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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE
i
ACKNOWLEDGE
ii
ABSTRACT
iii
TABLE OF CONTENT
vii
LIST OF FIGURES
xi
LIST OF TABLES
xix
LIST OF SYMBOLS
xxi
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1
1.1 DEVELOPMENT OF HVDC SYSTEM
2
1.2 BENEFITS OF HVDC SYSTEM
6
1.2.1 TECHNICAL BENEFITS
6
1.2.2 ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENT BENEFITS
7
1.3CLASSIFICATION OF HVDC CONFIGURATIONS
9
1.4 TYPES OF HVDC LINKS
15
1.5 APPLICATION OF HVDC SYSTEM
19
1.5.1 LONG DISTANCE BULK POWER TRANSMISSION
19
1.5.2 ASYNCHRONOUS INTERCONNECTION
20
1.5.3 INTEGRATING OF SMALL SCALE GENERATING PLANTS
20
1.5.4 OFFSHORE TRANSMISSION
20
1.5.5 SUPPORT OF WEAK AC SYSTEM
21
1.5.6 HVDC TAPPING
22
1.5.7 POWER DELIVERY TO INDUSTRIAL PLANT
23
1.5.8 POWER DELIVERY TO LARGE URBAN AREAS
23
1.5.9 POWER DELIVERY TO ISLAND SYSTEM
23
1.6 POWER QUALITY ASPECT AND STANDARDS
CHAPTER II
24
1.6.1 POWER QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS
24
1.6.2 POWER QUALITY STANDARDS
25
1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THESIS
25
1.8 OUTLINE OF CHAPTERS
27
LITERATURE REVIEW
29
2.1 MULTIPULSE AC-DC CONVERTER-A STATE OF ART
30
2.1.1 NON-ISOLATED UNCONTROLLED AC-DC CONVERTER
vii
30
2.1.2 NON-ISOLATED CONTROLLED AC-DC CONVERTER
31
2.1.3 ISOLATED UNCONTROLLED AC-DC CONVERTER
31
2.1.4 ISOLATED CONTROLLED AC-DC CONVERTER
32
2.2
PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
OF MULTIPULSE
AC-DC 32
CONVERTER
CHAPTER III
2.3 CONTROL SCHEME –A STATE OF THE ART
34
2.4 OPTIMIZATION APPROACH- A STATE OF ART
39
2.5 IDENTIFIED RESEARCH AREAS
46
2.6 CONCLUSION
47
DESIGN, MODELLING
AND CONTROL OF VSC BASED HVDC
48
SYSTEM
3.1 DESIGN OF VSC BASED BTB HVDC POWER TRANSMISSION
49
3.1.1 SELECTION OF VSC SWITCH RATING
49
3.2.2 SELECTION OF INTERFACING INDUCTOR
50
3.2.3 SELECTION OF DC-LINK CAPACITOR
51
3.2 DESIGN OF VSC BASED HVDC SYSTEM WITH TRANSMISSION 51
LINE
3.2.1 SELECTION OF INTERFACING INDUCTOR
51
3.2.2 SELECTION OF DC-LINK CAPACITOR
52
3.3 MODELING OF VSC BASED HVDC SYSTEM
52
3.3.1 VOLTAGE CONTROL LOOP
53
3.3.2 CURRENT CONTROL LOOP
55
3.4 CONVENTIONAL CONTROLLER TUNING APPROACH
58
3.5 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF VSC BASED HVDC SYSTEM
60
3.5.1
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF
VSC
BASED
BTB 61
HVDC SYSTEM
3.5.2
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF
VSC
BASED
HVDC 66
SYSTEM WITH TRANSMISSION LINE
3.6 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER IV
DESIGN
71
SYSTEM FOR
72
DESIGN OF MULTIPULSE AC-DC CONVERTER FOR HVDC
74
AND CONTROL OF VSC BASED
HVDC
POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
4.1
SYSTEM
viii
4.2
4.1.1 DESIGN OF 18-PULSE AC-DC CONVERTER
76
4.1.2 DESIGN OF 12-PULSE AC-DC CONVERTER
76
PERFORMANCE
EVALUATION
OF
AC-DC
79
18-PULSE
VSC BASED
79
18-PULSE
VSC BASED
87
MULTIPULSE
CONVERTERS
4.2.1
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF
BTB HVDC SYSTEM
4.2.2
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF
HVDC SYSTEM WITH TRANSMISSION LINE
CHAPTER V
4.3 CONCLUSION
106
DESIGN
107
AND CONTROL OF MULTIPULSE VSC BASED HVDC
SYSTEM WITH REDUCED SENSOR TOPOLOGY
5.1 CURRENT SENSOR REDUCTION APPROACH
107
5.2
108
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MULTIPULSE VSC BASED
HVDC SYSTEM USING REDUCED SENSOR APPROACH
5.2.1 CALCULATION OF CONTROLLER GAINS USING ZIEGLER 109
NICHOLS APPROACH
5.2.2 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 18-PULSE VSC BASED 112
HVDC SYSTEM WITH TRANSMISSION LINE USING REDUCED
SENSOR TOPOLOGY
5.2.3 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 18-PULSE VSC BASED 117
