26, Saturday, January 27, and Friday,
^;
^;
February 2.
14. C
the character Anne Benson reveals the
from any stream or river, seemed to be a
noonday sun.”
5. Today, City Manager Manuela Mora
announced new water restrictions—
^:“Due to
unusually dry conditions, we are asking citizens to further decrease their levels of
water consumption. We are requiring that
local residents suspend the use of sprinklers
and sprinkler systems.”
36
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EXERCISE B
6. Marguerite finally cleaned out her book
pack,^ A pair of running shoes, two overdue
:
library books, and an old bottle of water
had made it heavy.
8. To get to the bus terminal on time, you’ll
have to get up by 7 : 15 a.m.
9. Dear President Reid—
^:
10. The Bible verse Proverbs 19—
^: 8 is
inspirational.
7. “Easy Answers—
^: Three Simple Steps
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
toward Healthier Living”
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
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Page 38
Chapter 13: Punctuation, pp. 143=150 14.
One of the first steamboats, the
Italics, pp. 143=144
Charlotte Dundas, was put to commercial
EXERCISE A
use in 1802.
1. Antonio Vivaldi’s long musical work,
15. After six years in orbit, the U.S. space
The Four Seasons, includes musical
station Skylab re-entered the Earth’s
representations of the sounds of nature.
atmosphere on July 11, 1979.
2. My sister is reading the book Charlie and
the Chocolate Factory for the second time.
3. Back issues of the magazine The Sciences
are available in the library.
4. My brother is playing the role of Stage
Manager in Thornton Wilder’s play
Our Town.
5. Do you like the painting Irises by Vincent
van Gogh?
6. Where the Lilies Bloom is a book about a
family’s struggle to stay together.
7. He went home to watch the television show
Deal or No Deal.
8. Does Sarah really think that Shrek, a movie
about a nasty, green ogre, is romantic?
9. My English teacher said that reading
The Waste Land, a long poem by T. S. Eliot,
is a challenge.
10. Because the movie is about scientific
exploration, Teresa’s science class is going
to watch Galapagos.
EXERCISE B
11. The Orient-Express was a luxury train that
once traveled along a 1,700 mile route.
12. Air Force One is the jet used to provide
transportation for the president of the
EXERCISE C
16. Please write either yes or no as your answer
to each question.
17. The word for potato, in French is pomme ,
de terre and in Spanish it is potata.
18. Write the numeral 52 after the equal sign.
19. Does the word canceled have one l or two?
20. The chalk is smudged, but it looks like
there is a ∑ in front of the in the equation.
Quotation Marks A, pp. 145=146
EXERCISE A
^
1.“I like your new bicycle. Did you get it for
^
your birthday?”asked Jane.
2. C
^
3.“We should go outside and get some fresh
^
air,”Tom said.
^
4. A Chinese philosopher remarked,“I have
just three things to teach: simplicity,
^
patience, and compassion.”
^
^
5.“The fireflies look pretty on this starry night,”
said Monique.
6. C
7. C
^
8. During the ceremony Ben gasped,“Quit
^
making me laugh!”
United States.
13. Was Luna 9, an unmanned Soviet probe,
the first spacecraft to make a soft landing
on the moon?
38
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9. In Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, an angry
^
Brutus asks,“Was that done like Cassius?
^
Should I have answered Caius Cassius so?”
10. C
EXERCISE B
Answers will vary. Sample answers are provided.
11. Everyone in class watched
“Looking Glass ,” the show’s latest
episode, last night.
EXERCISE B
^
^
“
11. When you go to the library,” said Yvonne,
^
^
“please take this book with you.”
^
^
^
12.“I miss my aunt in Boston,”said Paul.“She is a
^
funny person.”
^
^
13.“May I borrow your blue sweater?”asked my
little sister.
^
^
14.“Thanks for finding my lost math book!”
I exclaimed.
^
^
^
“
”
15. When you get home, said Dad,“we’ll leave
^
for the soccer game.”
Quotation Marks B, pp. 147=148
EXERCISE A
^
^
1. My favorite short story is“Two Kinds.”
2. When I read Doris Lessing’s story
^
^
“Through the Tunnel,”I found myself
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
holding my breath!
3. Mr. Minard assigned pages 479–84 of the
^
^
chapter“Making a Point.”
^
^
“
4. The article Recycling and You” discusses the
importance of recycling.
5. The headline in today’s newspaper was this:
^
^
“Pollution Levels Decrease.”
