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Sec 3.9: Related Rates Example: All variables are function of time t, then differentiate with respect to t. z x y 3 Z increases at rate of 10 units/s Z decreases at rate of 10 units/s 2 2 means that dz 10 units/sec dt means that dz 10 units/sec dt Sec 3.9: Related Rates Related Rate problems: The idea is to compute the rate of change of one quantity in terms of the rate of change of another quantity Example: Find dz/dt at x = 1 Given that dx 2 dt z x2 x Example: Find dy/dt at x=5, y=1 Given that z x2 x y2 dx dz 2, 1 dt dt Sec 3.9: Related Rates Example 1 Air is being pumped into a spherical balloon so that its volume increases at a rate of 100 cm3/s. How fast is the radius of the balloon increasing when the diameter is 50 cm? Solution: 𝑉= 4 3 𝜋𝑟 3 (Volume of a sphere) Sec 3.9: Related Rates STRATEGY 1. Read the problem carefully. 2. Draw a diagram if possible. 3. Introduce notation. Assign symbols to all quantities that are functions of time. 4. Express the given information and the required rate in terms of derivatives. 5. Write an equation that relates the various quantities of the problem. If necessary, use the geometry of the situation to eliminate one of the variables by substitution 6. Use the Chain Rule to differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to . 7. Substitute the given information into the resulting equation and solve for the unknown rate. Sec 3.9: Related Rates Example 2 A ladder 10 ft long rests against a vertical wall. If the bottom of the ladder slides away from the wall at a rate of 1m/s, how fast is the top of the ladder sliding down the wall when the bottom of the ladder is 6 ft from the wall? 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = 1 ft/s Solution: Given: 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑥 = 6𝑓𝑡 We want to find 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 Sec 3.9: Related Rates Example 3 A water tank has the shape of an inverted circular cone with base radius 2m and height 4m. If water is being poured into the tank at a rate 0f 2𝑚3 /𝑚𝑖𝑛, find the rate at which the water level is rising when the water is 3m deep. 𝑑𝑉 𝑑ℎ = 2𝑚3 /𝑚𝑖𝑛 We want to find Solution: Given: 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 ℎ = 3𝑚 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 Sec 3.9: Related Rates Example 4 Car A is traveling west at 90 km/h and car B is traveling north at 100km/h. Both are headed for the intersection of the two roads. At what rate are the cars approaching each other when car A is 60m and car B is 80m from the Intersection? 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 Solution: = −90𝑘𝑚/ℎ and Given: = −100𝑘𝑚/ℎ 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 We want to find 𝑑𝑧 𝑑𝑡 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑥 = 60𝑚 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 = 80𝑚 (Pythagorean Theorem) When 𝑥 = 0.06𝑘𝑚 and y= 0.08𝑘𝑚, the Pythagorean Theorem gives z = 0.1𝑘𝑚 ,so 𝑑𝑧 1 = 0.06 −90 + 0.08 −100 𝑑𝑡 0.1 = −134km/h The cars are approaching each other at the rate 134km/h. Sec 3.9: Related Rates Example 5 A man walks along a straight path a speed of 1.5m/s. A searchlight is located on the ground 6m from the path and is kept focused on the man. At what rate Is the searchlight rotating when the man is 8m from the point on the path Closest to the searchlight. 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝑥 = 1.5𝑚/s 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑥 = 8 We want to find Solution: Given: 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑥 = tan 𝜃 6 𝑥 = 6 tan 𝜃 Differentiating both sides w.r.t 𝑡, we get 6 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝜃 2 = 6𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝜃 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝜃 1 𝑑𝑥 1 1 2 2 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 1.5 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃 𝑑𝑡 6 𝑑𝑡 6 4 3 When 𝑥 = 8, the length of the beam is 10, so 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 5 and 2 𝑑𝜃 1 3 9 = = = 0.09 𝑑𝑡 4 5 100 The searchlight is rotating at a rate 0.09rad/s. Sec 3.9: Related Rates Example STRATEGY 1. Read the problem carefully. 2. Draw a diagram if possible. 3. Introduce notation. Assign symbols to all quantities that are functions of time. 4. Express the given information and the required rate in terms of derivatives. 5. Write an equation that relates the various quantities of the problem. If necessary, use the geometry of the situation to eliminate one of the variables by substitution 6. Use the Chain Rule to differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to . 7. Substitute the given information into the resulting equation and solve for the unknown rate.