BTB HVDC SYSTEM USING REDUCED SENSOR TOPOLOGY
5.2.4 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 12-PULSE VSC BASED 119
HVDC SYSTEM WITH TRANSMISSION LINE USING REDUCED
SENSOR TOPOLOGY
CHAPTER VI
5.3 CONCLUSION
122
DESIGN
123
AND CONTROL OF MULTIPULSE VSC BASED HVDC
SYSTEM USING OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE
6.1 PROBLEM FORMULATION
125
6.2 GOLDEN SECTION SEARCH APPROACH
126
6.2.1 PROPOSED GOLDEN SECTION SEARCH APPROACH
6.3 PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION APPROACH
128
130
6.3.1 PROPOSED PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION APPROACH 132
ix
6.4
PERFORMANCE
EVALUATION
OF
UNDER
DIFFERENT
133
18-PULSE
VSC BASED
134
18-PULSE
VSC BASED
138
12-PULSE
VSC BASED
143
12-PULSE
VSC BASED
148
APPROACHES
6.4.1
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF
BTB BASED HVDC SYSTEM
6.4.2
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF
HVDC SYSTEM WITH TRANSMISSION LINE
6.4.3
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF
BTB BASED HVDC SYSTEM
6.4.4
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF
HVDC SYSTEM WITH TRANSMISSION LINE
CHAPTER VII
6.5 CONCLUSION
154
MAIN CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK
156
7.1 MAIN CONCLUSIONS
157
7.2 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER WORK
159
REFERENCES
161
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS
174
x
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No.
Title
1.1
Three-Phase AC transmission voltage level development
1.2
Cost evaluations between AC/DC transmission
1.3
HVDC Development
1.4
HVDC configurations
1.5
Different DC-links
1.6
Application of HVDC transmission
2.1
Different control scheme
2.2
Current control scheme
2.3
Different optimization techniques
3.1
Schematic diagram of BTB VSC based HVDC system
3.2
Schematic diagram of VSC based HVDC system with transmission
line
3.3
Schematic diagram of current multiplier approach
3.4
DC-link voltage error calculation
3.5
Modulating control signal generation
3.6
Unit template calculation
3.7
Reference current generator
3.8
Calculation of three-phase current errors
3.9
Generation of modulating signal
3.10
Three-phase PWM waveform
3.11
Phase A pulse sequence
3.12
System response
xi
LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
Figure No.
Title
3.13
Simulated waveforms of VSC based BTB HVDC system under load
perturbation condition
3.14
Current harmonic distortion under load perturbation and rated load
condition
3.15
Simulated waveforms of VSC based BTB HVDC system under voltage
sag condition
3.16
Current harmonic distortion under sag and restoration of sag condition
3.17
Simulated waveforms of VSC based BTB HVDC system under nonlinear load condition
3.18
Current harmonic distortion under non-linear and normal load
condition
3.19
Simulated waveforms of VSC based BTB HVDC system under tapped
load fault condition
3.20
Current harmonic distortion under tapped load fault and clearance of
fault condition
3.21
Simulated waveforms of VSC based HVDC system with transmission
line under load perturbation condition
3.22
Current harmonic distortion under load perturbation and normal load
condition
3.23
Simulated waveforms of VSC based HVDC system with transmission
line under voltage sag condition
3.24
Current harmonic distortion under sag and restoration of sag condition
3.25
Simulated waveforms of VSC based HVDC system with transmission
line under non-linear load condition
3.26
Current harmonic distortion under non-linear and normal load
condition
xii
LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
Figure No.
