Reinforcement and Study Guide. Student Edition

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Reinforcement and
Study Guide
Student Edition
A GLENCOE PROGRAM
BIOLOGY: THE DYNAMICS OF LIFE
Student Edition
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 047 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 99
Contents
To the Student . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
BIODIGEST 6 Viruses, Bacteria, Protists,
and Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
1 The Study of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
21 What Is a Plant? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
BIODIGEST 1 What Is Biology? . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2 Principles of Ecology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
22 The Diversity of Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
3 Communities and Biomes . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
24 Reproduction in Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
4 Population Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
BIODIGEST 7 Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
5 Biological Diversity and Conservation . . 19
25 What Is an Animal? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
BIODIGEST 2 Ecology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
26 Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms,
and Roundworms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
6 The Chemistry of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7 A View of the Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
8 Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle . . 33
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Reinforcement and Study Guide
23 Plant Structure and Function . . . . . . . . 101
27 Mollusks and Segmented Worms . . . . . 119
28 Arthropods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
9 Energy in a Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
29 Echinoderms and Invertebrate
Chordates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
BIODIGEST 3 The Life of a Cell . . . . . . . . . . 41
BIODIGEST 8 Invertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
10 Mendel and Meiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
30 Fishes and Amphibians . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
11 DNA and Genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
31 Reptiles and Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
12 Patterns of Heredity and
Human Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
32 Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
13 Genetic Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
BIODIGEST 4 Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
14 The History of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
33 Animal Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
BIODIGEST 9 Vertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
34 Protection, Support, and Locomotion . 151
15 The Theory of Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
35 The Digestive and Endocrine
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
16 Primate Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
36 The Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
17 Organizing Life’s Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . 73
BIODIGEST 5 Change Through Time . . . . . . 77
37 Respiration, Circulation,
and Excretion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
18 Viruses and Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
38 Reproduction and Development . . . . . . 167
19 Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
39 Immunity From Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
20 Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
BIODIGEST 10 The Human Body . . . . . . . . 175
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
iii
To the Student
Reinforcement and Study Guide
This Reinforcement and Study Guide for Biology: The Dynamics of Life will
help you learn more easily from your textbook. Each textbook chapter has
four study guide pages of questions and activities for you to complete as
you read the text. The study guide pages are divided into sections that
match those in your text. Each BioDigest in your textbook has two study
guide pages to complete.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
You will find that the directions in the Reinforcement and Study Guide are
simply stated and easy to follow. Sometimes you will be asked to answer
questions. Other times, you will be asked to label a diagram or complete a
table. By completing the study guide, you will gain a better understanding
of the concepts presented in the text. These sheets also will prove helpful
when studying for a test.
iv
BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
1
Class
The Study of Life
Section 1.1 What Is Biology?
In your textbook, read about the science of biology.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the primary focus of all biological studies?
understanding the world of living things and how they interact
2. What is meant by the statement, “Living things do not exist in isolation”?
All living things depend on other living things for their existence; all living things
play a part in the delicate balance of nature.
In your textbook, read about why biologist study the diversity of life.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
For each of the statements below, write true or false.
false
____________________
3. People study biology only if they are planning to become biologists.
true
____________________
4. By studying biology, you can better appreciate the great diversity of
species on Earth and the way each species fits into the dynamic pattern
of life on the planet.
true
____________________
5. The study of biology includes the investigation of interactions among species.
In your textbook, read about the characteristics of living things.
Complete each statement.
alive
characteristics
6. To be considered __________________
, something must exhibit all of the __________________
of life.
Organism
7. __________________
is another word for “living thing.”
8. Every living thing, from simple, single-celled organisms to complex, multicellular plants and animals,
system
is made up of parts that function together in an orderly living __________________
.
Read each of the following statements. If it describes the process of reproduction, write yes.
If not, write no.
no
____________
9. New leaves appear on a tree in spring.
yes
10. An amoeba divides in half.
____________
yes
11. A bean plant produces seeds in long pods.
____________
yes
12. Pollen grains are released from a flower.
____________
no
13. A starfish produces a new arm after losing one to a predator.
____________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 1 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
1
Name
Date
Chapter
1
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
The Study of Life, continued
Section 1.1 What Is Biology?,
continued
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
14. A species is defined as a group of similar-looking organisms that
a. undergo similar developmental changes.
b. can interbreed.
c. can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. d. reproduce in the same way.
15. Every organism begins life as a(n)
a. embryo.
b. single cell.
c. nucleus.
d. fertilized egg.
16. A corn plant producing ears of corn is an example of
a. growth.
b. reproduction.
c. development.
d. all of these.
17. If members of a species fail to reproduce successfully, the species
a. will eventually become extinct.
b. will not develop normally.
c. will evolve into a new species.
d. will remain unchanged.
Complete the table below by checking the correct column for each example.
18. The recess bell ringing at an elementary school
Stimulus
Response
✓
✓
19. Your mouth watering at the sight of food on a plate
20. A sudden drop in air temperature
✓
21. A flu virus entering your body
✓
✓
22. Getting butterflies in your stomach before giving a speech
Answer the following questions.
23. Explain the concept of homeostasis.
Homeostasis refers to the regulation of an organism’s internal environment to
maintain stable, steady conditions suitable for life.
24. What is an adaptation?
any structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond
to stimuli and better survive in an environment
25. What is evolution?
Evolution is the gradual accumulation of adaptations over time.
2
CHAPTER 1 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Example
Name
Date
Chapter
1
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
The Study of Life, continued
Section 1.2 The Methods of Biology
In your textbook, read about observing and hypothesizing.
Answer the following questions.
the common steps that scientists use to gather
1. What is meant by scientific methods? _______________________________________________________
information to solve problems
a testable explanation for a question or problem
2. What is a hypothesis? ___________________________________________________________________
A hypothesis is tested by conducting an experiment.
3. How is a hypothesis tested? ______________________________________________________________
In your textbook, read about experimenting.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Column A
Column B
d
____________
4. A procedure that tests a hypothesis by collecting
information under controlled conditions
a. dependent variable
e
____________
5. In an experiment, the group in which all conditions
are kept the same
b. experimental group
b
____________
6. In an experiment, the group in which all conditions
are kept the same except for the one being tested
c
____________
7. The condition that is changed by the experimenter
a
____________
8. The condition being observed or measured in
an experiment
c. independent variable
d. experiment
e. control group
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
experimental results
experiment(s)
hypothesis
laws
scientific journals
theory
valid
verify
experimental results are reported in (10) ___________________________
scientific journals
,
When (9) ___________________________
verify
other scientists may try to (11) ___________________________
the results by repeating the
experiment(s)
hypothesis
(12) ___________________________
. Usually when a(n) (13) ___________________________
is supported
valid
by data from several scientists, it is considered (14) ___________________________
. Over time, a hypothesis
theory
that is supported by many observations and experiments becomes a (15) ___________________________
.
laws
Some well-established facts of nature, such as gravity, are recognized as (16) ___________________________
.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 1 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
3
Name
Date
Chapter
1
The Study of Life, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 1.3 The Nature of Biology
In your textbook, read about kinds of research.
Complete the chart by checking the correct column for each example.
Example
1. Numerical data
Quantitative
Research
✓
✓
2. Field study of hunting behavior
3. Thermometer, balance scale, stopwatch
4. Testable hypothesis
5. Measurements from controlled laboratory experiments
Descriptive
Research
✓
✓
✓
✓
6. Purely observational data
✓
7. Binoculars, tape recorder, camera
✓
Complete each statement.
8. In order for scientific research to be universally understood, scientists report measurements in the
International System of Measurement
_____________________________________________
, a modern form of the metric system.
decimal
10. This system is a __________________________
system in which measurements are expressed in
tens
tenths
multiples of __________________________
or __________________________
of a basic unit.
In your textbook, read about science and society.
Determine if the following statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
11. Ideas about the value of knowledge gained through scientific research come from a society’s social,
ethical, and moral concerns. true
______________________________________________________________
12. Pure science is scientific research carried out primarily to solve a specific environmental problem.
for the sake of knowledge
13. Technology is the practical application of scientific research to improve human life and the world in
true
which we live. _________________________________________________________________________
14. A technological solution to a human problem can benefit humans but may also cause a different, possibly
true
serious, problem. ________________________________________________________________________
15. Scientists have the final say about how the results of scientific discoveries are applied.
People in a society
4
CHAPTER 1 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
SI
9. This system of measurement is abbreviated __________________________
.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
BioDigest
1
Class
What Is Biology?
In your textbook, read about characteristics of life.
Complete the following statements.
living organisms
interactions
Biology is the study of (1) __________________________
and the (2) __________________________
scientific
among them. Biologists use a variety of (3) __________________________
methods to study the details
of life.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Column A
Column B
d
____________
4. The basic unit is the cell.
a. development
c
____________
5. Maintenance of a stable internal environment
b. growth
f
____________
6. Reaction to a change in the environment
c. homeostasis
b
____________
7. Cell enlargement and division
d. organization
a
____________
8. Changes in an organism that take place over time
e. reproduction
e
____________
9. Transmission of heredity information from one
generation to the next
f. response to stimulus
Using what you know about characteristics of life, determine if each of the following describes
a living or nonliving thing.
nonliving
____________________
10. rust on a bucket
nonliving
____________________
13. lightning
living
____________________
11. an apple on a tree
nonliving
____________________
14. a dinosaur fossil
living
____________________
12. bacteria
nonliving
____________________
15. a wasp
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
BIODIGEST 1 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
5
Name
Date
BioDigest
1
What Is Biology, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
In your textbook, read about scientific methods.
Decide if each of the following statements is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make
it true.
true
16. Scientific methods include observation, hypothesis, experiment, and theory. ______________________
17. A statement that can be tested and presents a possible solution to a question is a law.
hypothesis
____________________________
18. In a controlled experiment, two groups are tested and all conditions except two are kept the same for
one
both groups. ____________________________
19. A condition that remains the same for both groups is called the independent variable.
control
____________________________
20. A condition that is changed by the experimenter in one group and not the other is called the
independent variable
dependent variable. ____________________________
in a laboratory or in the field
21. A scientific experiment can be conducted only in a laboratory. _________________________________
Read each of the following statements. If it is a testable hypothesis, write yes. If it is not a testable
hypothesis, write no.
yes
23. If a person exercises, his or her pulse rate will increase.
____________________
no
____________________
24. Cats make better pets than dogs.
yes
____________________
25. When fertilizer is added to soil, plants grow taller.
Identify each of the two italicized items as either an independent or a dependent variable.
26. The number of red blood cells in a mouse’s blood at different levels of iron in its diet
dependent variable; independent variable
27. The amount of starch formed in a plant leaf for different times of exposure to light
dependent variable; independent variable
6
BIODIGEST 1 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
hypothesis
22. A theory is a law that has been confirmed by many experiments. ____________________________
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
2
Class
Principles of Ecology
Section 2.1 Organisms and Their
Environment
In your textbook, read about what ecology is and about aspects of ecological study.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
ecology
biotic factors
nonliving
environments
atmosphere
humans
organisms
soil
biosphere
abiotic factors
organisms
in a
Living organisms in our world are connected to other (1) ___________________________
ecology
variety of ways. The branch of biology called (2) ___________________________
is the scientific study of
environments
interactions among organisms and their (3) ___________________________
, including relationships
nonliving
between living and (4) ___________________________
things.
biosphere
, the portion
All living things on Earth can be found in the (5) ___________________________
atmosphere
of Earth that supports life. It extends from high in the (6) ___________________________
to the bottom
of the oceans. Many different environments can be found in the biosphere. All living organisms found in
biotic factors
an environment are called (7) ___________________________
. Nonliving parts of an environment are
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
humans
abiotic factors
called (8) __________________________
. For example, whales, trees, and (9) _______________________
soil
are biotic factors. Ocean currents, temperature, and (10) _________________________
are abiotic factors.
In your textbook, read about levels of organization in ecology.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
d
11. A group of organisms of one species that
____________
interbreed and live in the same place at
the same time
a. community
b. competition
a
____________
12. A collection of interacting populations
e
____________
13. Interactions among the populations and
abiotic factors in a community
c. forest
d. population
b
____________
14. Occurs between organisms when resources
are scarce
e. ecosystem
c
____________
15. A terrestrial ecosystem
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 2 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
7
Name
Date
Chapter
2
Principles of Ecology, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 2.1 Organisms and Their
Environment, continued
In your textbook, read about organisms in ecosystems.
For each statement below, write true or false.
false
16. A habitat is the role a species plays in a community.
_______________
true
_______________
17. Habitats may change.
false
_______________
18. A niche is the place where an organism lives its life.
false
19. A habitat can include only one niche.
_______________
true
_______________
20. A species’ niche includes how the species meets its needs for food and shelter.
true
_______________
21. The centipedes and worms that live under a certain log occupy the same habitat
but have different niches.
true
_______________
23. Competition between two species is reduced when the species have different
niches.
Complete the table below by writing the kind of relationship described on the left.
Relationships Among Organisms
Description of Relationship
24. Organisms of different species live together in a
close, permanent relationship.
25. One species benefits and the other species is neither
benefited nor harmed by the relationship.
Kind of Relationship
symbiosis
commensalism
26. One species benefits from the relationship at the
expense of the other species.
parasitism
27. Both species benefit from the relationship.
mutualism
8
CHAPTER 2 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
false
_______________
22. It is an advantage for two species to share the same niche.
Name
Date
Chapter
2
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Principles of Ecology, continued
Section 2.2 Nutrition and Energy Flow
In your textbook, read about how organisms obtain energy and about matter and energy flow in ecosystems.
Answer the questions below. Use the diagram of a food web to answer questions 1–7.
Snake
Frog
Bird
Insect
Plant
1. How many food chains make up the food web?
three
2. Which organism is an herbivore?
insect
3. Which organism is an autotroph?
plant
4. Which organism is a third-order heterotroph? To what trophic level does that organism belong?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
snake; fourth
5. Which organism is an omnivore?
bird
6. Which organisms belong to more than one food chain?
plant, bird, insect, snake
7. Which organism belongs to more than one trophic level?
bird
8. What are decomposers? From which trophic levels are the organisms that decomposers feed on?
Decomposers are organisms that break down dead organisms from all trophic
levels into simpler molecules that can be absorbed by the decomposers.
9. What does a pyramid of energy show about the amount of energy available at different trophic levels
of a food chain?
The amount of energy decreases as the trophic level increases.
10. Why do different trophic levels have different amounts of energy?
At each successive trophic level, some available energy is lost as the organisms use
energy for metabolism. This energy is given off as heat into the environment.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 2 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
9
Name
Date
Chapter
2
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Principles of Ecology, continued
Section 2.2 Nutrition and Energy Flow,
continued
In your textbook, read about cycles in nature.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
11. Energy that is lost at each trophic level of an ecosystem is replenished by
a. heat.
b. nutrients.
c. sunlight.
d. organisms.
13. Evaporation and condensation a part of the
a. carbon cycle.
b. nitrogen cycle.
c. phosphorus cycle.
d. water cycle.
14. Plants lose water to the air through
a. condensation.
b. photosynthesis.
c. their roots.
d. evaporation.
15. Animals lose water when they
a. breathe in.
b. urinate.
c. breathe out.
d. both b and c.
16. The water in the atmosphere is returned to the earth by
a. precipitation.
b. evaporation.
c. photosynthesis.
d. decomposition.
17. Autotrophs and heterotrophs use carbon molecules for energy and
a. photosynthesis. b. growth.
c. decomposition.
d. both a and b.
18. What do plants use in photosynthesis to make carbon molecules?
a. carbon dioxide b. carbohydrates
c. fertilizer
d. oxygen
19. Heterotrophs get carbon molecules by
a. making the molecules themselves.
c. decaying.
b. feeding on other organisms.
d. growing.
20. When decomposers break down the carbon molecules in dead organisms,
a. the dead organisms are converted to coal.
b. oxygen is released.
c. carbon dioxide is released.
d. carbon dioxide is converted to energy-rich
carbon molecules.
21. Fertilizers provide plants with
a. nitrogen.
b. carbon.
c. water.
d. oxygen.
22. Which of the following convert(s) nitrogen in the air into a form plants can use?
a. bacteria
b. lightning
c. sunlight
d. both a and b
23. Plants use nitrogen to make
a. carbohydrates. b. nitrogen gas.
c. proteins.
d. both b and c.
24. An animal returns nitrogen to the environment when it
a. breathes.
b. decomposes.
c. urinates.
d. both b and c.
25. Animals get phosphorus from
a. the air.
b. eating plants.
c. water.
d. the soil.
26. Phosphorus in the soil comes from
a. rocks.
b. decaying organisms.
c. the air.
d. both a and b.
10
CHAPTER 2 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
12. Besides energy, what moves through the organisms at each trophic level of an ecosystem?
a. organisms
b. nutrients
c. sunlight
d. cycles
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
3
Class
Communities and Biomes
Section 3.1 Communities
In your textbook, read about living in a community.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
1. The interactions of abiotic and biotic factors result in conditions that are suitable for some organisms
true
but not for others. _____________________________________________________________________
limiting factors
2. Food availability and temperature can be biotic factors for a particular organism. ___________________
3. A limiting factor is any biotic or abiotic factor that promotes the existence, numbers, reproduction, or
distribution of organisms. restricts
_______________________________________________________________
4. At high elevations where the soil is thin, vegetation is limited to large, deep-rooted trees.
small, shallow-rooted mosses, ferns, and lichens
5. Factors that limit one population in a community may also have an indirect effect on another population.
true
6. Tolerance is the ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental
true
factors. _______________________________________________________________________________
7. A population of deer would become larger as conditions move away from optimal toward either
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
extreme of the deer’s range of tolerance. smaller
___________________________________________________
true
8. Different species may have different ranges of tolerance. _____________________________________
In your textbook, read about succession: changes over time.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
climax
primary
decades
succeed
pioneer
succession
species
slows down
species
replacements that take place in the communities
The natural changes and (9) ___________________
succession
decades
of ecosystems are know as (10) ___________________
. It can take (11) __________________
or even centuries
succeed
for one community to (12) ___________________
, or replace, another. When new sites of land are formed, as
pioneer
in a lava flow, the first organisms to colonize the new area are (13) ___________________
species. This coloprimary
nization is called (14) ___________________
succession. The species inhabiting the area gradually change.
slows down
Eventually, succession (15) ___________________
and the community becomes more stable. Finally, a mature
climax
community that undergoes little or no change, called a (16) ___________________
community, develops.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 3 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
11
Name
Date
Chapter
3
Communities and Biomes, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 3.1 Communities,
continued
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
b
____________
17. Sequence of community changes where soil
is formed, allowing small, weedy plants to
inhabit the area
a. a severe drought
d
____________
18. Sequence of community changes occurring
as a result of a natural disaster, such
as a forest fire
b. primary succession
c. amount of plant growth
e
____________
19. A stable, mature community with little
or no succession occurring
c
____________
20. An example of a biotic limiting factor
affecting a community of organisms
d. secondary succession
a
____________
21. An example of an abiotic limiting factor
affecting a community of organisms
e. climax community
4
____________
22. Grasses, ferns, and pine seedlings inhabited the area.
3
23. Annual wildflowers grew from the bare soil.
____________
1
24. A fire burned thousands of acres of land.
____________
5
25. A climax community of lodgepole pines developed.
____________
2
26. Bare soil covered the area.
____________
12
CHAPTER 3 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The statements below describe the secondary succession that occurred within an area of
Yellowstone National Park. Number the events in the order in which they occurred.
Name
Date
Chapter
3
Communities and Biomes, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 3.2 Biomes
In your textbook, read about aquatic biomes: life in the water.
Complete each statement.
climax community
1. A large group of ecosystems sharing the same type of ____________________________________
is
biome
.
called a ___________________________
water
2. Biomes located in bodies of ___________________
, such as oceans, lakes, and rivers, are called
aquatic biomes .
______________________
salty
3. The water in marine biomes is ___________________
.
biomass
4. Oceans contain the largest amount of ___________________
, or living material, of any biome on Earth.
small
that they cannot be seen without magnification.
Yet, most of the organisms are so ___________________
photic zone
5. The ___________________
is that part of marine biomes shallow enough to be penetrated by sunlight.
aphotic zone .
6. Deep-water regions of marine biomes receiving no sunlight make up the ___________________
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Circle the letter of the response that best completes the statement.
7. If you followed the course of a river, it would eventually flow into
a. a lake.
b. a stream.
c. an ocean or a sea.
d. a swamp.
8. The body of water where fresh water from a river mixes with salt water is called
a. an estuary.
b. a shoreline.
c. a sandbar.
d. a sea.
9. Organisms living in intertidal zones have structures that protect them from
a. the dark.
b. sunlight.
c. wave action.
d. temperature.
10. Life is abundant in photic zones because
a. there are no waves.
c. the water is clean.
b. the water is warm.
d. there are many nutrients.
11. The greatest number of organisms living in the photic zone of a marine biome are
a. dolphins.
b. plankton.
c. plants.
d. sharks.
12. Few organisms live at the bottom of a deep lake because of the lack of
a. sunlight.
b. space.
c. plankton.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
d. bacteria.
CHAPTER 3 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
13
Name
Date
Chapter
3
Communities and Biomes, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 3.2 Biomes,
continued
In your textbook, read about terrestrial biomes.
Answer the following questions.
13. Which two abiotic factors generally determine the type of climax community that will develop in a
particular part of the world?
temperature and precipitation
14. In which terrestrial biome is the ground permanently frozen?
tundra
15. What are some adaptations that desert plants have developed?
Answers include narrow leaves and waxy coatings to reduce water loss; ability to
germinate from seed and quickly mature after sporadic rainfall; spines, thorns, or
poisons to discourage desert herbivores; branches and roots that store water.
16. Describe the three layers of a tropical rain forest, including organisms that live in each layer.
Answers will vary. Canopy: treetops, monkeys, birds; understory: ferns, shrubs,
palms, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, bats; ground: leaves, decaying materi-
Write the name of each major terrestrial biome next to its description.
desert
17. Arid land with sparse, drought-resistant plants
____________________
grassland
18. Largest terrestrial biome that supports small plants and grasses,
____________________
but few trees
tundra
19. Treeless land where only small plants and grasses grow during the
____________________
long summer days
tropical rain forest 20. Warm, wet land that supports many species of organisms
____________________
taiga
21. Land with coniferous forests, peat swamps, and long, harsh winters
____________________
temperate forest 22. Land populated with broad-leaved hardwood trees that lose their leaves
____________________
annually
14
CHAPTER 3 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
als, ants, worms, rodents, decomposers
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
4
Class
Population Biology
Section 4.1 Population Dynamics
In your textbook, read about the principles of population growth.
Refer to Graphs A and B below. Answer the following questions.
Graph A
Size
of
Population
Graph B
Size
of
Population
Time
Time
1. What type of population growth is shown in Graph A? Explain this type of growth.
Graph A shows exponential growth. In exponential growth, the rate of growth
increases rapidly, due to an increase in the number of reproducing organisms.
Graph B
2. Which graph shows the most likely growth of a squirrel population living in a forest? ______________
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Graph A
3. Which graph shows a population’s growth under ideal conditions? _____________________________
4. Why don’t populations of organisms grow indefinitely?
All populations of organisms have limiting factors in their environment.
These factors eventually cause populations to level off.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
grows
carrying capacity
below
births
above
under
deaths
exceed
The number of organisms of one species that an environment can support is called its
carrying capacity . If the number of organisms in a population is (6) __________________
under
(5) __________________
the
exceed
environment’s carrying capacity, births (7) __________________
deaths and the population
grows
above
(8) __________________
. If the number of organisms rises (9) __________________
the carrying capacity
deaths
births
of the environment, (10) __________________
will exceed (11) __________________
. This pattern will
below
continue until the population is once again at or (12) __________________
the carrying capacity.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 4 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
15
Name
Date
Chapter
4
Population Biology, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 4.1 Population Dynamics,
continued
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
13. The most important factor that determines population growth is the organism’s
a. social pattern.
b. carrying capacity.
c. reproductive pattern.
d. feeding pattern.
14. Organisms that follow a rapid life-history pattern
a. have short life spans.
b. have small bodies.
c. reproduce early.
d. all of the above
15. Organisms that follow a slow life-history pattern
a. have small bodies.
b. mature rapidly.
c. reproduce slowly.
d. all of the above
16. A limiting factor that has an increasing effect as population size increases is
a. temperature.
b. habitat disruption.
c. drought.
d. competition.
In your textbook, read about how organism interactions limit population size.
Answer the following.
17. The snowshoe hare is a primary source of food for the Canadian lynx. Explain how the lynx
population size changes when the hare population increases.
18. Explain how the change in the lynx population size affects the hare population.
Because more hares are being eaten, the hare population decreases.
19. What is the relationship between the lynx and the hare called?
predator-prey relationship
20. When does competition decrease the size of a population?
Competition decreases the size of a population when the demand for resources
exceeds the supply.
21. What can cause an organism to exhibit stress, and what symptoms of stress can lead to a decrease
in population size?
overcrowding; aggression, decrease in parental care, decreased fertility, and
decreased resistance to disease
16
CHAPTER 4 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The lynx population increases because it has more food—the hares.
Name
Date
Chapter
4
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Population Biology, continued
Section 4.2 Human Population Growth
In your textbook, read about demographic trends.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
1. Looking at past population trends is a good way to predict the future of human populations.
true
2. Demography is the study of population health characteristics.
growth
3. Worldwide human populations have decreased exponentially over the past few centuries.
increased
4. Humans are able to increase environmental effects on the human population through controlling
disease, eliminating competing organisms, and increasing food production.
decrease
5. To tell whether a population is growing, you must know the difference between the birthrate and the
death rate.
true
6. The death rate is decreasing in the United States.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
true
7. The birthrate is increasing in the United States.
decreasing
8. Birthrate is the number of offspring a female produces during her reproductive years.
Fertility rate
9. In the United States, families are now smaller than in previous decades.
true
10. Birthrates and death rates of countries around the world are basically the same.
vary greatly
11. If a country has a high death rate, it may also have a high birthrate.
true
12. If a country has a low death rate and a high birthrate, it will grow slowly, if at all.
low
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 4 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
17
Name
Date
Chapter
4
Population Biology, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 4.2 Human Population Growth,
continued
For each statement in Column A, write the letter of the item in Column B that completes the
statement correctly.
Column B
c
____________
13. Population growth will change if the largest ______________
of a population is in its post-reproductive years.
a. age structure
f
____________
14. The proportions of a population that are at different
______________ make up its age structure.
b. stable
e
____________
15. If you know a population has a large group of individuals in
their pre-reproductive years, you would predict that the
population’s growth will be ______________ .
c. proportion
b
____________
16. If the proportions of a population at different age levels
are fairly equal, the population will be ______________ .
d. fertility
d
____________
17. The population growth of a country depends on its birthrate,
death rate, and ______________ rate.
e. rapid
a
____________
18. To make predictions about the growth of a population,
demographers must know its ______________ .
f. age levels
Complete each statement.
Migration
19. ___________________________
is the movement into and out of populations.
Immigration
20. ___________________________
is the movement of humans into a population.
Emigration
21. ___________________________
is the movement of humans from a population.
world
22. Immigration and emigration of people have no effect on total ___________________________
population.
national
23. Immigration and emigration of people affect __________________________
population growth rates.
immigration
24. Suburban growth due to __________________________
has placed stress on schools and various public services.
18
CHAPTER 4 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Column A
Name
Date
Chapter
5
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Biological Diversity
and Conservation
Section 5.1 Vanishing Species
In your textbook, read about biological diversity.
Use the terms below just once to complete the passage. You will not use all the terms.
environments
variety
greater
space
species
biological diversity
equator
less
decrease
increase
Biological diversity
variety
(1) __________________________
refers to the (2) __________________________
of life in an
area. Another word for biological diversity is biodiversity. The simplest measure of biodiversity is the
species
number of (3) __________________________
that live in a certain area. The more species there are,
greater
the (4) __________________________
is the biodiversity of the area. Biodiversity on land tends to
increase
equator
(5) __________________________
as you move toward the (6) __________________________
.
Biodiversity is greater on large islands than on small islands because large islands have more
space
environments
(7) __________________________
and a greater variety of (8) __________________________
.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In your textbook, read about the importance of biodiversity.
For each statement below, write true or false.
true
____________________
9. Biodiversity provides our world with beauty.
false
____________________
10. The loss of a species from an ecosystem usually has no effect because of the
presence of other species in the ecosystem.
false
____________________
11. Biodiversity decreases the stability of ecosystems because more species are
competing with each other.
true
____________________
12. Increasing the biodiversity of an ecosystem may result in more niches.
false
____________________
13. Diseases are more likely to spread in an ecosystem with high biodiversity
than in an ecosystem with low biodiversity.
true
____________________
14. A decrease in Earth’s biodiversity may affect people’s diets.
true
____________________
15. Preserving diverse plant species may lead to the discovery of new drugs
in the future.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 5 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
19
Name
Date
Chapter
5
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Biological Diversity
and Conservation, continued
Section 5.1 Vanishing Species,
continued
In your textbook, read about the loss of biodiversity.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
f
____________
16. The number of members of a species is so low that
there is a possibility of extinction.
a. passenger pigeon
c
____________
17. This animal is an example of an endangered species.
b. threatened species
b
____________
18. The population of a species begins declining rapidly.
c. black rhinoceros
a
____________
19. This animal is an example of an extinct species.
d. African elephant
e
____________
20. All members of a species have died, so the species
no longer exists.
e. extinct species
d
____________
21. This animal is an example of a threatened species.
f. endangered species
In your textbook, read about threats to biodiversity.
Statement
Habitat
Loss
Habitat
Degradation
✓
22. Animals have no migratory route.
23. A rain forest is burned.
Habitat
Fragmentation
✓
✓
24. A highway divides a forest.
25. Acid precipitation leaches nutrients
from the soil.
✓
26. Detergents and other chemicals pollute
bodies of water.
✓
27. Coral is mined for building materials.
28. The reduction of the ozone layer causes
more ultraviolet radiation to reach
Earth’s surface.
20
CHAPTER 5 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
✓
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each statement.
Name
Date
Chapter
5
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Biological Diversity
and Conservation, continued
Section 5.1 Vanishing Species,
continued
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
29. When species lose their habitats, they may
a. lack food.
b. lack shelter.
c. be in danger of becoming extinct.
d. all of the above.
30. Habitat fragmentation often leads to
a. increased species diversity
within an area.
c. decreased species diversity
within an area.
b. larger habitats for species.
d. an increased food supply for species.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
31. Different conditions along the boundaries of an ecosystem are called
a. habitat fragmentation.
b. edge effect.
c. habitat loss.
32. The greatest source of air pollution is
a. volcanic eruptions.
c. burning fossil fuels.
b. forest fires.
d. CFCs.
33. Acid precipitation
a. may decrease biodiversity on land.
c. may increase biodiversity in water.
b. has no effect on biodiversity.
d. both a and c.
34. The reduction of the ozone layer is caused by
a. burning fossil fuels.
b. acid precipitation.
35. Algal blooms in lakes
a. are caused by acid precipitation.
c. clog the gills of fish.
c. heavy metals.
d. canopy effect.
d. CFCs.
b. decrease the amount of oxygen in the lake
when they decay.
d. both a and b.
