na g10 lang hndbk answer key

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HOLT McDOUGAL LITERATURE
Language Handbook
Answer Key
GRADE 10
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Cover
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TX_L10LHAK_FM 6/1/09 6:48 PM Page iii
Table of Contents
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Language Handbook 1:The Parts of Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Language Handbook 2:Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Language Handbook 3: Using Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Language Handbook 4: Using Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Language Handbook 5: Using Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Language Handbook 6: Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Language Handbook 7: Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Language Handbook 8: Sentence Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Language Handbook 9:Writing Complete Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Language Handbook 10:Writing Effective Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Language Handbook 11: Capitalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Language Handbook 12: Punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Language Handbook 13: Punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Language Handbook 14: Punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Language Handbook 15: Spelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Language Handbook 16: Glossary of Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Table of Contents
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Page 1
Language
Handbook
1 The Parts of Speech
Worksheet 1
Worksheet 3
Identifying Common and Proper
Nouns and Proper Adjectives
Recognizing and Labeling Verbs
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
P
C
P
P
C
P
C
P
C
C
Exercise B
1. Vietnamese, thin [Note: Spring roll can be
considered a compound noun or a noun (roll)
modified by the adjective spring.]
2. exhausted
3. enthusiastic, waiting
4. invading, Spanish
5. Hebrew, Jewish, different, each, Gregorian
6. obedient, patient, sensitive
7. Elizabethan, strong, main
8. hot-air, dazzling
9. tropical, native, fresh
10. Portuguese
Identifying and Using Pronouns
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
INDEF
INT
PERS
REFL
DEM
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
some
themselves
this
Which
which
herself
she
who
their
everyone
Exercise A
was
made, improved
rambled, would study
fought, attained
worked
was
threatened, suggested, plant
followed, were producing, could sell
responded, discovered
performed, can be produced
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
REL
INTER
PERS
REL
INDEF
(Answers will vary.)
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
HV
AV
AV
AV
AV
AV
LV
HV
LV
AV
Worksheet 4
Identifying and Using Adverbs
Exercise A
Worksheet 2
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
always
soon
outside
away
carefully
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(Answers will vary.)
6. well
7. often
8. somewhat
9. firmly
10. passionately
(Answers will vary.)
much
too
very
quite
so
(The first item in a pair is the
adverb. The second is the word or words
modified.)
1. never—have had; more—exciting
2. surely—is; most—attractive
3. seldom—has; such—old-fashioned
4. frequently—went; there—went
5. always—were; very—professional
Exercise C
Answer Key
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Language
Handbook
Page 2
1 The Parts of Speech
Worksheet 5
Worksheet 7
Identifying Prepositions,
Prepositional Phrases, and Adverbs
Determining the Parts of Speech
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
in
of
through
near
except
(Answers will vary.)
6. with, without
7. about
8. toward
9. after
10. on
Exercise B
1. to this country, at a hotel
2. by huge mosquitoes, through a break, in the
screen
3. under the sheets
4. After a few minutes, of the men, across the
room
5. for us, with lanterns
1. ADV
2. PREP
3. ADV
4. PREP
5. ADV
Worksheet 6
Identifying and Using Conjunctions
and Interjections
Exercise A
1. CORREL; either Robin Williams or Will Smith
2. COORD; I tried to help him, but he wouldn’t
accept any assistance at all
3. SUB;The volleyball team will be going to the
state tournament if they win tonight’s game
4. SUB;You can prepare the Spanish rice while
the tamales are baking
5. CORREL; not only of the governor but also of
many state legislators
1. Either, or
2. and
3. whether, or
(Answers may vary.)
4. when
5. and
Exercise C
1. oh, my
2. Hey
3. Aw
2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
N
ADJ
ADV
V
INT
ADJ
PRON
ADJ
V
PREP
ADV
ADV
ADJ
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
PREP
PREP
CONJ
ADV
V
ADJ
N
V
ADJ
PRON
INT
CONJ
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
INT
N
PRON
ADJ
V
V
ADJ
PRON
N
ADV
N
CONJ
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
PRON
ADV or CONJ
N
ADJ
N
ADV
ADJ
ADV
PRON
PREP
Worksheet 8
Test
Exercise C
Exercise B
Exercise
4. Wow
5. Hooray
Language Handbook Answer Key
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
PREP
N
ADJ
N
PREP
ADJ
PRON
ADV
PREP
ADV
CONJ
CONJ
V
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
PRON
PREP
N
ADJ
ADJ
V
CONJ
V
ADV
CONJ
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Page 3
Language
Handbook
2 Agreement
Worksheet 1
Worksheet 3
Making Subjects and Verbs Agree
Ensuring Agreement with Indefinite
Pronouns and Compound Subjects
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
babies cry
winds gust
squirrels chatter
flowers grow
bands play
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
boats sail
lions roar
sea gulls fly
girls sing
days begin
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
glider soars
goose honks
pitcher throws
window shines
clock ticks
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
child runs
storm howls
owl hoots
tree sways
secretary files
Exercise C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
. . . aunts bake . . .
A meteorologist predicts . . .
. . . locks are . . .
. . . children speak . . .
. . . flower blooms . . .
She (or He) competes . . .
. . . whooping crane is . . .
. . . pagodas have . . .
. . . dancer is moving . . .
They like . . .
Worksheet 2
Using Correct Subject-Verb
Agreement
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Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
spring rolls—appear
supply—goes
reasons—are
list—impresses
uses—are
book—has
mix—costs
rivalry—is
Mario—loves
effects—sneak
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
shells—are
collection—gets
Daudi—buys
abilities—astonish
booklet—comes
conditions—require
chattering—wakes
drills—last
parents—own
trees—prevent
Exercise B
1. frustrates
2. taste
3. comes
4. seems
5. is
Exercise A (The first item in a pair is the
correct verb form. The second is the incorrect verb
form.)
1. C
6. practice—practices
2. C
7. C
3. enjoys—enjoy
8. C
4. was—were
9. plans—plan
5. need—needs
10. is—are
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
appear
clean
are
knows
want
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
is
are
goes
wants
takes
Worksheet 4
Ensuring Subject and Verb
Agreement
(Revisions will vary slightly.)
. . . window . . . doesn’t . . .
These keys don’t . . .