Title
3.27
Simulated waveforms of VSC based HVDC system with transmission
line under tapped load condition
3.28
Current harmonic distortion under tapped load fault and clearance of
fault condition
4.1
Connection arrangement and Phasor diagram (a) Y/Z1 topology (b)
Y/Z2 topology
4.2
MATLAB connection arrangement for 18-pulse configuration
4.3
MATLAB connection with star-delta and star-zigzag configuration
4.4
Current harmonic spectra with star/delta and star/zigzag configuration
4.5
Response of input current and DC-link voltage of 18-pulse and 12pulse AC-DC converter
4.6
MATLAB model of 18-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system
4.7
DC-link response and current harmonic distortion in 18-pulse VSC
based BTB-HVDC system under load perturbation condition using
voltage controller
4.8
The performance of DC-link response and current harmonic distortion
in 18-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system under load perturbation
condition using voltage and current controller
4.9
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system
under load perturbation condition
4.10
Voltage and current harmonic distortion after load perturbation
condition
4.11
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system
under voltage sag condition
4.12
Voltage and current harmonic distortion after restoration of sag
condition
xiii
LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
Figure No.
Title
4.13
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system
under non-linear load condition
4.14
Voltage and current harmonic distortion after disconnection of nonlinear load
4.15
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC based BTB-HVDC system
under tapped load fault
4.16
Voltage and current harmonic distortion under non-linear load
condition
4.17
MATLAB model of 18-pulse VSC- HVDC system with 75km DCcable
4.18
Simulated performance under load perturbation of 18-pulse VSC based
HVDC system
4.19
Current harmonic distortion under load reduction and rated load
condition
4.20
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC based HVDC system with
transmission line under voltage sag condition
4.21
Current harmonic distortion under sag and normal condition
4.22
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC based HVDC system with
transmission line under non-linear load condition
4.23
Current harmonic distortion under non-linear load and disconnection
of non-linear load
4.24
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC based HVDC system with
transmission line under tapped load fault condition
4.25
Current harmonic distortion under fault condition and clearance of
fault
4.26
MATLAB model of 12-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system
4.27
Simulated performance of 12-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system
under load perturbation condition
xiv
LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
Figure No.
Title
4.28
Current harmonic distortion under load shedding and rated load
condition
4.29
Simulated performance of 12-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system
under voltage sag condition
4.30
Current harmonic distortion under sag and restoration of sag condition
4.31
Simulated performance of 12-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system
under non-linear load condition
4.32
Current harmonic distortion under non-linear load and disconnection
of load condition
4.33
Simulated performance of 12-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system
under tapped load fault condition
4.34
Current harmonic distortion under tapped load fault and clearance of
fault condition
4.35
MATLAB model of 12-pulse VSC based HVDC system with 75km
DC-cable
4.36
Simulated performance of 12 pulse VSC based HVDC system with
transmission line under load perturbation condition
4.37
Voltage and current harmonic distortion under load shedding and rated
load condition
4.38
Simulated performance of 12 pulse VSC based HVDC system with
transmission line under voltage sag condition
4.39
Voltage and current harmonic distortion under sag and normal
condition
4.40
Simulated performance of 12 pulse VSC based HVDC system with
transmission line under non-linear load condition
4.41
Voltage and current harmonic distortion under non-linear load and
disconnection of non-linear load
xv
LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
Figure No.
Title
4.42
Simulated performance of 12 pulse VSC based HVDC system with
transmission line under tapped load fault condition
4.43
Voltage and current harmonic distortion under fault clearance of fault
condition
5.1
Schematic diagram of current multiplier approach with reduced sensor
topology
5.2
Current sensor reduction approach
5.3
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system
using reduced sensor topology under tapped load fault condition
5.4
Current harmonic distortion under tapped load fault and clearance of
fault condition
5.5
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC-BTB-HVDC using reduced
sensor topology under SLG fault at phase A
5.6
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC-BTB-HVDC using reduced
sensor topology under SLG fault at phase C
5.7
Current harmonic distortion after clearance of fault at phase A and
phase C
5.8
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC based HVDC system with
transmission line using reduced sensor topology under tapped load
fault condition
5.9
Current harmonic distortion under fault condition and clearance of
fault condition
5.10
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC based HVDC using reduced
sensor topology under SLG fault at phase A
5.11
Simulated performance of 18-pulse VSC based HVDC using reduced
sensor topology under SLG fault at phase C
5.12
Current harmonic distortion after clearance of fault at phase A and
phase C
xvi
LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
Figure No.