36. When exotic species are introduced into an area, their populations may grow exponentially
because the species
a. are large.
b. are predators.
c. lack competitors and predators.
d. are small.
37. The African elephant population was greatly reduced between 1970 and 1990 due to
a. habitat degradation.
b. excessive hunting.
c. habitat loss.
d. pollution.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 5 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
21
Name
Date
Chapter
5
Biological Diversity
and Conservation, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 5.2 Conservation of
Biodiversity
In your textbook, read about strategies of conservation biology.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is conservation biology?
Conservation biology is a field of biology that studies methods and implements
plans to protect biodiversity.
2. How does the U.S. Endangered Species Act protect biodiversity?
The law prohibits people from harming any species on the endangered or
threatened species lists. It also prohibits federal agencies from funding projects
that harm organisms on those lists.
3. How do nature preserves help protect biodiversity?
Nature preserves help protect biodiversity by preserving the habitats of
organisms.
4. Why is it usually better to preserve one large area of land instead of a few smaller areas of land?
There usually is greater biodiversity within large areas than within small areas.
The habitat corridors allow organisms to migrate from one area to another.
6. What caused the steady decline of the black-footed ferret population in Wyoming?
Their decline was due to canine distemper, which spread to the ferrets, and the
poisoning of prairie dogs, which were the ferrets’ main source of food.
7. What efforts were made to increase the size of the black-footed ferret population?
The remaining ferrets were captured, bred in captivity, and then returned to their
original habitat.
8. How are seed banks useful in protecting biodiversity?
Seeds from endangered or threatened plant species can be stored in seed banks
for long periods of time. If the plant species become extinct, the seeds can be used
to reintroduce the species to their original habitats.
9. What are some problems of keeping endangered animals in captivity before reintroducing them to
their original habitats?
Keeping animals in captivity is expensive. While in captivity, animals may lose the
behaviors they need to survive in their original habitats.
22
CHAPTER 5 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. Why are habitat corridors used to connect different protected areas?
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
BioDigest
2
Class
Ecology
In your textbook, read about ecosystems.
For each statement below, write true or false.
true
____________________
1. Organisms interact with the nonliving parts of their environments.
false
____________________
2. Relationships between organisms are abiotic factors in ecosystems.
false
____________________
3. In the carbon cycle, animals produce nutrients from carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere.
true
____________________
4. Commensalism is a relationship in which one species benefits while the
other species is neither helped nor harmed.
true
____________________
5. The temperature and precipitation in a certain land area influence the
type of biome that is found there.
In your textbook, read about food for life.
Use the diagram on the right to answer questions 6–10.
6. Describe a food chain using organisms in the pyramid.
Answers will vary but may include plants
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
eaten by the chipmunk and the chipmunk
eaten by the snake.
7. Which organisms are carnivores?
eagle, snake, raccoon
8. How many trophic levels are included in the pyramid?
three
9. Which trophic level has the smallest biomass?
carnivores
10. How does the biomass of the autotrophs compare with
the biomass of the herbivores?
The biomass of the autotrophs is about ten times the biomass of the herbivores.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
BIODIGEST 2 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
23
Name
Date
BioDigest
2
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Ecology, continued
In your textbook, read about population size.
Use the terms below to complete the passage. You will not use all the terms.
carrying capacity
species
maximum
limit
competition
linear growth
minimum
exceeds
food
exponential growth
species
that live in a
A population is the number of organisms of one (11) ___________________________
limit
certain area. Under ideal conditions in which there are no factors that (12) ______________________
exponential growth . However, in the
the size of a population, a population shows (13) __________________________
environment, the sizes of populations are influenced by various limiting factors, such as the availability
food
, water, space, and other resources. As population size increases,
of (14) __________________________
maximum
competition
(15) __________________________
for the resources increases. The (16) _____________________
size of
carrying capacity
a population that an environment can support is the environment’s (17) __________________________
exceeds
for that population. When a population (18) __________________________
the carrying capacity,
individuals are unable to meet all their needs and die.
Number the steps of succession below in the order in which they occur.
4
19. Shade from grasses and shrubs provides protection for tree saplings.
____________
6
20. Pioneer species and other small plants are unable to grow in the shade and die.
____________
3
21. Grasses and bushes appear.
____________
1
22. A plot of farmland is abandoned.
____________
5
23. Tree saplings grow and increase the amount of shade in the area.
____________
2
24. Pioneer species, such as dandelions, take root in the soil.
____________
Answer the following questions.
25. What effect does succession have on the biodiversity of ecosystems?
Succession increases the biodiversity of ecosystems.
26. What human actions decrease the biodiversity of ecosystems?
Answers will vary. The use of land for housing and roads destroys the habitats of
organisms. Pollution kills organisms and may threaten the existence of species.
24
BIODIGEST 2 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In your textbook, read about succession and biodiversity.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
6
Class
The Chemistry of Life
Section 6.1 Atoms and Their
Interactions
In your textbook, read about elements, atoms, and isotopes.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
cannot be
1. An element is a substance that can be broken down into simpler substances. ______________________
true
2. On Earth, 90 elements occur naturally. ____________________________________________________
3. Only four elements—carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen—make up more than 96 percent of the
true
mass of a human. ______________________________________________________________________
symbol
4. Each element is abbreviated by a one- or two-letter formula. __________________________________
5. Trace elements, such as iron and magnesium, are present in living things in very large amounts.
very small
true
6. The properties of elements are determined by the structures of their atoms. ________________________
Label the parts of the atom. Use these choices:
energy level
electron
neutron
proton
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
e
proton
7. ____________________
nucleus
electron
11. ____________________
nucleus
10. ____________________
p
n0
energy level
9. ____________________
neutron
8. ____________________
Answer the following questions.
12. What is the maximum number of electrons in each of the following energy levels: first, second, third?
two in the first, eight in the second, 18 in the third
13. Boron has two isotopes, boron-10 and boron-11. Boron-10 has five protons and five neutrons. How
many protons and neutrons does boron-11 have? Explain.
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. Boron-11 has the same number of protons as boron-10, that is, five.
Since the isotope number refers to the total number of protons and neutrons,
boron-11 has six neutrons.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 6 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
25
Name
Date
Chapter
6
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
The Chemistry of Life, continued
Section 6.1 Atoms and Their
Interactions, continued
In your textbook, read about compounds and bonding, chemical reactions, and mixtures and solutions.
Write the type of substance described. Use these choices: compound, element.
compound
14. H2O, a liquid that no longer resembles either hydrogen or oxygen gas
____________________
compound
____________________
15. A substance that can be broken down in a chemical reaction
element
____________________
16. Carbon, the substance represented by the symbol C
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each description.
Ionic Bond(s)
17. Found in the compound NaCl
✓
18. Increases the stability of atoms
✓
Covalent Bond(s)
✓
19. Results in the formation of a molecule
✓
20. Is formed when atoms share electrons
✓
Fill in the blanks with the correct number of molecules to balance the chemical equation. Then
answer the questions.
C6H12O6 +
O2
CO2 +
H2O
21. Why must chemical equations always balance?
Chemical equations must balance because atoms are neither created nor destroyed
during a chemical reaction.
22. Which number indicates the number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a substance.
the subscript number to the right of each element
23. When is a mixture not a solution?
A mixture is not a solution when the substances that make up the mixture are not
distributed evenly.
24. What is the difference between an acid and a base?
An acid forms hydrogen ions in water. A base forms hydroxide ions in water.
26
CHAPTER 6 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Statement
Name
Date
Chapter
6
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
The Chemistry of Life, continued
Section 6.2 Water and Diffusion
In your textbook, read about water and its importance.
For each statement below, write true or false.
false
____________________
1. In a water molecule, electrons are shared equally between the hydrogen
atoms and oxygen atom.
false
____________________
2. The attraction of opposite charges between hydrogen and oxygen forms
a weak oxygen bond.
true
____________________
3. Because of its polarity, water can move from the roots of a plant up to its leaves.
false
____________________
4. Water changes temperature easily.
true
____________________
5. Unlike most substances, water expands when it freezes.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
6. All objects in motion have
a. potential energy.
b. heat energy.
c. kinetic energy.
d. random energy.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. The first scientist to observe evidence of the random motion of molecules was
a. Brown.
b. Darwin.
c. Mendel.
d. Hooke.
8. The net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower
concentration is called
a. dynamic equilibrium.
b. nonrandom movement.
c. concentration gradient.
d. diffusion.
9. Diffusion occurs because of
a. nonrandom movement of particles.
c. a chemical reaction between particles.
b. random movement of particles.
d. chemical energy.
10. When a few drops of colored corn syrup are added to a beaker of pure corn syrup, the color will
a. move from low concentration to high concentration.
b. form a polar bond.
c. start to diffuse.
d. remain on the bottom of the beaker.
11. Diffusion can be accelerated by
a. decreasing the pressure.
c. decreasing the movement of particles.
b. increasing the temperature.
d. increasing the dynamic equilibrium.
12. When materials pass into and out of a cell at equal rates, there is no net change in concentration
inside the cell. The cell is in a state of
a. dynamic equilibrium. b. metabolism.
c. imbalance.
d. inertia.
13. The difference in concentration of a substance across space is called
a. dynamic equilibrium.
b. concentration gradient.
c. diffusion.
d. Brownian movement.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 6 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
27
Name
Date
Chapter
6
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
The Chemistry of Life, continued
Section 6.3 Life Substances
In your textbook, read about the role of carbon in organisms.
For each of the following statements about carbon, write true or false.
true
____________________
1. Carbon atoms can bond together in straight chains, branched chains, or rings.
false
____________________
2. Large molecules containing carbon atoms are called micromolecules.
false
____________________
3. Polymers are formed by hydrolysis.
true
____________________
4. Cells use carbohydrates for energy.
Write each item below under the correct heading.
sucrose
glucose
starch
C6H12O6
cellulose
glycogen
fructose
C12H22O11
Dissaccharide
Polysaccharide
5. C6H12O6
8. C12H22O11
10. starch
6. glucose
9. sucrose
11. cellulose
12. glycogen
7. fructose
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each description.
Description
Lipids
Proteins
✓
13. Made up of nucleotides
14. Most consist of three fatty acids bonded to a
glycerol molecule
✓
✓
15. DNA and RNA
✓
16. Contain peptide bonds
✓
17. Produce proteins
18. Commonly called fats and oils
✓
✓
19. Made up of amino acids
20. Used for long-term energy storage, insulation,
and protective coatings
21. Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
28
CHAPTER 6 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
Nucleic Acids
✓
✓
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Monosaccharide
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
7
Class
A View of the Cell
Section 7.1 The Discovery of Cells
In your textbook, read about the history of the cell theory.
For each statement in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Column A
Column B
f
____________
1. The first scientist to describe living cells as
seen through a simple microscope
a. Schleiden
b
____________
2. Uses two or more glass lenses to magnify
either living cells or prepared slides
b. compound light
microscope
e
____________
3. A scientist who observed that cork was composed
of tiny, hollow boxes that he called cells
c. electron
microscope
a
____________
4. A scientist who concluded that all plants are
composed of cells
d. Schwann
d
____________
5. A scientist who concluded that all animals are
composed of cells
e. Hooke
c
____________
6. The microscope that allowed scientists
to view molecules
f. Leeuwenhoek
In your textbook, read about the two basic cell types.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each statement.
Statement
Prokaryotes
7. Organisms that have cells lacking internal
membrane-bound structures
✓
8. Do not have a nucleus
✓
✓
9. Are either single-celled or made up of many cells
10. Generally are single-celled organisms
11. Organisms that have cells containing organelles
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Eukaryotes
✓
✓
CHAPTER 7 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
29
Name
Date
Chapter
7
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
A View of the Cell, continued
Section 7.2 The Plasma Membrane
In your textbook, read about maintaining a balance.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
glucose
plasma membrane
homeostasis
organism
balance
selective permeability
balance by controlling materials that enter and leave. Without this
Living cells maintain a (1) ___________
homeostasis and will die. The cell must regulate internal conability, the cell cannot maintain (2) _______________
glucose
centrations of water, (3) ______________
, and other nutrients and must eliminate waste products.
plasma membrane , which allows only certain
Homeostasis in a cell is maintained by the (4) ______________________
particles to pass through and keeps other particles out. This property of a membrane is known as
selective permeability . It allows different cells to carry on different activities within the
(5) ________________________
organism .
same (6) ____________
In your textbook, read about the structure of the plasma membrane.
false
____________________
true
____________________
false
____________________
7. The structure and properties of the cell wall allow it to be selective and
maintain homeostasis.
8. The plasma membrane is a bilayer of lipid molecules with protein molecules
embedded in it.
9. A phospholipid molecule has a nonpolar, water-insoluble head attached to
a long polar, soluble tail.
false
10. The fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membrane as a structure that
____________________
is liquid and very rigid.
true
11. Eukaryotic plasma membranes can contain cholesterol, which tends to make
____________________
the membrane more stable.
true
12. Transport proteins span the cell membrane, creating the selectively perme____________________
able membrane that regulates which molecules enter and leave a cell.
false
13. Proteins at the inner surface of the plasma membrane attach the membrane
____________________
to the cell’s support structure, making the cell rigid.
30
CHAPTER 7 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
For each statement below, write true or false.
Name
Date
Chapter
7
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
A View of the Cell, continued
Section 7.3 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
In your textbook, read about cellular boundaries; nucleus and cell control; assembly, transport, and storage
in the cell; and energy transformers.
Complete the table by writing the name of the cell part beside its structure/function. A cell part
may be used more than once.
Structure/Function
Cell Part
vacuole
1. A membrane-bound, fluid-filled sac
Golgi apparatus
2. Closely stacked, flattened membrane sacs
ribosomes
3. The sites of protein synthesis
4. A folded membrane that forms a network of interconnected
compartments in the cytoplasm
cytoplasm
5. The clear fluid inside the cell
6. Organelle that manages cell functions in eukaryotic cell
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
endoplasmic
reticulum
nucleus
7. Contains chlorophyll, a green pigment that traps energy from
sunlight and gives plants their green color
chloroplast
8. Digest excess or worn-out cell part, food particles, and invading
viruses or bacteria
lysosomes
9. Small bumps located on the endoplasmic reticulum
ribosomes
10. Provides temporary storage of food, enzymes, and waste products
vacuole
11. Firm, protective structure that gives the cell its shape in plants,
fungi, most bacteria, and some protists
cell wall
mitochondria
12. Produce a usable form of energy for the cell
13. Modifies proteins chemically, then repackages them
14. Contains inner membranes arranged in stacks of membranous
sacs called grana
15. Plant organelles that store starches or lipids or that
contain pigments
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Golgi apparatus
chloroplast
plastids
CHAPTER 7 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
31
Name
Date
Chapter
7
A View of the Cell, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 7.3 Eukaryotic Cell Structure,
continued
In your textbook, read about structures for support and locomotion.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
16. Cells have a support structure within the cytoplasm called the cytoskeleton.
true
17. The exoskeleton is composed of thin, fibrous elements that form a framework for the cell.
cytoskeleton
18. Microtubules of the cytoskeleton are thin, hollow cylinders made of protein.
true
19. Cilia and flagella are cell surface structures that are adapted for respiration.
locomotion
20. Flagella are short, numerous, hairlike projections from the plasma membrane.
Cilia
21. Flagella are longer and more numerous than cilia.
less
22. In multicellular organisms, cilia and flagella are the major means of locomotion.
23. In prokaryotic cells, both cilia and flagella are composed of microtubules.
;; ;;;;;;
;;
;;;
;;
;;
;
;;
;;
;
;
;;;
;;
;;; ;;
;;;
;;
eukaryotic
Write titles for each of the generalized diagrams and then label the parts. Use these choices: plant
cell, animal cell, plasma membrane, chloroplast, small vacuole, large vacuole, cell wall.
plant cell
25. ____________________
animal cell
24. ____________________
plasma membrane
26. ____________________
small vacuole
27. ____________________
cell wall
28. ____________________
chloroplast
29. ____________________
large vacuole
30. ____________________
32
CHAPTER 7 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
unicellular
Name
Date
Chapter
8
Cellular Transport and the
Cell Cycle
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 8.1 Cellular Transport
In your textbook, read about osmosis: diffusion of water.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each statement.
Statement
Isotonic
Solution
Hypotonic
Solution
Hypertonic
Solution
✓
1. Causes a cell to swell
✓
2. Doesn’t change the shape of a cell
✓
3. Causes osmosis
✓
✓
4. Causes a cell to shrink
In your textbook, read about passive transport and active transport.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
h
____________
Column B
5. Transport protein that provides a tubelike opening
in the plasma membrane through which particles
can diffuse
a
____________
6. Is used during active transport but not
passive transport
c
____________
d
____________
f
____________
a. energy
b. facilitated diffusion
c. endocytosis
7. Process by which a cell takes in material by forming
a vacuole around it
8. Particle movement from an area of higher concentration
to an area of lower concentration
d. passive transport
e. active transport
9. Process by which a cell expels wastes from a vacuole
b
____________
10. A form of passive transport that uses transport proteins
e
____________
11. Particle movement from an area of lower concentration
to an area of higher concentration
g
____________
12. Transport protein that changes shape when a particle
binds with it
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
f. exocytosis
g. carrier protein
h. channel protein
CHAPTER 8 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
33
Name
Date
Chapter
8
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Cellular Transport
and the Cell Cycle, continued
Section 8.2 Cellular Growth
and Reproduction
In your textbook, read about cell size limitations.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
true
1. Most living cells are between 2 and 200 µm in diameter. _______________________________________
slow
2. Diffusion of materials over long distance is fast. _____________________________________________
3. If a cell doesn’t have enough DNA to make all the proteins it needs, the cell cannot live.
true
4. As a cell’s size increases, its volume increases much slower than its surface area.
faster
5. If a cell’s diameter doubled, the cell would require two times more nutrients and would have two
eight, eight
times more wastes to excrete. ____________________________________________________________
In your textbook, read about cell reproduction.
nucleus
genetic material
chromosomes
packed
identical
chromatin
vanish
cell division
cell division
The process by which two cells are produced from one cell is called (6) _____________________
.
identical
The two cells are (7) __________________________
to the original cell. Early biologists observed that just
nucleus
before cell division, several short, stringy structures appeared in the (8) ____________________________
.
vanish
These structures seemed to (9) ___________________________
soon after cell division. These structures,
chromosomes .
which contain DNA and became darkly colored when stained, are now called (10) __________________
genetic material
Scientists eventually learned that chromosomes carry (11) __________________________
, which
is copied and passed on from generation to generation. Chromosomes normally exist as
chromatin
(12) __________________________
, long strands of DNA wrapped around proteins. However, before
packed
a cell divides, the chromatin becomes tightly (13) ___________________________
.
34
CHAPTER 8 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
Name
Date
Chapter
8
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Cellular Transport
and the Cell Cycle, continued
Section 8.2 Cellular Growth
and Reproduction, continued
In your textbook, read about the cell cycle and interphase.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each statement.
Statement
Interphase
Mitosis
✓
14. Cell growth occurs.
15. Nuclear division occurs.
✓
16. Chromosomes are distributed equally to daughter cells.
✓
17. Protein production is high.
✓
18. Chromosomes are duplicated.
✓
19. DNA synthesis occurs.
✓
✓
20. Cytoplasm divides immediately after this period.
21. Mitochondria and other organelles are manufactured.
✓
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In your textbook, read about the phases of mitosis.
Identify the following phases of mitosis. Use these choices: telophase, metaphase, anaphase,
prophase. Then label the diagrams. Use these choices: sister chromatids, centromere, spindle
fibers, centrioles.
prophase
22. ______________
metaphase 24. ______________
anaphase
23. ______________
telophase
25. ______________
sister
chromatids
centrioles
centromere 29. spindle
fibers
26. ______________ 27. ______________ 28. ______________
______________
Answer the question.
30. How does mitosis result in tissues and organs?
In multicellular organisms, mitosis produces groups of cells that work together to
perform a function. These groups are tissues. The tissues are organized in different
combinations to form organs that have different functions.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 8 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
35
Name
Date
Chapter
8
Cellular Transport
and the Cell Cycle, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 8.3 Control of the
Cell Cycle
In your textbook, read about normal control of the cell cycle and cancer.
Answer the following questions.
1. In what ways do enzymes control the cell cycle?
Enzymes are needed to begin and drive the cell cycle. They also direct the phases
of the cell cycle.
2. What directs the production of these enzymes?
Genes, segments of DNA located on the chromosomes, direct the production of
these enzymes.
3. What can cause the cell cycle to become uncontrolled?
Lack of the enzymes needed to control the cell cycle, overproduction of those
enzymes, or production of other enzymes at the wrong time all can cause the cell
cycle to become uncontrolled.
4. What can result when the cell cycle becomes uncontrolled?
5. What is the relationship between environmental factors and cancer?
Certain environmental factors, such as cigarette smoke, pollution, and UV rays, can
damage the genes that control the production of enzymes involved in the cell
cycle. Uncontrolled cell division that leads to cancer may result.
6. What is a tumor? Describe the final stages of cancer.
A tumor is a mass of tissue that deprives normal cells of nutrients. In the final
stages of cancer, cancer cells metastasize to other parts of the body, forming new
tumors that disrupt organ functions.
7. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. What four types of cancer are the
most prevalent?
Lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancers are the most prevalent.
36
CHAPTER 8 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Uncontrolled cell division and possibly cancer can result.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
9
Class
Energy in a Cell
Section 9.1 ATP in a Molecule
In your textbook, read about cell energy.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
energy
phosphate
adenosine
charged
ATP
chemical bonds
work
ribose
work
To do biological (1) __________________________
, cells require energy. A quick source
ATP
energy
of energy that cells use is the molecule (2) __________________________
. The (3) __________________
chemical bonds
in this molecule is stored in its (4) __________________________
. ATP is composed of a(n)
ribose
adenosine
(5) __________________________
molecule bonded to a(n) (6) ___________________________
sugar.
phosphate
charged
Three (7) __________________________
molecules called (8) ___________________________
groups
are attached to the sugar.
In your textbook, read about forming and breaking down ATP and the uses of cell energy.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Examine the diagram below. Then answer the questions.
ATP
Energy from food
Energy
ADP + Pi
9. How is energy stored and released by ATP?
Energy that is used to add a phosphate group to ADP becomes stored as a
chemical bond in the resulting ATP molecule. The stored energy is released
when ATP is broken down to ADP and a phosphate group.
10. How do cells use the energy released from ATP?
Answers may vary. Cells use energy to make new molecules, maintain
homeostasis, transmit nerve impulses, move, and produce light.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 9 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
37
Name
Date
Chapter
9
Energy in a Cell, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 9.2 Photosynthesis: Trapping
the Sun’s Energy
In your textbook, read about trapping the sun’s energy.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
1. Photosynthesis is the process plants use to trap the sun’s energy to make glucose.
true
2. ATP molecules are made during the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
light-dependent
3. Carbon dioxide gas is produced during photosynthesis.
oxygen
4. The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis take place in the membranes of the
thylakoid discs in mitochondria.
chloroplasts
5. The thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll and other pigments that absorb sunlight.
true
In your textbook, read about the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
4
____________
6. The energy lost by electrons as they pass through the electron transport chain is used
to make ATP.
3
____________
7. The electrons pass from the chlorophyll to an electron transport chain.
1
____________
8. Sunlight strikes the chlorophyll molecules in the thylakoid membranes.
6
____________
9. NADP+ molecules change to NADPH as they carry the electrons to the stroma of the
chloroplast.
2
____________
10. The sunlight’s energy is transferred to the chlorophyll’s electrons.
5
____________
11. The electrons are passed down a second electron transport chain.
Answer the following questions.
12. How are the electrons that are lost by the chlorophyll molecules replaced?
The electrons are replaced by the splitting of water molecules during
photosynthesis.
13. How do plants produce oxygen during photosynthesis?
Oxygen, as well as hydrogen ions, is produced when water molecules are split
during photosynthesis.
38
CHAPTER 9 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Number the following steps of the light-dependent reactions in the order in which they occur.
Name
Date
Chapter
9
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Energy in a Cell, continued
Section 9.2 Photosynthesis: Trapping
the Sun’s Energy, continued
In your textbook, read about the light-independent reactions.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
14. The Calvin cycle includes
a. the light-dependent reactions.
c. the light-independent reactions.
b. an electron transport chain.
d. photolysis.
15. The Calvin cycle takes place in the
a. mitochondria.
c. nucleus.
b. stroma.
c. thylakoid membrane.
16. What product of the light-dependent reactions is used in the Calvin cycle?
a. oxygen
b. carbon dioxide
c. NADPH
d. chlorophyll
17. What gas is used in the first step of the Calvin cycle?
a. oxygen
b. carbon dioxide
c. hydrogen
d. water
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
18. A carbon atom from carbon dioxide is used to change the five-carbon sugar RuBP into
a. ATP.
b. two molecules.
c. PGA.
d. a six-carbon sugar.
19. How many molecules of the three-carbon sugar PGA are formed?
a. two
b. one
c. six
d. three
20. ATP, NADPH, and hydrogen ions are used to convert PGA into
a. PGAL.
b. glucose.
c. RuBP.
d. carbon dioxide.
21. How many rounds of the Calvin cycle are needed to form one glucose molecule?
a. one
b. six
c. two
d. three
22. What two molecules leave the Calvin cycle and are combined to form glucose?
a. RuBP
b. PGA
c. PGAL
d. CO2
23. Which molecule from the Calvin cycle is used to replenish the five-carbon sugar, RuBP,
which is used at the beginning of the cycle?
a. NADP
b. CO2
c. PGA
d. PGAL
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 9 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
39
Name
Date
Chapter
9
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Energy in a Cell, continued
Section 9.3 Getting Energy to
Make ATP
In your textbook, read about the cellular respiration and fermentation.
Fill in the names of the molecules to complete the glycolysis reaction. Use these choices:
2PGAL, 4ATP, glucose, 2ADP, 2 pyruvic acid, 2NADH + 2H+. Then answer the questions.
2.
4ADP + 4Pi
ER
GY
3.
R
EN
1.
glucose
4ATP
4.
GY
2ATP
Glycolysis
2ADP
2PGAL
EN E
2NAD+
5.
2 pyruvic
acid
+
6. 2NADH + 2H
7. What happens to pyruvic acid before entering the citric acid cycle?
Pyruvic acid combines with coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA.
8. What happens to the electrons carried by the NADH and FADH2 molecules produced during the
citric acid cycle?
The electrons are passed through an electron transport chain, releasing energy
9. During which stages of cellular respiration are ATP molecules formed?
citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
10. Why is oxygen necessary for cellular respiration?
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain.
11. How is fermentation different from cellular respiration?
Fermentation occurs when no oxygen is available. Fermentation produces fewer
ATP molecules.
In your textbook, read about comparing photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Answer the following question.
12. Describe two ways in which cellular respiration is the opposite of photosynthesis.
In cellular respiration, chemical energy is released, whereas in photosynthesis,
chemical energy is stored. Products of cellular respiration, CO2 and H2O, are used
in photosynthesis. Products of photosynthesis, glucose and O2, are used in
cellular respiration.
40
CHAPTER 9 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
at each step.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
BioDigest
3
Class
The Life of a Cell
In your textbook, read about the chemistry of life.
Label the diagram below, using these choices:
atom
electron
molecule
neutron
nucleus
proton
e–
proton
1. __________________
e–
atom
2. __________________
molecule
electron
4. __________________
p+
nucleus
5. __________________
e–
8p+
8n0
e–
3. __________________
n0
neutron
e–
6. __________________
e–
In your textbook, read about eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and organelles.
Complete each statement.
membrane
7. Every cell is surrounded by a plasma __________________________
.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Eukaryotes
8. ___________________________
are organisms with cells that contain membrane-bound structures
called organelles within the cell.
9. Organisms having cells without internal membrane-bound structures are called
prokaryotes
__________________________
.
lipid bilayer
10. The plasma membrane is composed of a __________________________
with embedded proteins.
nucleus
11. The __________________________
controls cell functions.
proteins
12. Ribosomes are organelles found in the cytoplasm that produce __________________________
.
endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus transport and modify proteins.
13. The __________________________
chloroplasts
14. Plant cells contain __________________________
that capture the sun’s light energy so that it can
be transformed into usable chemical energy.
15. A network of microfilaments and microtubules attached to the cell membrane give the cell
structure
__________________________
.
Flagella
16. __________________________
are long projections from the surface of the plasma membrane
and move in a whiplike fashion to propel a cell.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
BIODIGEST 3 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
41
Name
Date
BioDigest
3
The Life of a Cell, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
In your textbook, read about diffusion and osmosis.
Answer the following questions.
Diffusion is the movement of a substance from an area of higher
17. What is diffusion? ______________________________________________________________________
concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable
18. What is osmosis? ______________________________________________________________________
membrane.
Active transport is the movement of molecules against a
19. What is active transport? ________________________________________________________________
concentration gradient.
In your textbook, read about mitosis.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column B
d
20. Duplicated chromosomes condense and mitotic spindles
____________
form on the two opposite ends of the cell.
a. anaphase
a
____________
21. Chromosomes slowly separate to opposite ends of cells.
b. interphase
e
22. Chromosomes uncoil, spindle breaks down, and nuclear
____________
envelope forms around each set of chromosomes.
c. metaphase
b
____________
23. Cells experience a period of intense metabolic activity prior
to mitosis.
c
____________
24. Chromosomes line up in center of cell.
d. prophase
e. telophase
In your textbook, read about energy in a cell.
Decide if each of the following statements is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make
it true.
energy
____________________
25. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the most commonly used source of
protein in a cell.
Light-independent 26. Light-dependent reactions convert energy into starch through the
____________________
Calvin cycle.
true
____________________
27. Mitochondria convert food energy to ATP through a series of
chemical reactions.
each molecule
____________________
28. Glycolysis produces a net gain of two ATP for every two molecules
of glucose.
42
BIODIGEST 3 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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Column A
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
10
Class
Mendel and Meiosis
Section 10.1 Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
In your textbook, read why Mendel succeeded.
Complete each statement.
transferred
1. Mendel was the first person to succeed in predicting how traits are ___________________________
from generation to generation.
garden pea
2. Mendel used ___________________________ plants in his experiments.
gametes
3. In peas, both male and female sex cells—___________________________—are
in the same flower.
Fertilization
4. ___________________________
occurs when the male gamete fuses with the female gamete.
cross-pollination
5. Mendel used the process called ___________________________
when he wanted to breed one plant
with another.
controlled
6. Mendel carefully ___________________________
his experiments and the peas he used.
trait
7. Mendel studied only one ___________________________
at a time and analyzed his data
mathematically.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In your textbook, read about Mendel’s monohybrid crosses.
Refer to the table of pea-plant traits on the right. Then complete the table on the left by filling in
the missing information for each cross. The first one is done for you.