Doesn’t it . . .
This pen doesn’t . . .
These . . . bowls don’t . . .
Doesn’t he or she . . .
. . . colors don’t . . .
. . . couches don’t . . .
That . . . title doesn’t . . .
This enchilada doesn’t . . .
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
take
load
roars
has
wins
were
are
have
know
dines
Answer Key
3
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Language
Handbook
Page 4
2 Agreement
Exercise C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
eggs—remain
Lemons—seem
pyramids—are
poems—have
sight—was
responsibility—continues
Elia, Mauli—place
peppers—are
children—become
Fleas, ticks—appear
Soybeans—are
Laughter—stays
galley—is
mockingbirds—seem
fruits, vegetables—Are
Natalie—becomes
capital, city—is (compound subject names
only one thing)
18. state—consists
19. specialty, specialty—is
20. Mr.Watson—remains
Worksheet 5
Ensuring Agreement When the Verb
Precedes the Subject
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
4
dog, cat—sit
candles—are
plans—are
buses—go
bodies—lie
one—comes
programs—weren’t
accidents—have been
seats—are
radios—do
Pamunkey Indian Reservation—is
either—Is
coats—Don’t
one—Has
one—Does
one—does
windows—There are
Language Handbook Answer Key
18. articles—Where are
19. eggs—Here are
20. bushel—There’s
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Here are your friends.
How much are the pumpkins?
Where are my letters?
There go the fire engines!
Are there lemons for the punch? or Are there
any (or some) lemons for the punch?
Worksheet 6
More Subject-Verb Agreement
Problems
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
is
was
are
causes
was
is
doesn’t
makes
were
is
(The first item in a pair is the
correct verb form. The second is the incorrect verb
form.)
1. sponsors—sponsor 6. has—have
2. was—were
7. was—were
3. needs—need
8. C
4. C
9. is—are
5. C
10. C
Exercise B
Worksheet 7
Ensuring Agreement Between
Pronouns and Antecedents
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Correct
Pronoun
it
he or she
they
C
he or she
C
they
C
it
her
Incorrect
Pronoun
them
they
it
Antecedent
they
somebody
he
students
them
them
pet
one
essay
someone
stories
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Page 5
Language
Handbook
2 Agreement
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
it
his or her
their
it
his or her
Worksheet 9
Test
Exercise A (The first item in a pair is the
correct pronoun. The second is the incorrect
pronoun.)
1. his or her—their
2. herself—themselves
3. C
4. his—their
5. his—their
6. her—their
7. his or her—their
8. his—their
9. C
10. his—their
(The first item in a pair is the
correct word or words. The second is the incorrect
word or words.)
1. doesn’t—don’t; are—is
2. have—has
3. take—takes; is—are
4. there are—there’s
5. has—have; is—are
6. his or her—their
7. is—are; comes—come
8. C
9. is—are
10. gather—gathers; he or she—they; is—are
11. C
12. C
13. is—are
14. C
15. starts—start
16. his (or her)—their
17. there are—there’s
18. come—comes
19. C
20. marks—mark
21. rushes—rush
22. discourages—discourage
23. C
24. C
25. he or she—he
Exercise B
Exercise B
Exercise C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
his or her
their
their
themselves
his or her
Worksheet 8
Using Correct Pronouns with
Antecedents
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
her
their
it
them
himself
them
it
their
it
their
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
doesn’t
Are
was
gets
contains
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
was
are
seems
comes
there are
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
his or her
his
their
their
their
Exercise C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
itself
his
its
his
their
Answer Key
5
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Language
Handbook
Page 6
3 Using Verbs
Worksheet 1
Worksheet 3
Using Irregular Verbs Correctly
Distinguishing Between Lie and Lay
and Sit and Set
Exercise A
began (or begins or is beginning), begun
broke, broken
came, come
did (or do or am doing), done
drank (or drinks or is drinking), drunk
gave, given
went, gone
rode, ridden
rang, rung
swam, swum
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The string had broken.
We have ridden all day.
It has come loose.
The horse had run away.
Sue will have written this formula.
Worksheet 2
Using the Past and Past Participles
of Irregular Verbs
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
led
ate
stole
spoke
was
froze
ran
threw
shrunk (or shrank)
found
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
paid
kept
had
swung
saw
brought
chose
tore
fell
shook
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
lay
lie
laid
lay
laid
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
lain
laid
lain
lying
laying
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
set
sitting
set
setting
sat
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
sit
Set
sat
set
sitting
Worksheet 4
Distinguishing Between Rise and
Raise, Lie and Lay, and Sit and Set
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
raise
rises
rises
raise
rise
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
rose
raised
rose
raised
risen
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
lay
sitting
raise
lay
rise
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
set
raising
laid
sat
raise
Worksheet 5
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6
taken
ridden
given
chosen
broken
Language Handbook Answer Key
Writing the Correct Verb Tense
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
. . . Dad will freeze . . .
The powwow begins . . .
Mrs. Okado had been driving . . .
Alberto had shaken . . .
Vernon and Nina will be singing . . .
I tried . . .
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
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Page 7
Language
Handbook
7.
8.
9.
10.
3 Using Verbs
Sheryl has stolen . . .
Ms. Jenkins has been helping . . .
The dog will have drunk . . .
Rosa has brought . . .
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
. . . crew is building . . .
. . . class has been studying . . .
. . . fashions have been worn . . .
. . . candles had burned . . .
. . . Coach Frye will take . . .
. . .Yoshi started . . .
She was decorating . . .
Tamara works . . .
We had been hiking . . .
. . . I will have completed . . .
Worksheet 6
Avoiding Needless Changes in Tense
Exercise (The first version of the paragraph
is in present tense. The second version is in past
tense.)
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TX_L10LHAK
[1] One day Barney, my family’s beloved
golden retriever, is hit by a car on the road in front
of our house. [2] Our neighbor, Mr. Sanchez, sees
Barney get hit, but then Barney disappears. [3] Mr.
Sanchez tries to call us, but there is no one home.
[4] When Mother gets home, he tells her what has
happened. [5] Mother frantically calls all her friends
and sends out search parties, but Barney is nowhere
to be found. [6] More worried than ever, we start
making posters to place throughout the
neighborhood. [7] When the phone rings, we all
hope for the best. [8] It is Dr. Monroe, Barney’s
veterinarian. [9] “Mrs. Sullivan,” he says,“we just
found Barney waiting outside the door of the clinic.
