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Particle Theory of Matter & Everyday examples
Name________________ Hr._____
All matter (things you can and can't see) is made up of particles! Scientists have been observing the particles
that make up matter for so long that we now have the Particle Theory of Matter (remember: a "theory" in
Science means that many, MANY scientists have gathered evidence that supports this and it is a widely accepted
conclusion that helps us understand the natural world better.)
The Particle Theory of Matter has six statements or premises (rules?):
1. All matter is made up of particles.
2. All particles of one substance are identical.
3. Particles are in constant motion. (Yes! Even when frozen! FYI: absolute zero has never been reached.)
4. Temperature affects the speed at which particles move.
5. Particles have forces of attraction between them.
6. There are spaces between particles.
Your mission is to use the demonstrations and activities you see in class today to better
understand and use your own evidence to support the Particle Theory of Matter. For each
demonstration or activity, record how it supports the Particle Theory of Matter:
1) Demo 1= Food Coloring + Hot Water vs Food Coloring + Cold Water
a. What I observed: _______________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
b. This supports # ____ of the Particle Theory of Matter because....
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
2) Demo 2a: Sand & Water
Fill one graduated cylinder with 50 ml of sand and another graduated
cylinder with 50 ml of water. Pour 50 ml of water into the graduated
cylinder with 50 ml of sand.
a. Now what is the volume in the cylinder (water + sand)?
_______ ml
b. What I observed happen: _________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
c. This supports # ____ of the Particle Theory of Matter because...
______________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3) Demo 2b: Water and Alcohol
a. Go through the following procedure with us in class:
i. Pour 50 ml of water in one graduated cylinder and 40 ml of
isopropyl alcohol in another graduated cylinder. Pour the alcohol
into the water.
ii. What do you think the resulting volume will be? _____
What is the actual volume? ____
b. What I observed happen: ________________________________
______________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
c. This supports # ____ of the Particle Theory of Matter because...
______________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4) Activity 1: Explore what happens to matter as the temperature increases
using http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/states_of_matter/molecules.swf
and http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/science_up_close/501/deploy/interface.swf .
Draw how the molecules for a solid, liquid, and a gas would be arranged using the beakers below.
Then, note how the molecules move on the lines in the space next to each beaker:
Movement:
Solid
Movement:
Movement:
Liquid
Gas
There is a fourth state of matter--Plasma! Use the beaker below and/or write what your group
thinks that plasma particles would be doing:
___________________________________
5) Activity 2: Solids, liquids, and gases are all states or phases of matter. When matter
changes from one phase to another, we call this a phase change and these have specific
names. Label the arrows in the diagram below to indicate the name of each process that
helps matter change from one phase to another (do some Google research if you need!):
Choices include sublimation, ionization, evaporation, freezing, condensation, & melting.
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasma
After that…
6) Activity 3: Go through the interactive video and take the test using the following sites:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/chemical_material_behaviour/particle_model/activity/
and then look at pages 2-4 at the following site:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/chemical_material_behaviour/particle_model/revision/2/ to
complete a table of the different properties of solids, liquids and gases:
Comparing Matter
Solids
(See choices below the table)
Liquids
Gases
Attractions
Movement
Volume and
Shape
Attraction choices: Can be either…..strong…..weak…..or strong yet weak enough to allow moving around
Movement choices: Either….move around each other……fixed, only vibrate…..or move quickly all over
Shape/volume choices: Either….Flow /totally fill container….flow/take container shape… or fixed shape
The Particle Theory of
Matter states:
Activity/Demo that
showed this point:
Demo. #1, 2a, 2b, or Act #1
1. All matter is made up of
particles.
2. All particles of
one substance are identical.
3. Particles are in constant
motion. (Even when frozen!
FYI: Abs. zero has never
been reached, however)
4. Temperature affects the
speed at which particles
move.
5. Particles have forces of
attraction between them.
6. There are spaces
between particles.
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