Parent Plants
8. round wrinkled
RR rr
9. yellow green
YY yy
10. axial terminal
aa
AA ______
11.
tall short
TT ______
tt
______
12. inflated constricted
II
______
ii
F1 generation
Offspring Appearance
Pea-Plant Traits
Trait
Dominant
Recessive
seed
shape
round
(R)
wrinkled
(r)
Rr
round
Yy
yellow
seed
color
yellow
(Y)
green
(y)
axial
flower
position
axial
(A)
terminal
(a)
tall
plant
height
tall
(T)
short
(t)
inflated
pod
shape
inflated
(I)
constricted
(i)
Aa
Tt
Ii
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 10 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
43
Name
Date
Chapter
10
Mendel and Meiosis, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 10.1 Mendel’s Laws of Heredity,
continued
In your textbook, read about phenotypes and genotypes and Mendel’s dihybrid crosses.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the underlined part to make it true.
Tt
13. A pea plant with the genotype TT has the same phenotype as a pea plant with genotype tt. _________
14. When Mendel crossed true-breeding pea plants that had round yellow seeds with true-breeding pea
plants that had wrinkled green seeds, some of the offspring had round yellow seeds because round
and yellow were the dominant forms of the traits. all
___________________________________________
15. When Mendel allowed heterozygous F1 plants that had round yellow seed to self-pollinate, he found
true
that some of the F2 plants had wrinkled green seeds. _________________________________________
16. The law of independent assortment states that genes for different traits are inherited independently
true
of each other. _________________________________________________________________________
In your textbook, read about Punnett squares and probability.
RY
Ry
rY
ry
RY
RRYY
round,
yellow
RRYy
round,
yellow
RrYY
round,
yellow
RrYy
round,
yellow
Ry
RRYy
round,
yellow
RRyy
round,
green
RrYy
round,
yellow
Rryy
round,
green
RrYY
RrYy
rrYY
rrYy
rY
round,
yellow
round,
yellow
wrinkled,
yellow
wrinkled,
yellow
RrYy
Rryy
rrYy
rryy
ry
round,
yellow
round,
green
wrinkled,
yellow
wrinkled,
green
17. Use the chart on the previous page to determine the phenotypes of the offspring. Record the pheno-
types below the genotypes in the Punnett square. Is an offspring produced by the cross more likely to
round seeds
have wrinkled seeds or round seeds? _______________________________________________________
3/16
18. What is the probability that an offspring will have wrinkled yellow seeds? _______________________
44
CHAPTER 10 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Punnett square below is for a dihybrid cross between pea plants that are heterozygous for
seed shape (Rr) and seed color (Yy). Complete the Punnett square by recording the expected
genotypes of the offspring. Then answer the questions.
Name
Date
Chapter
10
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Mendel and Meiosis, continued
Section 10.2 Meiosis
In your textbook, read about genes, chromosomes, and numbers.
Examine the table. Then answer the questions.
Chromosome Numbers of Some Common Organisms 1. What is the diploid number of
chromosomes in corn?
Body Cell
Gamete (n)
Organism
20
(2n)
Human
46
23
Garden pea
14
7
Fruit fly
8
4
Tomato
24
12
Dog
78
39
Chimpanzee
48
24
Leopard frog
26
13
Corn
20
10
2. What is the haploid number of
chromosomes in corn?
10
3. Is the chromosome number related to
the complexity of the organism?
no
4. How many pairs of chromosomes do
humans have?
23
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. What process maintains a constant number of chromosomes within a species?
meiosis
In your textbook, read about the phases of meiosis.
Label the diagrams below. Use these choices: Metaphase I, Metaphase II, Interphase, Telophase I,
Telophase II, Anaphase I, Anaphase II, Prophase I, Prophase II.
Interphase 7. ____________
Prophase I 8. Metaphase
Anaphase I 10. ____________
Telophase I
6. ____________
____________I 9. ____________
Prophase II
11. ____________
Metaphase II 13. ____________
Anaphase II
12. ____________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Telophase II
14. ____________
CHAPTER 10 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
45
Name
Date
Chapter
10
Mendel and Meiosis, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 10.2 Meiosis,
continued
The following statements describe interphase and and meiosis I. Identify each phase. Then place
them in sequential order using the numbers 1 through 5. Use 1 for the phase that occurs first
and 5 for the phase that occurs last.
Statement
Name of Phase
Sequence
15. Homologous chromosomes line up at the equator in pairs.
Metaphase I
3
16. The cell replicates its chromosomes.
Interphase
1
17. Homologous chromosomes separate and move to opposite
ends of the cell.
Anaphase I
4
18. The spindle forms, and chromosomes coil up and come
together in a tetrad; crossing over may occur.
Prophase I
2
19. Events occur in the reverse order from the events of prophase I.
Each cell has only half the genetic information; however, another
cell division is needed because each chromosome is still doubled.
Telophase I
5
In your textbook, read about how meiosis provides for genetic variation and about mistakes in meiosis.
true
20. Reassortment of chromosomes can occur during meiosis by crossing over or
____________________
by independent segregation of homologous chromosomes.
true
____________________
21. Genetic recombination is a major source of variation among organisms.
true
____________________
22. The random segregation of chromosomes during meiosis explains Mendel’s
observation that genes for different traits are inherited independently of
each other.
false
____________________
23. Nondisjunction always results in a zygote with an extra chromosome.
false
____________________
24. Down syndrome is a result of polyploidy.
true
____________________
25. Mistakes in meiosis can occasionally be beneficial.
46
CHAPTER 10 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
For each statement below, write true or false.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
11
Class
DNA and Genes
Section 11.1 DNA: The Molecule of
Heredity
In your textbook, read about what DNA is and the replication of DNA.
Label the diagram. Use these choices: nucleotide, deoxyribose, phosphate group, nitrogen base,
hydrogen bonds, base pair.
deoxyribose
1. __________________
nitrogen base
2. __________________
base pair
4. ____________________
hydrogen bonds
5. ____________________
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
nucleotide
3. __________________
phosphate group
6. ____________________
Complete each statement.
nitrogen bases
Adenine (A)
7. __________________
, guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) are the four __________________
in DNA.
cytosine (C)
8. In DNA, __________________
always forms hydrogen bonds with guanine (G).
nucleotides
9. The sequence of __________________
carries the genetic information of an organism.
replication
10. The process of __________________
produces a new copy of an organism’s genetic information,
which is passed on to a new cell.
double helix .
11. The double-coiled shape of DNA is called a __________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 11 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
47
Name
Date
Chapter
11
DNA and Genes, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 11.2 From DNA to Protein
In your textbook, read about genes and proteins and RNA.
Complete the chart on the three chemical differences between DNA and RNA.
Structure
DNA
double
single
deoxyribose
ribose
thymine
uracil
1. strand of nucleotides
2. sugar
RNA
3. nitrogen base
In your textbook, read about the genetic code.
Complete each statement.
amino acids
4. Proteins are made up of __________________________
.
amino acids
5. There are twenty different types of __________________________
.
proteins
6. The message of the DNA code is information for building __________________________
.
codon
__________________________
.
threonine
8. The amino acid __________________________
is represented by the mRNA codon ACA.
UUC
UUU
9. ________________________
and ________________________
are mRNA codons for phenylalanine.
codon
10. There can be more than one __________________________
for the same amino acid.
amino acid
11. For any one codon, there can be only one __________________________
.
12. The genetic code is said to be universal because a codon represents the same
amino acid
__________________________
in almost all organisms.
UGA
UAA
UAG
13. ______________________
, _____________________
, and _____________________
are stop codons.
Tryptophan
methionine
14. ____________________________
and __________________________
are amino acids that are each
represented by only one codon.
48
CHAPTER 11 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. Each set of three nitrogen bases that codes for an amino acid is known as a
Name
Date
Chapter
11
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
DNA and Genes, continued
Section 11.2 From DNA to Protein,
continued
In your textbook, read about transcription from DNA to mRNA.
Complete each statement.
15. Proteins are made in the cytoplasm of a cell, whereas DNA is found only in the
nucleus
__________________________
.
transcription
16. The process of making RNA from DNA is called __________________________
.
replication
17. The process of transcription is similar to the process of DNA __________________________
.
Messenger RNA
18. __________________________
carries information from the DNA in the nucleus out into the cytoplasm of the cell.
ribosomes
19. mRNA carries the information for making proteins to the __________________________
.
In your textbook, read about translation from mRNA to protein.
Label the diagram. Use these choices: transfer RNA (tRNA), amino acid, amino acid chain, codon,
anticodon, messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosome.
transfer RNA (tRNA)
21. _____________________________
LY
G
E
PH
ARG
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
amino acid
20. __________________
amino acid chain
23. ___________________
GL
TH
GL
PH
E
Y
R
Y
anticodon
25. __________________
codon
26. __________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
C
A
C
G
G
U
A
U
A
U
A
U
G C
C
G
G
C
G
C
G
C
A U
U A
G C
A
U
G
G
U
U
U
U
messenger RNA (mRNA)
22. __________________________
ribosome
24. __________________
CHAPTER 11 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
49
Name
Date
Chapter
11
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
DNA and Genes, continued
Section 11.3 Genetic Changes
In your textbook, read about mutation: a change in DNA.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
1. A mutation is any mistake or change in the
a. cell.
b. DNA sequence.
c. ribosomes.
2. A point mutation is a change in
a. several bases in mRNA.
c. a single base pair in DNA.
b. several bases in tRNA.
d. several base pairs in DNA.
d. nucleus.
3. A mutation in which a single base is added or deleted from DNA is called
a. a frame shift mutation.
b. a point mutation.
c. translocation.
4. Chromosomal mutations are especially common in
a. humans.
b. animals.
c. bacteria.
d. nondisjunction.
d. plants.
5. Few chromosome mutations are passed on to the next generation because
a. the zygote usually dies.
b. the mature organism is sterile.
c. the mature organism is often incapable of producing offspring.
d. all of the above.
7. Many chromosome mutations result when chromosomes fail to separate properly during
a. mitosis.
b. meiosis.
c. crossing over.
d. linkage.
8. The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly is called
a. translocation.
b. disjunction.
c. nondisjunction.
9. Mutations that occur at random are called
a. spontaneous mutations.
c. nonrandom mutations.
d. deletion.
b. nonspontaneous mutations.
d. environmental mutations.
10. An agent that can cause a change in DNA is called a(n)
a. zygote.
b. inversion.
c. mutagen.
d. mutation.
11. Mutations in body cells can sometimes result in
a. new species.
c. sterile offspring.
50
CHAPTER 11 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
b. cancer.
d. hybrids.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. When part of one chromosome breaks off and is added to a different chromosome, the result is a(n)
a. translocation.
b. insertion.
c. inversion.
d. deletion.
Name
Date
Chapter
12
Patterns of Heredity and
Human Genetics
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 12.1 Mendelian Inheritance of
Human Traits
In your textbook, read about making a pedigree.
Examine the pedigree to the right. Then answer the following questions.
1. Is the trait being studied in the pedigree
recessive or dominant? How do you know?
I
1
Recessive. If the trait were dominant, every
individual with the trait would have a parent
2
II
showing the trait. A recessive trait can be
1
2
3
4
produced by two parents who do not show
III
the trait, as with III-1.
1
2
3
4
5
2. Are II-1 and II-2 carriers of the trait? How do you know?
Yes, they are carriers because they produced
III-1, who is afflicted with the trait.
3. What is the probability that II-1 and II-2 will produce an individual with
the trait being studied? Draw a Punnett square to show your work.
The probability is 1:4. The Punnett
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
square should show the cross of two
heterozygotes.
4. What is the likely genotype of II-4 for the trait being
studied in the pedigree?
Accept any genotype that includes at least one uppercase letter.
In your textbook, read about simple recessive heredity and simple dominant heredity.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item from Column B.
Column A
Column B
c
____________
5. Recessive disorder that results from the absence of an
enzyme required to break lipids down
d
____________
6. Lethal genetic disorder caused by a dominant allele
a
____________
7. Most common genetic disorder among white Americans
c. Tay-Sachs disease
e
____________
8. Recessive disorder that results from the absence of an
enzyme that converts one amino acid into another one
d. Huntington’s disease
b
____________
9. Tongue curling and Hapsburg lip
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
a. cystic fibrosis
b. simple dominant traits
e. phenylketonuria
CHAPTER 12 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
51
Name
Date
Chapter
12
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Patterns of Heredity and
Human Genetics, continued
Section 12.2 When Heredity Follows
Different Rules
In your textbook, read about complex patterns of inheritance.
Answer the following questions.
1. Complete the Punnett square for a cross between a homozygous red-flowered snapdragon (RR) and a
homozygous white-flowered snapdragon (R'R'). Give the genotype and phenotype of the offspring in
the F1 generation.
Key
RR - red
R'R' - white
RR' - pink
R
R
R'
RR'
RR'
RR'
genotype: ________________________
R'
RR'
RR'
100% pink
phenotype: ________________________
F1
2. When traits are inherited in an incomplete dominance pattern, what is true of the phenotype of
the heterozygotes?
It is intermediate between those of the two homozygotes.
R
R
R'
RR
RR'
F2
1 red; 2 pink; 1 white
phenotype ratio: ______________________
R'
RR'
R'R'
4. In what type of inheritance are both alleles expressed equally?
codominance
5. Complete the Punnett square for a cross between a black chicken (BB) and a white chicken (WW).
Give the phenotype of the offspring in the F1 generation.
Key
BB - black
WW - white
BW - checkered
52
W
B
B
BW
BW
F1
W
BW
BW
CHAPTER 12 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
100% checkered
phenotype: _________________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. Complete the Punnett square for a cross between two pink-flowered (RR') F1 plants. Give the
phenotype ratio of the offspring in the F2 generation.
Name
Date
Chapter
12
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Patterns of Heredity and
Human Genetics, continued
Section 12.2 When Heredity Follows
Different Rules, continued
For each statement below, write true or false.
true
____________________
6. Traits controlled by more than two alleles are said to have multiple alleles.
false
____________________
7. Multiple alleles can be studied only in individuals.
false
____________________
8. In humans, there are 23 pairs of matching homologous chromosomes
called autosomes.
true
____________________
9. Two chromosomes called the sex chromosomes determine the sex of an
individual.
false
____________________
10. The sex chromosomes of a human male are XX, and the sex chromosomes
of a human female are XY.
true
____________________
11. Traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes are called sexlinked traits.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
false
____________________
12. The first known example of sex-linked inheritance was discovered in
pea plants.
In your textbook, read about environmental influences.
Answer the following questions.
13. What characteristics of an organism can affect gene function?
Age and gender can affect gene function.
14. Do the internal environments of males and females differ? Explain.
yes, because of hormones and structural differences
15. What are some environmental factors that can influence gene expression?
Temperature, nutrition, light, chemicals, and infectious agents all influence gene
expression.
16. Give two examples of how an environmental factor can affect the expression of a phenotype.
Temperature affects the production of pigments in certain bacteria. Light affects
the size and shape of some leaves.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 12 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
53
Name
Date
Chapter
12
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Patterns of Heredity and
Human Genetics, continued
Section 12.3 Complex Inheritance
of Human Traits
In your textbook, read about multiple alleles in humans.
Complete the table by filling in the missing information.
Human Blood Groups
Surface Molecules
Phenotypes
1. I AI A or I Ai
A
A
2. I BI B or I Bi
B
B
A and B
AB
none
O
Genotypes
3. I AI B
4. ii
Complete each statement.
multiple allelic
5. Blood groups are a classic example of __________________ inheritance in humans.
I A and I B
6. The alleles __________________ are always both expressed.
codominant
i
8. I A and I B are dominant to __________________ .
blood transfusion
9. Blood typing is necessary before a person can receive a _____________________ .
AB
10. A child who inherits I A from his mother and I B from his father will have type __________________
blood.
O
11. A child whose parents both have type O blood will have type __________________ blood.
12. If a woman with blood type A has a baby with blood type AB, a man with blood type O
could not
__________________ be the father.
cannot
13. Blood tests __________________ be used to prove that a certain man is the father of a child.
54
CHAPTER 12 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. The alleles I A and I B are __________________ , meaning they are always both expressed.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
13
Class
Genetic Technology
Section 13.1 Applied Genetics
In your textbook, read about selective breeding and determining genotypes.
Complete each statement.
heterozygous for a trait
1. Organisms that are homozygous dominant and those that are __________________
controlled by Mendelian inheritance have the same phenotype.
testcross
2. A __________________
determines whether an organism is heterozygous or homozygous dominant
for a trait.
homozygous recessive for the trait
3. Usually the parent with the known genotype is ___________________________
in question.
hybrids
4. When two cultivars are crossed, their offspring will be __________________
.
Answer the following.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. A breeder performs a testcross to determine whether an Alaskan malamute is homozygous dominant
(DD) or heterozygous (Dd) for a recessive dwarf allele. Half the offspring appear dwarf. What is the
genotype of the unknown dog? Complete the Punnett square to verify your answer.
D
d
d
Dd
dd
d
Dd
dd
heterozygous (Dd)
6. What results would be expected if the unknown dog was homozygous dominant (DD)? Complete the
Punnett square to verify your answer.
D
D
d
Dd
Dd
d
Dd
Dd
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
All the offspring will be phenotypically
dominant.
CHAPTER 13 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
55
Name
Date
Chapter
13
Genetic Technology, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 13.2 Recombinant DNA
Technology
In your textbook, read about gene engineering.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
c
____________
1. Bacterial proteins that have the ability to cut both
strands of the DNA molecule at certain points
e
____________
2. Contain foreign DNA
a
____________
3. Is made by connecting segments of DNA
from different sources
c. restriction enzymes
b
____________
4. General term for a vehicle used to transfer
a foreign DNA fragment into a host cell
d. plasmid
d
____________
5. A small ring of DNA found in a bacterial cell
f
____________
6. The procedure for cleaving DNA from an
organism into small segments, and inserting
the segments into another organism
a. recombinant DNA
b. vector
e. transgenic organisms
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each vector.
Vectors
Mechanical
7. Viruses
✓
8. Micropipette
✓
9. Metal bullets
✓
10. Plasmids
56
CHAPTER 13 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
Biological
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
f. genetic engineering
or recombinant DNA
technology
Name
Date
Chapter
13
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Genetic Technology, continued
Section 13.2 Recombinant DNA
Technology, continued
In your textbook, read about applications of DNA technology.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each statement.
Statement
11. Employed in the production of growth hormone
to treat dwarfism and insulin to treat diabetes
Bacteria
Transgenic
Plant(s)
✓
12. Difficult to produce because of thick cell walls
and few biological vectors
✓
13. Some can be made using a bacterium that
normally causes tumor-like galls.
✓
✓
14. Contain many genes common to humans
15. Have been engineered to break down pollutants
into harmless products
✓
16. The first patented organism
✓
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
17. Produced using mechanical vectors such as the
gene gun
18. Produce phenylalanine, an amino acid needed
to make artificial sweeteners
✓
✓
19. In the future, they will be more nutritious and
be able to grow in unfavorable conditions.
✓
✓
20. Helps scientists to learn about human diseases
21. Produce insulin, a hormone used in treating
diabetes
✓
22. Produced by using a micropipette to inject
DNA into unfertilized eggs
23. Contain foreign genes that slow down the
process of spoilage
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Animal(s)
✓
✓
CHAPTER 13 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
57
Name
Date
Chapter
13
Genetic Technology, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 13.3 The Human Genome
In your textbook, read about mapping and sequencing the human genome and applications of the Human
Genome Project.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
1. The human genome consists of approximately 1000 genes located on 46 chromosomes.
80,000
2. Scientists have determined the exact chromosomal location of all genes.
have not
3. The genetic map that shows the location of genes on a chromosome is called a pedigree map.
linkage map
4. Instead of examining actual offspring, scientists examine egg cells to create linkage maps.
sperm
5. Gene therapy is being performed on patients suffering from sickle-cell anemia.
cystic fibrosis
6. Electrolysis can be used to separate DNA fragments.
Electrophoresis
7. What is the Human Genome Project?
It is an international effort to completely map and sequence the human genome.
8. Why is mapping by linkage data extremely inefficient in humans?
because humans have only a few children compared to other species and the
generation time is so long
9. What are the three areas of current research that utilize chromosome maps?
prenatal diagnosis of human disorders, gene therapy, and DNA fingerprinting
10. Why is DNA fingerprinting reliable?
because no two individuals with the exception of identical twins have the same
DNA sequence, and all cells of an individual have the same DNA
58
CHAPTER 13 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Answer the following questions.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
BioDigest
4
Class
Genetics
In your textbook, read about simple Mendelian inheritance and meiosis.
Complete each statement.
dominant
1. A trait is __________________________
if only one allele is needed for that trait to be expressed.
recessive
If both alleles are needed for the trait to be expressed, the trait is __________________________
.
2. When a TT tall pea plant is crossed with a tt short pea plant, there is a 100% probability that all off-
tall
Tt
spring will be __________________________
and have the genotype __________________________
.
meiosis
3. Unlike mitosis, __________________________
produces cells that contain only one copy of each
chromosome
__________________________
.
4.
Crossing over
meiosis
and the rearrangement of alleles during __________________________
provide mechanisms for genetic variability.
In your textbook, read about producing physical traits and complex inheritance patterns.
Predict the outcome of the following crosses. Use Punnett squares to support your answers.
5. Homozygous short Homozygous short
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
All offspring should be homozygous short.
6. Heterozygous for purple flowers Heterozygous for purple flowers
t
t
t
tt
tt
t
tt
tt
P
p
P
PP
Pp
p
Pp
pp
R
R'
About 3/4 of the offspring should produce
purple flowers. About 1/4 should produce
white flowers.
7. Heterozygous pink snapdragon Heterozygous pink snapdragon
About 1/2 of the offspring should produce
pink flowers. About 1/4 should produce red
R
RR RR'
flowers. About 1/4 should produce white
R' RR' R'R'
flowers.
Sequence the steps in protein synthesis from 1 to 4.
4
____________
8. Amino acids bond together to form a protein.
1
____________
9. Sequence of bases in DNA is copied into mRNA.
3
10. tRNA molecules bring appropriate amino acids to the mRNA on the ribosome.
____________
2
11. mRNA leaves the cell nucleus.
____________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
BIODIGEST 4 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
59
Name
Date
BioDigest
4
Genetics, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
d
____________
12. Results in an mRNA copy of DNA
a. incomplete dominance
f
____________
13. Sequence of three bases in mRNA
b. X-linked trait
c
____________
14. Site of translation
c. ribosome
g
____________
15. Governed by several genes
d. transcription
a
____________
16. Heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype.
e. translation
h
____________
17. Double-stranded molecule that stores and transmits
genetic information
f. codon
b
____________
18. More likely to appear in males than in females
g. polygenic inheritance
e
____________
19. Results in a sequence of amino acids
h. DNA
In your textbook, read about recombinant DNA technology and gene therapy.
Sequence the steps to making recombinant DNA from 1 to 5.
1
____________
21. A DNA fragment is inserted into a plasmid.
4
____________
22. The DNA fragment replicates during cell division.
2
____________
23. The plasmid enters a host bacterial cell.
5
____________
24. A host cell produces a protein that it would not have produced naturally.
Answer the following questions.
25. What is gene therapy?
Gene therapy involves replacing defective genes with normal genes in order to
correct a genetic disorder.
26. What are clones?
Clones are identical copies. Identical copies of DNA fragments are DNA clones.
27. What is a vector? Give two examples of vectors.
A vector is a vehicle for transferring a DNA fragment from one organism to
another. Viruses and bacterial plasmids can be used as vectors.
60
BIODIGEST 4 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3
20. The plasmid becomes part of a host cell’s chromosome.
____________
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
14
Class
The History of Life
Section 14.1 The Record of Life
In your textbook, read about the early history of Earth.
For each statement below, write true or false.
true
____________________
1. Earth is thought to have formed about 4.6 billion years ago.
false
____________________
2. The conditions on primitive Earth were very suitable for life.
true
____________________
3. Geological events on Earth set up conditions that would play a major role
in the evolution of life on Earth.
true
____________________
4. Violent rainstorms beginning 3.9 million years ago formed Earth’s oceans.
false
____________________
5. The first organisms appeared on land between 3.9 and 3.5 billion years ago.
In your textbook, read about a history in the rocks.
For each statement in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Column A
Column B
c
____________
6. A footprint, trail, or burrow, providing evidence
of animal activity
a. petrified fossil
e
____________
7. A fossil embedded in tree sap, valuable because the
organism is preserved intact
b. imprint
a
____________
8. An exact stone copy of an original organism, the
hard parts of which have been penetrated and
replaced by minerals
c. trace fossil
f
____________
9. Any evidence of an organism that lived long ago
b
____________
10. The fossil of a thin object, such as a leaf or feather,
that falls into sediments and leaves an outline when
the sediments hardened
d. cast
e. amber-preserved
g
____________
11. An empty space left in rock, showing the exact shape
of the organism that was buried and decayed there
f. fossil
d
____________
12. An object formed when a mold is filled in by minerals
from the surrounding rock
g. mold
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 14 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
61
Name
Date
Chapter
14
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
The History of Life, continued
Section 14.1 The Record of Life,
continued
In your textbook, read about the age of a fossil.
Answer the following questions.
13. Explain how relative dating works.
If rock layers, and the fossils they contain, have been left undisturbed, layers
closer to the surface should be younger than those that are lower because they
formed after and on top of the lower ones.
14. What is the limitation of relative dating?
Relative dating will reveal only whether one fossil is older than another one.
15. What dating technique is often used by paleontologists to determine the specific age of a fossil?
radiometric dating
16. How do scientists use this dating technique to determine the ages of rocks or fossils?
Age is determined by comparing the amount of the original radioactive element to
the amount of the new element formed from decay.
In your textbook, read about a trip through geologic time.
Statement
17. The first photosynthetic bacteria form domeshaped structures called stromatolites.
Era
Pre-Cambrian Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic
✓
✓
18. Primates evolve and diversify.
19. Divided into three periods: Triassic, Jurassic,
and Cretaceous
20. An explosion of life, characterized by the appearance
of many types of invertebrates and plant phyla
✓
✓
21. Mammals appear.
✓
22. Dinosaurs roam Earth, and the ancestors
of modern birds evolve.
✓
23. Flowering plants appear.
✓
24. Amphibians and reptiles appear.
62
CHAPTER 14 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each statement.
Name
Date
Chapter
14
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
The History of Life, continued
Section 14.2 The Origin of Life
In your textbook, read about origins: the early ideas.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
microorganisms
vital force
Louis Pasteur
biogenesis
nonliving matter
S-shaped
disproved
Francesco Redi
organisms
broth
microscope
spontaneous generation
spontaneously
air
nonliving matter through a process they called
Early scientists believed that life arose from (1) ____________________
Francesco Redi
spontaneous generation . In 1668, the Italian physician (3) ____________________
(2) ___________________________
conducted
disproved
an experiment with flies that (4) ____________________
this idea. At about the same time, biologists
microscope
began to use an important new research tool, the (5) ____________________
. They soon discovered the
microorganisms . The number and diversity of these organisms was so great that
vast world of (6) ____________________
spontaneously .
scientists were led to believe once again that these organisms must have arisen (7) ____________________
Louis Pasteur was able to disprove this hypothesis once and for
By the mid-1800s, however, (8) ____________________
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
S-shaped
all. He set up an experiment, using flasks with unique (9) ____________________
necks. These flasks
air
allowed (10) ____________________
, but no organisms, to come into contact with a broth containing
vital force
nutrients. If some (11) ____________________
existed, as had been suggested, it would be able to get into
broth
the (12) ____________________
through the open neck of the flask. His experiment proved that organorganisms
biogenesis
isms arise only from other (13) ____________________
. This idea, called (14) ____________________
,
is one of the cornerstones of biology today.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
15. Biogenesis explains how life began on Earth.
does not explain
16. For life to begin, simple inorganic molecules had to be formed and then organized into complex molecules.
organic
17. Several billion years ago, Earth’s atmosphere had no free methane.
oxygen
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 14 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
63
Name
Date
Chapter
14
The History of Life, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 14.2 The Origin of Life,
continued
18. Primitive Earth’s atmosphere may have been composed of water vapor, hydrogen, methane, and
true
ammonia. _____________________________________________________________________________
19. In the early 1900s, Alexander Oparin proposed a widely accepted hypothesis that life began on land.
in the oceans
20. Pasteur hypothesized that many chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere resulted in the for-
Oparin
mation of a primordial soup. _____________________________________________________________
21. In 1953, Miller and Urey tested Oparin’s hypothesis by simulating the conditions of modern Earth in
early
the laboratory. _________________________________________________________________________
22. Miller and Urey showed that organic compounds, including nucleic acids and sugars, could be formed
amino acids
in the laboratory, just as had been predicted. ________________________________________________
23. This “life-in-a-test-tube” experiment of Miller and Urey provides support for some modern hypothe-
the origin of life
ses of biogenesis. ________________________________________________________________________
24. Sidney Fox took Miller and Urey’s experiment further and showed how amino acids could cluster to
true
form protocells. _________________________________________________________________________
Answer the following questions.
25. Describe the likely characteristics of the first organisms on Earth.
The first forms of life were probably anaerobic prokaryotes that were
heterotrophs.
26. What is an autotroph? What factors helped them thrive on Earth?
An autotroph is an organism that can make its own food. Competition for
nutrients by heterotrophic prokaryotes probably led to natural selection
for autotrophy.
27. What present-day organisms may be similar to the first autotrophs? Why?
Archaebacteria; many live in harsh environments and are chemosynthetic.
28. What change occurred in Earth’s atmosphere after the evolution of photosynthesizing prokaryotes?
Why?
Because photosynthesis released oxygen, the concentration of that gas increased in
the atmosphere.
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CHAPTER 14 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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In your textbook, read about the evolution of cells.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
15
Class
The Theory of Evolution
Section 15.1 Natural Selection and the
Evidence for Evolution
In your textbook, read about Charles Darwin and natural selection.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
For each statement, write true or false.
true
____________________
1. H.M.S. Beagle, upon which Charles Darwin served as naturalist, set sail on a
collecting and mapping expedition in 1831.
false
____________________
2. The environments that Darwin studied exhibited little biological diversity.
false
____________________
3. By careful anatomical study, Darwin found that the many species of plants
and animals on the Galapagos Islands were unique and bore no relation to
species seen in other parts of the world.
true
____________________
4. The tortoises of the Galapagos Islands are among the largest on Earth.
false
____________________
5. After returning to England, Darwin studied his collections for 10 years.
false
____________________
6. Darwin named the process by which evolution proceeds artificial selection.
You are a naturalist who traveled to the Galapagos Islands. Below are excerpts from field notes.
Next to each set of notes, write a heading. Use these choices: Overproduction of Offspring,
Natural Selection, Struggle for Existence, Variation.
7.
8.
Field Notes
Field Notes
These finches compete for a particular
species of insect that inhabits the small
holes found in tree bark.
Female finches found on the Galapagos
Islands lay enormous numbers of eggs.
Overproduction of Offspring
__________________________________
9.
Struggle for Existence
__________________________________
10.
Field Notes
Some finches’ beaks are long, some are
short.The finches with long beaks are
better adapted to remove the insects
from the bark.
Variation
__________________________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Field Notes
The finches with the long beaks
survive and produce greater numbers
of offspring with long beaks.
Natural Selection
__________________________________
CHAPTER 15 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
65
Name
Date
Chapter
15
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
The Theory of Evolution, continued
Section 15.1 Natural Selection and the
Evidence for Evolution, continued
In your textbook, read about natural selection and adaptations.