^
^
6. I like Anne Sexton’s poem“Courage.”
^
^
7. We danced to the song“Telstar”at my
cousin’s wedding reception.
8. Frankie Muniz stars in tonight’s episode of
^
^
“
Malcolm in the Middle, Robbery.”
9. Shamika can play an arrangement of the
^
^
song“Take Five”on the piano.
^
^
“
10. Was the short story The First Seven Years”
“Heroes”
12. I absolutely love the song
!
13. This magazine article,
“Money on Nothing ,” discusses
an average teenager’s spending habits.
14.
“Taller Tower
,” the fourth chapter in our
history book, discusses the growth of cities.
15. Does Sheila think that everyone over
eighteen years of age should read the short
story “With All Flags Flying” ?
Ellipsis Points, pp. 149=150
EXERCISE A
#.#.#.#
1. It’s a very long way from here at the edge
of the forest to the meadow.
#.#.#.#
2. The greatest moment thus far in her life
was when she won an Olympic medal.
#.#.#.#
3. If you have lost a brown, spotted dog,
please come to the entrance gate.
#.#.#.#
4. We sang so many songs, such as “Row,
Row, Row Your Boat,” that the bus driver
suggested that we listen to the radio
instead.
5. When the detectives arrived at the
#.#.#.#
abandoned warehouse, the counterfeiters
had already gone, taking the evidence with
them.
EXERCISE B
6. The new art gallery will be of interest to
#.#.#.#[I]
students. Many colorful, interesting exhibits
are housed there.
7. The cat silently stalked the green-and-blue
#.#.#.#
butterfly fluttering outside the window.
written by Bernard Malamud?
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
39
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8. How exciting can a movie be? This week’s
#.#.#.#
hottest new release offers an answer. It can
be very exciting! Deliveries, an epic
adventure film, is the most fast-paced,
#.#.#.#
9. “We found an answer that had been buried
in historical detail,” said Carl Pierce.
#.#.#.#[T]
10. Who said, “Remember that time is
money”?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
must-see movie of the summer.
40
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Chapter 14: Punctuation,
pp. 151=56
Apostrophes, pp. 151=52
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
shepherd’s
Dena’s
children’s
kangaroos’
pantry’s
EXERCISE B
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
con / tinue
EXERCISE B
hers
anybody’s
Their
Hyphens and Dashes, pp. 153=54
EXERCISE A
Answers may vary depending on dictionary used.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
EXERCISE A
house / boat
No one’s
11. Penguins and ostriches can’t fly.
12. Don’t forget to cross your t ’s and dot your
i ’s.
13. It’s amazing!
14. How many 7 ’s are in your phone number?
15. Wasn’t there a bird’s nest in this tree?
self / esteem
ap / ple
NH
EXERCISE B
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Parentheses and Brackets, pp. 155=56
1. My great-grandfather (1920–1999) was a
general in the army.
2. I lived in Springdale (that is in Virginia)
until I was twelve.
3. Will the test on Friday cover Chapter 27
(the one about Vietnam) and Chapter 28?
4. My dog (he’s a German shepherd) is a great
guard dog.
5. Paul (his full name is Paul Christopher
McIntyre) is my cousin.
6. The gymnasium (isn’t it left of the
cafeteria?) is where the play is being performed.
7. Was the swimming pool (the old one on
Fifth Street) closed for repairs last week?
8. That bird (I believe that it’s a mockingbird)
does not seem to like my cat.
9. Ms. Garcia (she has been principal for
twenty-five years) retired today.
10. We planted the climbing rose bush (aren’t
the blooms beautiful?) last year.
its
EXERCISE C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
13. It was very cold outside—in the low
20’s—last night.
14. This summer—I hope it is a warm one—I
am taking swimming lessons.
15. The newspaper staff sold advertising space
to several local businesses—Stedman’s
Photography, Flowers Galore, and Fantasy
Miniature Golf.
great-grandmother
governor-elect
tax-free
C
self-propelled
EXERCISE C
11. The tomatoes —I grew them myself —
tasted delicious.
12. Has the tennis match—the one that Mark
is playing in—been postponed?
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
11. “When you see her [Karen], let her know
that I am looking for her,” said Jane.
12. Use the map (page 12 [Australia]) to
answer the questions.
13. Leroy pointed to the globe and said, “My
grandparents are from that country
[Nigeria].”
14. “After the meeting, she [the counselor]
encouraged everyone to apply for
scholarships,” Louis said.
15. The two kittens (Mittens and Smoke [the
ones on the left]) are the cutest.