Title
5.13
Simulated performance of 12-pulse VSC-BTB-HVDC using reduced
sensor topology under SLG fault at phase A
5.14
Simulated performance of 12-pulse VSC-BTB-HVDC using reduced
sensor topology under SLG fault at phase C
5.15
Current harmonic distortion after clearance of fault at phase A and
phase C
5.16
Simulated performance of 12-pulse VSC based HVDC system with
transmission line using reduced sensor topology under tapped load
fault condition
5.17
Voltage and current harmonic distortion after clearance of tapped load
fault condition
5.18
Simulated performance of 12-pulse VSC based HVDC transmission
system using reduced sensor topology under SLG fault at phase A
5.19
Voltage and current harmonic distortion after clearance of SLG fault
condition
6.1
Classification of Optimization Techniques
6.2
Problem formulation
6.3
Type I and Type II contraction
6.4
Proposed golden section search approach
6.5
Proposed particle swarm optimization approach with highlighted
modifications
6.6
Variation of voltage and current controller gain of 18-pulse VSC based
BTB HVDC system using proposed GSS approach
6.7
Power quality results of 18-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system using
proposed GSS approach
6.8
Convergence of voltage controller gain of 18-pulse VSC based BTB
HVDC system using proposed PSO approach
xvii
LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
Figure No.
Title
6.9
Convergence of voltage controller gain of 18-pulse VSC based BTB
HVDC system using proposed PSO approach
6.10
Controller gain and parametric variation of 18-pulse VSC based BTB
HVDC system using proposed PSO approach
6.11
Variation of voltage and current controller gain of 18-pulse VSC based
HVDC system with transmission line using proposed GSS approach
6.12
Power quality results of 18-pulse VSC based HVDC system with
transmission line using proposed GSS approach
6.13
Convergence of voltage controller gain of 18-pulse VSC based HVDC
system with transmission line using proposed PSO approach
6.14
Convergence of current controller gain of 18-pulse VSC based HVDC
system with transmission line using proposed PSO approach
6.15
Controller gain variation of 18-pulse VSC based HVDC system with
transmission line using proposed PSO approach
6.16
Variation of voltage and current controller gain of 12-pulse VSC based
BTB HVDC system using proposed GSS approach
6.17
Power quality results of 12-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system using
proposed GSS approach
6.18
Controller gain and parametric variation of 12-pulse VSC based BTB
HVDC system using proposed PSO approach
6.19
Convergence of voltage controller gain of 12-pulse VSC based BTB
HVDC system using proposed PSO approach
6.20
Convergence of current controller gain of 12-pulse VSC based BTB
HVDC system using proposed PSO approach
6.21
Variation of voltage and current controller gain of 12-pulse VSC based
HVDC system with transmission line using proposed GSS approach
6.22
Power quality results of 12-pulse VSC based HVDC system with
transmission line using proposed GSS approach
xviii
LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
Figure No.
Title
6.23
Controller gain and parametric variation of 12-pulse VSC based
HVDC system with transmission line using proposed PSO approach
6.24
Convergence of voltage controller gain of 12-pulse VSC based HVDC
system with transmission line using proposed PSO approach
6.25
Convergence of current controller gain of 12-pulse VSC based HVDC
system with transmission line using proposed PSO approach
xix
LIST OF TABLES
Table No.
Title
3.1
Tuning rules for Ziegler-Nichols approach
3.2
Specification of VSC based BTB HVDC system
3.3
Controller gains obtained by Ziegler-Nichols approach for VSC based BTB
HVDC system
3.4
Specification of VSC based HVDC system with transmission line
3.5
Controller gains obtained by Ziegler-Nichols approach for VSC based
HVDC system with transmission line
4.1
Number of windings required for phase shift 0ᴼ≤δ≤30ᴼ
4.2
Controller gains obtained by Ziegler-Nichols approach for VSC based BTB HVDC
system
4.3
4.4
Controller gains obtained by Ziegler-Nichols of 18-pulse VSC based HVDC with
transmission line
Controller gain obtained by Zeigler Nichols approach of 12-pulse VSC
based BTB HVDC system
4.5
Controller gains obtained by Ziegler-Nichols approach for VSC based
HVDC system with transmission line
5.1
Controller gains obtained by Ziegler-Nichols approach in 18-pulse VSC
based BTB HVDC system with reduced sensor topology
5.2
Controller gains obtained by Ziegler-Nichols approach in 18-pulse VSC
based HVDC system with transmission line using reduced sensor topology
5.3
Controller gains obtained by Ziegler-Nichols approach in 12-pulse VSC
based BTB HVDC system with reduced sensor topology
5.4
Controller gains obtained by Ziegler-Nichols approach in 12-pulse VSC
based HVDC system with transmission line using reduced sensor topology
6.1
Results obtained of 18-pulse VSC-BTB-HVDC system using proposed GSS
approach
xx
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table No.