[10] He has injured one of his front legs, but we’re
taking care of it now.”
[1] One day Barney, my family’s beloved
golden retriever, was hit by a car on the road in
front of our house. [2] Our neighbor, Mr. Sanchez,
saw Barney get hit, but then Barney disappeared.
[3] Mr. Sanchez tried to call us, but there was no
one home. [4] When Mother got home, he told her
what had happened. [5] Mother frantically called all
her friends and sent out search parties, but Barney
was nowhere to be found. [6] More worried than
ever, we started making posters to place throughout
the neighborhood. [7] When the phone rang, we all
hoped for the best. [8] It was Dr. Monroe, Barney’s
veterinarian. [9] “Mrs. Sullivan,” he said,“we just
found Barney waiting outside the door of the clinic.
[10] He has injured one of his front legs, but we’re
taking care of it now.”
Worksheet 7
Using Active and Passive Voice
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
AV
PV
AV
PV
PV
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
PV
AV
AV
PV
AV
Exercise B
1. Christie sent the press releases to the
newspaper.
2. Ben wrote the report on Pocahontas.
3. Two other runners beat me to the finish line.
4. The student council organized the crafts fair.
5. ACTIVE
Worksheet 8
Test
Exercise
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
drunk
ran
seen
gone
spoken
written
begun
taken
come
thrown
swum
had seen (or saw)
rung
done
began
went
did
lying
broken
given
written
Answer Key
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Language
Handbook
22.
23.
24.
25.
Page 8
4 Using Pronouns
run
drove
gave
taken
Worksheet 1
Using the Nominative Case
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
he
she
we
she
he
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I
she, I
he
I
they
Exercise B (The first item in a pair is the
correct pronoun. The second is the incorrect
pronoun.)
1. I—me
6. he—him
2. she—her
7. C
3. he—him
8. She—Her
4. C
9. C
5. they—them
10. C
Worksheet 2
Using the Objective Case
me
us
me
him
her
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
her
them
him
them
him
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
her
them
her
her (or him)
her
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
him
him
them
them
us
Worksheet 3
Using Pronouns in Pairs
Exercise
1.
2.
3.
4.
8
him
he
me
She
him, me
she, I
them, us
he
they
her
They, we
him
she
them, us
I, him
they
me
he
her, me
him, me
they, I
Worksheet 4
Classifying Pronouns by Case,
Person, and Number
Exercise
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
them
him, me
me
She, I
Language Handbook Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
she—nominative, third person, singular
his—possessive, third person, singular
their—possessive, third person, plural
me—objective, first person, singular
you—objective, second person, singular
us—objective, first person, plural
yours—possessive, second person, singular
we—nominative, first person, plural
them—objective, third person, plural
he—nominative, third person, singular
Worksheet 5
Special Pronoun Problems
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
who
who
whom
whom
who
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
whom
whom
who
Whoever
whoever
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Language
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4 Using Pronouns
Exercise B
1. me
2. they
3. we
Exercise B
4. he
5. us
Exercise C
1. us
2. we
3. her
4. she, I
5. them, us
us
Coach Feng gave the Browns and we free
I
passes to the game. My sister Lois and me decided
to make use of them. The Browns and we made
plans to go together. Since they live farther from the
we
stadium than us, they were going to call for us. It
Worksheet 6
was they—not we—who made the suggestion.
Ensuring Clear Pronoun Reference
While Lois and I stood waiting at the curb, Hector
(Revisions will vary.)
On last weekend’s fishing trip, I caught only
one fish.
This article reviews R. Carlos Nakai’s new CD,
Mythic Dreamer.
Ramona is an excellent basket weaver, and she
hopes to make basket weaving her career.
When Steven got home, he called his neighbor
Mr. Rupert.
That parts of the trail were still muddy from
the recent storm made our hike somewhat
dangerous.
When Susan was a student at Stanford
University, she saw Jennifer Azzi play basketball.
Our class is going to visit the Smithsonian
Institution. The trip should be very educational.
That Marcelo stayed up late finishing his
project explains why he looks so tired.
At that museum there is an exhibit of paintings
by Yasuo Kuniyoshi.
As soon as Dwayne walked in the door, Brian
started telling him all about the game.
Exercise
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
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Worksheet 7
Test
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
him
me
he
they
me
her
we
me
he
we
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
me
he
us
he
him
me
he
her
whoever
whom
and Sabina Calderón drove up and offered to take us
to the stadium.
he
“Thanks,” Lois said,“but him and I are
getting a ride with the Browns, if they don’t forget
to pick us up.”
them
“Okay,” Hector said.“We’ll see you and they
he
at the game.” The couple—him and Sabina—waved
and drove on.
As it approached eight o’clock, it began to
look as if Lois and I were going to miss the opening
of the game. Could the Browns have forgotten to call
me
for my sister and I? Just as we went into the house
we
to telephone, us two heard a car horn honk outside.
they
“It must be they,” I said. It was them all right.
“We’re ashamed of ourselves,” apologized
I
Alvin Brown.“Cara and me both forgot to pick you
up until we got all the way to the stadium. There
must be something wrong with us. Let’s get going!”
Answer Key
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Language
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Page 10
5 Using Modifiers
(Answers may vary.)
This poem I am reading uses a great deal of
alliteration.
Rachel enjoys studying biology, although she
has never looked through a microscope.
On the evening news, the meteorologist said that
there would be thunderstorms this weekend.
Even though my paintings don’t come out as
well as I would like, I enjoy painting.
When Marcia got the job at the mall, she told
Andrea.
Exercise C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Worksheet 1
Choosing Between Adjectives and
Adverbs
Exercise (The first item in each pair is the
word modified. The second is the correct modifier.)