Identify the type of structural adaptation that the statement describes. If the statement applies to
both, write both. Use these choices: mimicry, camouflage, both.
camouflage
11. Enable(s) an organism to blend in with its surroundings
____________________
mimicry
____________________
12. Provide(s) protection for an organism by copying the appearance of
another species
camouflage
____________________
13. The coloration of a flounder that allows the fish to avoid predators
both
____________________
14. Involve(s) changes to the external appearance of an organism
mimicry
____________________
15. A flower that looks like a female bee
In your textbook, read about evidence for evolution.
Complete the chart by checking the kind of evidence described.
Type of Evidence
Homologous
Structure
16. A modified structure
seen among different
groups of descendants
Analogous
Structure
Vestigial
Structure
✓
17. In the earliest stages of
development, a tail and
gill slits can be seen in
fish, birds, rabbits, and
mammals.
18. Exemplified by forelimbs
of bats, penguins, lizards,
and monkeys
✓
✓
19. The forelimbs of
flightless birds
✓
20. DNA and RNA
comparisons may lead
to evolutionary trees.
21. Bird and butterfly wings
have same function but
different structures
22. A body structure reduced
in function but may have
been used in an ancestor
66
Embryological Genetic
Development Comparisons
CHAPTER 15 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
✓
✓
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Evidence
Name
Date
Chapter
15
The Theory of Evolution, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 15.2 Mechanisms of Evolution
In your textbook, read about population genetics and evolution.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
true
1. Adaptations of species are determined by the genes contained in the DNA code. __________________
2. When Charles Mendel developed the theory of natural selection in the 1800s, he did not include a
Darwin
genetic explanation. __________________
3. Natural selection can act upon an individual’s genotype, the external expression of genes.
phenotype
__________________
populations
4. Natural selection operates on an individual over many generations. __________________
gene pool
5. The entire collection of genes among a population is its gene frequency. __________________
6. If you know the phenotypes of all the organisms in a population, you can calculate the allelic frequency
genotypes
of the population. __________________
7. A population in which frequency of alleles changes from generation to generation is said to be in
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
does not change
genetic equilibrium. __________________
true
8. A population that is in genetic equilibrium is not evolving. __________________
9. Any factor that affects phenotype can change allelic frequencies, thereby disrupting the genetic equilib-
genes
rium of populations. __________________
10. Many migrations are caused by factors in the environment, such as radiation or chemicals, but others
mutations
happen by chance. __________________
11. Mutations are important in evolution because they result in genetic changes in the gene pool.
true
__________________
drift
12. Genetic equilibrium is the alteration of allelic frequencies by chance processes. ___________________
small
13. Genetic drift is more likely to occur in large populations. __________________
natural selection
14. The factor that causes the greatest change in gene pools is mutation. __________________
15. The type of natural selection by which one of the extreme forms of a trait is favored is called
directional selection
disruptive selection. ______________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 15 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
67
Name
Date
Chapter
15
The Theory of Evolution, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 15.2 Mechanisms of Evolution,
continued
In your textbook, read about the evolution of species.
Complete each statement.
Speciation
16. ___________________ can occur only when either interbreeding or the production of fertile offspring
is prevented among members of a population.
Reproductive isolation occurs when formerly interbreeding organisms are prevented from
17. ________________________
producing fertile offspring.
18. Polyploid speciation is perhaps the fastest form of speciation because it results in immediate
reproductive isolation .
________________________
19. The hypothesis that species originate through a slow buildup of new adaptations is known as
gradualism
__________________
.
fossil
20. This hypothesis is supported by evidence from the ___________________ record.
punctuated equilibrium
21. The hypothesis of __________________________ states that speciation may occur rapidly.
Answer the following questions.
22. What happened to the ancestor of the honey creeper when it left the mainland and encountered the
diverse niches of Hawaii?
Speciation occurred, with each species adapting to a different food source.
23. What is adaptive radiation?
the process of evolution of an ancestral species into an array of species that
occupy different niches
24. Adaptive radiation is one example of divergent evolution. When does divergent evolution occur?
It occurs when species begin to adapt to different environments and change
according to the pressures of natural selection.
25. When will convergent evolution occur?
when unrelated organisms occupy similar environments and face similar
selection pressures
68
CHAPTER 15 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In your textbook, read about patterns of evolution.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
16
Class
Primate Evolution
Section 16.1 Primate Adaptation and
Evolution
In your textbook, read about the characteristics of a primate.
Complete the chart by checking those structures or functions that are characteristic of primates.
Structure/Function
Primate
1. Round head
✓
2. Flattened face
✓
3. Small head
✓
✓
4. Large relative brain size
5. Highly developed vision
6. Poor vision
7. Binocular vision
✓
8. Color vision
✓
9. Color-blind
✓
10. Vision the dominant sense
11. Smell the dominant sense
12. Immobile joints
✓
✓
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
13. Flexible shoulder joints
14. Skeleton adapted for movement among trees
15. Skeleton adapted for swimming
16. Hands and feet equipped with claws
✓
17. Hands and feet equipped with nails
18. Eyes face to the side
✓
✓
19. Feet constructed for grasping
20. Opposable thumbs
In your textbook, read about primate origins.
For each statement below, write true or false.
false
21. Scientists believe that primates evolved about 66,000 years ago.
____________________
true
____________________
22. The earliest primate may have been a prosimianlike animal called Purgatorius.
false
____________________
23. Anthropoids are a group of small-bodied primates.
true
____________________
24. Prosimians include lemurs and tarsiers.
false
____________________
25. Prosimians can be found in the tropical forests of South America.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 16 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
69
Name
Date
Chapter
16
Primate Evolution, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 16.1 Primate Adaptation
and Evolution, continued
Identify the following pictures. Use these choices: baboon, tarsier, spider monkey. Then on the
second line write the group that is represented by the picture. Use these choices: New World
monkey, Old World monkey, prosimian.
baboon
26. _______________________
spider monkey
27. _______________________
tarsier
28. _______________________
Old World monkey
_______________________
New World monkey
_______________________
prosimian
_______________________
Answer the following questions.
29. What do similarities among monkeys, apes, and humans indicate about their evolution?
30. According to the fossil record, what were the first modern anthropoids to evolve and about when
did they evolve?
New World monkeys; about 30 to 35 million years ago
31. What is the evolutionary history of primates based on?
the fossil record and comparative study of living primates
32. What may have led to the eventual speciation of baboons and other ground-living monkeys?
During the Miocene period, when Old World monkeys evolved, the fossil record
indicates that global temperatures were dropping.
33. What does DNA analysis of modern hominoids suggest about their evolutionary history?
DNA analysis suggest that gibbons were probably the first apes to evolve,
followed by the orangutans, African apes, chimpanzees, and gorillas.
70
CHAPTER 16 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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They may all share a common ancestor.
Name
Date
Chapter
16
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Primate Evolution, continued
Section 16.2 Human Ancestry
In your textbook, read about hominids.
Answer the following questions.
an early hominid that lived in Africa
1. What is an australopithecine? ____________________________________________________________
Australopithecus africanus
2. What fossil skull did Raymond Dart discover in Africa in 1924? _______________________________
It had a foramen
3. Why was A. africanus unlike any primate fossil skull that Dart had ever seen? ____________________
magnum that was located at the bottom of the skull, as in humans.
The organism must have
4. What did the position of the foramen magnum indicate to Dart? _______________________________
walked upright.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Label the following skulls. Use these choices: chimpanzee, human, A. afarensis
A. afarensis
5. ________________________
chimpanzee
6. ________________________
human
7. _______________________
For each statement below, write true or false.
true
____________________
8. Much of what scientists know about australopithecines comes from
the “Lucy”skeleton.
false
____________________
9. “Lucy” is 3.5 billion years old.
false
____________________
10. “Lucy” is classified as A. africanus.
true
____________________
11. A. afarensis is the earliest known hominid species.
false
____________________
12. A. afarensis walked on all four legs and had a humanlike brain.
false
____________________
13. Australopithecines are alive today and can be found in southern Africa
and Asia.
true
____________________
14. Australopithecines probably played a role in the evolution of
modern hominids.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 16 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
71
Name
Date
Chapter
16
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Primate Evolution, continued
Section 16.2 Human Ancestry,
continued
In your textbook, read about the emergence of modern humans.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
15. The first skull of Homo habilis was discovered by
a. Raymond Dart.
b. Louis and Mary Leakey.
c. Donald Johanson.
d. Gert Terblance.
16. When compared to an australopithecine skull, the Homo habilis skull is
a. more humanlike.
b. less humanlike.
c. more apelike.
d. exactly the same.
17. Which of the following is not true about Homo habilis?
a. They existed between 1.5 and
b. They were the first hominids to
2 million years ago.
make and use tools.
c. They were probably scavengers
d. They gave rise to A. africanus.
of their food.
18. Homo habilis means
a. “handy human.”
c. “upright human.”
b. “tool-using human.”
d. “talking human.”
20. Which of the following is not true about Homo erectus?
a. They probably hunted.
b. They were the first hominids to use fire.
c. They may have given rise to hominids
d. They were found only in Africa.
that resemble modern humans.
21. Homo sapiens includes
a. Neanderthals.
b. australopithecines.
c. A. africanus.
d. A. afarensis.
Determine whether each statement below best describes Neanderthals, Cro-Magnons, or both.
Neanderthals
____________________
22. They lived in caves during the ice ages.
Cro-Magnons
23. They are identical to modern humans in height, skull, and teeth structure.
____________________
Neanderthals
24. They may have been the first hominids to develop religious views.
____________________
both
25. They may have used language.
____________________
Cro-Magnons
26. They were talented toolmakers and artists.
____________________
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CHAPTER 16 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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19. Of the primates below, which has the largest brain?
a. Homo habilis
b. Homo erectus
c. an ape
d. an australopithecine
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
17
Class
Organizing Life’s Diversity
Section 17.1 Classification
In your textbook, read about how classification began and about biological classification.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
d
1. Grouping objects or information based on similarities
____________
a. Aristotle
f
____________
2. Naming system that gives each organism a two-word name
b. Linnaeus
a
____________
3. Developed the first system of classification
c. genus
e
____________
4. Branch of biology that groups and names organisms
d. classification
b
____________
5. Designed a system of classifying organisms based on
their physical and structural similarities
e. taxonomy
c
____________
6. Consists of a group of similar species
f. binomial
nomenclature
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
7. The scientific name of a species consists of a family name and a descriptive name.
genus
8. The scientific name of modern humans is Homo sapiens.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
true
9. Latin is the language of scientific names.
true
10. The scientific names of organisms can be misleading.
common
11. Taxonomists try to identify the evolutionary relationships among organisms.
true
12. Besides comparing the structures of organisms, taxonomists also compare the organisms’ geographic
distribution and chemical makeup.
true
13. Similarities between living species and extinct species cannot be used to determine their relationship
to each other.
can
14. Because the bones of some dinosaurs have large internal spaces, some scientists think dinosaurs are
more closely related to amphibians than to reptiles.
birds
15. Classification can be useful in identifying the characteristics of an unknown organism.
true
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 17 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
73
Name
Date
Chapter
17
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Organizing LIfe’s Diversity, continued
Section 17.1 Classification,
continued
In your textbook, read about how living things are classified.
Examine the table showing the classification of four organisms. Then answer the questions.
Taxon
Green Frog
Mountain Lion
Domestic Dog
Human
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Animalia
Chordata
Amphibia
Anura
Ranidae
Rana
Rana clamitans
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Carnivora
Felidae
Felis
Felis concolor
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Carnivora
Canidae
Canis
Canis familiaris
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Primates
Hominidae
Homo
Homo sapiens
species
16. Which taxon includes the most specific characteristics? _______________________________________
kingdom
17. Which taxon includes the broadest characteristics? __________________________________________
order
18. Which taxon includes more species, an order or a family? _____________________________________
species
19. Which taxon includes only organisms that can successfully interbreed? _________________________
20. If two organisms belong to the same family, what other taxonomic groups do the organisms have
in common.
21. Which two organisms in the chart are most closely related? Explain.
The mountain lion and the domestic dog are most closely related because they
belong to more of the same taxa (four) than the other animals do: Kingdom
Animalia; phylum Chordata; class Mammalia; and order Carnivora.
22. To which taxa do all four organisms belong?
phylum Chordata and Kingdom Animalia
Amphibia
23. Which class does not include animals that have hair or fur? ___________________________________
24. What is the order, family, and genus of a human?
order: Primates; family: Hominidae; genus: Homo
25. Using the information in the chart, what can you conclude about the classification taxa of an organism with the scientific name Rana temporaria?
The organism belongs to the genus Rana, family Ranidae, order Anura, class
Amphibia, phylum Chordata, and Kingdom Animalia.
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CHAPTER 17 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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order, class, phylum, and kingdom
Name
Date
Chapter
17
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Organizing LIfe’s Diversity, continued
Section 17.2 The Six Kingdoms
In your textbook, read about how evolutionary relationships are determined.
Explain how scientists use each item below to determine the evolutionary relationships
among organisms.
Structural similarities between groups of organisms suggest
1. structural similarities: ___________________________________________________________________
that the groups evolved from a common ancestor.
Organisms that show different breeding behaviors are of
2. breeding behavior: _____________________________________________________________________
different species.
Similar species that are found in the same isolated
3. geographical distribution: _______________________________________________________________
geographic area probably evolved from the same ancestral species.
Groups of organisms that are closely related to each other
4. chromosome comparisons: ______________________________________________________________
show similarities in the number, structure, and DNA sequence of their chromosomes.
The more closely two groups of organisms are related, the more their
5. biochemistry: _________________________________________________________________________
DNA nucleotide sequences and their proteins are similar.
In your textbook, read about phylogenetic classification: models.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Use the cladogram to answer the questions.
Allosaurus
Robin
Velociraptor
Archaeopteryx
Sinornis
Theropods
Light bones
3-toed foot;
wishbone
Down
feathers
Feathers with
shaft, veins,
and barbs
Flight feathers;
arms as long
as legs
6. What five probable ancestors of the modern bird (robin) are shown on the cladogram?
theropods, Allosaurus, Sinornis, Velociraptor, and Archaeopteryx
7. Which dinosaur is probably the most recent common ancestor of Velociraptor and Archaeopteryx?
Sinornis
8. Which traits shown on the cladogram are shared by Archaeopteryx and modern birds?
light bones, three-toed foot, wishbone, down feathers, and feathers with shafts,
veins, and barbs
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 17 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
75
Name
Date
Chapter
17
Organizing LIfe’s Diversity, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 17.2 The Six Kingdoms,
continued
Use the fanlike phylogenetic diagram to answer the questions.
245 million
years ago
544 million
years ago
544 million
years ago
245 million
years ago
66 million
years ago
9. How does the fanlike diagram differ from a cladogram?
Unlike a cladogram, a fanlike diagram shows when groups of organisms evolved
and the relative number of species in each group.
flowering plants
10. Which group of plants evolved most recently? ______________________________________________
arthropods
11. To which group are starfishes more closely related, arthropods or jellyfishes? ____________________
starfishes
12. Which group of animals includes the fewest species? _________________________________________
more than 544 million years ago
13. About how long ago did plants evolve? ____________________________________________________
In your textbook, read about the six kingdoms of organisms.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
14. Organisms that do not have a nucleus bounded by a membrane are
a. multicellular.
b. eukaryotes.
c. protists.
15. Fungi obtain food by
a. photosynthesis.
c. endocytosis.
16. Animals are
a. autotrophs.
76
d. prokaryotes.
b. chemosynthesis.
d. absorbing nutrients from organic materials.
b. heterotrophs.
CHAPTER 17 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
c. prokaryotes.
d. stationary.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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66 million
years ago
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
BioDigest
5
Class
Change Through Time
In your textbook, read about the Geologic Time Scale.
Complete the table.
Era
Time period
Biologic event
1. Precambrian
4.6 billion–600 million years ago
2. Prokaryotic cells and first
3. Paleozoic
600 million–245 million years ago
4. worms, insects, fishes, and
eukaryotic cells evolved.
Ferns and conifers appeared;
5. Mesozoic
245 million–66 million years ago
7. Cenozoic
66 million years ago–present
reptiles evolved.
6. Reptiles diversified; mammals
and flowering plants evolved.
8. Primates evolved.
In your textbook, read about origin of life theories.
Complete each statement.
nonliving material
9. Spontaneous generation assumes that life arises spontaneously from ___________________________
.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
controlled experiments to disprove spontaneous
10. Francesco Redi and Louis Pasteur designed ___________________________
generation.
biogenesis
11. The theory of ___________________________
states that life comes only from pre-existing life.
protocells
12. Clusters of organic molecules might have formed ___________________________
, which may have
evolved into the first true cells.
Order the evolutionary development of the following organisms from 1 to 4.
2
____________
13. chemosynthetic prokaryotes
1
____________
15. heterotrophic prokaryotes
4
____________
14. eukaryotes
3
____________
16. oxygen-producing photosynthetic prokaryotes
In your textbook, read about the evidence and mechanics of evolution.
Answer the following questions.
Relative dating assumes that in
17. What assumption is made in the relative dating of fossils? _____________________________________
undisturbed layers of rock, the deepest layers contain the oldest fossils.
Homologous structures are similar anatomical struc18. What are homologous structures? ________________________________________________________
tures in different organisms that might indicate possible shared ancestry.
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BIODIGEST 5 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
77
Name
Date
BioDigest
5
Change Through Time, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
For each statement below, write true or false.
false
19. Evolution occurs when a population’s genetic equilibrium remains
____________________
unchanged.
true
____________________
20. Mutations, genetic drift, and migration may disrupt the genetic equilibrium
of populations.
true
____________________
21. Stabilizing selection favors the survival of a population’s average individuals
for a feature.
false
____________________
22. Disruptive selection occurs when an extreme feature is naturally selected.
true
____________________
23. Adaptive radiation occurs when species that once were similar to an ancestral species become increasingly distinct due to natural selection pressures.
In your textbook, read about primate evolution.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column B
d
24. Primate adaptation
____________
a. anthropoids
a
____________
25. Primate category that includes humans and apes
b. Australopithecines
e
____________
26. Characteristic of New World monkeys
c. genus Homo
c
____________
27. Appearing in fossil record about 2 million years ago
along with stone tools
d. opposable thumb
e. prehensile tail
b
____________
28. Possible human ancestors dating from
5 to 8 million years ago
In your textbook, read about organizing life’s diversity.
Look at the taxonomic classification of a bobcat shown below. Answer the questions.
29. What is the largest taxon in this classification system?
kingdom
30. What is the scientific name of a bobcat?
Lynx rufus
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BIODIGEST 5 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
Taxon
Name
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Mammalia
Order
Carnivora
Family
Felidae
Genus
Lynx
Species
rufus
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Column A
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
18
Class
Viruses and Bacteria
Section 18.1 Viruses
In your textbook, read about the characteristics of a virus.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
c
____________
1. Genetic material of a virus
a. virus
e
____________
2. Where a virus attaches to a host cell
b. T4 phage
a
____________
3. Nonliving particle that replicates inside a living cell
c. DNA or RNA
d
____________
4. A virus’s protein coat
d. capsid
h
____________
5. Interlocks with a molecular shape in a host cell’s
plasma membrane
e. receptor site
f
____________
6. Layer that surrounds the capsid of some viruses
b
____________
7. A virus that infects E. coli bacteria
g
____________
8. A cell in which a virus replicates
f. envelope
g. host
h. attachment protein
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In your textbook, read about viral replication cycles.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each statement.
Statement
Lytic Cycle
9. Viral genes are expressed immediately after the virus
infects the host cell.
✓
10. Many new viruses are assembled.
✓
11. This cycle is preceded by a virus entering a host cell.
✓
✓
✓
12. Viral DNA is integrated into the host cell’s chromosome.
13. Viruses are released from the host cell by lysis or exocytosis.
Lysogenic Cycle
✓
14. Reverse transcriptase is used to make DNA from the RNA
of a retrovirus.
✓
15. A provirus is replicated along with the host cell’s
chromosome.
✓
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CHAPTER 18 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
79
Name
Date
Chapter
18
Viruses and Bacteria, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 18.1 Viruses,
continued
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
DNA
white blood cells
lysogenic
lytic
AIDS
proviruses
lysogenic
cycles. For example,
Many disease-causing viruses have both lytic and (16) __________________
white blood cells , the viruses enter a lysogenic cycle. Their genetic
when HIVs infect (17) ______________________
DNA
material becomes incorporated into the (18) __________________
of the white blood cells, forming
proviruses
(19) __________________
. When this happens, the white blood cells still function normally, and the
lytic
person may not appear ill. Eventually, the proviruses enter a (20) __________________
cycle, killing
the white blood cells. As a result, the person loses the ability to fight diseases and develops
AIDS
(21) __________________
.
In your textbook, read about viruses and cancer, plant viruses, and the origin of viruses.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
warts
____________________
23. Retroviruses and the papilloma virus, which causes hepatitis B,
are examples of tumor viruses.
Some
____________________
24. All plant viruses cause diseases in plants.
true
____________________
25. The first virus ever identified was the plant virus called tobacco mosaic virus.
plant
____________________
26. The patterns of color in some flowers are caused by tumor viruses.
true
____________________
27. Tumor viruses contain genes that are found in normal cells.
true
____________________
28. Scientists think viruses originated from their host cells.
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CHAPTER 18 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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true
22. Some viruses can change normal cells to tumor cells.
____________________
Name
Date
Chapter
18
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Viruses and Bacteria, continued
Section 18.2 Archaebacteria and
Eubacteria
In your textbook, read about the diversity of prokaryotes and about the characteristics of bacteria.
Answer the following questions.
oxygen-free environ1. What are three types of environments in which archaebacteria are found? _______________________
ments, concentrated salt water, and hot, acidic water of sulfur springs
from dead or living organic material,
2. In what three ways do eubacteria obtain nutrients? __________________________________________
by photosynthesis, and by chemosynthesis
The cell wall prevents water from entering
3. How does a bacterium’s cell wall protect it? ________________________________________________
the bacterial cell by osmosis and causing it to burst.
on a single circular chromosome and
4. Where is the genetic material of a bacterium found? _________________________________________
sometimes on small circular chromosome pieces called plasmids
flagella
5. What structure do some bacteria use to move? ______________________________________________
6. What is the difference between gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria? _______________
Gram-positive bacteria are purple after gram staining, and gram-negative bacteria
are pink because they have different cell walls. The bacteria also are affected by
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
different antibiotics.
rod, sphere, and spiral
7. What are three different shapes of bacteria? ________________________________________________
8. Describe the three growth patterns of bacteria and state the prefix used to identify each growth pattern.
paired cells: diplo-; cells bunched like grapes: staphylo-; cells arranged in chains:
streptoIdentify the type of bacterial reproduction described. Use these choices: binary fission,
conjugation.
conjugation
____________________
9. Bacterium with a new genetic makeup is produced.
binary fission
____________________
10. Circular chromosome is copied.
conjugation
____________________
11. Genetic material is transferred through a pilus.
binary fission
____________________
12. Two identical cells are produced.
conjugation
____________________
13. Sexual reproduction occurs.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 18 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
81
Name
Date
Chapter
18
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Viruses and Bacteria, continued
Section 18.2 Archaebacteria and
Eubacteria, continued
In your textbook, read about adaptations in bacteria and the importance of bacteria.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
14. Scientists think the first bacteria on Earth were
a. aerobic.
b. anaerobic.
c. fatal.
d. oxygen-dependent.
15. Bacteria that are obligate anaerobes release energy from food by
a. cellular respiration.
b. using oxygen.
c. using nitrogen.
d. fermentation.
16. As an endospore, a bacterium
a. produces toxins.
b. dries out.
c. causes diseases.
d. is protected.
17. Botulism is caused by endospores of C. botulinum that have
a. been killed.
b. produced toxins.
c. germinated.
d. reproduced.
18. Nitrogen is important because all organisms need it to make
a. proteins.
b. ATP.
c. DNA.
19. The process by which bacteria use enzymes to convert nitrogen gas into ammonia is called
a. nitrogenation.
b. atmospheric separation.
c. nitrogen fixation.
d. eutrophication.
20. Bacteria return nutrients to the environment by breaking down
a. dead organic matter.
b. inorganic materials.
c. enzymes and sugar.
d. nitrogen in legumes.
21. Bacteria are not used to make
a. vinegar.
b. jams.
c. cheese.
d. yogurt.
22. Bacteria are responsible for the following diseases:
a. strep throat and tetanus.
b. gonorrhea and syphilis.
c. tuberculosis and diphtheria.
d. all of these.
23. Due to reduced death rates from bacterial diseases and improved sanitation and living conditions,
the average person born in the United States today will live to be about
a. 25 years old.
b. 50 years old.
c. 75 years old.
d. 90 years old.
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CHAPTER 18 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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d. all of these.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
19
Class
Protists
Section 19.1 The World of Protists
In your textbook, read about what a protist is.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
true
1. The kingdom Protista is the most diverse of all six kingdoms. __________________________________
2. Protists can be grouped into three general types—animal-like, plantlike, and viruslike.
animal-like, plantlike, and funguslike
3. All protists are eukaryotes that carry on most of their metabolic processes in membrane-bound
true
organelles. ____________________________________________________________________________
In your textbook, read about the characteristics and diversity of protozoans.
Complete each statement.
animal
4. The __________________________
-like protists are all unicellular heterotrophs known as protozoans.
5. Amoebas move and change their body shape by forming extensions of their plasma membranes called
pseudopodia
__________________________
.
contractile vacuoles to pump out excess water from their cytoplasm.
6. Amoebas use __________________________
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
asexual reproduction in which a parent produces one or more
7. Most amoebas reproduce by __________________________
identical offspring by dividing into two cells.
flagellates
8. One group of protozoans are called __________________________
because they move by whipping
one or more flagella from side to side.
cilia
9. A paramecium moves by beating thousands of hairlike __________________________
.
10. When food supplies are low, paramecia may reproduce by undergoing a form of
conjugation
__________________________
.
sporozoans
11. Parasitic protozoans called __________________________
live inside their hosts and may reproduce
by means of a spore.
Plasmodium
12. Malaria is caused by protozoans of the genus __________________________
.
13. The insect that is responsible for transmitting malaria-causing protozoans to humans is the
mosquito
__________________________
.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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83
Name
Date
Chapter
19
Protists, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 19.2 Algae: Plantlike Protists
In your textbook, read about what algae are and about their diversity.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the item in Column B that completes the
statement correctly.
Column A
Column B
e
____________
d
____________
a. algae
1. The euglenoids, diatoms, and dinoflagellates are
______________ .
b. phyla
2. Unicellular protists that are major producers of
oxygen in aquatic ecosystems are ______________ .
a
____________
3. Unicellular and multicellular photosynthetic protists are
______________ .
d. phytoplankton
f
____________
4. Most green, red, and brown algae are ______________
algae.
c
____________
c. pigments
5. Photosynthetic ______________ are used to classify algae.
e. unicellular
f. multicellular
b
____________
6. Algae are classified into six ______________ .
Euglenophyta
7. Phylum ____________________________
flagellum
11. ___________________________
contractile vacuole
8. ___________________________
eyespot
12. ___________________________
nucleus
9. ______________________
pellicle
13. ___________________________
chloroplast
10. _________________________
84
CHAPTER 19 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
mitochondrion
14. ___________________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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Identify the phylum of the alga shown below and label its parts. Use these choices: flagellum,
mitochondrion, pellicle, chloroplast, nucleus, eyespot, contractile vacuole, Euglenophyta.
Name
Date
Chapter
19
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Protists, continued
Section 19.2 Algae: Plantlike Protists,
continued
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
15. When diatoms that have been reproducing asexually reach about one-fourth of their original
size, they
a. die.
b. triple in size.
c. reproduce sexually.
d. all of these.
16. Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that
a. have two flagella.
c. have thick cellulose plates.
b. create red tides.
d. all of these.
17. Red algae are a kind of seaweed having pigments that absorb green, violet, and blue light waves,
which allows the algae to
a. live only in fresh water.
b. photosynthesize in limited light.
c. live only in salt water.
d. both a and b.
18. The air bladders of brown algae allow the algae to
a. breathe.
b. reproduce.
c. float near the water’s surface.
d. live in salt water.
19. A green alga that forms colonies is
a. Spirogyra.
c. Chlamydomonas.
b. Ulva.
d. Volvox.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In your textbook, read about alternation of generations.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
diploid
gametophyte
alternation of generations
meiosis
haploid
sporophyte
spores
zygote
alternation of generations .
Some algae have a life cycle that has a pattern called (20) _____________________________
haploid
These algae alternate between a(n) (21) ___________________________
form that is called the
gametophyte
(22) ___________________________
because it produces gametes, and a(n)
diploid
sporophyte
(23) ___________________________
form called the (24) ___________________________
. When the
zygote
haploid gametes fuse, they form a(n) (25) ___________________________
from which the sporophyte
meiosis
develops. Certain cells in the sporophyte undergo (26) ___________________________
to form haploid
spores
(27) ___________________________
that develop into gametophytes.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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85
Name
Date
Chapter
19
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Protists, continued
Section 19.3 Slime Molds, Water Molds,
and Downy Mildews
In your textbook, read about the different kinds of funguslike protists.
Use all the terms in the list below at least once to complete the concept map for funguslike protists.
cell division
three phyla
plasmodial slime molds
spores
cellular slime molds
water molds and mildew
flagellated reproductive cells
Funguslike protists
obtain energy by
decomposing organic materials
and can be divided into
three phyla
1. _________________________
plasmodial slime
2. ______________________
cellular slime
3. ______________________
water molds and
4. ______________________
molds
______________________
molds
______________________
mildew
______________________
that reproduce by
that reproduce by
that reproduce by
spores
5. ______________________
cell division
6. ______________________
flagellated repro7. ______________________
______________________
spores
______________________
ductive cells
______________________
In your textbook, read about the origin of protists.
Answer the following question.
8. What does scientific evidence show is the relationship between protists and other groups of organisms?
The scientific evidence is inconclusive as to whether ancient protists were the
evolutionary ancestors of fungi, plants, and animals or whether the different
groups of protists evolved separately.
86
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which are
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
20
Class
Fungi
Section 20.1 What Is a Fungus?
In your textbook, read about the general characteristics of fungi.
Answer the following questions.
1. What are the threadlike filaments in a multicellular fungus called? What do they form?
The threadlike filaments are called hyphae, which branch out to form a mycelium.
2. Some hyphae are divided into individual cells by cross walls with pores in them. What are these cross
walls called? What purpose do the pores serve?
The cross walls are called septa. Cytoplasm and organelles flow through the
pores. The free-flowing cytoplasm quickly moves nutrients to different parts
of the fungus.
3. What is one way that fungi are like plants and one way they are unlike plants?
Like plants, fungi have cell walls, and some fungi anchor themselves in soil.
Fungi are unlike plants because their cell walls are made of chitin instead of
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
cellulose, and they are not autotrophs.
