Particle Theory of Matter & Everyday examples Name________________ Hr._____ All matter (things you can and can't see) is made up of particles! Scientists have been observing the particles that make up matter for so long that we now have the Particle Theory of Matter (remember: a "theory" in Science means that many, MANY scientists have gathered evidence that supports this and it is a widely accepted conclusion that helps us understand the natural world better.) The Particle Theory of Matter has six statements or premises (rules?): 1. All matter is made up of particles. 2. All particles of one substance are identical. 3. Particles are in constant motion. (Yes! Even when frozen! FYI: absolute zero has never been reached.) 4. Temperature affects the speed at which particles move. 5. Particles have forces of attraction between them. 6. There are spaces between particles. Your mission is to use the demonstrations and activities you see in class today to better understand and use your own evidence to support the Particle Theory of Matter. For each demonstration or activity, record how it supports the Particle Theory of Matter: 1) Demo 1= Food Coloring + Hot Water vs Food Coloring + Cold Water a. What I observed: _______________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ b. This supports # ____ of the Particle Theory of Matter because.... _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 2) Demo 2a: Sand & Water Fill one graduated cylinder with 50 ml of sand and another graduated cylinder with 50 ml of water. Pour 50 ml of water into the graduated cylinder with 50 ml of sand. a. Now what is the volume in the cylinder (water + sand)? _______ ml b. What I observed happen: _________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ c. This supports # ____ of the Particle Theory of Matter because... ______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 3) Demo 2b: Water and Alcohol a. Go through the following procedure with us in class: i. Pour 50 ml of water in one graduated cylinder and 40 ml of isopropyl alcohol in another graduated cylinder. Pour the alcohol into the water. ii. What do you think the resulting volume will be? _____ What is the actual volume? ____ b. What I observed happen: ________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ c. This supports # ____ of the Particle Theory of Matter because... ______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 4) Activity 1: Explore what happens to matter as the temperature increases using http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/states_of_matter/molecules.swf and http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/science_up_close/501/deploy/interface.swf . Draw how the molecules for a solid, liquid, and a gas would be arranged using the beakers below. Then, note how the molecules move on the lines in the space next to each beaker: Movement: Solid Movement: Movement: Liquid Gas There is a fourth state of matter--Plasma! Use the beaker below and/or write what your group thinks that plasma particles would be doing: ___________________________________ 5) Activity 2: Solids, liquids, and gases are all states or phases of matter. When matter changes from one phase to another, we call this a phase change and these have specific names. Label the arrows in the diagram below to indicate the name of each process that helps matter change from one phase to another (do some Google research if you need!): Choices include sublimation, ionization, evaporation, freezing, condensation, & melting. Solid Liquid Gas Plasma After that… 6) Activity 3: Go through the interactive video and take the test using the following sites: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/chemical_material_behaviour/particle_model/activity/ and then look at pages 2-4 at the following site: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/chemical_material_behaviour/particle_model/revision/2/ to complete a table of the different properties of solids, liquids and gases: Comparing Matter Solids (See choices below the table) Liquids Gases Attractions Movement Volume and Shape Attraction choices: Can be either…..strong…..weak…..or strong yet weak enough to allow moving around Movement choices: Either….move around each other……fixed, only vibrate…..or move quickly all over Shape/volume choices: Either….Flow /totally fill container….flow/take container shape… or fixed shape The Particle Theory of Matter states: Activity/Demo that showed this point: Demo. #1, 2a, 2b, or Act #1 1. All matter is made up of particles. 2. All particles of one substance are identical. 3. Particles are in constant motion. (Even when frozen! FYI: Abs. zero has never been reached, however) 4. Temperature affects the speed at which particles move. 5. Particles have forces of attraction between them. 6. There are spaces between particles.