1. I—bad
2. organized—courageously
3. plays—badly
4. make—quickly
5. aircraft—slow
6. has—surely
7. holds—differently
8. does run—smoothly
9. good—really
10. suits—perfectly
11. worked—persistently
12. Grandma—tired
13. behaved—peacefully
14. does start—easily
15. ask—nicely
16. bowl—delicious
17. fit—comfortably
18. tiptoed—softly
19. did listen—carefully
20. came—suddenly
21. pie—delicious
22. can see—clearly
23. cautiously—really
24. spoke—knowledgeably
25. looked—carefully
Worksheet 2
Using Modifiers with Linking Verbs
Exercise A The first item in each pair is the
word modified. The second is the correct modifier.)
10
Language Handbook Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
works—well
Eggplant caponata—good
can type—well
hardship—good
does cut—well
do handle—well
review—good
I—well
Brush—well
can read—well
(The first item in each pair is
the word modified. The second is the correct
modifier.)
1. looked—angrily
2. feels—strongly
3. air—fresh
4. reacted—foolishly
5. can be read—beautifully
6. sandpaper—rough
7. What—pleasant
8. could smell—distinctly
9. room—different
10. Wendy—ridiculous
Exercise B
Worksheet 3
Using Different Forms of Modifiers
to Show Comparison
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
more carefully, most carefully
more skillful, most skillful
better, best
more abruptly, most abruptly
longer, longest
worse, worst
more romantic, most romantic
gentler, gentlest
more, most
happier, happiest
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
more
more difficult
more expensive
hottest
most beautiful
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
nearer
largest
more common
healthier
most famous
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Language
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5 Using Modifiers
Worksheet 4
Using Different Forms of Modifiers
to Show Comparison
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
highest
worst
more exciting
oldest
more practical
more honestly
more enthusiastically
most inspirational
more quickly
better
Exercise B (The first item in a pair is the
correct modifier. The second is the incorrect
modifier.)
1. more—most
2. most—more
3. C
4. more—most
5. thickest—most thick
6. worse—worst
7. funnier—more funny
8. C
9. C
10. wiser—wisest
Worksheet 5
Using Modifiers in Comparisons
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(Revisions may vary.)
1. The plot of the movie version is less intriguing
than the plot of the novel.
2. The controls on my new wheelchair are easier
to use than the controls on my old one.
3. My father has read more Isabel Allende novels
than anyone else in our family.
4. Then Tanya made the wittiest remark.
5. My dog Ginger is smarter than any other dog I
know.
6. Gigi Fernandez played harder than her
opponent and eventually won the match.
7. Marini probably studied longer than anyone
else in her class.
8. I talk to Ella more often than Anne does. (or . . .
than I talk to Anne.)
Exercise
9. My neighbor’s son, Cameron, is the calmest
toddler I’ve ever met.
10. The kitchen will look so much cleaner with a
fresh coat of paint.
Worksheet 6
Avoiding Double Negatives
(Answers may vary slightly.)
1. I didn’t like either picture. (or I liked neither
picture.)
2. He has never had an accident. (or He hasn’t
ever had an accident.)
3. Raul isn’t a senior. (or Raul’s not a senior.)
4. They didn’t catch anything. (or They caught
nothing.)
5. Rita didn’t go anywhere.
6. I haven’t seen Marshall.
7. I didn’t tell anybody. (or I told nobody.)
8. You shouldn’t say anything to Jacy. (or You
should say nothing to Jacy.)
9. I can scarcely (or hardly) see the sign.
10. I could hardly (or scarcely) get to sleep.
Exercise
Worksheet 7
Avoiding Dangling Modifiers
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
DM
DM
C
DM
C
DM
C
C
DM
DM
(Revisions will vary.)
1. Looking through the family album, I saw my
great uncle Otis in many of the photographs.
2. Immediately after I gave the dog a bath, the
doorbell rang.
3. To relive a part of Chinese American history,
you can visit Angel Island in California.
4. Sitting in the fifth row of the stadium, we could
see the action clearly.
5. After jogging barefoot on the beach, Jason had
sore leg muscles.
Exercise B
Answer Key
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Language
Handbook
Page 12
5 Using Modifiers
Worksheet 8
Avoiding Misplaced Modifiers
Exercise
(Revisions may vary slightly.)
1. Many important musicians played in Earl
Hines’s band, such as Charlie Parker.
2. The lamp stands next to the sofa that I usually
study by.
3. I salvaged a radio from the wrecked car that
was in perfect condition.
4. The mail carrier has to walk all morning
that was served at the Passover meal.
15. These coins are very old and rare ones that you
gave to me.
16. Some dangerous chemistry supplies are lying in
the corner that must be cleared away
immediately.
17. We watched sailboat after sailboat go by sitting
on the shore of the river that afternoon.
18. Gan and Eloise were each served a sandwich
without sitting down to rest in the slushy
by the harried waitperson with mustard and
snow.
onions.
5. American Indian religious leaders sing songs as
they treat the sick called medicine men and
medicine women.
6. I saw the note that Miss White Feather will
send to Bill’s parents accidentally.
7. The mayor announced that she plans to resign
last week.
8. Salim was given the part in the school play of
the grandfather.
9. The lake was surrounded by sand dunes in
which we went swimming.
10. Grace couldn’t say goodbye to her cousin who
was leaving for Alaska because of her cold.
11. He sold a car to a used-car dealer that had a
cracked cylinder head.
12. Al went to the kitchen when Gloria phoned to
say that she was bringing home a puppy to
cook the dinner.
13. Andrea walked into the museum where the
statue was on exhibit with her two brothers.
12
14. The matzo ball soup had too much salt in it
Language Handbook Answer Key
19. Rafael found a most unusual pet shop
wandering around the streets of the old town.
20. Elizabeth rearranged the flowers that the cat
had knocked over very carefully.
Worksheet 9
Revising Misplaced Modifiers
(Revisions may vary.)
1. We bought a lamp made of pink shells at the
souvenir stand.
2. Grandmother gave a ring that was a hundred
years old to one of my sisters.
3. After eating his breakfast, Miguel cleaned the
carpet with a vacuum cleaner.
4. Mother served the Vietnamese shrimp toast that
had not burned to the guests.
5. Clean the pan with a strong detergent after you
cook the fish.
6. I turn on the radio for entertainment whenever
I wash dishes.
7. In the telephone booth I found a ticket for the
Friday night dance.
8. After Claudia went to college, my aunt flew to
Florida to enjoy the warm, sunny weather.
9. At the video store, Derek rented a tape on how
to make Hawaiian leis.