In your textbook, read about adaptations in fungi.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
4. Many fungi are decomposers, which break down organic substances into raw materials that can be used
true
by other organisms. ___________________________
extracellular digestion
5. Fungi use cellular digestion to obtain nutrients. ___________________________
6. Hyphae release digestive enzymes that break down molecules in their food source.
true
___________________________
Saprophytic
7. Mutualistic fungi are decomposers. __________________________
8. Parasitic fungi grow spores into host cells and absorb the cell’s nutrients.
Parasitic fungi grow haustoria
___________________________________
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87
Name
Date
Chapter
20
Fungi, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 20.1 What Is a Fungus?,
continued
In your textbook, read about reproduction in fungi.
Complete each statement.
asexually
9. Fungi reproduce ___________________________
by fragmentation, budding, or producing spores.
fragmentation
10. In ___________________________
, pieces of hyphae grow into new mycelia.
11. The process of a parent cell undergoing mitosis and producing a new individual that pinches off,
budding
matures, and separates from the parent is called ___________________________
.
spore
12. When environmental conditions are right, a ___________________________
may germinate and
hypha
produce a threadlike ___________________________
that will grow into a mycelium.
13. Some hyphae grow away from the mycelium to produce a spore-containing structure called a
sporangium
___________________________
.
sporangia
14. In most fungi, the structures that support ___________________________
are the only part of the
mitosis
meiosis
15. Fungi may produce spores by ___________________________
or ___________________________
.
spores
16. Many adaptations of fungi for survival involve ___________________________
.
Sporangia
17. ___________________________
protect spores and keep them from from drying out until they
are released.
1 trillion
18. A single puffball may produce a cloud containing as many as ___________________________
spores.
survival
19. Producing a large number of spores increases a species’ chances of ___________________________
.
water
wind
20. Fungal spores can be dispersed by ___________________________
, ___________________________
,
animals
and ___________________________
.
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CHAPTER 20 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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fungus that can be seen.
Name
Date
Chapter
20
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Fungi, continued
Section 20.2 The Diversity of Fungi
In your textbook, read about zygomycotes.
Order the steps of growth and reproduction in zygomycotes from 1 to 5.
2
____________
1. Hyphae called rhizoids penetrate the food, anchor the mycelium, and absorb nutrients.
1
____________
2. An asexual spore germinates on a food source and hyphae begin to grow.
5
____________
3. Spores are released and another asexual cycle begins.
3
____________
4. Hyphae called stolons grow across the surface of the food source and form
a mycelium.
4
____________
5. Special hyphae grow upward to form sporangia that are filled with asexual spores.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
yeasts
conidia
multicellular
conidiophores
yeast cells
sac fungi
ascospores
unicellular
vaccine
ascus
sac fungi
because they produce sexual spores,
Ascomycotes are also called (6) ___________________________
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
ascospores
ascus
called (7) ___________________________
, in a saclike structure, called a(n) (8) _____________________
.
During asexual reproduction, ascomycotes produce spores called (9)
conidia
.
These asexual spores are produced in chains or clusters at the tips of structures called
conidiophores
(10) ___________________________
, which are elongated hyphae.
multicellular
ascomycotes that are edible. Yeasts are
Morels and truffles are (11) ___________________________
unicellular
Yeasts
(12) ___________________________
ascomycotes. (13) ___________________________
are used to make
vaccine
beer, wine, and bread. They are also used in genetic research. A(n) (14) ___________________________
yeast cells
for the disease hepatitis B is produced from rapidly growing (15) ___________________________
, which
contain spliced human genes.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 20 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
89
Name
Date
Chapter
20
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Fungi, continued
Section 20.2 The Diversity of Fungi,
continued
In your textbook, read about basidiomycotes.
Answer the following questions about the life of a mushroom.
16. What are basidia and where are they found?
Basidia are spore-producing club-shaped hyphae found on gills, the thin tissues
under the mushroom cap.
17. What happens when mycelia of two different mating strains meet?
Their hyphae fuse and form a mycelium with two nuclei in its cells.
18. What does a mycelium with two nuclei in its cells form?
It forms a button, which develops into a mushroom.
19. What does a diploid cell inside a basidium produce as a result of meiosis?
A diploid cell produces four haploid nuclei, each of which becomes a basidiospore.
In your textbook, read about deuteromycotes, the mutualistic relationships of mycorrhizae and lichens, and
the origins of fungi.
Column A
Column B
d
____________
20. _____________ is an example of a deuteromycote.
a. basidiomycotes
h
____________
21. A mycorrhiza is a mutualistic relationship between a
fungus and a(n) _____________ .
b. mycorrhizae
g
____________
22. _____________ is an antibiotic produced by a
deuteromycote.
c. alga
b
____________
23. Plants that have _____________ associated with their
roots grow larger.
d. Penicillium
f
____________
24. _____________ make up a division of fungi that have
no known sexual stage.
e. pioneer species
c
____________
25. A lichen is a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and
a(n) _____________ or cyanobacterium.
f. deuteromycotes
e
____________
26. Lichens are _____________ in all parts of the world.
a
____________
27. Scientists think that ascomycotes and _____________
evolved from a common ancestor.
90
CHAPTER 20 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
g. penicillin
h. plant
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Write the letter of the item in Column B that best completes each statement in Column A.
Name
Date
BioDigest
6
Viruses, Bacteria, Protists,
and Fungi
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
In your textbook, read about viruses.
Label the parts of a virus.
nucleic acid
1. ___________________________
envelope
2. ___________________________
capsid
3. ___________________________
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Number the following steps of the lytic cycle in the order in which they occur.
3
____________
4. The viral nucleic acid causes the host cell to produce new virus particles.
1
____________
5. A virus attaches to the membrane of a host cell.
4
____________
6. The new virus particles are released from the host cell, killing the cell.
2
____________
7. The viral nucleic acid enters the host cell.
In your textbook, read about bacteria.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
prokaryote
____________________
8. A bacterium is a unicellular eukaryote.
true
____________________
9. Bacteria may be heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, or chemosynthetic
autotrophs.
binary fission
____________________
10. Bacteria reproduce asexually by conjugation.
obligate anaerobes 11. Bacteria that are obligate aerobes are killed by oxygen.
____________________
true
____________________
12. Archaebacteria often live in extreme environments.
nitrogen
____________________
13. Some bacteria fix oxygen.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
BIODIGEST 6 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
91
Name
Date
BioDigest
6
Viruses, Bacteria, Protists,
and Fungi, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
In your textbook, read about protists.
Write the letter of the item in Column B that best matches the item in Column A.
Column B
a
14. Can be unicellular, colonial, or multicellular
____________
a. green algae
b
15. Parasitic protozoans
____________
b. sporozoans
f
16. Causes malaria
____________
c. amoeba
g
17. Can be both autotrophic and heterotrophic
____________
d. slime mold
d
18. Funguslike protist
____________
e. brown algae
h
19. Uses cilia to move
____________
f. Plasmodium
j
20. Contain carotenoids
____________
g. euglenas
i
21. Have hard, armorlike plates
____________
h. Paramecium
e
22. Kelps
____________
i. dinoflagellates
c
23. Uses pseudopodia to move
____________
j. diatoms
k
24. Have red and blue pigments
____________
k. red algae
In your textbook, read about fungi.
Answer the following questions.
Fungi secrete enzymes into a food
25. How do fungi obtain nutrients from a food source? __________________________________________
source and then absorb the digested nutrients.
26. How do fungi play a role in recycling nutrients on Earth? ____________________________________
Fungi decompose organic material.
Hyphae are the structural units of fungi.
27. What are hyphae? _____________________________________________________________________
basidium
28. In what structure do club fungi produce sexual spores? _______________________________________
ascus
29. In what structure do sac fungi produce sexual spores? ________________________________________
The plants benefit because the
30. How do mycorrhizae benefit both the plants and the fungi? ___________________________________
fungi that are entwined with their roots provide more surface area, thereby allowing the roots to absorb more water and minerals. The fungi benefit by absorbing
nutrients from the plants’ root cells.
A lichen is a symbiotic association of a mutualistic fungus and an
31. What is a lichen? ______________________________________________________________________
alga or cyanobacterium.
92
BIODIGEST 6 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Column A
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
21
Class
What Is a Plant?
Section 21.1 Adapting to Life on Land
In your textbook, read about the origins and adaptations of plants.
For each answer given below, write an appropriate question.
1.
Answer: Multicellular eukaryotes having thick cell walls made of cellulose, a protective, waterproof
covering, and that can produce its own food in the form of glucose through photosynthesis
are plants?
Question: What
___________________________________________________________________________
2.
Answer: The earliest known plant fossils
are psilophytes?
Question: What
___________________________________________________________________________
3.
Answer: Protective, waxy layers that cover most fruits, leaves, and stems
are cuticles?
Question: What
___________________________________________________________________________
4.
Answer: The organ of a plant that traps light energy for photosynthesis, and is supported by a stem
is a leaf?
Question: What
___________________________________________________________________________
5.
Answer: The organ that works like an anchor, transports nutrients, and absorbs water and minerals
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
is a root?
Question: What
___________________________________________________________________________
In your textbook, read about alternation of generations.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
diploid
generations
meiosis
gametes
haploid
sporophyte
generations
. The
The lives of all plants consist of two alternating stages, or (6) ___________________________
gametes
gametophyte generation of a plant is responsible for the development of (7) ______________________
.
haploid
All seeds of the gametophyte, including the gametes, are (8) ________________________________
. The
sporophyte
(9) ___________________________
generation is responsible for the production of spores. All cells of the
diploid
sporophyte are (10) __________________________
. The spores are produced by the sporophyte plant
meiosis
body by (11) __________________________
and are, therefore, haploid.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 21 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
93
Name
Date
Chapter
21
What Is a Plant?, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 21.1 Adapting to Life on Land,
continued
In your textbook, read about the origin and adaptations of plants.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
12. The lives of _________ plants include two generations that alternate.
a. non-seed producing
b. seed
c. all
d. most
13. The generation of a plant responsible for producing gametes is the
a. alternation of generations.
b. gametophyte generation.
c. sporophyte generation.
d. seed-producing generation.
14. All gametophyte spores are _________ and all sporophyte tissue cells are _________ .
a. haploid/diploid.
b. diploid/haploid.
c. haploid/haploid.
d. diploid/diploid.
15. Non-seed plants _________ that grow into gametophytes.
a. release spores into the environment
b. retain spores in the parent plant
c. release seeds into the environment
d. retain seeds in the parent plant
16. What is the difference between vascular and nonvascular plants?
Vascular plants have long, tubelike cells that form tissues that transport food,
water, and other materials. Nonvascular plants have thin tissues that allow nutrients and water to travel from one cell to another by osmosis and diffusion.
17. Some land plants produce seeds. What is their function? How do they differ from spores?
Seeds and spores protect the embryos and haploid cells and keep them from drying out. Seeds have an embryo with a food supply and are covered with a protective coat. Spores have a single haploid cell with a hard protective covering.
18. How do algae and land plants get nutrients?
Algae live in water and absorb dissolved nutrients directly into its cells. Most land
plants absorb nutrients from the soil, using only the portions of the plant in the
soil.
94
CHAPTER 21 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Answer the following questions.
Name
Date
Chapter
21
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
What Is a Plant?, continued
Section 21.2 Survey of the Plant Kingdom
In your textbook, read about non-seed plants.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
c
1. Leaves that are found on ferns
_________
a. leafy liverworts
e
_________
2. Scaly structures that support male
or female reproductive structures
b. thallose liverworts
b
_________
3. Plants with a broad, flattened body
that resembles a lobed leaf
c. fronds
a
_________
4. Plants with three flattened rows
of thin leaves
d. hornworts
d
_________
5. Nonvascular plants that grow in
damp, shady habitats and whose
sporophytes resemble horns
e. cones
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Complete the chart below by marking the appropriate columns for each division of plants.
Nonvascular
Non-seed
Plants
6. Hepatophyta
✓
✓
7. Anthocerophyta
✓
✓
8. Bryophyta
✓
✓
Division
Vascular
Seeds in
Fruits
Seeds in
Cones
9. Psilophyta
✓
✓
10. Lycophyta
✓
✓
11. Sphenophyta
✓
✓
12. Pterophyta
✓
✓
13. Cycadophyta
✓
✓
14. Gnetophyta
✓
✓
15. Ginkgophyta
✓
✓
16. Coniferophyta
✓
✓
17. Anthophyta
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
✓
CHAPTER 21 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
95
Name
Date
Chapter
21
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
What Is a Plant?, continued
Section 21.2 Survey of the Plant Kingdom,
continued
In your textbook, read about non-seed plants.
For each answer given below, write an appropriate question.
18.
Answer: Vascular plants that have neither roots nor leaves
What are plants of the Psilophyta division, or whisk ferns?
Question: ___________________________________________________________________________
19.
Answer: Vascular plants that have hollow, jointed stems surrounded by whorls of scalelike leaves,
whose cells contain large deposits of silica
What are plants of the Sphenophyta division, or horsetails?
Question: ___________________________________________________________________________
20.
Answer: Plants that may be the ancestors of all plants
What are plants of the Hepatophyta division, or liverworts?
Question: ___________________________________________________________________________
21.
Answer: Hard-walled reproductive cells found in non-seed plants
What are spores?
Question: ___________________________________________________________________________
22.
Answer: Nonvascular plants that rely on osmosis and diffusion to transport water and nutrients,
although some members have elongated cells that conduct water and sugars
In your textbook, read about seed plants.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
Anthophyta
Cycadophyta
Coniferophyta
Ginkgophyta
Gnetophyta
Cycadophyta division are
Seed plants are classified into five divisions. Plants from the (23) __________________
palmlike trees with scaly trunks and are often mistaken for ferns or small palm trees. There is only one
Ginkophyta
Anthophyta
living species in the (24) __________________
division. The members of the (25) ___________________
division are the largest, most diverse group of seed plant on Earth and are commonly known as the flow-
Gnetophyta
ering plants. Three distinct genera make up the plant division called (26) ___________________
. Species
Coniferophyta division can be identified by the characteristics of their needlelike or
of the (27) ___________________
scaly leaves.
96
CHAPTER 21 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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What are plants of the Bryophyta division, or mosses?
Question: ___________________________________________________________________________
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
22
Class
The Diversity of Plants
Section 22.1 Nonvascular Plants
In your textbook, read about nonvascular plants—bryophyta, hepatophyta, and anthocerophyta.
Complete each statement.
water
1. Nonvascular plants are successful in habitats with adequate __________________
.
gametophyte generation is dominant in nonvascular plants.
2. The __________________
antheridia
3. Sperm are produced in male reproductive structures called __________________
, and eggs are
archegonia
produced in female reproductive structures called __________________
.
rhizoids
4. Mosses have colorless multicellular structures called __________________
, which help anchor the
stem to the soil.
an oily or a shiny surface that helps reduce evaporation of water from the
5. Most liverworts have ___________________________
plant’s tissues.
thallose
6. Liverworts occur in many environments and include two groups: the __________________
liverworts
leafy
and the __________________
liverworts.
single chloroplast
7. One unique feature of hornworts is the presence of a(n) ___________________________
in each cell.
8. The common names for the nonvascular plants, Bryophyta, Hepatophyta, and Anthocerophyta are
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
liverworts
mosses
hornworts
__________________
, __________________
, and __________________
.
Circle the letter of the response that best completes the statement.
9. Nonvascular plants are not as common or as widespread as vascular plants because
a. nonvascular plants are small.
b. the life functions of nonvascular plants require a close association with water.
c. nonvascular plants are limited to dry habitats.
d. none of the above.
10. The life cycle of nonvascular plants includes an alternation of generations between a
a. diploid sporophyte and a diploid gametophyte.
b. haploid sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte.
c. diploid sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte.
d. haploid sporophyte and a diploid gametophyte.
11. Fossil and genetic evidence suggests that the first land plants were
a. mosses.
c. liverworts.
b. sphagnum moss.
d. hornworts.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 22 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
97
Name
Date
Chapter
22
The Diversity of Plants, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 22.2 Non-Seed Vascular Plants
In your textbook, read about the alternation of generations of non-seed vascular plants and lycophyta.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
antheridia
leaves
sporophyte
archegonia
prothallus
strobilus
egg
reproductive cells
zygote
fertilization
sperm
sporophyte
is the dominant generation
Unlike nonvascular plants, the spore-producing (1) __________________
leaves
in vascular plants. A major advance in vascular plants was the adaptation of (2) __________________
to
reproductive cells . In some non-seed vascular
form structures that protect the developing (3) _____________________
strobilus
plants, spore-bearing leaves form a compact cluster called a(n) (4) __________________.
Spores are
released from this compact cluster. These spores then grow to form the gametophyte, called a(n)
prothallus
(5) __________________
. This structure is relatively small and lives in or on soil. The prothallus then
antheridia
archegonia
, male reproductive structures, and (7) __________________
, female
Sperm
reproductive structures. (8) __________________
are released from the antheridium and swim through a
egg
Fertilization
film of water to the (9) __________________
in the archegonium. (10) __________________
occurs and
zygote
a large, dominant sporophyte plant develops from the fertilized (11) __________________
.
For each statement below, write true or false.
false
___________
12. The leafy stems of lycophytes resemble clubs, and their reproductive structures are
moss shaped.
true
___________
13. The leaves of lycophytes occur as pairs, whorls, or spirals along the stem.
false
___________
14. Lycophytes are simple vascular plants with creeping leaves.
true
___________
15. The club moss is commonly called ground pine because it is evergreen and resembles
a miniature pine tree.
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CHAPTER 22 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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forms (6)
Name
Date
Chapter
22
The Diversity of Plants, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 22.2 Non-Seed Vascular Plants,
continued
In your textbook, read about sphenophyta and pterophyta.
Complete each statement.
leaves
16. The hollow-stemmed horsetail appears to be jointed with scalelike __________________
surrounding
each joint.
sporophyte
17. The most recognized generation of ferns is the __________________
generation.
gametophyte in most ferns is a thin, flat structure.
18. The __________________
rhizome
19. In most ferns, the main stem, called a __________________
, is underground. It contains many
storage
starch-filled cells for __________________
.
fronds
20. The leaves of a fern are called __________________
and grow upward from the rhizome.
pinnae
21. Fronds are often divided into leaflets called __________________
, which are attached to a
central stipe.
veins
22. Ferns were the first vascular plants to evolve leaves with branching __________________
of
vascular tissue.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
23. The common names for the seedless vascular plants, Lycophyta, Sphenophyta, and Pterophyta are
club or spike mosses , _________________________
horsetails
ferns
_________________________
, and _________________________
.
Answer the following questions on the lines provided.
24. Why are sphenophytes, or horsetails, sometimes referred to as scouring rushes?
Sphenophytes are called scouring rushes because they contain silica, an abrasive
substance, and were once used to scour cooking utensils.
25. Why might you be more familiar with ferns than with club mosses and horsetails?
Ferns evolved into many more species and are more abundant. Also, ferns can be
found in many types of environments.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 22 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
99
Name
Date
Chapter
22
The Diversity of Plants, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 22.3 Seed Plants
In your textbook, read about the seed plants—cycadophyta, gingkophyta, gnetophyta, coniferophyta,
and anthophyta.
Complete each statement.
embryo
1. An __________________
, or young diploid sporophyte, has food-storage organs called
cotyledons
__________________
, which develop into leaves.
seeds
gymnosperms .
2. Vascular plants that produce __________________
in cones are sometimes called _________________
water
fertilization
3. Seed plants do not require __________________
for __________________
.
pollen grain
4. The male gametophyte develops inside a structure called a(n) __________________
that includes
sperm cells, nutrients, and a protective outer covering.
5. The female gametophyte, which produces the egg cell, is contained within a sporophyte structure
ovule
called a(n) __________________
.
two years
6. Biennials develop large storage roots and live for __________________
.
several years .
7. Perennials produce flowers and seeds periodically for __________________
Monocotyledons have one seed leaf; __________________
dicotyledons have two seed leaves.
9. __________________
For each statement below, write true or false.
false
___________
10. Cycads are related to palm trees but their leaves unfurl like fern fronds.
true
___________
11. There is only one species of ginkgo tree alive today.
true
___________
12. Most gnetophytes today are found in the deserts or mountains of Africa, Asia, North
America, and Central or South America.
false
___________
13. Most conifers are evergreen plants that lose their needlelike leaves all at once and only
grow in nutrient-rich soil.
true
___________
14. Dropping leaves is an adaptation in deciduous plants to reduce water loss when it is
less available during winter.
true
___________
15. Anthophytes are unique in that they are the only division of plants that produce fruits.
100
CHAPTER 22 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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one year or less .
8. Annual plants live for __________________
Name
Date
Chapter
23
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Plant Structure and
Function
Section 23.1 Plant Cells and Tissues
In your textbook, read about plant cells and tissues.
Match the definitions in Column 1 with the terms in describes from Column 2. Place the letter
from Column 2 in the spaces under Column 1.
Column 2
Column 1
h
_________
b
_________
j
_________
e
_________
l
_________
a. apical meristem
2. Long cells with unevenly thickened cell walls. This type of
cell wall allows the cells to grow.
b. collenchyma
3. Cells with walls that are very thick and rigid. At maturity,
these cells often die, leaving the cell walls to provide support for the plant.
4. Dermal tissue that is composed of flattened parenchyma
cells that cover all parts of the plant
5. Openings in the cuticle of the leaf that control the
exchange of gases
f
_________
6. Cells that control the opening and closing of the stomata.
n
_________
7. Hairlike projections that extend from the epidermis
q
_________
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. The most abundant kind of plant cells
m
_________
8. Plant tissue composed of tubular cells that transports
water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant
9. Tubular cells, with tapered ends, which transport water
throughout a plant
c. companion cell
d. cork cambium
e. epidermis
f. guard cells
g. meristem
h. parenchyma
i. phloem
d
10. Lateral meristem that produces a tough covering for the
_________
surface of stems and roots
j. sclerenchyma
i
11. Vascular tissue that transport sugars from the leaves to all
_________
parts of the plant
k. sieve tube member
k
12. Long, cylindrical phloem cells through which sugars and
_________
organic compounds flow
c
13. Nucleated cells that help manage the transport of sugars
_________
and other organic compounds through the sieve cells of
the phloem
g
_________
14. Areas where new cells are produced
m. tracheids
n. trichomes
o. vascular cambium
a
15. Growth tissue found at or near the tips of roots and stems
_________
p
16. Tubular cells that transport water throughout the plant.
_________
These cells are wider and shorter than tracheids.
o
17. Lateral meristem that produces new xylem and phloem
_________
cells in the stems and roots
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
l. stomata
p. vessel element
q. xylem
CHAPTER 23 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
101
Name
Date
Chapter
23
Plant Structure and Function, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 23.2 Roots, Stems, and Leaves
In your textbook, read about roots and stems.
Label the parts of the dicot root. Use these choices:
cortex
phloem
epidermis
endodermis
xylem
Dicot Root
epidermis
1. __________________________
endodermis
2. __________________________
phloem
3. __________________________
xylem
4. __________________________
For each statement below, write true or false.
true
___________
true
___________
false
___________
true
___________
6. A root hair is a small extension of an epidermal, or outermost, cell layer of a dicot root.
7. Layers of parenchyma cells make up the cortex of a dicot root and the central pith of a
monocot root.
8. Outside the endodermis is a tissue called the pericycle that develops vertical roots.
9. Vascular cambium cells found at the center of a root grow more xylem and phloem
cells that increase the size of the root.
false
___________
10. Behind the root tip are cell-producing growth tissues called the root cap.
false
___________
11. The difference between roots and stems lies in the way they transport water.
true
___________
12. Primary growth in a stem occurs in the apical meristem.
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cortex
5. __________________________
Name
Date
Chapter
23
Plant Structure and Function, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 23.2 Roots, Stems, and Leaves,
continued
In your textbook, read about stems and leaves.
Circle the letter of the response that best completes the statement.
13. Many wildflowers with soft, green stems are plants that have
a. woody stems.
b. herbaceous stems.
c. woody roots.
d. all of the above.
14. The functions of a plant’s stem include
a. transporting sugar.
c. transporting water and minerals.
b. supporting the plant.
d. all of the above.
15. Any portion of the plant that stores sugars is called a
a. petiole.
b. mesophyll.
c. root cap.
d. sink.
16. The movement of sugars from the leaves through the phloem is called
a. photosynthesis.
b. transpiration.
c. translocation.
d. food storage.
In your textbook, read about the leaves of a plant.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
stomata
extend
cuticle
transpiration
epidermis
veins
stem
petiole
photosynthesis
mesophyll
stem
,
There are many parts to a leaf. Grass leaves grow right out of the (17) _________________________
petiole
but other leaves are connected to the stem by a stalk called the (18) _________________________
.
extend
The petiole is made of vascular tissues that (19) ___________________________
up into the leaf to form
veins
(20) ___________________________
.
cuticle
that covers the epidermis.
The outer surface of a leaf has a (21) ___________________________
Inside the epidermis are two layers of photosynthetic cells that make up the
mesophyll
(22) ___________________________
. Cells in the palisade layer have many chloroplasts and
photosynthesis
carry out most of the leaf’s (23) ___________________________
. Leaves have a(n)
epidermis
stomata
(24) ___________________________
with a waxy cuticle and (25) ___________________________
help
transpiration
prevent water loss. The loss of water through the stomata is called (26) ___________________________
.
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Name
Date
Chapter
23
Plant Structure and Function, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 23.3 Plant Responses
In your textbook, read about plant hormones and plant responses.
Complete each statement.
hormone
1. A ___________________________
is a chemical that is produced in one part of an organism and
transported to another part, where it causes a physiological change.
auxins
2. The group of plant hormones called ___________________________
promote cell elongation.
Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is an example of this group of hormones.
3. The group of growth hormones that cause plants to grow taller because, like auxins, they stimulate
gibberellins
cell elongation, are called ___________________________
.
cytokinins
4. The hormones called ___________________________
are so named because they stimulate cell
division by stimulating the production of proteins needed for mitosis.
ethylene
5. The plant hormone called ___________________________
is a simple, gaseous compound composed
of carbon and hydrogen that speeds the ripening of fruits.
6. A plant’s response to an external stimulus that comes from a particular direction is
tropism
called a ___________________________
.
nastic movement
stimulus is called a ___________________________
.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
8. A large amount of hormone is needed to make physiological changes in a plant.
small
9. If gibberellins are applied to the tip of a dwarf plant, it will grow taller.
true
10. The growth of a plant towards light is caused by an unequal distribution of ethylene in the plant’s stem.
auxin
11. If a tropism is negative, the plant grows toward the stimulus.
positive
12. The growth of a plant toward light is called phototropism.
true
13. Gravitropism is the direction of plant growth in response to gravity.
true
14. A plant’s response to touch is called cytokinin.
thigmotropism
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7. A responsive movement of a plant that is not dependent on the direction of the
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
24
Class
Reproduction in Plants
Section 24.1 Life Cycles of Mosses,
Ferns, and Conifers
In your textbook, read about alternation of generations and the life cycles of mosses and ferns.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements.
diploid
meiosis
sporophyte
dominant
mitosis
vegetative reproduction
egg
protonema
gametophyte
sperm
gametophyte
1. The two phases of the plant life are the __________________________
stage and
sporophyte
the __________________________
stage.
diploid
2. The cells of the sporophyte are all __________________________
.
egg
sperm
3. The female gamete is the __________________
, and the male gamete is the _________________
.
vegetative reproduction , in which a new
4. Some plants reproduce asexually by a process called ___________________________
plant is produced from an existing vegetative structure.
5. Mosses belong to one of the few plant divisions in which the gametophyte plant is the
dominant
__________________________
generation.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. A small, green filament of moss cells that develops into either a male or female moss gametophyte is
protonema
known as a(n) __________________________
.
mitosis
7. The moss diploid zygote divides by __________________________
to form a new sporophyte in the
form of a stalk and capsule.
meiosis
8. Spores are produced by __________________________
in the capsule of the moss sporophyte.
Number each description to order the stages from spore release of the life cycle
of a fern, from 1 to 7.
2
___________
9. A spore germinates and grows into a heart-shaped gametophyte called a prothallus.
4
10. After fertilization, the diploid zygote grows into a sporophyte.
___________
5
___________
11. As the sporophyte grows, roots and fronds grow out from the rhizome.
3
12. Sperm swim through a film of water on the prothallus to reach and fertilize an egg in
___________
the archegonium.
7
___________
13. In each sporangium, spores are produced by meiosis, and the cycle begins again as the
spores are dispersed by the wind.
6
___________
14. Sori, or clusters of sporangia, grow on the pinnae.
1
15. A sporangium bursts, releasing haploid spores.
___________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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Name
Date
Chapter
24
Reproduction in Plants, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 24.1 Life Cycles of Mosses,
Ferns, and Conifers, continued
In your textbook, read about the life cycle of conifers.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the dominant stage in conifers?
The dominant stage in conifers is the sporophyte stage.
2. What does the adult conifer produce on its branches?
Adult conifers produce male and female cones on separate branches of the tree.
3. What is a megaspore?
A megaspore is a female spore that eventually becomes the female gametophyte.
4. What are microspores and how are they produced?
Microspores are male spores. The male cones have sporangia that undergo meiosis
to produces microspores.
5. What do the microspores develop into?
Microspores develop into male gametophytes, or pollen grains.
A micropyle is the opening of the ovule.
7. How does fertilization take place?
As the pollen grain matures, it produces a pollen tube that grows through the
micropyle and into the ovule. A sperm cell from the male gametophyte is transported by the pollen tube to the egg, where fertilization takes place.
8. After fertilization, a zygote develops inside the ovule into an embryo with several cotyledons. What
happens to the ovule?
The ovule provides the seed coat as the mature seed is produced.
9. What happens to the seeds when the female cone opens and falls to the ground?
When conditions are favorable, the seed germinates into a new, young
sporophyte—a conifer seedling.
10. What will the seedling become?
The seedling will become an adult conifer sporophyte.
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6. What is a micropyle?
Name
Date
Chapter
24
Reproduction in Plants, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 24.2 Flowers and Flowering
In your textbook, read about the structure of a flower.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
1. In flowering plants, sexual reproduction takes place in the seed, which has several parts.
flower
2. The structure of a flower includes four kinds of organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and ovaries.
sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils
3. Petals are usually colorful, leaflike structures that encircle the flower stem.
true
4. The male reproductive structure located inside the petals of a flower is a stamen. Sperm-containing
pollen is produced in the anther at the tip of the stamen.
true/true
5. The female reproductive structure at the center of a flower is the ovary. Eggs are formed in the pistil,
which is located in the bottom portion of the ovary.
pistil/ovary/pistil
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Label the parts of the flower. Use these choices:
sepal
petal
stigma
anther
ovary
filament
ovule
stigma
6. _________________
petal
8. _________________
anther
7. _________________
filament
9. _________________
ovary
10. _________________
ovule
11. _________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
sepal
12. _________________
CHAPTER 24 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
107
Name
Date
Chapter
24
Reproduction in Plants, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 24.3 The Life Cycle of a
Flowering Plant
In your textbook, read about the life cycle of a flowering plant.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item from Column B.