Title
6.2
Comparative results in various generations of 18-pulse VSC based BTB
HVDC system using proposed PSO approach
6.3
Comparative Results in various generations of 18-pulse VSC based HVDC
system using proposed PSO approach
6.4
Results obtained of 12-pulse VSC-BTB-HVDC system using proposed GSS
approach
6.5
Comparative Results obtained in various generations of 12-pulse VSC based
BTB HVDC system using PSO approach
6.6
Optimum parameters of 12-pulse VSC based BTB HVDC system obtained
using PSO approach
6.7
PQ results obtained of 12-pulse VSC based HVDC system using proposed
GSS approach
6.8
Comparative results in various generations of 12-pulse VSC based HVDC
system using proposed PSO approach
xxi
LIST OF SYMBOLS
Symbol
Physical Quantities
VA
Supply voltage in phase A
VB
Supply voltage in phase B
VC
Supply voltage in phase C
IA
Supply current in phase A
IB
Supply current in phase B
IC
Supply current in phase C
Vrms
RMS supply voltage
Irms
RMS supply current
Vdc
DC-link voltage
V*dc
Reference DC-link voltage
N
Neutral
Ve
Voltage error
L
Intermediate Inductor
P
Active Power
Q
Reactive Power
IAL
Load Current
PCC
Points-of-common coupling
Cdc
DC-link capacitor
PI
Proportional-Integral
δ
Phase shift
Iref
Reference current
I*A
Reference current in phase A
xxii
LIST OF SYMBOLS (Continued)
Symbol
Physical quantities
I*B
Reference current in phase B
I*C
Reference current in phase C
Icon
Control signal
Iline
Line current
I1
Fundamental current
Ie
Current error
m(t)
Modulating signal
CSC
Current source converter
CCC
Capacitor commutated converter
HVDC
High voltage direct current
BTB
Back-to-back
VSC
Voltage source converter
ΔIa
Current error in phase A
ΔIb
Current error in phase B
ΔIc
Current error in phase C
fs
Switching frequency
THD
Total harmonic distortion
THDi
Total current harmonic distortion
THDv
Total voltage harmonic distortion
PF
Power factor
CF
Crest factor
DPF
Displacement power factor
xxiii
LIST OF SYMBOLS (Continued)
Symbol
Physical quantities
Vrp
DC-link voltage ripple
F(x)
Objective function
GSS
Golden section search
PSO
Particle Swarm optimization
GA
Genetic Algorithm
PQ
Power quality
PLL
Phase lock loop
Vp
Transformer Primary voltage
Vs
Transformer secondary voltage
kp
Proportional controller
ki
Integral controller
D
Duty cycle
VL
Line voltage
VAO
Phase A voltage
VBO
Phase B voltage
VCO
Phase C voltage
N1
Primary turn of zig-zag transformer
N2 , N3
Secondary turn of zig-zag transformer
PWM
Pulse width modulation
w
Acceleration constant
c1
Cognition factor
c2
Social factor
xxiv
LIST OF SYMBOLS (Continued)
Symbol
Physical quantities
w1, w2, w3
Weighting factor
pbest
Particle best
gbest
Swarm best
vmax
Maximum velocity
r1, r2
Random number
S1, S2, S3
Phase A, B, C modulating control signal
kpv
Proportional gain of voltage controller
kiv
Integral gain of voltage controller
kpc
Proportional gain of current controller
kic
Integral gain of current controller
r1, r2, r3
Transformer resistance
x1, x2, x3
Transformer reactance
Supper
Upper switch
Slower
Lower switch
x1, x2
Intermediate points
kU
Upper limit
kL
Lower limit
ʎ
Golden ratio
xxv
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