41
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Page 42
Chapter 15: Spelling, pp. 157=168
Prefixes and Suffixes, pp. 159=160
Words with ie and ei, pp. 157=158
EXERCISE A
illegal
1. il legal
EXERCISE A
1. rel i e f
2. merry ly
merrily
2. s i e ge
3. sad ness
sadness
3. n e i ghbor
4. whole ness
wholeness
4. dec e i ve
5. dis appear
disappear
5. c e i ling
6. pace ing
pacing
6. Oh no, unless one more player
7. hope less
hopeless
arrives, we will have to forfeit
8. smile ing
smiling
EXERCISE B
C
the game!
height
7. What is the hieght of the
Empire State Building?
shield
8. Dragons and lions were used as
decorations on the sheild.
weighs
9. A scale in the produce
department wieghs fruits of all
kinds.
C
veil
10. Draped over the couch was a
field
careful
EXERCISE C
11. stay ing
staying
12. swim er
swimmer
supplied
13. supply ed
14. funny er
funnier
15. forget able
forgettable
EXERCISE A
11. Will Cousin Amy be wearing a
12. At the beach, several large
1. fly
2. pen
3. Tuesday
flies
pens
Tuesdays
umbrellas provided some relief
4. box
boxes
from the summer heat.
5. dress
dresses
13. Architecture is a feild that
14. Many scientists beleive that this
unique.
15. Make sure you get a receipt
when you donate this bag of
clothes to the shelter.
42
10. care ful
and pink fabric.
region’s plants and animals are
C
facing
Plurals of Nouns, pp. 161=162
attracts creative workers.
believe
9. face ing
quilt made from pieces of blue
viel with her wedding dress?
C
EXERCISE B
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
L09NADLS10_042-043.qxd
EXERCISE B
6. patio
patios
7. hero
heroes
8. alto
altos
9. wolf
wolves
10. echo
echoes
EXERCISE C
11. Chinese
Chinese
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children
women
13. woman
EXERCISE B
14. deer
deer
15. sheep
sheep
EXERCISE D
16. beekeeper
beekeepers
17. president-elect
presidents-elect
18. three-year-old
three-year-olds
19. football
20. grandmother
footballs
grandmothers
Words Often Confused A, pp. 163=164
EXERCISE A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
formally
hear
here
formerly
Here
EXERCISE C
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
lead
loose
It’s
led
lose
Words Often Confused C, pp. 167=168
all ready
EXERCISE A
already
effect
affected
break
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
piece
past
peace
past
piece
brake
EXERCISE B
altogether
chose
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
choose
EXERCISE C
coarse
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
brake
break
EXERCISE C
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
all ready
EXERCISE B
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
4. dessert
5. complement
course
chose
Words Often Confused B, pp. 165=166
EXERCISE A
quiet
quite
then
quiet
than
Their
Two
there
They’re
too
1. desert
2. desert
3. compliments
Developmental Language Skills Answer Key
43
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Chapter 16: Correcting Common
Errors, pp. 169=170
Common Errors Review, pp. 169=170
EXERCISE A
Some answers may vary.
e
tr 1. We met in a campground at the park near
^ ^
the river always .
2. The most oldest family member at the
who’s
reunion is my great-grandmother, whose
^
almost ninety years old.
There
3. Their are usually new family members at
o
^
every reunion, to.
^
4. Some of my relatives travels long distances;
o
last year, one of my uncles drived all the
^
way from New York.
e
5. I have many cousins, and we all got along
^
well
good with each other.
^
#
6. We usually play alot of softball games, and
^
s
someone always bring a volleyball net.
^
We
tr 7. Us cousins gather at the picnic tables, tired
^
^
and hungry, in the late afternoon.
EXERCISE B
11. Zeppelin’s name is associated with
a
lighter=then=air flight, in fact, the word
^
^;
zeppelin is still used to refer to rigid
airships.
12. In 1900 count zeppelin’s first airship flew for
seventeen ^,
17 minutes over a lake.
^
thousands
13. Later, improved models could fly for 1000s
^
of miles without landing.
14. Count Zeppelin,who died in 1917, did not
^
^
live to see his airships cross the atlantic
ocean.
15. One model, which was completed in 1928,
^
crossed the atlantic and made an around=
the=world flight in 1929.
44
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
8. All of the food always looks deliciously,
any
and we don’t ever have no leftovers.
s ^its
9. Each family prepare his or her specialty for
^^
the reunion.
i
10. After the sun goes down, we set around a
^
campfire while one of my aunts plays
her
their guitar.
^
Fourth Course
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