Column A
f
_________
b
_________
c
_________
a
_________
d
_________
g
_________
e
_________
Column B
1. Two nuclei in one cell at the center of the embryo sac
a. dormancy
2. A process in which one sperm fertilizes the egg and the
other sperm joins with the central cell
b. double fertilization
3. Food-storing tissue that develops from the triploid central
cell and supports the development of the embryo
c. endosperm
4. A period of inactivity in which seeds of some plant species
remain until conditions are favorable for growth and
development
d. germination
e. hypocotyl
5. The beginning of the development of the embryo into a
new plant
f. polar nuclei
6. This embryonic root is the first part of the embryo to
appear from the seed
g. radicle
7. The portion of the stem near the seed
8. How do anthophytes attract animal pollinators?
Some plants produce nectar as a food source. Some plants have bright, attractive
flowers. Some flowers have a strong scent, and others have structural adaptations
to attract animals (for example, some orchids resemble female wasps).
9. How do seeds form after fertilization takes place?
After fertilization, most flower parts die and seeds begin to develop. The wall of
the ovule becomes the hard seed coat and inside the ovule, the zygote divides and
grows into the plant embryo. The triploid central cell develops into the endosperm.
10. Name three ways seeds are dispersed.
Accept any three of the following methods: Animals may eat the fruit containing
seeds; they may spit the seeds out or the seeds may pass through their digestive
systems. Some seeds have air pockets in their walls that enable them to float
away on water. Still other tiny seeds are easily blown about by the wind or
become attached to animal fur.
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Answer the following questions.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
BioDigest
7
Class
Plants
In your textbook, read about plants.
Study the following diagram of alternation of generations in plants. Then answer the questions.
Sporophyte
diploid plant
(2n)
undergoes
meiosis
produces
spores (n)
which do
not require
fertilization to
produce a
Gametophyte
haploid plant
(n)
undergoes
mitosis
produces
gametes (n)
which require
fertilization to
produce a
Sporophyte
. . . and so on
diploid (2n)
1. Is the sporophyte generation a haploid or diploid generation? _________________________________
haploid (n)
2. Is the gametophyte generation a haploid or diploid generation? ________________________________
haploid (n)
3. Is a spore haploid or diploid? ____________________________________________________________
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
haploid (n)
4. Is a gamete haploid or diploid? ___________________________________________________________
yes
5. Does a spore produce a gametophyte without fertilization? ___________________________________
no
6. Does a gamete produce a sporophyte without fertilization? ___________________________________
7. Which generation—sporophyte or gametophyte—produces a generation that is diploid?
gametophyte
Seed Plants
Explain how these adaptations enable conifers to survive in cold or dry climates.
compact shape, thick waxy covering that helps reduce evaporation and
8. Needles _______________________________________________________________________________
conserve water
thick layer of bark that insulates the tissue inside
9. Stems ________________________________________________________________________________
bend under weight of snow and ice, allowing buildup to
10. Flexible leaves and branches _______________________________________________________________
slide off before it becomes heavy enough to break the branch
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
BIODIGEST 7 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
109
Name
Date
BioDigest
7
Plants, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Flowering Plants
Fill in the following blanks to explain the function of a flower.
pistil
11. A flower has two major reproductive structures. The __________________________
is the
female
__________________________
reproductive organ. At the base of the pistil is the
ovary
gametophyte
__________________________
, which houses ovules, the female ___________________________
egg cells
generation of the plant. In each ovule, female gametes, or __________________________
, form.
stamen
male
12. The __________________________
and anther form the ___________________________
reproductive
gametophyte
pollen
organ. The male _________________________
generation of the plant is ________________________
.
Within it, the male gametes are formed.
pollen tube
13. When pollination occurs, a ___________________________
extends from the pollen grain to the
sperm
ovary, and two ___________________________
travel down the tube to fertilize the eggs in the ovule.
14. Some flowers are colorful and showy. Others are small and inconspicuous. Explain how these two
flower types are adapted to different pollinators.
Flowers that are colorful attract birds, insects, or other animals that are in search
grasses are pollinated by the wind.
15. Discuss three ways that seeds may be spread through the environment.
Students can choose from four methods: seeds can be dispersed by the wind,
a. ___________________________________________________________________________________
eaten and dropped by animals, floated away on water, or carried by animals
b. ___________________________________________________________________________________
because of tiny hooks or barbs that catch upon the animals’ fur.
c. ___________________________________________________________________________________
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BIODIGEST 7 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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of nectar or pollen. Flowers that lack petals such as those in tree catkins and
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
25
Class
What Is an Animal?
Section 25.1 Typical Animal
Characteristics
In your textbook, read about the characteristics of animals.
Answer the following questions.
1. You have just discovered a new organism that you think is an animal. In order to be classified as an
animal, what characteristics must it have?
It must be multicellular, heterotrophic (feed on other organisms), and its cells must
lack cell walls.
2. What is one important factor that influences how an animal obtains its food?
its ability to move
3. How might an animal be free-moving at one stage in its life and sessile at another? Give an example.
Animals such as sponges, corals, and barnacles are sessile as adults, but they
develop from free-swimming larvae.
4. How do sessile, aquatic animals get their food?
They rely on water currents to bring food to them.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
If the animal described below is a sessile organism, write yes. If it is not, write no.
yes
5. Barnacles attached to a ship’s hull
_____________________
no
_____________________
6. A spider lying in wait in the center of its web
no
_____________________
7. Coral larvae drifting in a tropical ocean
yes
_____________________
8. Sponges growing on the outside of a crab’s shell
Complete each statement.
cells
individual
9. Digestion in a sponge takes place in __________________
__________________
, while digestion in a
internal
cavity
more complex animal like a tiger takes place in a(n) __________________
__________________
.
fat
10. Some of the food you had for breakfast has been stored as __________________
or
glycogen
__________________
, ready to be used if it’s a long time until your next meal.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 25 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
111
Name
Date
Chapter
25
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
What Is an Animal?, continued
Section 25.1 Typical Animal
Characteristics, continued
In your textbook, read about the development of animals.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
zygote
11. Most animals develop from a single, fertilized egg called a blastula. _____________________________
true
12. A zygote divides by a process known as cleavage. _____________________________________________
a hollow ball formed by a single layer of cells
13. The blastula is a solid ball of cells. __________________________________________________________
surrounding a fluid-filled space
Label the parts of the gastrula shown here. Use these choices:
endoderm
mesoderm
opening in gastrula
endoderm
mesoderm
14. ____________________
15. ____________________
opening in gastrula
16. _____________________
ectoderm
17. ____________________
Complete the chart by checking the correct column for each description.
Description
Endoderm
18. Gives rise to digestive tract
✓
19. Continues to grow and divide
✓
20. Lines the inner surface of gastrula
✓
Ectoderm
✓
23. Forms from cells that break off endoderm
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CHAPTER 25 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
✓
✓
21. Gives rise to muscles
22. Develops into skin and nervous tissue
Mesoderm
✓
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
ectoderm
Name
Date
Chapter
25
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
What Is an Animal?, continued
Section 25.2 Body Plans and
Adaptations
In your textbook, read about kinds of symmetry in animals.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Different kinds of symmetry make it possible for animals to
a. grow very large.
b. survive when cut into pieces.
c. move and find food in different ways. d. live a long time.
2. The irregularly shaped body of a sponge is an example of
a. asymmetry.
b. gastrulation.
c. symmetry.
d. balance.
3. A sponge’s body has how many layers of cells?
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
4. The embryonic development of a sponge does not include which of the following?
a. formation of endoderm
b. formation of mesoderm
c. a gastrula stage
d. a, b, and c
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. If you divided a radially symmetrical animal along any plane through its central axis, you would end
up with
a. roughly equal halves.
b. front and back halves.
c. top and bottom halves.
d. three pieces.
6. Which of the following animals is not radially symmetrical?
a. a hydra
b. a sea urchin
c. a spider
d. a starfish
7. An organism with bilateral symmetry can be divided lengthwise into right and left halves that are
a. asymmetrical.
b. mirror images of each other.
c. made up of two cell layers.
d. flattened.
Identify each of the following body parts as being either dorsal or ventral on the animal’s body.
ventral
____________________
8. the navel of a killer whale
dorsal
____________________
9. the sail fin on an iguana
dorsal
____________________
10. the back of your neck
ventral
____________________
11. the mouth of a shark
ventral
____________________
12. the pouch of a kangaroo
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 25 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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Name
Date
Chapter
25
What Is an Animal?, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 25.2 Body Plans and
Adaptations, continued
In your textbook, read about bilateral symmetry and body plans.
Answer the following questions.
13. In what ways was the development of a body cavity, or coelom, an advantage for bilaterally
symmetrical animals?
provided space for complex internal organs; made it possible for animals to grow
larger and to move and feed more efficiently
14. Describe an acoelomate animal’s body plan.
Acoelomate animals have three cell layers with a digestive tract but no
body cavity.
15. How do nutrients get to the cells in a flatworm’s solid, acoelomate body?
by diffusion
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
coelom
completely
double
mesoderm
partly
pseudocoelom
internal organs
mesoderm
coelom
lined with (18) __________________
. Coelomate animals have a (19) __________________
, a body
completely
cavity that is (20) __________________
surrounded by mesoderm and in which complex
internal organs are suspended by (22) __________________
double
(21) __________________
layers of mesoderm tissue.
In your textbook, read about animal protection and support.
For each statement below, write true or false.
false
23. During the course of evolution, animal body plans have decreased in
____________________
complexity.
true
24. An exoskeleton provides protection and support on the outside of an
____________________
animal’s body, as well as a place for muscle attachment.
true
25. An endoskeleton is a support framework housed within the body, a protec____________________
tive enclosure for internal organs, and a brace for muscles to pull against.
false
26. An invertebrate is an animal with a backbone.
____________________
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CHAPTER 25 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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pseudocoelom , a fluid-filled body cavity that is (17) _________________
partly
A roundworm has a (16) __________________
Name
Date
Chapter
26
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Sponges, Cnidarians,
Flatworms, and Roundworms
Section 26.1 Sponges
In your textbook, read about sponges.
Answer the following questions.
1. How does the name Porifera relate to the structure of a sponge?
Porifera means “pore-bearer,” which refers to the many pores in a sponge’s
body wall.
2. How do sponges obtain food from their environment?
Sponges are filter feeders; they filter small particles of food out of the water that
they draw through their bodies.
3. Describe a sponge’s body plan.
two cell layers between which lies a jellylike layer; no body cavity, tissues,
or organs
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Complete the table by writing a cell type or structure in sponges that fits each description.
Type of Cell or Structure
Description
4. amoebocytes
Aid in reproduction and nutrient transport
Help produce spicules
5. epithelial cells
Form the outside surface of body
Contract to close pores
6. collar cells
Line interior of sponge’s body
Use flagella to draw water through pores
7. spicules
Found in jellylike substance between layers
Make up sponge’s support system
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
external buds
eggs
hermaphroditic
larvae
sexual
sperm
internal fertilization
external buds . Being
Sponges sometimes reproduce asexually by forming (8) __________________
hermaphroditic , a sponge can also produce both (10) __________________
eggs
(9)__________________
and sperm. During
sexual
sperm
(11) __________________
reproduction, (12) __________________
from one sponge fertilize the eggs
internal fertilization is more common.
of another. Fertilization can be external, but (13) ______________________
larvae
Free-swimming (14) __________________
settle and develop into sessile adults.
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115
Name
Date
Chapter
26
Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms,
and Roundworms, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 26.2 Cnidarians
In your textbook, read about cnidarians.
Identify each of the following descriptions as either the polyp or medusa form of a cnidarian.
polyp
1. Reef-building corals on
_________________
the Great Barrier Reef
medusa
_________________
polyp
_________________
3. Deep sea anemones with
meter-long tentacles
polyp
2. Aurelia, the moon jellyfish _________________
4. The asexual phase in a
jellyfish’s life cycle
Answer the following questions.
5. Nematocysts are characteristic of cnidarians. How does a nematocyst work?
When a nematocyst is triggered, a coiled tube is explosively discharged, which
stabs, entangles, or injects toxin into prey.
6. Compare and contrast how food is digested in a sponge and in a cnidarian.
In sponges, food is digested inside individual body cells. In cnidarians, digestion
takes place inside a space called a gastrovascular cavity.
7. How does a nerve net function?
It conducts nerve impulses from all over the body and stimulates contractions of
Order the following steps in the life cycle of a jellyfish from A to F, beginning with the release of
eggs and sperm.
E
________________
8. A polyp grows and buds repeatedly.
B
________________
9. External fertilization takes place in the sea.
C
________________
10. A zygote develops into a blastula, which develops into a larva.
A
________________
11. Male and female medusae release sperm and eggs, respectively.
D
________________
12. A cilia-covered larva settles onto a surface.
F
________________
13. A tiny medusa breaks free from its sessile parent and drifts away.
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muscle-like cells.
Name
Date
Chapter
26
Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms,
and Roundworms, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 26.3 Flatworms
In your textbook, read about flatworms.
For each statement below, write true or false.
true
________________
1. Flatworms are bilaterally symmetrical and have a clearly defined head.
false
________________
2. Adult planarians can focus well enough with their eyespots to form images
of objects in their environment.
true
________________
3. Flame cells play an important role in maintaining water balance in planaria.
false
________________
4. A planarian uses its pharynx to locate food.
false
________________
5. Planarians reproduce sexually by producing encapsulated zygotes that hatch
into free-swimming larvae.
In part C of the illustration below, draw in what you think will happen to the two halves of the cut
planarian. Then, answer the question.
7. How is regeneration adaptive for
survival in planarians?
6.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Loss of part of the body is not
necessarily fatal; two worms
can result where there was
A
B
only one.
C
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each description.
Description
Planarian
Tapeworm
8. Lives parasitically within a host
✓
9. Body made up of proglottids
✓
10. Body is thin and solid
✓
11. Free-living in aquatic environments
✓
14. May live in host’s blood vessels
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
✓
✓
✓
12. Attaches to host’s intestine with scolex
13. Extends a pharnyx to suck up food
✓
Fluke
✓
✓
CHAPTER 26 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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Date
Chapter
26
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms,
and Roundworms, continued
Section 26.4 Roundworms
In your textbook, read about roundworms.
Answer the following questions.
1. What impact do parasitic roundworms have on other organisms?
Virtually all plant and animal species are affected by parasitic roundworms of some
type; they cause infection and disease.
2. List three ways in which roundworms differ from flatworms.
(1) rounded, with tapered ends; (2) pseudocoelomate;
(3) have both mouth and anus
3. What accounts for the characteristic wriggling movement of roundworms?
Roundworms have pairs of lengthwise muscles that alternately contract and relax,
causing the worms to thrash from side to side.
4. What are four of the most common parasitic roundworms that infect humans?
Ascaris, hookworm, Trichinella, pinworms
5. Can roundworms cause plant diseases? Explain.
6. What parts of plants are most commonly susceptible to parasitic roundworms?
plant roots
Below are two medical reports. After reading each report, give a preliminary diagnosis of what
you think might be causing the problem.
7.
8.
MEDICAL REPORT
MEDICAL REPORT
Patient is an active 5-year-old girl.
Complains about a constant itching
around the anal area, especially at
night.
Patient is a 29-year-old female Peace
Corps volunteer. Lived with remote
tribe whose primary food is pigs.
Complains of muscle pain.
Preliminary Diagnosis:
Preliminary Diagnosis:
pinworm infection
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CHAPTER 26 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
Trichinella infection
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Yes; over 1200 species of roundworms are known to cause diseases in plants.
Name
Date
Chapter
27
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Mollusks and
Segmented Worms
Section 27.1 Mollusks
In your textbook, read about what a mollusk is.
The phylum Mollusca is a very diverse group of animals. Complete the table by checking the
correct column for each characteristic.
Exhibited In:
All Mollusks
Some Mollusks
Characteristic
✓
1. Possess a hard, external shell
2. Bilaterally symmetrical
✓
3. Have a mantle
✓
✓
4. Live on land
✓
5. Digestive tract has two openings.
✓
6. Inhabit aquatic environments
✓
7. Share similar developmental patterns
✓
8. Are slow-moving
✓
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
9. Have a coelom
In your textbook, read about diversity of mollusks.
Identify each mollusk shown below. Write the name of the class to which it belongs and briefly
describe where it lives.
10.
11.
12.
snail;
gastropods; live in
___________________________
clam; bivalves; aquatic,
___________________________
octopus; cephalopods;
___________________________
water
or on land, in
___________________________
many live attached to
___________________________
free-swimming in ocean
___________________________
generally
moist areas
___________________________
some kind of surface
___________________________
habitats
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 27 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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Name
Date
Chapter
27
Mollusks and
Segmented Worms, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 27.1 Mollusks,
continued
In your textbook, read about a mollusk’s body systems and the diversity of mollusks.
Complete each statement.
single
no
13. Gastropods have either a(n) __________________
shell or __________________
shell.
open
14. Most mollusks have a(n) __________________
circulatory system in which blood flows through
vessels
spaces
__________________
into open __________________
around tissues and organs.
gills
15. Most mollusks use __________________
for respiration, while a garden slug uses a primitive
lung
__________________
for gas exchange.
Nephridia
16. __________________
are involved in removing wastes from a mollusk’s body.
externally
17. Fertilization in most aquatic mollusks takes place __________________
.
For each statement below, write true or false.
false
18. All shelled gastropods are predators.
____________________
false
____________________
20. Without a shell, terrestrial slugs and sea slugs (nudibranchs) have no protection against predators.
false
____________________
21. The two shells of bivalve mollusks are held together by the mantle.
Determine whether each of the statements below best describes bivalves, gastropods, or both.
bivalves
22. Nearly all feed by filtering particles from the water around them.
____________________
both
____________________
23. Most have a large muscular foot.
gastropods
____________________
24. They use a radula for feeding.
bivalves
____________________
25. Water flows through their bodies via well-developed incurrent and
excurrent siphons.
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true
____________________
19. When a snail is disturbed, it pulls its body inside its shell for protection.
Name
Date
Chapter
27
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Mollusks and
Segmented Worms, continued
Section 27.1 Mollusks,
continued
In your textbook, read about cephalopods.
Answer the following questions.
26. Describe the “head-foot” region of a cephalopod.
Instead of having a single muscular foot, cephalopods have multiple arms and
tentacles that are arranged around the head.
27. What would you expect to find on the interior surfaces of a squid’s many arms?
suckers
28. How does the intelligence of an octopus compare to that of a clam?
Cephalopods are intelligent invertebrates that can be trained to distinguish colors.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Using what you know about the three major classes of mollusks, complete the chart below by
checking the correct column(s) for each characteristic.
Type of Mollusk
Characteristics
Gastropods
Bivalves
29. Intelligent, with a well-developed
nervous system
✓
✓
30. Have no distinct head
31. Have an open circulatory system
✓
✓
32. External shells present in some species
✓
✓
33. All species are carnivorous predators.
34. Use a radula in feeding
35. All use gills for both respiration and
food collection.
36. Bite prey with a beak
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Cephalopods
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
CHAPTER 27 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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Chapter
27
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Mollusks and
Segmented Worms, continued
Section 27.2 Segmented Worms
In your textbook, read about segmented worms, including the Inside Story about earthworms.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage:
Annelida
parapodia
bristleworms
segments
earthworms
setae
muscles
Annelida
all have bodies made up of multiple
Members of the phylum (1) __________________
segments
muscles
(2) __________________
. Each segment has its own (3) __________________
that function to lengthen
setae
and shorten the worm’s body. When present, bristlelike (4) __________________
act as anchors while the
bristleworms , each segment has a pair of (6) __________________
parapodia
worm is moving along. In (5) __________________
.
earthworms .
The most familiar annelids are probably (7) __________________
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
8. Earthworms have a mouth with tiny teeth in which food particles are ground up before entering
gizzard
the digestive tract. _____________________________________________________________________
enlarged blood vessels that act as hearts
four-chambered heart. ___________________________________________________________________
true
10. Some body segments in annelids are specialized for reproduction. ________________________________
Below are the field notes of a biologist studying several newly collected annelid worms. Write the
type of annelid—earthworm, bristleworm, or leech—being described.
11. Collected in rain forest of Papua, New Guinea;
very active; flattened, with 32 body segments;
has suckers on the ends of its body; no setae
leech
Type of annelid: __________________________
12. Found crawling over corals on a reef;
contains only eggs; no male reproductive
organs; well-developed parapodia
bristleworm
Type of annelid: __________________________
13. Uncovered in top layer of moist soil;
body has minute setae on ventral
surface of each segment;
hermaphroditic
earthworm
Type of annelid: __________________________
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9. Blood is pumped throughout an earthworm’s closed circulatory system by an elongated,
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
28
Class
Arthropods
Section 28.1 Characteristics of
Arthropods
In your textbook, read about what an arthropod is and exoskeletons.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the most distinguishing arthropod characteristic?
jointed appendages
2. Explain the advantage of having appendages with joints.
Joints allow for more powerful movements during locomotion, and they make
certain types of appendages multifunctional.
3. List three functions of an arthropod exoskeleton.
(1) protects and supports internal tissues; (2) provides places for muscles to
attach; (3) helps prevent water loss
In your textbook, read about molting, segmentation, and gas exchange.
Complete each statement.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
beneath
4. Prior to molting, a new exoskeleton forms __________________
the old one.
head
5. Many arthropods have three distinct body sections: a(n) __________________
,
thorax
abdomen
a(n) __________________
, and a(n) __________________
.
cephalothorax , the head and thorax are fused.
6. In arthropods that have a __________________
Complete the table by checking the correct column to indicate the respiratory structure you
would expect to find in each example.
Type of Respiratory Structure
Example
Book Lungs
Tracheal Tubes
✓
7. freshwater crayfish
8. tarantula
Gills
✓
9. hissing cockroach
✓
10. swallowtail butterfly
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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Name
Date
Chapter
28
Arthropods, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 28.1 Characteristics of
Arthropods, continued
In your textbook, read about arthropods’ senses, body systems, and reproduction.
Identify the following as characteristics of either simple or compound eyes.
compound
11. have multiple lenses
____________________
compound
____________________ 12. well-adapted for detecting slight movements
single
____________________ 13. have a single, focusing-type lens
compound
14. produce an image made up of thousands of parts
____________________
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
15. Animals produce pheromones, or low frequency sounds, that affect the behavior of others.
chemical odor signals
16. In many arthropods, large, fused ganglia act as nervous system control centers for the entire body.
for the body section in which they are located
17. Arthropods have an open circulatory system, in which blood leaves vessels and comes in direct contact
Excretion
18. Respiration occurs in arthropods via the Malpighian tubules. __________________________________
unfertilized eggs
19. During parthenogenesis, fertilized eggs develop into offspring. _________________________________
In your textbook, read about arthropod origins.
Answer the following questions.
20. What are the major reasons for the widespread success of arthropods?
As a group, they can exploit just about every type of food source available.
21. From what animal group did arthropods probably evolve?
from ancient annelids
22. List three adaptations that have evolved in arthropods.
(1) reduced number of body segments; (2) specialization of body segments;
(3) greater development of nervous tissue in the head
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true
with body tissues. _______________________________________________________________________
Name
Date
Chapter
28
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Arthropods, continued
Section 28.2 Diversity of Arthropods
In your textbook, read about arachnids.
Circle the letter of the response that best completes the statement.
1. An animal that is not a member of the class Arachnida is
a. a spider.
b. a deer tick.
c. a walking stick.
d. a dust mite.
2. In spiders, chelicerae are highly modified appendages that are adapted for
a. holding food and injecting poison.
b. spinning silk and weaving webs.
c. chewing food.
d. mating and reproduction.
3. The appendages of a spider that function as sense organs are
a. its chelicerae.
b. its pedipalps.
c. its legs.
d. its spinnerets.
4. After catching their prey and injecting it with poison, spiders
a. eat the prey whole.
b. lay their eggs in the prey.
c. chew the prey into small pieces.
d. suck up the prey’s contents, which have been liquified with enzymes.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. In ticks and mites, the head, thorax, and abdomen
a. are absent.
b. are well-defined.
c. are fused into one section.
d. are all the same size.
6. The fact that horseshoe crabs have remained relatively unchanged for 500 million years indicates that
a. natural selection has not taken place.
b. they must reproduce by parthenogenesis.
c. they have very little genetic diversity.
d. their environment has changed very little.
In your textbook, read about crustaceans, centipedes, and millipedes.
Determine if each statement is true or false.
true
____________________
7. Having compound eyes on movable stalks is an advantage for aquatic crustaceans whose potential predators could attack from almost any direction.
false
____________________
8. The legs of most crustaceans are unspecialized and used only for walking.
true
____________________
9. You might be more likely to see pill bugs moving around out in the open on
a rainy day than on a sunny one.
false
10. Both centipedes and millipedes have book lungs for gas exchange.
____________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 28 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
125
Name
Date
Chapter
28
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Arthropods, continued
Section 28.2 Diversity of Arthropods,
continued
In your textbook, read about insects.
Using the choices below, label the diagram of a honeybee.
antennae
compound eye
legs
mandibles
spiracles
wings
wings
11. ______________________
spiracles
12. ______________________
legs
13. ______________________
compound eye
14. ______________________
mandibles
15. ______________________
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each statement.
Type of Metamorphosis
Description
Complete
Incomplete
17. Insect begins life as a fertilized egg.
✓
✓
18. Larva hatches from an egg.
✓
19. Nymph repeatedly molts and increases in size.
✓
20. Nymph hatches from an egg.
✓
21. Pupa undergoes changes while encased in cocoon.
✓
✓
22. Adults and young usually eat the same food.
23. Adults are the only sexually mature form.
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CHAPTER 28 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
✓
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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antennae
16. ______________________
Name
Date
Chapter
29
Echinoderms and
Invertebrate Chordates
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 29.1 Echinoderms
In your textbook, read about echinoderms’ internal skeleton, radial symmetry, and the water vascular system.
Answer the following questions.
1. Describe the “spiny skin” that is a characteristic of echinoderms.
a hard, spiny, or bumpy endoskeleton composed primarily of calcium carbonate
and covered by a thin epidermis
2. In what way is being radially symmetrical an advantage for adult echinoderms?
Radial symmetry enables these slow-moving or sessile animals to sense food,
predators, and other environmental cues from all directions.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
c
____________
3. Has a flattened, immovable endoskeleton
Column B
a. brittle star
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
made up of fused plates
a
____________
4. Has thin, flexible rays made up of small,
overlapping, calcified plates
b. sea star
b
____________
5. Has a flexible endoskeleton divided into
rather long, tapering rays
c. sand dollar
e
____________
6. Has tiny, calcified plates embedded in
fleshy skin
d. sea lily
d
____________
7. Has feathery, branching rays made up of
tiny, calcified plates
e. sea cucumber
Complete the following sentences.
water
vascular
system
8. Tube feet are part of an echinoderm’s __________________ _________________ ________________ ,
gas
exchange
which is involved not only in locomotion, but also in __________________
__________________
,
excretion
__________________
, and food collecting.
9. In a sea star, water enters and exits the water vascular system through a structure called the
madreporite , a sievelike, disc-shaped opening on the __________________
dorsal
__________________
side of the body.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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Date
Chapter
29
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Echinoderms and Invertebrate
Chordates, continued
Section 29.1 Echinoderms,
continued
In your textbook, read about sea star structure, echinoderm larvae, nutrition, nervous systems, and origins.
Label this drawing of a sea star and of a cross section of one of its rays. Use these choices:
ampulla
eyespot
madreporite
pedicellariae
tube foot
madreporite
10. _______________________
pedicellariae
11. _______________________
ampulla
13. _______________________
tube foot
14. _______________________
Identify each of the following as describing either larva or an adult echinoderm.
larva
15. free-swimming
_________________
larva
_________________
16. bilaterally symmetrical
adult
_________________
17. radially symmetrical
adult
_________________
18. moves with tube feet
Determine if each of the following statements is true or false.
true
_________________ 19. If a sea urchin population underwent a population explosion, you might expect
to see a rapid decline in the amount of algal life in the area.
false
_________________ 20. Sea stars and brittle stars both eat suspended organic particles.
false
_________________ 21. Most echinoderms have highly developed sense organs.
true
_________________ 22. The fact that echinoderms have bilaterally symmetrical larvae and deuterostome
development is strong evidence that they are most closely related to chordates.
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eyespot
12. _______________________
Name
Date
Chapter
29
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Echinoderms and Invertebrate
Chordates, continued
Section 29.1 Echinoderms,
continued
In your textbook, read about the diversity of echinoderms.
Answer the following questions.
23. List the five classes of living echinoderms and the types of animals in each class.
class Asteroidea, the sea stars; class Ophiuroidea, the brittle stars; class Echinoidea,
the sea urchins and sand dollars; class Holothuroidea, the sea cucumbers; class
Crinoidea, the sea lilies and feather stars
24. How is the ability to regenerate lost body parts adaptive for most echinoderms?
An echinoderm can survive an attack and escape from a predator with only
minimal losses that can gradually be replaced.
Complete the table by checking the column(s) that best fit(s) each description.
Description
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
25. Have multiple rays
Asteroidea Ophiuroidea Echinoidea Holothuroidea Crinoidea
✓
✓
✓
26. May rupture and release
internal organs when threatened
✓
27. Some members of the class
are sessile
✓
✓
28. Burrow into rock or sand
29. Use mucus-coated tentacles
for feeding
✓
30. Some members of the class
can actively swim from place
to place
✓
31. Use rays, not tube feet,
for locomotion
✓
32. The most inflexible type
of echinoderm
✓
✓
33. Use long, feathery arms to trap
food particles drifting past
34. Eat bivalves and other
small animals
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
✓
✓
CHAPTER 29 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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Name
Date
Chapter
29
Echinoderms and Invertebrate
Chordates, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 29.2 Invertebrate Chordates
In your textbook, read about invertebrate chordates.
Complete the following sentences.
notochord , a dorsal hollow ______________
nerve
1. At some time in their life, all chordates possess a _______________
cord
gill
slits
, _________________
_________________
, and muscle blocks.
_________________
backbone
2. During your early development, your notochord became your _________________
, and your gill slits
disappeared.
spinal
cord
posterior
3. The _________________ _________________ is derived from the _________________ portion of the
brain
dorsal nerve cord, whereas the _________________
is derived from the anterior portion.
tail
4. At some time during their lives, all chordates have a muscular _________________
.
In your textbook, read about tunicates and lancelets.
4
____________________
5. Water leaves the pharynx region.
3
____________________
6. Water passes through the gill slits, which filter food out of the water.
1
____________________
7. Water is drawn into the body through the incurrent siphon.
5
____________________
8. Water passes out of the body via the excurrent siphon.
2
____________________
9. Water enters the pharynx, where the gill slits are located.
Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description.
Description
Tunicates
10. Only larval forms have a tail
✓
11. Are filter feeders
✓
14. Capable of actively swimming as adults
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CHAPTER 29 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
✓
✓
12. Retain all chordate traits throughout life
13. Blood flow is continually reversed in the adult body
Lancelets
✓
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Trace the path of water through a tunicate, starting with water entering the animal’s body, by
numbering the following statements from 1 to 5.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
BioDigest
8
Class
Invertebrates
In your textbook, read about invertebrates.
Study the definitions on the next page and write the terms in the appropriate spaces in the crossword puzzle below. All terms are important in the Biodigest.
