Ch DANIEL Railway review version05

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Christian DANIEL SNCF
RAILWAY REVIEW
Let’s describe here the triptych of the Railway Business (Figure 1 : The Railway Triptych), on the right leaf we have
the owners (as ROSCO..), on the left leaf we have the train operators and finally in the centre leaf the
Maintenance. A closer look to our triptych could divide each leaf into 2 panels. The left top panel is featuring the
upcoming rules ISO 55000 (from PAS 55 of BSI) to border the relations between train owners, train operators and
the relevant franchising process. The middle top panel is featuring the “Entity in Charge Of Maintenance”
(European regulation 2011/445 and the future extensions to the passenger traffic) and the right leaf one’s is
supporting the existing “Bible of the interoperability & safety rules” from ERA. A closer look at the center leaf
lower panel reveals a blur image of a major issue “The Maintenance Plan”. I will give here some “readings” for a
comprehensive and mutual sharing of a potential definition of a Maintenance Plan.
Let’s go back to the actors described in the top middle leaf from the E.C.M. The 4 main blocks are the functions of
the E.C.M (Entity in Charge of Maintenance) :
-
Management (leading the 3 following others)
Maintenance Development
Maintenance Delivery
Fleet Management
ISO 55 000 / PAS 55
ERA Safety & Interoperability
Regulation 2011 / 445 and future extensions
Customer’s satisfaction
Certification Organism
(ANS , Accepted Body , Recognized. BODY)
Safety Management System
Safety Management System
Train Operating Company
Rolling Stock
Mileage
Drivers
Train
Management
ERA Safety &
Interoperability
ECM
Management
Maintenance Delivery
Fleet
Maintenance
Development
Management Vehicle
Parts
Owner
Train
Manufacturer
Depot Workshop
Left Leaf
Center Leaf
Right Leaf
Figure 1 : The Railway Triptych
The “Maintenance Plan” is not visible at the forefront but is structuring the hinges between leafs.
A “Maintenance Plan” is a container that should answer the following basic questions:
-
What : Describe the Maintenance item
Why: Describe the job [Preventive / Corrective / Damage … ]
Where : In depot / On service / In workshop
When : It is the periodicity of the operation
Who : Detailed the skill to operate
How : Detailed the logistic support
The staffs which realize the job in the depot MUST understand the meaning of these simple questions. .The two
formers of these questions have a greater weigh into the exchange between business process (we could define
them as data and the 4’s others as medata).
“WHAT” describes a maintenance item on a rolling stock vehicle so we need two structures:
-
One to describe the “Class data” ; at the evidence we are facing a gap to standardize this data
One to describe the Maintenance item breakdown; ISO 15380 [Railway applications - Designation system
for railway vehicles - Part 2: Product groups] is a good opportunity to share the same meaning between
all the actors and during the lifetime of the rolling stock.
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Christian DANIEL SNCF
RAILWAY REVIEW
“WHY” describes the Maintenance Operation. Generally it is coded by a name; each company using its own code
to describe and refer operations. CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System) hosts
Maintenance Plan (MP) but we can sum-up two categories of MP model:
a) Each operation refers to a specific route (with a sequence of task)
b) Each operation cross references a list of predefined task. (as described in Figure 2 : Maintenance Plan
content)
Figure 2 : Maintenance Plan content
The a) model gives a feel of simplicity but in case of MP engineering changes, this model gives more modifications
in the records from each MP. Routes also are describing activities in a depot, we could reach some limits if a
group of depot shares the same routes
The b) model is giving more flexibility and simplicity for metadata and engineering changes.
“WHEN” is the trigger of the OPERATION. Generally for a Preventive MP Operation it is based on mileage/time
meters while Corrective MP is triggered after a fault isolation procedure. Others units are available for
Preventive MP Operation but generally they are labelled “Condition Monitoring” [Hours, millimetres …]
“WHO” and “HOW” describes the logistic support for the Maintenance Operation. I could recommend the huge
work form Aerospace & Defence industries: The 3000L International procedure specification for logistic
support analysis. The list of the elements in LSA (Logistic Support Analysis) output during the Maintenance
Tasks Analysis (MTA) is:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
Skill
Generic Tools / Specific Tools / Test Equipment
Infrastructure
Information Technology Support
Documentation / Technical Publication
Training
Parts and expendable
Packaging / Handling / Storage / Transport
Scrapped Products
The LSA Business Process (see Figure 3 :LSA Business Process) places also the Maintenance Plan in the middle of
the scene. The Maintenance Plan is structured with the tasks (and the LSA Records) and links to
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Christian DANIEL SNCF
RAILWAY REVIEW
documentations (via Technical Publication). The feed-back refines the 9 records with the documentation
contents.
MAINTENANCE CONCEPT
DESIGN DATA’S
Reliabilty
LOGISTIC SUPPORT
Optimisation
9 Records
MAINTENANCE PLAN
TECHNICAL CONTENTS REPOSITORY
Technical
Documentation
PUBLICATION OF TECHNICAL
DOCUMENTATION
9 LSA Items :
1) Skill
2) Generic & Specific Tools / Test
Equipment
3) Infrastructure
4) Information Technology Support
5) Documentation / Technical Publication
6) Training
7) Parts and expendable
8) Packaging / Handling / Storage /
Transport
9) Scrapped Products
FEED_BACK
PROCESS
MAINTENANCE
IN SERVICE
Figure 3 :LSA Business Process
The Maintenance business process (Figure 4 :Maintenance Plan Business Process) enlarges the activities for each
main actor:
-
-
The train manufacturer who issues the first “Maintenance Plan” with the following contents
o Preventive Operations
 scheduled operations (which prevent failure modes)
 “special events” operations
o Corrective Operations
 Failure (to recover after an isolated fault)
 Standard Repair (mount and dismount
 Casualty : Damage Operation after shock or derailment
The “Maintenance Development” which organises the sub-data of the Maintenance Plan and actuates the
data by analysing feedback from the maintenance Staff
The “Maintenance Delivery” which inputs the Maintenance Plan into the CMMS to create “Work Orders”
The Maintenance Plan is The key referential data for a CMMS (the second one is the fleet). The daily trains
operated by a train operator supplies the CMMS with the mileage. The CMMS compare the threshold of each
operation for each rolling stock to the technical limits and create the corresponding preventive work orders.
