Chapter 3

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Chapter 3 : Data Transfer and Microoperations
3.1 Bus system
Bus
Adv
-shared comm. link (Data Transfer)
-Versatility (New devices added easily/
-use 1 set of wires to connect mult
Peripherals can be moved btw C system)
subsystems**
-Low Cost **
-Parallel & series connect’n
Disadv
-Be wired in Multidrop or Daisy Chain
-Create comm. bottleneck (Bandwidth limit
topology
max I/O throughout)
-Max bus speed is limited by (Length/No of
devices/The need to support a range of
devices)
Types of Buses (Components of C)
a) Internal (PCI/AGP/PCMCIA)
-Int. data/M/System bus
-Connect all int. CMPT of C (CPU & M ->
Motherboard)
-quick
-Independent of the rest of C op.
Data Bus
-Allow data to travel (carry data) btw
MicroP(CPU) & M(RAM) or I/O devices
-Bi-directional (out-Read / In-Write)
-8,16,32,64 lines
-No of lines = width/wordsize
-Signal names (D0,D1,D2,D3,etc) = D0~D15
b) External (USB/FireWire)
-Expansion bus
-Connect dif external devices
Address Bus
-Carry an Addr(info about locat’n of data) from
CPU to M or I/O
-Unidirectional
-16, 20, 24, 32 lines
-Width of Addr Bus = Max M capacity
-Addr supplied by CPU
-Signal Names (A0,A1,A2,A3,etc)
Control Bus
-Control signal that ensure EV is flowing
smoothly from Place to Place
-Collect’n of signal -> Coordinate CPU acts
-Each Signal has a uniq purpose
(M R/W, I/O R/W, Bus Rq, interrupt R,
interrupt Ack, Reset, Clock, )
-10-20 lines
-Signal = O, I, bi-directional
Types of Buses(Org) = Point-to-point/Multipoint/Daisy chain
Type of Buses (Fn)
a) Dedicated
b) Time Multiplexed (AD0 ~ AD15)
-Separate D&A lines
-Shared lines
-Addr valid/ Data valid control line
-Adv = Faster
-Adv = Fewer lines
-Disadv = Physically larger
-Disadv = More complex control
= Degradat’n of performance
Bus Design Issues
1) Bus Width (D&A buses)
2) Bus Type (Dedicated/Multiplexed)
3) Bus Arbitrat’n (Centralised/Distributed)/ Priority
-Obtain Access to the Bus (Problem=How is bus reserved by a devices that wishes to use it?)
-Chaos is avoided by master-slave arrangem’t
-Only Bus Master (CPU) control access to bus (Initiates & control all Bus Rq)
***DRAWBACK = involve in every transact’n
-Slave (M) = respond to R/W Rq
-Arb Sigal (Bus Rq/Bus Grant/Bus Priority)
Multiple Potential Bus Masters need Arb
◼ Bus arbi scheme:
◼ Bus M wanting to use the bus asserts the bus request
◼ Bus M X use the bus until its Rq is granted
◼ Bus M must signal to the arbiter after finish using the bus
◼ Try to balance :
◼ Bus priority: Higher priority service first
◼ Fairness: No Rq is locked out
a) Self Selection
-Many Rq lines
-The one w highest priority self decides to take bus
b) Collision Detect’n (Ethernet)
-1 Rq line – Try to access bus,
-If collision device back off
-Try again in random + exponential time
c) Daisy Chain Arb
-grant line runs thru all device, highest priority device 1st
Disadv = X assure fairness ( low-priority device locked out)
= Limit Bus speed
d) Centralized Arb
 Simple Implementation of a Bus Arbiter
4) Bus timing
a) Synchronous (simple)
-Include a clock in control lines
-A fixed protocol for C’m’n’c’t’n
Adv =very little logic & fast
Disadv
= Device on bus run at same clock rate
= X be long if fast (avoid clock skew)
= Mixture of Fast & Slow devices, wait for the
slowest device ( Fast X run at their capacity)
b) Asynchronous
-X clocked
-Accommodate a wide range of devices
-It can be long w/o worry clock skew
-It requires a handshaking protocol
 Synchronous Timing Diagram Read Operation Timing
 Asynchronous Timing Diagram
5) Data Transmis’n
a) Parallel
-Carry data words in parallel on multiple
wires
b) Serial
-Carry data in bit-serial form
-D, A, and C are sequentially sent down single
wire -There may be additional control lines
6) Bus Operat’n (R, W, block transfer, interrupt)
7) Bus Transact’n
-perform 1> bus Operat’n
-sequence of actions to complete a well-defined act (M R, M W, I/O R, Burst R)
**2 parts
-send Addr -Receive/send data
-Master = initiates the transact’n (send Addr)
-Slave =Responds to Addr by
a) Send data to Master if master ask for data
b) Receive data from Master if master wants to send data
8) Bus cycle ( Each Operat’n may take several bus cycles)
3.2 CPU-memory transfer
Read Machine Cycle
 Place on the address bus ,the address of the location whose content is to be read .Done
by the processor.
 Assert the read control signal which is part of the control bus.
 Wait until the content of the addressed location appears on the data bus.
 Transfer the data on the data bus to the processor
 De-activate the read control signal .The read operation is over and the address on the
address bus is not relevant anymore.
Write Machine Cycle
 Place on the address bus , the address of the location to which data is to be written.
 On the data bus, place the data to be written.
 Assert the write control signal which is part of the control bus.
 Wait until the data is stored in the addressed location.
 De-activate the memory write signal. This ends the memory write operation
3.3 I/O transfer
I/O (Input/Output) ports (I/O addresses)
 Unique locat’n in M reserved for c’m’n’c’t’n btw the CPU & hardware D
 Be commonly associated with specific devices and should not be shared.
 How is I/O differentiated from memory?
a) M-mapped I/O
b) I/O-mapped I/O
-reside in the same “space”
-Occupy Dif “space”
-access in the same manner (diff by Addr)
-access by unique instr (dif by instr)
-M instr = reference M
-I/O instr
◼ move data to/from a specified I/O
address (“port”) and a CPU register (e.g.,
the accumulator)
◼ IN port – inputs data from a device
◼ OUT port – outputs data to a device
 Implementation of I/O-Mapped I/O
◼ same Addr & data bus
◼ A dedicated Control bus signal differentiates a “memory cycle” from an “I/O cycle”
◼ On Intel’s Pentium CPU, this control bus signal is named M/IO
◼ M/IO = 0 → memory cycle
◼ M/IO = 1 → input/output cycle
3.4 Micro-operations
 Micro-operations (micro-ops or μops)
 Be detailed low-level instr used in some designs to implement complex machine
instr(macro-instr).
 Perform basic operat’ns on data stored in one or more R, including transf’g data btw R
or btw Rs & external buses of the CPU, and perform’g arithmetic or logical operat’s on R.
 In a typical fetch-decode-execute cycle, each step of a macro-instruction is decomposed
during its execution so the CPU determines and steps through a series of microoperations.
 The execution of micro-operations is performed under control of the CPU's control unit,
which decides on their execution while performing various optimizations such as
reordering, fusion and caching.
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