10. Through the kitchen window you can see
Yolanda washing the car.
Exercise
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Language
Handbook
5 Using Modifiers
Worksheet 10
Test
(The first item in a pair is the
correct usage. The second is the incorrect usage.)
1. nicely—nice
2. more—most
3. respectful—respectfuller
4. easily—easy
5. C
6. than the summers in Minnesota—than
Minnesota
7. anyone else—anyone
8. any other place (or any place else)—any place
9. C
10. much faster—much more faster
Exercise A
(The first item in each pair is
the word modified. The second is the correct
modifier.)
1. chances—excellent
2. did—poorly
3. act—quickly
4. determined—absolutely
Exercise B
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
research—thorough
looked—sadly
medicine—terrible
looked—anxiously
team—confident
anything—good
(Revisions will vary.)
1. On the fifth of May each year, Koreans and
Korean Americans celebrate Children’s Day.
2. We saw some paintings by José Luis Cuevas at
the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
3. C
4. At the meeting the city council discussed with
city planners the cost of repairing the bridge.
5. To avoid serious injury, you should always wear
a helmet when bicycling.
6. Lynn spotted a small tadpole near the bottom
of the pond.
7. C
8. While going through some boxes in the garage,
I found my father’s old bat and glove.
9. Unprepared for the coming storm, we had to
cut our hike short.
10. C
Exercise C
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Answer Key
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Language
Handbook
Page 14
6 Phrases
Worksheet 1
Identifying Prepositional Phrases
Exercise
1. outside the courthouse
2. on sale, for the next two weeks
3. According to Tom, of the governor, in the
newspaper
4. to Luisa
5. at noon
6. at the Visitors’ Center
7. of Sukkot, after Yom Kippur
8. At the Chaco Culture National Historical Park,
of the Anasazi
9. in containers
10. for the movie
11. on the floor, in the cafeteria
12. In addition to swimming and cycling
13. in much, of northern Africa
14. along the Little Colorado River, in northern
Arizona
15. On special occasions
16. For my birthday, to a monthly gardening
magazine
17. for Norfolk
18. under the deck, with spider webs
19. Next to the fireplace, of a collie
20. between the rows, of seats, in that music hall
21. According to this article, through coal mining
22. against the freshly painted wall
23. toward home
24. without a good garden hoe
25. with little hesitation
Worksheet 2
Using and Identifying Adjective
Phrases
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
(Answers will vary.)
about gardening
from my school
with soft spots
with its babies
in the red suit
for recycling
in the orchard
on South First Street
in that lake
behind his house
14
Language Handbook Answer Key
Exercise A
(The first item in each pair is the
word modified.The second is the adjective phrase.)
1. area—of Los Angeles; many—of the city’s oldest
buildings
2. group—of settlers; settlers—from Mexico
3. area—like a village; village—of old Mexico
4. square—with century-old magnolia trees
5. one—of the oldest streets; streets—in the city
6. stalls—along Olvera Street
7. buildings—from the early nineteenth century
8. (no phrase)
9. Many—of the shops; shops—in this district;
immigrants—from Mexico and Central America
10. sound—of modern Mexican music
Exercise B
Worksheet 3
Using and Identifying Adverb
Phrases
(Answers will vary.)
At the birthday party
near the stream
to the concession stand
After closing time
At age twelve
before 6:00 A.M.
to her sister’s house
up the pole
in the conservatory
After high school
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Exercise B (The first item in each pair is
the word or words modified. The second is the
adverb phrase.)
1. had wanted—for a long time
2. researched—For several weeks; researched—at
the library; researched—on the World Wide Web
3. led—to the parakeet
4. make—For the most part
5. native—to Australia
6. live, become—According to several articles;
live, become—in captivity
7. (no adverb phrase)
8. went, chose—With my parents’ permission;
went—to the pet store
9. lives—in a nice, big cage; is playing—on his toy
ladders and seesaw
10. has learned—After some intensive training
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Language
Handbook
6 Phrases
Worksheet 4
Identifying Participles and
Participial Phrases
(In each set of answers, the first
item is the type of participle, the second is the
participle or participial phrase, and the third is
the word modified.)
1. PRES—Grinning from ear to ear—winner
2. PRES—Hiding under the sofa—ferret
3. PAST—overloaded—car
4. PRES—Sifting through the bargain bin at the
bookstore—Botan
5. PAST—widely known—artists
6. PAST—chosen—point
7. PAST—impressed by Jan’s talent and
perseverance—conductor
8. PRES—shaking—puppy
9. PAST—startled—cat
10. PRES—living—legend
Exercise A
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
OP—broiling vegetables
S—Saving precious topsoil
PN—helping other people
OP—pressing a button
DO—driving at night
OP—drinking
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
S—To write an informative report
S—To turn back now
ADJ—to go to the concert
PN—to checkmate the opponent’s king
ADV—to honor African Americans for high
achievement
DO—to please everyone in the state
ADJ—to visit Washington
PN—to help others
ADJ—to win
DO—to be a witness in court
Worksheet 6
(The first item in each pair is
the word modified. The second is the participial
phrase.)
1. Students—interested in volunteering for the
Red Cross
2. form—known as zarzuela
3. Abdul—Gazing intently at the painting
4. work—creating an unpleasant din from
morning to evening
5. Arabic—spoken by almost all the people of
Libya
6. (no participial phrase)
7. Leta—Leaving the party early
8. Samuel—elected by a landslide
9. wolves—howling in the distance
10. Latisha—Fascinated by the intricate plot
Exercise B
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Worksheet 5
Identifying Gerunds, Gerund
Phrases, Infinitives, and Infinitive
Phrases
Exercise A
1. S—Learning a foreign language
2. DO—skating
3. S—Seeing the giant sculpture of Chief Crazy
Horse
4. PN—enclosing money in a letter
Identifying Gerunds, Gerund
Phrases, Infinitives, Infinitive
Phrases, and Infinitive Clauses
Exercise A
1. S—Painting a house
2. OP—shopping for hours
3. DO—making customized scrapbooks as gifts
for family and friends
4. PN—winning the Pulitzer Prize in fiction in
1989
5. PN—fishing
6. DO—going to the movies by myself
7. DO—skiing
8. S—Researching the backgrounds of potential
candidates
9. OP—landing
10. OP—covering the face with a veil
Exercise B
1. ADJ—to go
2. N—to get to the game on time
3. N—Tamiko to wear her helmet when she rode
her bike
4. N—To score a goal in ice hockey
5. ADV—to leave
6. N—to graduate from law school
7. ADJ—to watch
Answer Key
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Language
Handbook
Page 16
6 Phrases
8. N—Mimi to make her special banana bread
9. N—to become an animal behaviorist
10. ADV—to voice our opinions about the new
highway
8. ADV—after the first act
9. ADV—During his trip;ADJ—to Ghana; ADJ—of
the Ashanti people
10. ADJ—from the school newspaper; ADJ—of the
high school
Worksheet 7
(The first item in a pair is the
appositive or appositive phrase. The second is the
word or words identified or explained.)