Faults are resolved by isolating the defected parts thus corrective work orders are created manually in the CMMS.
The MP could be addressed in 2 formats:
-
A simple format describing only OPERATION and the relative limits (alias SMP : Simplified Maintenance
Plan)
A detailed format describing links between Task versus Operation and the logistic support items for each
task of each operation (alias DMP : Detailed Maintenance Plan)
The choice between SMP & DMP is a matter of 2 elements:
-
The availability of the data
The capacity of the CMMS to operate such data.
The DMP allows Life Cycle Cost estimations, an example will be analysed later
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Christian DANIEL SNCF
RAILWAY REVIEW
Work Order Process
Train Manufacturer
Owner
Maintenance
Development
Train Operator
Maintenance Task Analysis
Fleet
Trains
Tasks
LSA Records
Operation=
Tasks
Maintenance Plan
« Call For Change »
Fault Management
DMP
New release
Mileage
Maintenance Plan
« As Design »
Maintenance Plan
« As built »
SMP
CMMS
Work Orders
Service
Experience
Figure 4 :Maintenance Plan Business Process
The registration 2011/445 is requesting namely two major data from the actor “Maintenance Development” to
the actor “Maintenance Delivery”: Maintenance Plan and Configuration. These are records from specific and
heavy Engineering studies. The methodologies to achieve these records are supplementary and CMMS have to
separate these records to be compliant with the relevant standard. Maintenance plans refer to a definition of
work while configuration data refer to a physical description /organisation of the rolling stock. The standard ISO
10007 determines business process for configuration management. It also specifies that Configuration
Management exchanges Data with Maintenance in Operation. Maintenance Plan is organised with maintenance
Items on maintenance breakdown and in the same declination, configuration management produces
Configuration Breakdown and Configuration items. The overlaid data are populated with LRU (Line Replaceable
Unit) which have a meter for Maintenance purpose.
Development Data Entry for a Maintenance Management System
Maintenance Development
Class of Rolling Stock
Maintenance Delivery
Rolling Stock Fleet
Maintenance Breakdown
Configuration
Installed items
Mileage
Maintenance Item
Overlaid data
Trigger +
Technical Limits
Maintenance Plan
Configuration Definition
Items
CMMS
Configuration Definition
Breakdown
Figure 5 : when Maintenance Plan Overlays Configuration data
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Christian DANIEL SNCF
RAILWAY REVIEW
The « Big Picture » of Maintenance Plan (Figure 6: CMMS: Data Management) depicts the major activities around
a CMMS at a depot location:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Maintenance Plan
Configuration
Changes
Services.
Only Services activities are not CMMS relevant (but some could manage it). The 3 formers activities are the pillars
of any CMMS. We have demonstrated that these 3 activities are resulting from independent studies and
independent constrains so CMMS have to preserve these functional independences.
ECM : DESIGN REVIEW &
RELIABILITY
NSA , Europe :
LAWS
ECM :
MAINTENANCE CONCEPT
TECHNICAL
ENGINEERING
SAFETY
RECORDS
CHANGES
CONFIGURATION
Change Management
Rolling Stock Manufacturer :
DESIGN DATA’S
Train Operating Company
: Operating Conditions
LOGISTIC SUPPORT ANALYSIS AND RECORD
Train Operating
MAINTENANCE PLAN
SERVICES
Corrective Maintenance
Replenishment
IT Updates
Preventive Maintenance
Configuration Management
Special Events
Scheduled
Damage
Standard Repair
Failures
Casualty
Work Orders tracked on CMMS
OPERATE & MAINTAIN FLEET
Figure 6: CMMS: Data Management
A DMP (Detailed Maintenance Plan) offers any train owner to simulate the maintenance cost over long period (as
long as the entire life). In case of franchising process some matters appear when the length of franchise
reaches the first critical component overhaul. In the example (Figure 7:LCC Estimate) , we have estimate the
preventive maintenance cost per month. The red line giving a average cost , the pointed out elements (10 , 15
, 17 , 20 years) will introduce non linearity in the franchising cost. The better the DMP will be at the beginning
of franchising, the smoother will be the exchange between the train operator and the owner (are these
maintenance items to include, to exclude or to challenge?). A third partner has perhaps the key to these
challenges: the Maintenance Development. The Maintenance development has to analyze continuously
defects, faults and wears to issue at constant period a new DMP for these maintenance items. The quality of
the service experience is a key factor to validate the hypothesis made of the train manufacturer level;
whatever the recalculation will be (optimistic or pessimistic) , it will impact the franchising process.
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Christian DANIEL SNCF
RAILWAY REVIEW
K€
Figure 7:LCC Estimate
My conclusion: MP (SMP or DMP) is a key dynamic data which structure the Maintenance Process of a fleet.
Many business processes are based on these data and they could be considered as a framework for many
actors. Exchanging data means also standardization to achieve updating of the business processes. We are now
entering a new scheme were actors jump from a organisation to another and gaining more standardization in
the data will solve planning and cost issues in fleet transfers. But we have also to look to the best of breed of the
“S Series : S1000D/S2000M/S3000L” and see how we could decline these methodologies to our railways
industry. It’s may be the right time now to open our LSA think tanks.
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