APA Ethics

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Principles
Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
Benefit others and do no harm
Safeguard welfare and rights of people, animals, and subjects of research
Resolve conflicts to avoid/minimize harm
B/c we have power, we guard against misuse of our influence
Aware of our health and its effect on others
Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility
Establish relationships of trust with others
Aware of our responsibilities
Uphold standards of conduct, clarify roles and obligations, accept appropriate
responsibility, Manage conflicts of interest that could lead to exploitation or harm.
Work with other professionals to serve best interests of others
Concerned with ethical compliance of colleagues
Contribute portion of time for no compensation.
Principle C: Integrity
Promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness
Do not steal, cheat, fraud, etc.
Keep promises, avoid unclear commitments
In situation deception is justifiable, we have obligation to correct any resulting mistrust
Principle D: Justice
Fairness and justice for all in terms of access and benefits from psychology
Ensure that our biases and boundaries do not condone unjust practices
Equality of care
Competence
Social justice
Principle E: Respect for People’s Right and Dignity
Respect dignity, worth, and rights of all to privacy, confidentiality, and self-determination
Special safeguards may be necessary to protect those with impaired decision making.
Aware and respect cultural differences
Do not participate in activities based on prejudices
Standard 1: Resolving Ethical Issues
Mary Looked Over the Information and Facts and Called the Inmate Privately
1.01 Misuse of Psychologists’ Work
Correct the misuse or misrepresentation of your work
1.02 Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority
Follow Ethics Code above the Law (violating human rights)
1.03 Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational Demands
Follow Ethics Code above organizational demands
1.04 Informal Resolution of Ethical Violations
We informally approach individuals that may have violated an ethical standard
1.05 Reporting Ethical Violations (Formal Resolution)
If informal resolution is unsuccessful, then include ethical committees or licensing
boards
1.06 Cooperating With Ethics Committees
Cooperate in ethical investigations
1.07 Improper Complaints
Do not file with reckless disregard or willful ignorance of facts that would disprove
the allegation
1.08 Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants and Respondents (Promotions and
Employment
Cannot deny promotion or employment if somebody is subject to an ethical
investigation
Standard 2: Competence
Before Engaging in Military Start by Describing your Prizes
2.01 Boundaries of Competence
Provide services, teach and conduct research within your area of competence
Obtain training, experience, consultation or supervision to ensure competence
Undertake relevant education
If no referrals available, provide services and seek consultation
Multicultural competence is relevant here
Rooted in beneficence and nonmaleficence, and justice
2.02 Providing Services in Emergencies
Provide services during emergencies, but end once emergency has ended
2.03 Maintaining Competence
On-going effort to maintain competence
2.04 Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgments
Assessments, interventions, and statements based on established knowledge
2.05 Delegation of Work to Others
Do not delegate work if multiple relationships exist
Do not delegate to those without competency
Manage their work properly
2.06 Personal Problems and Conflicts
Refrain if there will be a personal problem; if there is, take appropriate measures
Self-care and emotional/interpersonal competence is important
Standard 3: Human Relations
Doesn’t Sarah Have to Navigate Many Complicated 3-dimensional Employees? Choose
Instead Organizational Psychology.
3.01 Unfair Discrimination
3.02 Sexual Harassment
3.03 Other Harassment
3.04 Avoiding Harm (Nonmaleficence)
3.05 Multiple Relationships
Avoid if impairs objectivity or competence
If required to perform multiple roles, then must state at the outset
3.06 Conflict of Interest
Financial or career status conflicts with client’s best interest
3.07 Third-Party Requests for Services
Identify client
Service provided
Limits to confidentiality
3.08 Exploitative Relationships
3.09 Cooperation With Other Professionals
3.10 Informed Consent
If client incapable of giving consent, make appropriate measures
If mandated, inform client of services and limits of confidentiality
Document consent
3.11 Psychological Services Delivered to or Through Organizations
Identify client
Clarity on my relationship with each person
Use of services and information obtained
Limits to confidentiality
If precluded by law from providing information to select individuals, state at outset
3.12 Interruption of Psychological Services (Professional will)
Create working will
Standard 4: Privacy and Confidentiality
Chris Loves Regina so Minimize Disclosure Concerning the Divorce
4.01 Maintaining Confidentiality
We may underestimate threats to confidentiality
4.02 Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality
Discuss with people/organizations limits of confidentiality
Foreseeable uses of information generated
Mentioned at outset and whenever it changes
On electronic transmission, limited confidentiality must be stated
4.03 Recording
4.04 Minimizing Intrusions on Privacy
Only provide relevant information to other parties
Only provide for appropriate scientific or clinical purposes to those that are
relevant
4.05 Disclosures
Disclosure acceptable with consent
Disclosure if mandated or permitted by law
4.06 Consultations
No identifying information
Disclose only extent necessary
No gossiping
4.07 Use of Confidential Information for Didactic or Other Purposes
Cannot use unless disguise person/organization
Received consent
Legal authorization
Standard 5: Advertising and Other Public Statements
False Statements Within Media can Total Suck
5.01 Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements
Public statements must be true
5.02 Statement by others
Must be true
We cannot pay them
Must state that it is a paid advertisement
5.03 Description of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs
Must be accurately described
5.04 Media Presentations
with integrity
5.05 Testimonials
Do not solicit
5.06 In-Person Solicitation
Standard 6: Record Keeping and Fees
Maintaining a Close Wife for a Fee can Be A Rip-off
6.01 Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work and Maintenance of Records
Create
Control
Maintain
Disseminate
Store
Retain
Dispose
For the purposes of future services, replication of research, institutional
requirements billing, and compliance.