1. Willis—friend
2. an essayist—José Ortega y Gasset
3. a beautiful antique—desk
4. a specialty in northern China—Peking duck
5. Kerry—cousin
6. a U.S. Senator from Hawaii—Hiram L. Fong
7. A dedicated worker—Ms.Walker
8. Mr. Durand—neighbor
9. a species of sea turtle—green turtle
10. One of the most difficult strategy games—Go
11. a gift from my grandmother—figurine
12. his first language—Vietnamese
13. Steve—brother
14. Vicente Diaz—stage manager
15. N. Scott Momaday—author
16. the one with the beach in the background—
painting
17. A talented graphic artist—Coretta
18. a regional folk dance of southern Italy—tarantella
19. a physician who is known for his research on
blood plasma and who organized many blood
bank programs during World War II—Charles
Drew
20. Mr. Hill—adviser
Exercise
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Exercise C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
ADJ—for my biology paper; ADV—at the library
ADV—to Shawnee, Oklahoma
ADJ—about the history; ADJ—of mathematics
ADV—Behind the church; ADV—by a wroughtiron fence
5. ADJ—over the ravine; ADV—by June
6. ADV—for the rice; ADV—in the wok
7. ADJ—above the mantel; ADJ—from a dear friend
16
Language Handbook Answer Key
PART
APP
PART
PREP
APP
GER
APP
INF
PREP
GER
(Sentences will vary.)
The squeaky toy under the table is Fido’s.
That day there was a mariachi band strolling
through the mall.
The director assigned me and three others the
task of making costumes for the play.
My sleepyhead brother struggles to get to
school on time.
Tonight I get to go see Randy Newman, my
favorite singer, perform live.
Exercise D
Worksheet 8
Test
PART
PART
GER
PART
GER
GER
PART
PART
GER
PART
5.
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Appositive Phrases
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Language
Handbook
7 Clauses
Worksheet 1
Identifying Independent and
Subordinate Clauses
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
IND
SUB
IND
SUB
SUB
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
IND
IND
SUB
IND
SUB
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
SUB
SUB
IND
SUB
IND
IND
SUB
IND
IND
SUB
Worksheet 2
Identifying Adjective Clauses
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
Exercise A (The first item in each pair is the
word modified.The second is the adjective clause.)
1. Orpheum Theater—which was renovated
several years ago
2. Frida Kahlo—whose paintings often contain
autobiographical subject matter
3. Fiesta® San Antonio—which is held in San
Antonio each spring
4. Camels—whose humps carry built-in food
supplies
5. puppy—that she wanted to adopt
6. Anyone—who wants to go to college
7. botanist—who will be our guest speaker
tomorrow
8. blinds—that we ordered for the living room
9. teacher—whom I most admire
10. movie—that we rented last night
(The first item in each pair is the
word modified.The second is the adjective clause.)
1. horse—that Christine rode
2. money—that was missing
3. players—whom the coach depended on the most
Exercise B
4. woman—who reminds you of your
grandmother
5. pocket—that contained his wallet
6. people—whose skin is irritated by ordinary
soap
7. everything—that we see in print
8. tree—my grandfather planted (that)
9. artist—whom my mother most admires
10. writer—who is best known for his plays
Worksheet 3
Identifying and Using Adverb
Clauses
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
so that I would be sure to remember
When labor and management disagree
where almost nothing else will survive
as if they were intended for him
Unless we understand the past
because it wags its tail instead of its tongue
Whenever I find out that I have misspelled a
word
8. Before you criticize modern art
9. While we were vacationing in New York
10. if it’s not too spicy
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
(Answers will vary.)
unless
Although
while
As
as if
As soon as
so that
When
because
Whenever
Worksheet 4
Using Adverb Clauses
(Answers will vary.)
1. As Anzu jogged along the river, she saw an
empty raft.
2. When our refrigerator broke down, we stored
our food in our neighbor’s refrigerator.
3. After Dwayne pressed the dough into six-inch
circles, he cooked the tortillas on the griddle.
Exercise
Answer Key
17
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Language
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Page 18
7 Clauses
4. Because I had run out of blue paint, I finished
the closet in yellow.
5. While the names were being read, we each
held our breath.
6. Because everyone goes through this room, we
call it Grand Central Station.
7. When the curtain rose, the stagehand was
asleep on the couch.
8. Venus’ flytrap is an unusual plant in that it is
able to catch and digest insects.
9. Although Japanese art was strongly influenced
by the Chinese, it has its own, distinctive
Japanese quality.
10. After the lizard’s tail broke off, it grew another
one.