B
C
4
O
7
1
I
U
T
L
2
A
E
V
D
N
A
G
E
12
15
10
S
13
C
O
O
E
U
U
L
N
T
O
D
H
M
W
P
A
16
N
P
H
I
X
O
22
S
P
T
R
Y
M
M
L
27
S
E
G
29
E
N
O
K
E
R
L
M
E
N
E
L
T
E
S
E
R
L
20
T
E
S
O
E
T
W
O
O
23
C
T
C
A
17
N
18
S
C
E
R
N
I
M
N
S
I
A
D
T
A
O
N
R
C
25
R
L
T
M
O
I
S
C
B
R
K
C
24
T
S
O
T
T
U
H
I
A
L
H
L
L
Y
3
N
E
U
O
L
6
S
L
E
O
M
C
G
I
D
R
A
S
N
T
S
L
28
S
D
11
5
S
N
M
N
E
E
S
A
S
S
19
M
S
N
F
O
26
I
9
M
E
R
A
I
8
S
R
S
L
D
O
G
A
E
M
R
R
L
R
21
E
R
I
O
T
A
R
14
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I
U
S
C
L
E
B
L
O
C
K
S
S
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
BIODIGEST 8 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
131
Name
Date
BioDigest
8
Invertebrates, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
ACROSS
1. In a animal with _____________ symmetry, the right and left sides are mirrors of each other.
7. An echinoderm has an inner skeleton; its _____________ covering is called the epidermis.
9. Bivalves, gastropods, and cephalopods are _____________ .
10. Some echinoderms have long _____________ that are used for locomotion.
12. The _____________ have radial symmetry and a water vascular system.
16. Because arthropods have _____________ , fossil arthropods are frequently found.
19. _____________ such as planaria have no body cavity.
21. In earthworms, internal _____________ are suspended from the mesoderm.
22. In some invertebrates, an exoskeleton offers _____________ and support for internal tissues.
25. A(n) _____________ belongs to the phylum Cnidaria.
26. Sponges have a(n) _____________ body shape.
27. In earthworms and other segmented worms, each _____________ has its own muscles.
28. Some segments in chordates have been modified into stacked layers called (2 words) _____________ .
29. In arthropods like grasshoppers, a set of jointed appendages called antennae are adapted to give the
insect acute _____________ .
DOWN
2. Echinoderm _________ have bilateral symmetry, which suggests a close relationship to the chordates.
3. _____________ go through metamorphosis during their life cycles.
4. A dorsal nerve _____________ is a hollow, fluid-filled canal lying above the notochord.
5. Setae, or small bristles, help earthworms with _____________ .
6. Mesoderm differentiates into _____________ , circulatory vessels, and reproductive organs.
8. Echinoderms have a supporting _____________ , which is inside of the body instead of outside.
11. The _____________ of a mollusk such as a clam is secreted by the mantle.
13. A(n) _____________ functions as a watery skeleton against which muscles can work.
14. Many _____________ are parasitic, such as Trichinella.
15. Arthropods are characterized by having a wide variety of _____________ for feeding.
17. The _____________ of a cnidarian is found in a highly specialized stinging cell.
18. _____________ are made up of two cell layers and have only one body opening.
20. Special _____________ feet enable sea stars to move from place to place.
22. Water enters a sponge through _____________ .
23. A jellyfish, a(n) _____________ , and an anemone are types of cnidarians.
24. Bivalves acquire food by filtering water through their _____________ .
26. A radula is a tonguelike organ used by snails to scrape _____________ from surfaces.
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1. The mouthparts of an arthropod may be adapted for such things as chewing, lapping, or __________ .
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
30
Class
Fishes and Amphibians
Section 30.1 Fishes
In your textbook, read about what is a fish.
Complete each statement.
Chordata
1. All vertebrates are in the phylum __________________ , and fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and
Vertebrata
mammals are in the subphylum __________________
.
circulatory
2. Vertebrates are bilaterally symmetrical, coelomate animals with endoskeletons, closed _____________
brains
respiratory
systems, complex __________________
, and efficient __________________
systems.
3. If you compared the number of fish species to the number of all other vertebrate species combined,
fishes
there would be more species of __________________
.
Complete the table below to compare the three different kinds of fishes.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Class
Kind of Fish
Jaws?
Agnatha
4. _____________
Lamprey and Hagfish 5. _____
No
Chondrichthyes
Yes
and Rays 9. _____
8. Sharks
________________
Osteichthyes 12. Bony
Fishes
11. _______________
_______________
Yes
Skeleton
Fertilization
Cartilage
6. _______________
External
7. ______________
Cartilage
External
and Internal
10. ______________
Bone
13. _______________
External and Internal
Answer the following questions.
14. How does a fish breathe through its gills?
A fish takes in water through its mouth and then passes the water over
capillary-rich gills and out through slits on the side of its body. Oxygen and
carbon dioxide are exchanged through the capillaries.
15. What two adaptations of cartilaginous and bony fishes help them to locate food?
These fishes have an excellent sense of smell and can detect movement and
vibrations in the water through their lateral line systems.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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Name
Date
Chapter
30
Fishes and Amphibians, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 30.1 Fishes,
continued
In your textbook, read about bony fishes.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
16. While spawning, a female bony fish may lay millions of eggs to be fertilized externally by the male, but
true
only a few will survive. __________________________________________________________________
17. The development of bone was an important event in the evolution of vertebrates because it eventually
true
allowed them to move onto land and support their body weight. _______________________________
18. The backbone, comprised of separate gills, was a major evolutionary event for fishes because it pro-
vertebrae
vided support as well as flexibility, which helped to propel them through the water. _______________
19. The swim bladder, an organ found in bony fishes, allows fish to control their depth in water.
true
In your textbook, read about origins of fishes.
Examine the phylogenetic tree below. Then answer the question that follows.
Salamanders
Lungfishes
Coelacanths
Ray-finned fishes
Early
tetrapods
Placoderms
Chondrichthyes
Sharks and Rays
Agnatha
Lampreys
Hagfishes
Ostracoderms
20. Which group of fishes do you think are most closely related to ancestral amphibians? Why?
Lungfishes, because the bone structure of their fins resembles the bone structure
of ancestral amphibians; also, lungfishes could survive on land for short periods
because they had lungs.
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Frogs and Toads
Name
Date
Chapter
30
Fishes and Amphibians, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 30.2 Amphibians
In your textbook, read about what is an amphibian.
Answer the following questions.
1. What three orders make up the class Amphibia?
The three orders are Caudata, Anura, and Apoda.
2. Why do amphibian eggs need to be laid in water?
The eggs lack protective membranes and shells. Water is necessary to keep them
from drying out and to transport sperm.
3. Where does an amphibian heart pump oxygen-rich blood, and where does it pump oxygen-poor blood?
Oxygen-rich blood is pumped to body tissues, and oxygen-poor blood is pumped
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
to the lungs and skin.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
b
_____________
4. Adult frogs and toads have legs, lungs, and
a ________ heart.
a. two-chambered
a
_____________
5. Tadpoles have gills, fins, and a ________ heart.
b. three-chambered
e
_____________
6. Amphibians are ________ , animals
whose body temperature changes with the
temperature of their surroundings.
c. skin
d
_____________
7. Fertilized amphibian eggs hatch into ________
during the aquatic phase of their life.
d. tadpoles
c
_____________
8. Some salamanders have no lungs and
breathe through their ________ .
e. ectotherms
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 30 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
135
Name
Date
Chapter
30
Fishes and Amphibians, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 30.2 Amphibians,
continued
In your textbook, read about the characteristics and diversity of amphibians.
Circle the letter of the response that best completes the statement.
9. Early amphibians needed large amounts of food and oxygen to
a. walk on land.
b. breathe on land.
c. become dormant in cold weather.
d. all of these.
10. In many amphibians, the most important organ for gas exchange is the
a. blood.
b. skin.
c. lungs.
d. circulatory system.
11. Many frogs and toads use ________ as a defense against predators.
a. toxins
b. electricity
c. sharp claws
d. all of these
12. Frogs and toads have sound-producing bands of tissues in their throat called
a. tongues.
b. vocal cords.
c. vocal tissue.
d. none of these.
13. Salamanders are unlike frogs and toads because they have
a. long, slender bodies.
b. tails.
c. necks.
d. all of these.
b. skin.
d. heart.
In your textbook, read about the origins of amphibians.
For each statement below, write true or false.
false
____________________
15. Ancestral amphibians appeared on Earth about the same time as ancestral
fishes.
true
____________________
16. Amphibians probably evolved from tetrapods during the Paleozoic Era.
false
____________________
17. Because the climate was hot and dry when amphibians first appeared on
Earth, they had to stay near water.
true
____________________
18. Like modern-day salamanders, early amphibians probably had legs set at
right angles to the body.
false
____________________
19. Because amphibians were a transitional group, they never were the dominant vertebrates on land.
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14. Caecilians are amphibians that have no
a. eyes.
c. limbs.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
31
Class
Reptiles and Birds
Section 31.1 Reptiles
In your textbook, read about what is a reptile and the amniotic egg.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Complete the following table about reptilian adaptations and their advantages by writing in the
missing information in each case.
Adaptation
Advantage
1. Four-chambered heart
In crocodilians, oxygenated and deoxygenated
blood kept separate;
higher level of energy production
2. Thick, scaly skin
prevents water loss;
added protection from predators
3. Internal fertilization
Water not necessary for fertilization
4. Legs positioned for walking and
running on land
better chance of catching prey and
avoiding predators
5. Amniotic egg
Water not necessary for reproduction;
young not overly vulnerable to aquatic predators;
prevents injury or dehydration of embryo
Label the diagram below, using these choices:
albumen
allantois
amnion
amnion
6. _________________
chorion
embryo
shell
yolk sac
shell
7. _________________
albumen
8. _________________
yolk sac
9. _________________
allantois
11. _________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
embryo
10. _________________
chorion
12. _________________
CHAPTER 31 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
137
Name
Date
Chapter
31
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Reptiles and Birds, continued
Section 31.1 Reptiles,
continued
In your textbook, read about the diversity of reptiles and the origins of reptiles.
Complete the chart by checking the correct column(s) for each characteristic.
Snakes
Lizards
Turtles
Crocodiles
✓
13. Guard their nests against predators
✓
14. Possess shells
15. Use tongue and Jacobsen’s organ
for smelling
✓
✓
✓
16. Kill prey by drowning it
17. Lack limbs
✓
18. Have vertebrae and ribs fused
to a carapace
✓
✓
19. Some change color dramatically
✓
20. Lack teeth
21. Some inject venom with fangs
✓
22. Some are aquatic
✓
23. Are primarily insect eaters
24. Include marine species that migrate
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
Complete each sentence.
dinosaurs
25. During the Mesozoic era, __________________
were the most abundant land vertebrates.
scaly
reptiles
26. Snakes and lizards are descended from early __________________
__________________
, which in
cotylosaurs
turn were descended from __________________
.
Birds
27. __________________
are probably the modern, living descendants of some type of dinosaur.
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Characteristic
Name
Date
Chapter
31
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Reptiles and Birds, continued
Section 31.2 Birds
In your textbook, read about what is a bird.
Answer the following questions.
1. From what type of animal are birds thought to have evolved?
from small, two-legged dinosaurs called theropods
2. List three physical features of birds that link them to reptilian ancestors.
(1) clawed toes and scaly feet; (2) internal fertilization; (3) amniotic eggs
3. Besides making flight possible, what other functions do feathers serve?
provide insulation; streamline the body for flight; provide a waterproof covering
4. By what process are old feathers replaced?
periodic molting
In your textbook, read about how birds are adapted for flight.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
5. A bird’s sternum is the point of attachment for its flight muscles.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
true
6. Being endothermic, birds have a body temperature that fluctuates with environmental temperature.
remains constant
7. Because of its energy requirements, you might expect a bird to eat less than a reptile of comparable size.
more
8. Hollow bones, horny beaks, and a lack of teeth are all adaptations that make birds more efficient predators.
lighter in weight
9. Birds grind up their food in a muscular gizzard.
true
10. The air inside a bird’s lungs always has a fairly high carbon dioxide content, which makes for efficient
gas exchange.
oxygen
11. For a bird such as a goose or a duck, down feathers are the key to its superior waterproofing.
insulation
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 31 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
139
Name
Date
Chapter
31
Reptiles and Birds, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 31.2 Birds,
continued
In your textbook, read about the diversity of birds.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column B
c
____________
12. long beak that is used for dipping into flowers
to obtain nectar
a. owl
d
13. wings and feet modified for swimming; body
____________
surrounded with a thick layer of insulating fat
b. pelican
f
14. short, stout beak that is adapted to cracking
____________
seeds
c. hummingbird
e
15. feathered legs and feet that make it easier to
____________
walk in the snow
d. penguin
b
16. huge beak with a pouch that is used as a net
____________
for capturing fish
e. ptarmigan
a
17. large eyes, an acute sense of hearing, and sharp
____________
claws; adapted for nocturnal predation
f. goldfinch
In your textbook, read about the origins of birds.
Complete each statement.
light
18. The fossil record of birds is incomplete because bird skeletons are __________________
and
delicate
__________________
.
Archaeopteryx had __________________
teeth
tail
19. Unlike modern birds, __________________
, a long __________________
,
clawed
front
toes
and __________________
__________________
__________________
.
Caudipteryx
insulation
20. Scientists hypothesize that __________________ used its feathers for __________________ ,
camouflage
courtship
behavior
__________________
, or __________________
__________________
, rather than for flight.
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Column A
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
32
Class
Mammals
Section 32.1 Mammal Characteristics
In your textbook, read about what is a mammal, and mammalian hair.
Answer the following questions.
1. Why are mammals able to live in almost every possible environment on Earth?
As endotherms, they can maintain a fairly constant body temperature.
2. How do sweat glands help regulate body temperature?
They secrete water onto the skin’s surface. As the water evaporates, it removes
heat from the body.
Complete the table by checking the column that best fits each example.
Example
3. The striped fur of a tiger
Camouflage
Serves As:
Defense
✓
✓
4. The sharp quills of a porcupine
✓
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. A skunk’s black-and-white striped fur
6. The white winter coat of an arctic hare
Warning
✓
✓
7. The white hair patch on a pronghorn
In your textbook, read about how mammals nurse their young, and about respiration and circulation.
Complete each statement.
mammary
glands
8. Female mammals feed their young with milk produced by __________________
_________________
.
saliva
9. In addition to milk and sweat, the glands of mammals produce __________________
,
digestive
enzymes
hormones
__________________
__________________
, and __________________
.
fats
proteins
10. The milk of mammals is rich in __________________
, sugars, __________________
, minerals, and
vitamins
__________________
.
diaphragm
chest
cavity
11. A mammal’s muscular __________________
expands the ____________
_______________
bringing air
into the lungs with each breath.
four-chambered hearts in which ________________
oxygenated ______________
blood
12. Like birds, mammals have __________________
deoxygenated __________________
blood
is kept entirely separate from __________________
.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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141
Name
Date
Chapter
32
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Mammals, continued
Section 32.1 Mammal Characteristics,
continued
In your textbook, read about mammalian teeth, limbs, and learning.
Determine if the statement is true or false.
true
13. The size and shape of a mammal’s teeth can give valuable clues about its diet.
____________
false
____________
14. Plant-eaters such as horses and cows have well-developed canine teeth for piercing food.
false
____________
15. The teeth of mammals are generally more uniform than the teeth of fishes and reptiles.
true
16. By chewing their cud and then swallowing it, some mammals help bacteria break down
____________
the cellulose in their food.
true
____________
17. Mammalian limbs are adapted for a variety of methods of food gathering.
false
____________
18. Moles use their opposable thumbs to grasp objects.
true
____________
20. Complex nervous systems and highly-developed brains make it possible for many kinds
of mammals to learn.
Circle the letter of the response that best completes the statement.
21. Premolars and molars are used for
a. shearing.
b. crushing.
c. grinding.
22. Cud chewing is an adaptation found in
a. bears and other omnivores.
c. many hoofed mammals.
b. tigers and other carnivores.
d. all of these.
23. The limbs of antelopes are characterized by
a. greatly elongated finger bones.
c. short bones and large claws.
b. strong, slender bones.
d. none of these.
24. Chimpanzees are intelligent enough to
a. use tools.
c. work machines.
b. use sign language.
d. all of these.
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CHAPTER 32 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
d. all of these.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
true
____________
19. One reason mammals are successful is that they guard their young and teach them
survival skills.
Name
Date
Chapter
32
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Mammals, continued
Section 32.2 Diversity of Mammals
In your textbook, read about placental mammals, mammals with a pouch, and egg-laying mammals.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is a placental mammal?
a mammal that carries its young inside its uterus until development is almost
complete
2. What is the relationship between body size and gestation period in placental mammals?
In general, the larger the placental mammal is, the longer the gestation period.
3. Why are most marsupials found only in and around Australia?
Ancient marsupials that lived in what is now Australia evolved without competition from placental mammals, which become dominant on all other continents.
4. What characteristic sets monotremes apart from all other mammals?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Monotremes lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young.
Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each characteristic.
Type of Mammal
Characteristic
Placental
Marsupial
5. Give birth to young
✓
✓
6. Young nourished by a placenta during
the entire development period
✓
✓
7. Have a permanent pouch on abdomen
8. Produce milk in mammary glands
✓
✓
✓
✓
9. Lay eggs
10. Include echidnas and
duck-billed platypuses
✓
11. Have hair
✓
12. Comprise about 95 percent
of all mammals
✓
13. Exhibit parental care
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Monotreme
✓
✓
✓
✓
CHAPTER 32 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
143
Name
Date
Chapter
32
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Mammals, continued
Section 32.2 Diversity of Mammals,
continued
In your textbook, read about the origins of mammals.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
Cenozoic
climate
dinosaurs
insect-eating
mammals
Pangaea
reptiles
therapsids
mammals
began roaming the earth. Most were
Roughly 200 million years ago, the first (14) __________________
insect-eating descendants of (16) __________________
therapsids
, animals that had characterissmall (15) __________________
reptiles
Pangaea
. The breakup of (18) _______________
,
tics in common with both mammals and (17) _______________
dinosaurs
climate
, and a changing (20) _________________
the sudden disappearance of the (19) __________________
Cenozoic
era,
provided early mammals with new food sources and habitats. During the (21) __________________
mammals diversified greatly into the many species inhabiting Earth today.
Examine the phylogenetic tree below. Then answer the questions that follow.
Artiodactyls
Primates
Rodents
Carnivores
Chiropterans
Insectivores
Proboscids
A
Therapsids
(mammal-like reptiles)
Reptiles
Amphibians
Fish
Invertebrates
Precambian
Paleozoic
Marsupials
Monotremes
B
C
Present
placental mammals
22. What group of animals is represented by the letter A above? __________________________________
Mesozoic
23. What era is represented by the letter B? ___________________________________________________
Cenozoic
24. What era is represented by the letter C? ___________________________________________________
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Cetaceans
Perissodactyls
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
33
Class
Animal Behavior
Section 33.1 Innate Behavior
In your textbook, read about what behavior is, inherited behavior, automatic responses to stimuli, and
instinctive behavior.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is meant by animal behavior?
anything an animal does in response to a stimulus in its environment
2. How is behavior adaptive?
An animal’s behavior enables it to carry out activities, such as getting food or
reproducing, that enhance its survival.
3. Explain the relationship between innate behaviors and genetics.
Innate behaviors are genetically programmed responses to certain stimuli.
Offspring inherit the genetic basis for innate behaviors from their parents.
4. What is an instinct?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
a complex pattern of innate behavior
Identify each of the following as being either a reflex or an instinct.
reflex
____________________
5. You leap up after sitting down in shorts on a hot car seat.
instinct
____________________
6. A sea turtle returns to the beach where she was hatched, in order to lay her eggs.
reflex
____________________
7. A giant clam closes its shell when a shadow falls across it.
instinct
____________________
8. A spider spins a complex, circular web.
In your textbook, read about courtship behavior and territoriality.
Determine if the following statements are true or false.
false
____________________
9. Courtship behavior is something only male animals can instinctively perform.
true
10. Courtship behavior is adaptive because it ensures that members of the same
____________________
species can recognize each other and mate.
false
11. A territory is a physical space that one animal defends against all other
____________________
species of animals.
true
12. Setting up territories reduces conflicts between members of the same species.
____________________
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Name
Date
Chapter
33
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Animal Behavior, continued
Section 33.1 Innate Behavior,
continued
In your textbook, read about aggressive behavior, submission, and behavior resulting from internal and
external cues.
Below are excerpts from the field notebook of a behavorial biologist. Identify the behavioral
phenomenon being described in each case.
13.
14.
Field Notes
Field Notes
A large male baboon stares at another
male and then suddenly “yawns” to
reveal his long, sharp fangs.
When a herd of elephants arrives at
a waterhole, the oldest female drinks
first, followed by three females with
calves, and finally a young male.
Behavior Exhibited:
Behavior Exhibited:
aggressive behavior
16.
Field Notes
Field Notes
After fighting briefly with an older pack
member, a young wolf stops fighting and
rolls onto her back with her tail tucked
between her legs and her eyes averted.
Large numbers of monarch butterflies
fly south to roost in the winter.
Behavior Exhibited:
Behavior Exhibited:
submission
migration
Complete the following sentences.
pecking
order
17. The type of dominance hierarchy formed by chickens is called a(n) ______________ _____________ .
circadian
18. A cycle of behavior that occurs roughly every 24 hours is known as a(n) __________________
rhythm
__________________
.
sun
and
stars
19. Some animals use the positions of the __________________
__________________
________________
geographic
magnetic
to navigate. Others may use __________________
clues or Earth’s __________________
field
__________________
.
decreases
Estivation
20. __________________
is similar to hibernation, in that metabolic activity __________________
in response to internal and external cues.
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15.
dominance hierarchy
Name
Date
Chapter
33
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Animal Behavior, continued
Section 33.2 Learned Behavior
In your textbook, read about learned behavior.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is learned behavior?
behavior that can be changed through practice or experience
2. What is a major advantage of being able to learn?
Learning makes it possible for behavior to change, or adapt, in response to a
changing environment.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each example.
Type of Behavior
Example
Learned
✓
3. A dog catching a Frisbee
✓
4. A dog scent-marking a tree with urine
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Innate
5. A parrot saying “Polly want a cracker”
✓
6. A young lioness stalking prey with her mother
✓
✓
7. A woodchuck going underground to hibernate
In your textbook, read about habituation, imprinting, and learning by trial and error.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
Column B
c
____________
8. You stay with relatives who have a clock that chimes
every hour. The first two nights, the chimes keep
you awake, but after that you no longer notice them.
a. imprinting
a
____________
9. A boy receives a day-old duckling as gift.
It soon follows the boy wherever he goes.
b. trial-and-error learning
b
____________
10. A young woman takes up archery. At first, her
arrows don’t hit the target, but after a week of practice,
she is hitting the bull’s eye fifty percent of the time.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
c. habituation
CHAPTER 33 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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Chapter
33
Animal Behavior, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 33.2 Learned Behavior,
continued
In your textbook, read about conditioning and insight.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
association
11. Learning by repeating something over and over is known as conditioning. _________________________
12. In Pavlov’s conditioning experiments, the innate reflex of salivating was the stimulus that the dogs
ringing bell
learned to associate with food. ___________________________________________________________
13. Once conditioned, Pavlov’s dogs would salivate at the sound of the bell even when no food was present.
true
14. A child figuring out how to use a chair to reach a cookie jar is an example of trial and error.
insight
15. Insight is learning in which an animal uses previous experience to respond to a new situation.
true
In your textbook, read about the role of communication.
behavior
communication
information
innate
language
meanings
odors
pheromones
sounds
symbols
communication , animals exchange (17) __________________
information
Through various forms of (16) __________________
behavior
. Animals can communicate with visual signals, by touching
that affects their (18) __________________
sounds
, some of which can be heard over great diseach other, and by producing (19) __________________
odors
pheromones are
is another strategy; (21) __________________
tances. Communicating with (20) __________________
species-specific odor chemicals that can have a powerful effect on behavior. Some types of communication
innate
language
and learned behavior. Human (23) __________________
has
involve both (22) __________________
symbols
that have specific
evolved as a way of communicating with written and spoken (24) __________________
meanings
(25) __________________
.
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REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
BioDigest
9
Class
Vertebrates
In your textbook, read about fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
FISHES
Complete the chart by checking the correct column(s) for each characteristic of fishes.
Adaptation
Jawless
Cartilaginous
Bony
✓
✓
✓
✓
3. Lateral line system
✓
✓
4. Paired fins
✓
✓
1. Jaws
✓
2. Gills
5. Skeleton made of cartilage
✓
✓
6. Swim bladder
✓
AMPHIBIANS
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Complete the following sentences.
ectotherms
7. Amphibians are __________________
, which means that their body temperature depends upon
the temperature of their surroundings. These vertebrates also carry out gas exchange through
skin
land
their __________________
. Amphibians live on __________________
but reproduce in
water
metamorphosis , a radical
__________________
. Almost all amphibians go through __________________
change between the form of the young and the form of the adult.
REPTILES
Complete the table by describing the advantages that reptiles have because of certain adaptations.
List one advantage for each adaptation.
Adaptation
Advantage
8. Scaly skin
reduces loss of body moisture on land
9. Amniotic egg
no longer dependent on water for reproduction; egg provides
nourishment to embryo and protects it from drying out
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149
Name
Date
BioDigest
9
Vertebrates, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
BIRDS
Flight affects almost every system in birds. Explain the flight adaptations in each system
listed here.
System
Adaptation
10. Bones
are hollow for lighter weight
11. Respiration
air sacs supply oxygen when bird inhales and exhales
12. Body covering
feathers streamline body and shape the wings
13. Legs
consist mostly of skin, bone, and tendons, for lighter weight
14. Wings
shape and size determine type of flight a bird is capable of
MAMMALS
Various adaptations of mammals serve certain functions. In the space provided, write the letter of
the adaptations that perform the function. Any letter may be used more than once.
15. protection from low temperatures
a, g, h, j
16. protection from high temperatures
b, k
17. feeding young
f
Adaptation
a. hair
b. sweat glands
c. four-chambered heart
d. diaphragm
e. canine teeth
f. mammary glands
18. stabbing or holding food
e
g. small ears
h. body fat
19. grinding or chewing food
i
20. providing large amounts of oxygen
c, d
150
BIODIGEST 9 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
i. molars and premolars
j. hibernation
k. estivation
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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Function
Name
Date
Chapter
34
Protection, Support, and
Locomotion
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 34.1 Skin: The Body’s
Protection
In your textbook, read about the structure and function of the skin.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each description.
Description
Epidermis
Dermis
✓
1. The outermost layer of skin
2. Contains connective tissue, glands, and muscles
✓
3. The thicker, inner layer of skin
✓
4. Partly composed of dead, keratin-containing cells
✓
5. Contains pigmented cells that protect against the sun’s rays
✓
✓
6. Hair follicles grow out of this layer
✓
7. Site of continual mitotic cell divisions
✓
8. Richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves
Answer the following questions.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
9. Describe the change that takes place in your skin when you get a suntan.
Exposure to sunlight causes an increase in melanin production in epidermal
pigment cells, and the skin becomes darker.
10. How does skin help regulate body temperature?
When capillaries dilate, blood flow to the skin increases, and excess heat is lost to
the environment. When blood vessels constrict, body heat is conserved. Sweat
produced by sweat glands in the dermis also helps cool the body by evaporation.
11. List three other functions of skin.
(1) serves as protective layer; (2) functions as a sense organ; (3) helps to maintain
chemical balance
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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Name
Date
Chapter
34
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Protection, Support, and
Locomotion, continued
Section 34.2 Bones: The Body’s Support
In your textbook, read about the structure of the skeletal system and joints.
Identify the following as being part of the axial or appendicular skeleton.
appendicular 1. the tarsals, metatarsals, and
_______________
phalanges in your foot
appendicular
________________
4. the bones in your
shoulder
axial
2. the seven vertebrae in
_______________
your neck
axial
________________
5. your lower jaw
axial
3. your rib cage
_______________
appendicular
________________
6. the humerus in
your arm
For each answer below, write an appropriate question.
Answer: They are bands of connective tissue that attach muscles to bones.
7.
What are tendons?
Question: ___________________________________________________________________________
Answer: It absorbs shocks and reduces friction between bones in a joint.
8.
How does a bursa function?
Question: ___________________________________________________________________________
What are ligaments?
Question: ___________________________________________________________________________
Answer: One allows the bones to move back and forth; the other allows the bones to rotate.
10.
How do a hinge joint and a ball-and-socket joint differ?
Question: ___________________________________________________________________________
In your textbook, read about the formation of bone and bone growth.
Complete each sentence.
cartilage
bone
11. In a human embryo’s skeleton, __________________
is gradually replaced by __________________
nose
except in a few places like the tip of the __________________
.
osteoblasts
12. Some cells in cartilage are stimulated to become __________________
. They secrete a substance in
calcium
salts
which __________________
__________________
and other minerals are deposited.
ends
13. Your bones increase in length near their __________________
.
14. Even after you reach your full adult height, the bone-forming cells in your body will still be involved
repair
maintenance .
in __________________
and __________________
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Answer: They connect bones to other bones.
9.
Name
Date
Chapter
34
Protection, Support, and
Locomotion, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 34.2 Bones: The Body’s
Support, continued
In your textbook, read about compact and spongy bone and skeletal system functions.
Answer the following questions.
15. If you cut through to the center of a large leg bone, what bone components (in order, from the
outside in) would you encounter?
nerve and blood vessel-filled membrane; compact bone; spongy bone; marrow
16. How do blood vessels and nerves reach individual bone cells in compact bone?
through osteon systems
17. What role does bone marrow play in the functioning of your circulatory system?
Red bone marrow produces red blood cells, some white blood cells, and cell
fragments involved in clotting.
18. In what way is the skeleton a storehouse?
Calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals are stored in bone. Fat is also stored as
yellow marrow.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In your textbook, read about growth, mineral storage, and injury and disease in bone.
Determine if the statement is true or false.
false
____________________
19. Once you have finished growing, your bones no longer change.
true
____________________
20. Calcium is both deposited in and removed from bones.
false
____________________
21. Calcium removed from bone is rapidly excreted in the urine as an
unnecessary body waste.
true
____________________
22. As a person ages, his or her bone density usually decreases.
false
____________________
23. Because bones in an adult’s skeleton are harder than children’s bones,
adults are less likely to break a bone in a fall.
false
____________________
24. Osteoporosis is most common in older women because they rarely
include milk in their diet.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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153
Name
Date
Chapter
34
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Protection, Support, and
Locomotion, continued
Section 34.3 Muscles for
Locomotion
In your textbook, read about three types of muscles and skeletal muscle contraction.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each description.
Type of Muscle
Description
Smooth
Skeletal
1. under voluntary control
✓
2. striated
✓
3. slow, prolonged contractions
Cardiac
✓
✓
✓
4. attached to bones
✓
5. found only in the heart
6. not under voluntary control
✓
7. lines cavities and surrounds organs
✓
✓
In your textbook, read about muscle strength and exercise.