6.02 Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records or Professional
and Scientific Work
Maintain confidentiality
Secure databases
6.03 Withholding Records for Nonpayment
Cannot in emergencies
6.04 Fees and Financial Arrangements
Cleary discuss at outset
If limitations to services due to lack of finances exist, inform as soon as
possible
If using collection agencies, attempt goodwill efforts inform first
6.05 Barter with Client/Patients
Not clinically inadvisable
Not exploitative
6.06 Accuracy in Reports to Payors and Funding Sources
Ensure accuracy
Services provided
Research conducted
Fees
Charges
Payments
Findings
Diagnosis
6.07 Referrals and Fees
No kickback
Standard 7: Education and Training
Description Designs Aren’t Dire To Evaluating Students
7.01 Design of Education and Training
Provide appropriate knowledge and experiences
7.02 Descriptions of Education and Training Programs
Current and accurate description
7.03 Accuracy in Teaching
Subject matter
Evaluation process
Course experiences
7.04 Student Disclosure of Personal Information
Not allowed, except stated in admissions
Necessary for evaluation if student’s personal problems is preventing them
7.05 Mandatory Individual or Group Therapy
Refer practitioners unaffiliated with the program
No dual relationship (evaluator and therapist)
7.06 Assessing Student and Supervisee Performance (Evaluating)
Explained at outset
7.07 Sexual Relationships with Students and Supervisees
Not allowed if within their department, training center, or have evaluative
authority
Standard 8: Research and Publication
8.01 Institutional Approval
8.02 Informed Consent to Research
8.03 Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research
8.04 Client/Patient, Student and Subordinate Research Participants
Protect them from adverse consequences of declining or withdrawing
If for course credit, must give a choice of equitable alternative activities
8.05 Dispensing With Informed Consent for Research
If does not distress/harm
Anonymous questionnaires
Naturalistic observations (classroom, job settings)
Archival research
Permitted by law
8.06 Offering Inducements for Research Participation
Not excessive or coercive
If offering professional services, clarify nature of services, risks, limitations, and
obligations
8.07 Deception in Research
Do not deceive unless justified
No physical pain or severe emotional distress
Disclose as early as possible
8.08 Debriefing
Tell participants promptly about the nature, results and conclusion
If must be delayed, take measures to reduce risk of harm
If harmed, minimize harm
8.09 Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research
8.10 Reporting Research Results
Do not fabricate
If discover errors, correct it
8.11 Plagiarism
8.12 Publication Credit
Should reflect amount of work, not status
8.13 Duplicate publication of Data
8.14 Sharing Research Data for Verification
8.15 Reviewers
Respect confidentiality and proprietary rights
Standard 9: Assessment
9.01 Bases for Assessments
Based on information and techniques sufficient to justify findings
Only after conducting adequate assessment
If psychologist’s opinion is not warranted, then state and justify
9.02 Use of Assessments
Appropriate
Validity and reliability tested for that population
Appropriate to their language preference and competence
9.03 Informed Consent in Assessments
Obtain exempt when mandated by law, implied b/c part of routine (school,
organization), used to evaluate decisional capacity
For people mandated or limited capacity to consent, nature of assessment
and purpose must be stated, and using language that is understandable
must be used
If using interpreter, receive informed consent and ensure confidentiality
9.04 Release of Test Data
Can release to client if released
Can refrain to protect client
If required by law
9.05 Test Construction
Use appropriate procedures
9.06 Interpreting Assessment Results
Multicultural competence important
Indicate limitations of interpretation
9.07 Assessment by Unqualified Persons
Only if training and under supervision
9.08 Obsolete Tests and Outdated Test Results
9.09 Test Scoring and Interpretation Services
Accurately describe purpose, norms, validity, reliability and applications
Select assessment tools based on validity
We are responsible if using outside services
9.10 Explaining Assessment Results
Person explaining must be qualified
If not explaining, must be explained
9.11 Maintaining Test Security
Does not include test data
Maintain integrity and security of test materials
Standard 10: Therapy
10.01 Informed Consent to Therapy
Nature, fees, involvement of 3rd parties, limits of confidentiality
Provide opportunities for questions
Inform if using non-established forms of treatment (risks, alternatives,
voluntary nature)
If trainee involved, legal responsibility resides with supervisor and must be
informed
10.02 Therapy Involving Couples or Families
Clarify who the client is
Clarify your relationship with each person
Avoid multiple relationships
10.03 Group Therapy
Describe roles and responsibilities at outset
Limits of confidentiality
10.04 Providing Therapy to Those Served by Others
Carefully consider issues
Minimize risk of confusion and conflict
10.05 Sexual Intimacies with Current Therapy Clients
10.06 Sexual intimacies with relatives or significant others of current therapy clients
Do not terminate therapy to circumvent this standard
10.07 Therapy with former sexual partners
10.08 Sexual intimacies with former therapy clients
Must wait at least 2 years
Demonstrate there was no exploitation
Provide information:
Time that has passed
Nature, duration, and intensity of therapy
Circumstances of termination
Client’s personal history
Client’s current mental status
Likelihood of adverse impact on client
Any statements/actions inviting possibility of posttermination sexual
relationship
10.09 Interruption of therapy
Priority given to welfare of client
10.10 Terminating Therapy
Client no longer needs service
Client being harmed
We are threatened
Suggest referrals if necessary/appropriate
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