anatomical positions presentation with small quizzes

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Medical
Terminology
Anatomical Position, Directional Terms and Movements
What we will cover...
Content Objectives
• Students will be able to gain a better understanding and
application of medical terminology in relation to Anatomical
Planes, Directions and Movements.
Language Objectives
• Students will be able to define basic anatomical terms and apply
those terms when dissecting.
• Students will be able to compare and contrast the differences
between directional terms and terms associated with movement.
Anatomical Terms Worksheet
History
• During the Renaissance (“Rebirth”) the study of human
life and medicine began to flourish.
• Scientist, Doctors and Artist would experiment and
practice on the dead and incarcerated.
• Cadavers were positioned flat on their backs, thus making
it easier to draw and reference from that position.
• Many artist such as
Leonardo da Vinci began to
study, draw and diagram the human body.
Anatomical Position
• Standing erect, with palms and feet
facing forward
• Is the standard reference point in
which all positions, movements, and
planes are described
Positions and
Directions
Terms of position and direction
describe the position of one
body part relative to another,
usually along one of the three
major body planes
Positions and
Directions
Superior
• Refers to a structure being
closer to the head or higher
than another structure in the
body
Inferior
• Refers to a structure being
closer to the feet or lower
than another structure in the
body
Positions and
Directions
Anterior
• Refers to a structure being
more in front than another
structure in the body
Posterior
• Refers to a structure being
more in back than another
structure in the body
Positions and
Directions
Medial
• Refers to a structure being
closer to the midline or
median plane of the body
than another structure of the
body
Lateral
• Refers to a structure being
farther away from the midline
than another structure of the
body
Positions and
Directions
Distal
(Reference to the extremities only)
• Refers to a structure being
further away from the root of
the limb than another
structure in the limb
Proximal
(Reference to the extremities only)
• Refers to a structure being
closer to the root of the limb
than another structure in that
limb
Distal / Proximal Cont.
• When you divide the
skeleton into Axial (Blue)
and Appendicular (Yellow)
you can better understand
the extremities and their
roots.
Proximal
Distal
Positions and
Directions
Superficial
• Refers to a structure being
closer to the surface of the
body than another structure
Deep
• Refers to a structure being
closer to the core of the body
than another structure
Positions and
Directions
Ventral
• Towards the front or belly
•
You Vent out or your nose and mouth.
Dorsal
• Towards the back
•
Like the Dorsal fin of a dolphin.
Positions and Directions
Prone
• Lying face down
•
Like a Pro Baseball player sliding into Home.
Supine
• Lying face up
•
Lying on your spine and you can have soup poured into your mouth.
Unilateral
• Pertaining to one side of the body
Bilateral
• Pertaining to both sides of the body
Anatomical Planes
• Fixed lines of reference
along which the body is
often divided or
sectioned to facilitate
viewing of its structures
• Allow one to obtain a
three-dimensional
perspective by studying
the body from different
views
Anatomical Planes
Sagittal plane
• The plane dividing the
body into right and left
portions
• Midsagittal or median
are names for the plane
dividing the body into
equal right and left
halves
Anatomical Planes
Frontal plane
• The plane dividing the
body into front and back
portions
• Also called the Coronal
plane
Anatomical Planes
Transverse plane
• The horizontal plane
dividing the body into
upper and lower
portions
• Also called the
Horizontal plane
Gummy
Bear
Dissection
LAB
1. Cadaver Bear
2. Dissecting Tray
3. Scalpel
Movements
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Flexion
Extension
Hyperextension
Adduction
Abduction
Prontaion
Supination
Retraction
Protraction
Elevation
Depression
Rotation
Circumduction
External Rotation
Internal Rotation
Inversion
Eversion
Dorsiflexion
Plantarflexion
Radial Deviation
Ulnar Deviation
Opposition
Movements
Flexion
• Bending a joint or decreasing the
angle between two bones
•
In the Fetal Position we are flexing our joints
Extension
• Straightening a joint or increasing
the angle between two bones
•
In the Anatomical Position we are extending our joints
Hyperextension
• Excessive extension of the parts at
a joint beyond anatomical position.
Flexion / Extension / Hyperextension
Movements
Adduction
• Moving a body part towards the
midline of the body
Abduction
• Moving a body part away from the
midline of the body
Movements
Pronation
• Turning the arm or foot
downward
• (palm or sole of the foot down)
• Prone
Supination
• Turning the arm or foot
upward
• (palm or sole of the foot - up)
• Supine
Movements
Retraction
• Moving a part backward
Protraction
• Moving a part forward
Elevation
• Raising a part
Depression
• Lowering a part
Movements
Rotation
• Turning on a single axis
Circumduction
• Tri-planar, circular motion
at the hip or shoulder
Internal rotation
• Rotation of the hip or
shoulder toward the
midline
External rotation
• Rotation of the hip or
shoulder away from the
midline
Movements
Lateral Flexion
• Side-bending left or right
Movements of the Foot
Inversion
• Turning the sole of the foot
inward
Eversion
• Turning the sole of the foot
outward
Dorsiflexion
• Ankle movement bringing
the foot towards the shin
Plantarflexion
• Ankle movement pointing
the foot downward
Movements of the Wrist & Thumb
Radial Deviation
• Movement of the wrist towards
the radius or lateral side.
Ulnar Deviation
• Movement of the wrist towards
the ulna or medial side.
Opposition
• Movement of the thumb across
the palm of the hand.
Additional Range of Motion
Range of Motion
1.
2.
3.
Hip _Abduction_________________
__________________________
Hip _Adduction_________________
__________________________
Hip _Flexion___________________
__________________________
Knee _Extension________________
________________________
Ankle ________________________
_Plantarflexion____________
4. Wrist _________________________
_Extension________________
(a) _Hyperextension_____________
__________________________
(b) _Flexion____________________
__________________________
5. Hip _Flexion___________________
__________________________
Knee _Flexion__________________
________________________
Ankle ________________________
_Dorsiflexion______________
6. Forearm (a) _Supination__________
___________________
Forearm (b) _Pronation__________
___________________
7. Shoulder _Circumduction_________
______________________
8. Shoulder _Elevation_____________
______________________
9. Jaw _Protraction________________
__________________________
10. Shoulder _Rotation______________
______________________
Regional Terms
Word Association Activity
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