8. Muscle strength depends on the number of fibers in a muscle.
the thickness of fibers and how many of them contract at one time
9. When oxygen is limited, aerobic respiration becomes a muscle’s primary source for ATP.
anaerobic respiration
10. During anaerobic respiration, oxygen builds up in muscle cells.
lactic acid
11. A drop in the amount of lactic acid in the bloodstream indicates that muscular activity has decreased.
true
154
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Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
Name
Date
Chapter
35
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
The Digestive and
Endocrine Systems
Section 35.1 Following Digestion
of a Meal
In your textbook, read about the functions of the digestive tract, the mouth, and the stomach.
Complete each statement.
ingesting
1. The entire process of digestion involves first ___________________________
food, then
digesting
absorbing
___________________________
it into simpler compounds, then ___________________________
eliminating
nutrients for use by body cells, and, finally, ___________________________
wastes.
increase
2. By chewing your food, you ___________________________
its surface area.
chemical
3. Various enzymes play a role in ___________________________
digestion, while the action of teeth,
mechanical
tongue, and muscles are involved in ___________________________
digestion.
amylase
salivary
4. In your mouth, the enzyme __________________
is released from __________________
glands to
starch
begin the chemical breakdown of ___________________________
.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
incisors
5. Your ___________________________
are adapted for cutting food, while your
molars
___________________________
are best suited for grinding food.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
6. During swallowing, the epiglottis covers the esophagus to prevent choking.
respiratory tract
7. Food is moved through the digestive tract by rhythmic waves of voluntary muscle contractions
called peristalsis.
involuntary muscle contractions
8. The churning actions of the stomach help mix the food with pancreatic juices.
pepsin and hydrochloric acid (digestive juices)
9. Pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme that only works in an acidic environment.
true
10. The stomach releases its contents into the small intestine suddenly, all at once.
slowly, a little bit at a time
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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155
Name
Date
Chapter
35
The Digestive and Endocrine
Systems, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 35.1 Following Digestion
of a Meal, continued
In your textbook, read about the small intestine and the large intestine.
Answer the following questions.
11. What role do the enzymes secreted by the pancreas play in the digestive process?
Pancreatic enzymes break down, or continue the breakdown of, carbohydrates,
proteins, and fats.
12. Explain the relationship between the liver, the gallbladder, and bile.
Bile is produced in the liver and is stored in the gallbladder before being released
into the duodenum.
13. Once in the small intestine, what happens to
a. digested food?
These molecules enter the circulatory system via blood vessels inside the villi.
b. indigestible materials?
Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each function.
Function
Small Intestine
✓
14. Water is absorbed through walls.
15. Digestion is essentially completed.
✓
✓
16. Vitamin K is produced.
17. Nutrients are absorbed by villi.
✓
18. Contents are moved by peristalsis.
✓
156
CHAPTER 35 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
✓
✓
19. Indigestible material is collected.
20. Bile and pancreatic juices are added.
Large Intestine
✓
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Indigestible materials pass into the large intestine.
Name
Date
Chapter
35
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
The Digestive and Endocrine
Systems, continued
Section 35.2 Nutrition
In your textbook, read about carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description.
Description
Carbohydrates
Proteins
✓
1. the most energy-rich nutrients
2. sugars, starches, and cellulose
Fats
✓
✓
3. broken down into amino acids
4. part of a nutritious, balanced diet
✓
✓
5. normally used for building muscle,
but can be used for energy
6. broken down into glucose, fructose,
and other simple sugars
✓
✓
✓
✓
7. used to insulate the body from cold
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In your textbook, read about minerals and vitamins, water, and metabolism and calories.
Complete each statement.
Minerals
8. ___________________________
are inorganic substances that help to build tissue or take part in
chemical reactions in the body.
vitamins
9. Unlike minerals, ___________________________
are organic nutrients that help to regulate
body processes.
fat-soluble
10. The two major vitamin groups are the ___________________________
and the
water-soluble
___________________________
vitamins.
Calories
11. The energy content of food is measured in ___________________________
, each of which is
1000
equal to ___________________________
calories.
metabolize
12. Despite the claims of many fad diets, the only way to lose weight is to __________________________
eat
more calories than you ___________________________
.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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157
Name
Date
Chapter
35
The Digestive and Endocrine
Systems, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 35.3 The Endocrine System
In your textbook, read about control of the body and negative feedback control.
Complete each statement.
nervous
1. Internal control of the body is handled by the ___________________________
system and the
endocrine
___________________________
system.
pituitary
2. Most endocrine glands are controlled by the action of the ___________________________
,
or master gland.
hormone
3. A(n) ___________________________
is a chemical released in one part of the body that affects
another part.
4. The amount of hormone released by an endocrine gland is determined by the body’s
demand
___________________________
for that hormone at a given time.
negative feedback
5. A ___________________________
system is one in which hormones are fed back to inhibit the
original signal.
6. When your body is dehydrated, the pituitary releases ADH hormone, which reduces the amount
7. When you have just eaten and your blood glucose levels are high, your pancreas releases the
insulin
hormone ___________________________
, which signals the liver to take in glucose, thereby
lowering blood glucose levels.
In your textbook, read about hormone action, adrenal hormones and stress, and other hormones.
For each item in column A, write the letter of the matching item from Column B.
Column A
f
_________
a
_________
Column B
8. Determines the body’s food intake requirements
a. steroid hormones
9. Made from lipids and diffuse freely into cells
through the plasma membrane
b. glucocorticoids and aldosterone
e
10. Bind to receptors embedded in the plasma
_________
membrane of the target cell.
c. calcitonin and parathyroid
hormone
d
11. Produce a feeling called “adrenaline rush”
_________
d. epinephrine and norepinephrine
b
12. Help the body prepare for stressful situations
_________
e. amino acid hormones
c
13. Regulate calcium levels in blood
_________
f. thyroxine
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CHAPTER 35 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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water
of ___________________________
in your urine.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
36
Class
The Nervous System
Section 36.1 The Nervous System
In your textbook, read about neurons–basic units of the nervous system.
Complete the table by filling in the missing information in each case.
Structure
Function
1. sensory neurons
carry impulses toward the brain and spinal cord
2. dendrites
carry impulses toward neuron cell bodies
3. motor neurons
carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord
4. interneurons
transmit impulses within the brain and spinal cord
5. axons
carry impulses away from neuron cell bodies
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Order the steps in impulse transmission from 1 to 7.
4
___________
6. A wave of depolarization moves down the neuron.
6
___________
7. The Na/K pump takes over again, pumping sodium ions out across the membrane,
and pumping potassium ions in.
2
___________
8. Sodium channels in the neural membrane open.
1
___________
9. A neuron receives a stimulus.
5
___________
10. As the wave of depolarization passes, sodium channels close and potassium
channels open.
7
___________
11. The neuron returns to a resting state.
3
___________
12. Sodium ions flow into the neuron, causing the inside of the neuron to become positively charged.
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Name
Date
Chapter
36
The Nervous System, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 36.1 The Nervous System,
continued
In your textbook, read about the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Label the diagram of the brain to show the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem.
13. cerebrum
__________________________
cerebellum
14. __________________________
brain stem
15. __________________________
Write the name of the part labeled above that matches each description in the table.
Part
16. Includes the medulla and pons
brain stem
17. Controls conscious activities and movement
cerebrum
18. Important for keeping your balance
cerebellum
19. If damaged, heart rate might be affected
brain stem
20. If damaged, memory might be affected
cerebrum
21. Ensures that movements are coordinated
cerebellum
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each description.
Autonomic Nervous System Division
Description
Sympathetic
✓
22. Controls internal activities when the body is at rest
23. Increases breathing rate
✓
24. Tenses muscles
✓
✓
25. Slows heart rate down
26. Activates fight or flight response
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CHAPTER 36 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
Parasympathetic
✓
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Description
Name
Date
Chapter
36
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
The Nervous System, continued
Section 36.2 The Senses
In your textbook, read about sensing chemicals and sensing light.
Determine if each statement is true or false.
true
___________
1. Impulses coming from sensory receptors in your nose and mouth are interpreted as
odors and tastes by the cerebrum.
false
___________
2. All of your tongue’s tastebuds respond equally well to all taste sensations.
false
___________
3. The lens in the eye controls the amount of light that strikes the retina.
true
___________
false
___________
false
___________
true
___________
4. On a bright sunny day, the cones in your eyes play a greater role in your sense of sight
than the rods.
5. Only the left hemisphere of the brain is involved in the sense of sight.
6. When you are looking at an object, each of your eyes sees the object from the same
perspective.
7. Much of what you taste depends on your sense of smell.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In your textbook, read about sensing mechanical stimulation.
Circle the letter of the response that best completes each statement.
8. Sound waves are converted into nerve impulses inside the
a. ear canal.
b. cochlea.
c. malleus.
d. optic nerve.
9. If the semicircular canals in one of your ears were damaged, you might
a. lose your ability to hear low-frequency sounds.
b. lose your ability to coordinate your neck muscles.
c. lose your sense of balance.
d. lose your sense of rhythm.
10. The malleus, incus, and stapes are found in the
a. outer ear.
b. eardrum.
c. middle ear.
d. inner ear.
11. Your senses of hearing and touch both depend on nerve impulses being generated by
a. electrical stimulation.
b. sound waves.
c. a change in temperature.
d. mechanical stimulation.
12. In the skin of your fingertips, you might expect to find receptors for
a. touch.
b. pressure.
c. pain.
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d. all of these
CHAPTER 36 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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Date
Chapter
36
The Nervous System, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 36.3 The Effects of Drugs
In your textbook, read about how drugs act on the body, their medicinal uses, and abuse of drugs.
Answer the following questions.
1. Distinguish between a drug and a medicine.
A drug is any chemical that interacts with body functions. A medicine is a drug that
can prevent, cure, or relieve a medical problem.
2. What is a narcotic?
a pain reliever that depresses the CNS
3. Compare the effect of a stimulant on the CNS with the effect of a depressant.
A stimulant increases the activity of the CNS. A depressant decreases its activity.
4. What is an addiction?
being psychologically and/or physiologically dependent on a drug
5. How does a person’s body develop a tolerance for a drug?
In your textbook, read about the classes of commonly abused drugs.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each example.
Example
6. Drugs that cause an increase in heart rate
Stimulant
✓
✓
7. Alcohol
8. Nicotine
✓
9. Drugs that increase neurotransmitter levels
✓
✓
10. Barbiturates
11. Drugs that cause vasoconstriction
✓
✓
12. Opiates
13. Hallucinogens
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CHAPTER 36 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
Depressant
✓
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With habitual use, the body becomes less responsive to a given amount of a drug.
Name
Date
Chapter
37
Respiration, Circulation,
and Excretion
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 37.1 The Respiratory System
In your textbook, read about air passageways and lungs.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. During the process of respiration,
a. oxygen is delivered to body cells.
c. oxygen is used in cells to produce ATP.
b. carbon dioxide is expelled from the body.
d. all of these.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. When you swallow, your epiglottis momentarily covers the top of the trachea so that
a. you can swallow more easily.
b. you can breathe more easily.
c. you don’t get food in your air passages.
d. you can cough up foreign matter.
3. The cilia that line your trachea and bronchi
a. produce dirt-trapping mucus.
c. move mucus and dirt upward.
b. help in the exchange of oxygen and CO2.
d. only beat when you inhale.
4. The first branches off the trachea are called
a. bronchioles.
b. bronchi.
c. arterioles.
5. Inside the alveoli, carbon dioxide and oxygen
a. are exchanged between air and blood.
c. are produced inside cells.
b. are transported along microscopic tubules.
d. are exchanged for other gases.
d. alveoli.
6. Which is the correct sequence for the path of oxygen through the respiratory system?
a. nasal passages, bronchi, trachea, bronchioles, cells, blood, alveoli
b. cells, blood, alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, nasal passages
c. nasal passages, blood, alveoli, bronchi, cells, trachea, bronchioles
d. nasal passages, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, blood, cells
In your textbook, read about the mechanics of breathing and the control of respiration.
For each statement below, write true or false.
false
____________________
7. Homeostasis in respiration is controlled by the cerebrum.
false
____________________
8. As you exhale, the bronchioles in the lungs release most of their air.
true
____________________
9. When you inhale, the muscles between your ribs contract.
false
____________________
10. Relaxation of the diaphragm causes a slight vacuum in the lungs.
true
____________________
11. Air rushes into the lungs because the air pressure outside the body is greater
than the air pressure inside the lungs.
false
____________________
12. Relaxation of the diaphragm causes it to flatten.
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Chapter
37
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Respiration, Circulation,
and Excretion, continued
Section 37.2 The Circulatory System
In your textbook, read about your blood, ABO blood types, and blood vessels.
Answer the following questions.
1. What cells and substances would you expect to find suspended or dissolved in plasma?
red and white blood cells; platelets; carbon dioxide and other gases; hormones;
enzymes; proteins; inorganic salts; antibodies; nutrients
2. How is carbon dioxide transported in blood?
About 70% combines with water in the plasma to form bicarbonate; the rest is
carried by hemoglobin and/or dissolved in plasma.
Complete the table below by checking the correct column for each description.
Description
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
Platelets
✓
3. Contain hemoglobin
✓
4. Fight infection
✓
5. Lack a nucleus
✓
✓
7. Transport oxygen
8. Comparatively large and nucleated
✓
For each statement below, write true or false.
false
____________________
9. Your blood type can be changed with a blood transfusion.
false
____________________
10. Different blood types result from different antibodies being present on the
membranes of red blood cells.
true
____________________
11. If you have type B blood, then you have anti-A antibodies in your plasma.
false
____________________
12. Risks involving incompatible Rh factors are greatest for a woman’s first
child.
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✓
6. Help clot blood
Name
Date
Chapter
37
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Respiration, Circulation,
and Excretion, continued
Section 37.2 The Circulatory System,
continued
In your textbook, read about your heart, blood’s path through the heart, and inside your heart.
Label the parts of the human heart in the diagram below. Use these choices:
aorta
left atrium
left ventricle
pulmonary veins
right atrium
right ventricle
pulmonary arteries
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
aorta
13. __________________________
pulmonary arteries
14. __________________________
15.
pulmonary veins
right atrium
17. __________________________
16.
left atrium
right ventricle
19. __________________________
18.
left ventricle
20. Where does blood go from the pulmonary veins? From the right ventricle? From the left ventricle?
to the left atrium; to the pulmonary arteries; to the aorta
21. What prevents blood from mixing between atria and ventricles?
one-way valves
In your textbook, read about heartbeat regulation, control of the heart, and blood pressure.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
pulse
22. The surge of blood through an artery is called the cardiac output. _______________________________
true
23. The pacemaker initiates heartbeats by generating electrical impulses. ______________________________
24. An electrocardiogram is a record of the strength of each heartbeat. _______________________________
the electrical changes in the heart
25. The atrioventricular node, along with sensory cells in arteries near the heart, regulates the pacemaker.
medulla oblongata
Systolic pressure
26. Diastolic pressure occurs when the heart’s ventricles contract. ___________________________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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Date
Chapter
37
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Respiration, Circulation,
and Excretion, continued
Section 37.3 The Urinary System
In your textbook, read about kidneys, nephrons, and the formation of urine.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the major function of kidneys?
to filter wastes from blood in order to maintain fluid homeostasis
2. What role does the bladder play in the urinary system?
It stores the waste solution, urine.
3. What are nephrons?
the basic filtering units in kidneys
4
____________
4. From the Bowman’s capsule, fluid flows through a U-shaped tubule.
2
____________
5. Under high pressure, blood flows into capillaries that make up the glomerulus.
7
____________
6. After being stored in the bladder, urine exits the body via the urethra.
6
____________
7. Fluid moves from the end of the nephron’s tubule to the ureter.
1
____________
8. Blood enters the nephron from a branch of the renal artery.
5
____________
9. Water, glucose, amino acids, and ions are reabsorbed into the blood.
3
____________
10. Water, glucose, amino acids, wastes, and other substances move from glomerular
capillaries into a Bowman’s capsule.
In your textbook, read about the urinary system and homeostasis.
Complete each statement.
Ammonia
urea
11. __________________________
and __________________________
are two toxic nitrogenous wastes
that your kidneys constantly remove from your bloodstream.
osmotic
pressure
12. The kidneys also help regulate the blood’s ________________________
________________________
,
pH
and __________________________
.
(or) sodium level
glucose
13. Individuals with diabetes have excess levels of ___________________________
in their blood.
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REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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Order the following steps in the filtration of blood from 1 to 7.
Name
Date
Chapter
38
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Reproduction and
Development
Section 38.1 Human Reproductive Systems
In your textbook, read about human male anatomy and hormonal control.
Answer the following questions.
1. What are the primary functions of the male reproductive system?
to produce sperm and deliver them to a female
2. How does the location of the scrotum affect sperm?
Being outside the body core, the scrotum maintains sperm at the cooler-than-body
temperature conditions that they need to develop normally.
3. How many sperm can the average mature male produce in one day?
300 million
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Order the steps in the formation and transportation of sperm from 1 to 6.
4
____________
4. Mature sperm enter the vas deferens.
2
____________
5. Newly formed haploid sperm cells pass through a series of coiled ducts to
the epididymis.
6
____________
6. Sperm leave the body via the urethra.
3
____________
7. Sperm mature in the epididymis.
1
____________
8. Cells lining tubules in the testes undergo meiosis.
5
____________
9. Sperm travel along the ejaculatory ducts and into the urethra.
Complete each sentence.
puberty
10. When a young man’s voice “changes,” he is probably entering __________________________
, a time
sex
characteristics
when he will develop other secondary _____________________
______________________
.
pituitary
hypothalamus
11. A hormone released by the ________________________
stimulates the ________________________
stimulating
follicle
- ________________________
and
gland to release ________________________
luteinizing
________________________
hormones.
sperm
12. FSH regulates __________________________
production, while LH controls the production of the
testosterone
by the testes.
steroid hormone ________________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 38 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
167
Name
Date
Chapter
38
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Reproduction and
Development, continued
Section 38.1 Human Reproductive Systems,
continued
In your textbook, read about human female anatomy and puberty in females.
Determine if each statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
13. When an egg cell is released from an ovary, it moves down the oviduct by gravity.
peristaltic muscle contraction and beating cilia
14. As is the case in human males, a woman’s hypothalamus produces FSH and LH.
pituitary gland
15. FSH stimulates follicle development and the release of estrogen from the ovary.
true
16. In females, luteinizing hormone (LH) is responsible for the development of the secondary
sex characteristics.
estrogen
17. Long before a woman is born, cells in her ovaries that are destined to become future eggs
undergo several mitotic divisions.
one meiotic division or a partial meiotic division
In your textbook, read about the menstrual cycle.
Phase of Menstrual Cycle
Event
Flow
Follicular
18. LH stimulates the corpus luteum to develop from a
ruptured follicle.
✓
✓
19. Estrogen levels are at their peak.
20. A cell inside a follicle resumes meiotic divisions.
✓
✓
21. Progesterone levels are at their peak.
22. The uterine lining is shed.
✓
23. LH levels rise abruptly.
✓
24. Ovulation occurs.
✓
25. The uterine lining becomes engorged with blood, fat,
and tissue fluid.
26. FSH begins to rise.
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CHAPTER 38 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
Luteal
✓
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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Complete the table by checking the correct column for each event.
Name
Date
Chapter
38
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Reproduction and
Development, continued
Section 38.2 Development Before Birth
In your textbook, read about fertilization and implantation, and embryonic membranes.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
amnion
blastocyst
chorion
chorionic villi
embryo
implants
oviduct
placenta
umbilical cord
zygote
oviduct
, an egg and one sperm unite
Usually in the upper part of a(n) (1) __________________________
zygote
to form a(n) (2) __________________________
. This single cell divides repeatedly to form a(n)
blastocyst
implants
(3) __________________________
, which (4) __________________________
in the uterine wall. Part
embryo
of the blastocyst becomes the (5) __________________________
, which is surrounded by a fluid-filled,
amnion
membranous sac called the (6) __________________________
. The embryo is connected to the wall
umbilical cord
of the uterus by its (7) __________________________
. The amniotic sac is enclosed by the
chorion
placenta
(8) __________________________
, which later forms the (9) __________________________
.
Nutrients and oxygen from the mother and wastes from the embryo are exchanged in the
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
chorionic villi
(10) __________________________
.
In your textbook, read about fetal development and genetic counseling.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each event or example.
Trimester
Event/Example
First
Second
✓
11. Fetus can survive outside the uterus with medical assistance.
✓
12. Fetus weighs more than 3000 grams.
13. Embryo is most vulnerable to outside influences.
✓
14. Embryo becomes a fetus.
✓
✓
15. Fetus can use its muscles to move spontaneously.
✓
16. Fetus becomes oriented head-down.
17. Sex of fetus can be determined.
CHAPTER 38 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
Third
✓
169
Name
Date
Chapter
38
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Reproduction and
Development, continued
Section 38.3 Birth, Growth, and Aging
In your textbook, read about birth.
Answer the following questions.
dilation, expulsion, and the placental stage
1. What are the three stages of birth? _______________________________________________________
Oxytocin stimulates contraction of the uterine muscles
2. Describe the action of oxytocin. __________________________________________________________
and dilation of the cervix.
3. After the placenta is expelled from a woman’s body, what effect do continued uterine contractions
Continued contractions constrict the uterine blood vessels and prevent
have? ________________________________________________________________________________
hemorrhaging.
In your textbook, read about growth and aging.
Complete each sentence.
4. Your growth rate, as well as the type of growth you undergo, varies with both your
age
sex
__________________________
and your __________________________
.
Human
growth
hormone
5. __________________________
__________________________
__________________________
,
hGH
abbreviated __________________________
, regulates growth.
muscles
__________________________
.
protein synthesis
fat metabolism
7. LGH works by increasing __________________________
and __________________________
.
Complete the table by checking the correct column for each description.
Example
8. Your growth rate continues at a steady rate.
Childhood
Adolescence
✓
9. Lines develop on your face, especially around
your eyes and mouth.
✓
✓
10. You reach maximum physical stature.
11. You begin to reason.
12. You may have a sudden growth spurt.
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CHAPTER 38 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
Adulthood
✓
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
bones
skeletal
6. hGH exerts its effects primarily on ________________________
and on ________________________
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Chapter
39
Class
Immunity From Disease
Section 39.1 The Nature of Disease
In your textbook, read about what an infectious disease is, determining what causes a disease, and the
spread of infectious diseases.
Answer the following questions.
1. Why is a disease like osteoarthritis not considered an infectious disease?
Infectious diseases area caused by pathogens that invade the body.
2. What is meant by Koch’s postulates?
a series of experimental steps, developed by Robert Koch in 1876, used to identify
infectious pathogens
3. In terms of disease, what is a reservoir?
a source of pathogens
Complete the table by writing in the method of transmission for each example.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Example
Method of Transmission
4. While exploring a cave, a person breathes in fungal spores
that cause a lung infection.
airborne
5. A person contracts Rocky Mountain spotted fever after
being bitten by a tick.
vector
6. After having unprotected sex, a person contracts syphilis.
direct contact
In your textbook, read about what causes the symptoms of a disease, patterns of disease, and treating diseases.
For each statement below, write true or false.
true
____________________
7. The toxin produced by a particular microorganism might be far more
destructive than the direct damage the microbe does to its host cells.
false
____________________
8. Endemic diseases often disappear in a population, only to resurface
unexpectedly many years later.
false
____________________
9. If you catch the flu during an influenza epidemic, your best hope of
recovery is to take antibiotics.
true
____________________
10. It is important for researchers to try to discover new antibiotics because
many types of bacteria are becoming resistant to the ones now being used.
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 39 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
171
Name
Date
Chapter
39
Immunity From Disease, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Section 39.2 Defense Against Infectious
Diseases
In your textbook, read about the innate immune system.
Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
1. Healthy skin is a good defense against the invasion of pathogens because it is free of bacteria.
a physical barrier that prevents the entry of pathogens into the body
2. In your trachea, saliva traps microbes and prevents them from entering your lungs.
mucus
3. Macrophages migrate into the bloodstream when the body is challenged by a pathogen.
out of body tissues and into infected areas
4. Phagocytes at the site of an infection or inflammation destroy pathogens by surrounding and engulf-
true
ing them. _____________________________________________________________________________
5. The third line of defense against infection is the consumption of pathogens by neutrophils.
monocytes that mature to become macrophages
viruses
In your textbook, read about acquired immunity.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
7. The human lymphatic system is important in
a. filtering pathogens from lymph.
c. resistance to disease.
b. keeping body fluids constant.
d. all of the above.
8. Tissue fluid is found
a. in lymph vessels.
c. around body cells.
b. in the bloodstream.
d. in lymph ducts.
9. The main function of lymph nodes is to
a. store red blood cells.
c. filter excess fluid.
b. filter lymph.
d. trigger an immune response.
10. A reservoir for lymphocytes that can be transformed into specific disease-fighting cells is the
a. thymus gland.
b. thyroid gland.
c. pituitary gland.
d. pancreas.
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CHAPTER 39 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
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6. Interferon is produced by cells infected by pathogenic bacteria.
Name
Date
Chapter
39
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Immunity From Disease, continued
Section 39.2 Defense Against Infectious
Diseases, continued
In your textbook, read about antibody immunity and cellular immunity.
Complete each sentence.
Acquired immunity
resistance
11. ___________________________
is the building up of a ___________________________
to a specific
pathogen.
12. Two types of immunity that involve different kinds of cells and cellular actions are
antibody
cellular
___________________________
immunity and ___________________________
immunity.
antigens
13. The presence of foreign ___________________________
in the body triggers the production of
antibodies
___________________________
by plasma cells.
B cell
T cell
14. A ______________________
is a lymphocyte that, when activated by a _________________________,
antibodies
becomes a plasma cell and produces ___________________________
.
T
15. Cellular immunity involves several different types of ___________________________
cells.
pathogens
killer T cell
16. A ______________________
releases enzymes directly into the _______________________
.
Complete the table by checking the correct columns for each example.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Type of Immunity
Example
Cellular
✓
17. Involves the protection of antibodies
18. Simulated by antigens in the body
✓
19. Clones of killer T cells produced
✓
20. Memory cells produced so the body can respond quickly to a
second attack
✓
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
✓
✓
✓
21. Key role played by antigen-antibody complex
22. T cells destroyed by pathogens directly
Antibody
✓
CHAPTER 39 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
173
Name
Date
Chapter
39
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
Immunity From Disease, continued
Section 39.2 Defense Against Infectious
Diseases, continued
In your textbook, read about passive and active immunity to infectious diseases.
Answer the following questions.
23. Distinguish between active and passive immunity.
Active immunity develops as a result of direct exposure to antigens; passive
immunity results from acquiring antibodies through inoculations, or via the
placenta or breast milk.
24. In what two ways can passive immunity develop?
(1) naturally, when antibodies are transferred from mother to fetus or nursing
infant; (2) artificially, via injection
25. What is a vaccine?
a substance made up of weakened or dead pathogens, or parts of pathogens that,
injected into the body, will cause active immunity
In your textbook, read about AIDS and the immune system.
true
26. The virus that causes AIDS—Human Immunodeficiency Virus—is well____________________
named because it attacks the immune system.
false
____________________
27. HIV can be transmitted by air.
true
____________________
28. A child born to a woman who is infected with HIV is at high risk for being
infected, too.
false
____________________
29. HIV destroys a person’s resistance to disease by attacking and destroying
memory T cells.
false
____________________
30. In a blood sample from an HIV-positive person, you would expect to find
most of the viruses existing free in the blood, rather than being hidden
inside cells.
false
____________________
31. If a person is infected with HIV, he or she will usually develop AIDS within
about a year.
true
____________________
32. The cause of death for a person with AIDS usually is some type of infection
that the body’s weakened immune system can no longer fight off.
true
____________________
33. The majority of persons infected with HIV will develop AIDS.
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CHAPTER 39 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
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For each statement below, write true or false.
Name
Date
Reinforcement and Study Guide
BioDigest
10
Class
The Human Body
In your textbook, read about skin, bones, and muscles.
protects tissues and organs , (2) __________________________
helps regulate the body
Skin has four functions: (1) _______________________________
temperature
produces vitamin D , and (4) __________________________________
contains many sensory
_________________
, (3) _________________________
receptors
_______________
. These functions help maintain homeostasis in the body.
Complete the table to describe the role of bones.
Support for
5. softer, underlying tissues
Place for
6. muscle attachment
Protects
7. vital organs
Manufacture of
8. blood cells
Storehouse of
9. calcium and phosphorus
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
This diagram shows the various steps involved in the respiratory process. In the space provided,
describe the steps as indicated.
Step 1: Oxygen
enters the lungs
when you inhale.
Step 7: Carbon dioxide
leaves the lungs when
you exhale.
LUNG
Oxygen
Step 2: (10) _____________
Carbon
Step 6: (13) _____________
passes from the alveoli
________________________
dioxide passes from
________________________
in the lungs to the
________________________
Bloodstream
Bloodstream
bloodstream.
________________________
the bloodstream to the
________________________
alveoli in the lungs.
________________________
Step 3: Oxygen passes
from blood to the
cells.
Carbon
Step 5: (12) _____________
Cell
O2
+
Glucose
ATP
dioxide passes from
________________________
the cell to the blood________________________
CO2
stream.
________________________
Oxygen
Step 4: (11) _____________
breaks down glucose
________________________
to produce ATP for cells
________________________
and to release CO2.
________________________
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
BIODIGEST 10 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
175
Name
Date
BioDigest
10
The Human Body, continued
Class
Reinforcement and Study Guide
In your textbook, read about reproductive, endocrine, and lymphatic systems.
14. The endocrine system is a communication system; its messages are hormones. They are produced by
target
glands
bloodstream
__________________________
and travel in the ___________________________
to ______________
tissues
alter the metabolism of the target tissue cells
______________
. There they ___________________________________________________________
.
testes
15. The structures of the male reproductive system—the scrotum, ___________________________
,
prostate gland
epididymis, seminal vesicles, ___________________________
, bulbourethral gland, urethra, and
penis
producing
__________________________
—are involved in ___________________________
and maintaining
transferring sperm cells into the female reproductive tract.
sperm cells and ___________________________
ovaries
16. The structures of the female reproductive system—the ___________________________
, oviduct,
uterus
egg cells
__________________________
, and vagina—produce and maintain __________________________
,
sperm cells
receive and transport __________________________
, and support the development of the
fetus
__________________________
.
Explain how these systems of the body interact with each other.
17. Skeletal system
Circulatory system
Muscular system
circulatory system to bring oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the muscular system.
18. Digestive system
Circulatory system
Urinary system
Possible answer: Circulation system carries waste products from food breakdown
to the urinary system to be eliminated.
19. Endocrine system
Reproductive system
Answer should reflect: Hormones secreted by glands in the endocrine system alter
the metabolism of target tissues in the reproductive system.
20. Respiratory System
system
Circulatory system
Urinary and Respiratory systems
Cell
Circulatory
Answer should reflect: Oxygen supplied by respiratory system is carried by circulatory systems to cells; waste products from metabolism are carried by circulatory
system to urinary and respiratory systems for excretion.
21. Circulatory system
Lymphatic system
Answer should reflect: Fluids from capillaries of circulatory system bathe the cells
and then are absorbed by the lymphatic system.
176
BIODIGEST 10 BIOLOGY: The Dynamics of Life
REINFORCEMENT AND STUDY GUIDE
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Possible answer: Skeletal system manufactures blood cells that travel through the
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