Worksheet 5
Identifying Noun Clauses
Exercise A
1. DO—when the Field Museum of Natural
History would be open
2. OP—whoever asked for one
3. DO—who will win the election
4. S—Why Ricky is playing catcher instead of first
base
5. PN—that we don’t have all the necessary tools
6. DO—what he wants for Christmas
7. S—That a turtle’s shell has two layers
8. IO—whoever stops at the booth
9. DO—that the cat’s wounds will not heal
properly
10. OP—how Hector Elizondo’s acting career
began
Worksheet 6
Identifying Clauses
Exercise
1. ADJ—who invented a system of reading and
writing for people who cannot see, or ADJ—
who invented a system of reading and writing
for people, ADJ—who cannot see
2. ADV—When Louis was three years old
3. ADV—While he was trying to pierce a piece of
leather with an awl
4. ADJ—that caused him to lose his sight in both
eyes
5. N—whether he could attend the Royal
Institution for Blind Youth in Paris
6. ADJ—where the students learned to read by
feeling letters formed with twigs
7. ADJ—which were printed in large raised letters
8. ADV—Because each sentence took a page or
two
9. ADV—when he tried to use the books
10. N—What Louis wanted
11. ADJ—who had been a captain in the army
12. N—What he had invented
13. ADJ—that made ridges on heavy paper
14. ADJ—which could be read without striking a
light
15. N—that this system could be adapted for
people with visual impairments
16. ADJ—that could be read with the fingers
17. ADV—Although he demonstrated his method
to group after group
18. N—whoever would listen
19. ADJ—which killed him at the age of forty-two
20. ADJ—which was called Braille after its inventor
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
S—Where Captain Kidd hid his treasure
DO—what everybody knows
OP—whoever would listen
DO—that they have any prejudices
DO—what caused the rattle
S—How penicillin was discovered
PN—that I have no patience
OP—what he wants to do later
S—That the dog had been well treated
DO—why the possum’s tail has no hair
18
Language Handbook Answer Key
Worksheet 7
Test
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
IND
SUB
SUB
IND
IND
SUB
IND
IND
SUB
SUB
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Language
Handbook
7 Clauses
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
IND
SUB, ADJ
SUB, ADV
SUB, ADV
IND
SUB, N
IND
IND
SUB, ADV
SUB, ADJ
Exercise C
1. ADV—As the Chinese New Year approaches
2. ADJ—which are thought to bring good luck for
the new year
3. ADV—because she wants the new year to be
one of harmony and prosperity
4. ADV—as he departs for heaven
5. N—that the kitchen god would report the
activities of the household to the emperor
6. NONE
7. ADJ—that contain “lucky money”
8. N—that the heaven, the earth, and the
ancestors bless her family in the coming year
9. NONE
10. ADJ—which symbolizes strength and longevity
Exercise D
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
ADJ—Garrett Hongo
N—DO
N—OP
ADV—wrote
ADJ—team
N—S
ADJ—chemist
N—DO
N—IO
ADV—looks
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Answer Key
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Language
Handbook
Page 20
8 Sentence Structure
Worksheet 1
Worksheet 3
Identifying Sentences and
Fragments
Identifying and Using Compound
Subjects and Compound Verbs
Exercise A
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
S
F
F
S
F
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
F
S
F
S
F
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
F
S
F
S
F
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
F
F
S
F
S
Worksheet 2
Identifying Subjects and Predicates
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
P
S
SP
S
SP
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
S
P
SP
S
P
Exercise B
1. We | hiked and fished on our vacation in
Ontario.
2. My parents | worked for several weeks on the
preparations.
3. We | packed our large tent and the dining
canopy.
4. The camp stove and the lantern | were also
included.
5. Much of our food supply | filled our packs.
6. My brother and I | carefully packed our fishing
gear.
7. We | visited Ottawa on the way to our
campsite.
8. The Canadian national holiday | is Canada Day.
9. All of the stores in Ottawa | observed the
holiday by closing.
10. A parade of men in kilts | came down the
street.
20
Language Handbook Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Angelo—took, did finish
Harriet Tubman—escaped, worked
kimonos—are tied, (are) worn
sister, I—take
Hector, Rudy—will lead
Buffalo Soldiers—caught, protected, patrolled
Thomas Kyd, Robert Green—were
bird—fluffed, took, flew
girl, dog—ran, played
Mr. Elizondo—cleared, stepped
(Answers will vary.)
My father, sister
wrote, edited
Mangala, Nanette
walk, ride
Javier, Krystal
sat, sang
liked, bought
Nasser,Victoria
returned, assigned
Kumi, Stephen
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Worksheet 4
Finding the Subject and the
Predicate of a Sentence
Exercise
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
you—Have seen
people—live
(you)—read
I—have seen
home—stood
house—can be found
vacation—Does include
Marian Anderson—was born
equipment—is
you—did bring
smell—came
(you)—put
I—May spend
girl—rushed
sister—Does baby-sit
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Language
Handbook
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
8 Sentence Structure
rowboat—is
(you)—Practice
hundreds—are planted
you—Will get
she—had run
(you)—wash
planets—are
Platters—covered
corn picker—is
(you)—bring
Worksheet 5
Identifying and Using Complements
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
DO
PA
PN
IO
PN
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
PN
DO
IO
PA
DO
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
place
anything
books
list
job
expression
place
machine
sunblock
effect
car
pancakes
chair
lava, cinders, ash
pictures
predictions
plaque
Worksheet 7
Classifying Sentences by Purpose
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
outcome—DO
cousin—PN
memories—DO
acceptable—PA
university—DO
woman—PN
passengers—DO
flickery—PA, dim—PA
green—PN
delicious—PA
DEC
INT
DEC
EXC
IMP
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
IMP or EXC
DEC
INT
IMP
EXC
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
IMP
DEC
DEC
IMP
INT
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Identifying Direct and
Indirect Objects
Exercise
Indirect Objects
Diane
(none)
(none)
(none)
Mrs. Rivera
herself
(none)
you
us
brother
(none)
(none)
Jill
speech
itself
(none)
me
picture
Sonia
(none)
Grandmother Lenz
(none)
me
us
head
Exercise A
Worksheet 6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
Direct Objects
place
medals
role
test
side
portion
bouquet
view
EXC
IMP
DEC
IMP
INT
Worksheet 8
Recognizing Simple, Compound,
Complex, and Compound-Complex
Sentences
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
S
CD
CD
S
S
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
CD
S
CD
CD
S
Answer Key
21
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8 Sentence Structure
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
CD-CX
S
CD
CD
CX
Worksheet 9
Test
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
S—Vicki—used
S—portrait—hangs
S—Nancy Lopez—won
F
S—brother, friends—have been riding
F
S—book—is
S—(you)—Read
F
S—Uncle Ted—rose, made
Exercise C
1. That man carrying the iguana on his shoulder
2. At the bookstore . . . thumbed through Isak
Dinesen’s autobiography, Out of Africa
3. cofounder
4. delicious
5. dogs
6. Lucinda
7. has written
8. popular
9. The Melbourne Cup, an annual horse race in
Australia
10. employee
Exercise D
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
EXC
DEC
IMP or EXC
INT
IMP
Exercise E
Exercise B
DO—all
DO—CD
(none)
PN—host
IO—mother; DO—gift
PA—happy
PA—moldy
IO—aunt; DO—vase
PN—hero
(none)
22
Language Handbook Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
CX
S
CD-CX
CX
CD
CX
CD
CD-CX
CX
CD or S
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
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Language
Handbook
9 Writing Complete Sentences
Worksheet 1
Identifying Sentence Fragments
Exercise
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
F—That Lydia didn’t already have.
F—In the middle of the night.
C
F—Beginning next semester.
F—And hope you will write again soon.
F—An Indian appetizer.
F—Although he often struck out.
C
F—Being interested in astronomy.
F—In comparison with the ancient buildings of
Europe.
F—A famous ocean resort of the South.
C
F—Or eat in the cafeteria.
F—That I don’t feel comfortable in it.
F—By the number of rings in a tree’s trunk.
F—Where they will see prehistoric Indian
dwellings.
C
F—And try to make them feel at home.
F—Rinsing the film in water.
F—Guessing people’s weights.
C
F—Whenever I try to show off my dog.
F—And explains their meanings.
F—A young man from France.
C
Worksheet 2
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
Identifying and Correcting Sentence
Fragments
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
F
S
F
S
F
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
F
F
F
F
S
(Sentences will vary.)
1. I did pretty well in the game . . .
2. . . . Marisa saw she had misspelled quite a few
words in the spelling section.
3. . . . I won’t be able to go to the game Friday.
4. The measure passed . . .
Exercise B
5.
6.
7.
8.
. . . we all took off running.
We’re learning to play Go . . .
. . . I could tell she was not a happy camper.
. . . she had a hard time catching up before
midterms.
9. I wandered around the mall . . .
10. I guess I’m grounded . . .
Worksheet 3
Making Complete Sentences
Exercise
(Sentences may vary slightly.)
When Texans declared their independence
from Mexico in 1836, the Mexican government sent
an army under the command of General Santa Anna
to subdue the rebels
he army crossed the Rio
Grande and marched on San Antonio, where some
of the Texans had taken over the Alamo, an old
n February 23, 1836, the
Spanish mission
Mexican forces, which numbered several thousand,
surrounded the old mission and laid siege to it.
.T
.O
Inside the Alamo, the Texan forces, which
included the famous frontiersmen Jim Bowie and
Davy Crockett, were under the command of Colonel
William Travis
hey intended to defend the Alamo
as long as they could so that General Sam Houston,
the military leader of the Texas rebellion, would
have time to organize an army n order to survive
inside the mission, the defenders had laid in cattle
and a supply of grain
hey also had a couple of
dozen cannons, but the fact that not everyone knew
how to fire them limited the usefulness of the
weapons.
.T
.I
.T
Colonel Travis realized that they could not
hold out long on their own against the Mexican army,
so he sent a courier to ask for reinforcements
few
more men came to the aid of the Texans in the Alamo,
but the total number of defenders came to only 184
ome say that during the siege Colonel Travis drew a
line in the sand and said that anyone who was willing
to stay and defend the Alamo should step over the
line, although others say that this never happened
ccording to the story, everyone in the Alamo but
one stepped over the line Travis sent out two more
couriers to ask for help, but no one else was able to
come to the Alamo’s aid.
.A
.
S
A
.
.
Before dawn on the morning of March 6,
1836, thirteen days after the siege had begun, the
o one knows
Mexican army stormed the Alamo
for sure how long the attack lasted, but finally the
Mexican army broke through a hole in the wall of
.N
Answer Key
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Language
Handbook
Page 24
9 Writing Complete Sentences
the mission’s courtyard and overwhelmed the much
smaller force of Texans Santa Anna ordered that no
prisoners be taken, so all of the Alamo’s defenders
were killed, although fifteen women and children
who had been living in the mission survived.
.
The time Santa Anna lost in defeating the
troops at the Alamo and the casualties his army
suffered, which were heavy, delayed the Mexicans
long enough for General Houston to organize the
Texan forces
ix weeks after the battle at the
Alamo, Santa Anna’s army was resting in open
country near the San Jacinto River General
Houston’s army, which was somewhat smaller than
Santa Anna’s, surprised the Mexican troops in broad
daylight and defeated them
he Texans captured
Santa Anna, who agreed to recognize the
independence of Texas and to return with his
troops to Mexico
lthough no one can ever be
sure, many believe that the defense of the Alamo by
Colonel Travis and his men made Texas
independence possible.
.S
.
.T
.A
Worksheet 4
Identifying and Revising Run-on
Sentences
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
C
C
R
R
C
R
C
R
R
R
(Revisions will vary.)
United States, but it is . . .
metric system, and scientists . . .
of measurement. The metric system . . .
metric system; they use . . .
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
. .
. .
. .
. .
C
. .
. .
. .
C
. .
24
Language Handbook Answer Key
.
.
.
.
. and feet; therefore . . .
. by ten. The system . . .
. 100 equal parts. The word for . . .
. ounces and pounds. The metric system . . .
Worksheet 5
Test
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
F
C
R
F
R
C
R
F
C
R
Exercise B
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
F
C
F
R
C
F
R
C
R
F
(Revisions will vary.)
A number of ancient cities have been
discovered completely buried many feet below the
surface of the ground. Since no one deliberately
buries a city, we wonder by what process this
happens. The explanation is very simple in the case
of Pompeii, an ancient Roman city. Vesuvius erupted
in A.D. 79, pouring masses of lava and ashes over the
doomed city. However, such a fate was unusual.
Most buried cities were covered up by a more
gradual process, which may have taken thousands
of years.
Nowadays when a building is torn down,
powerful trucks haul the rubble away before new
construction is started. In ancient times, however,
people found it simpler to build right on top of the
rubble, using some of the old material in the new
structure. Consequently, the new structure was at a
higher level than the previous one. Often an entire
city was destroyed by war, fire, or flood, and then
the new city would be built on the ruins of the old.
Thus the level of a city grew higher. As time went
on, some cities were deserted because of epidemics,
lack of water, or fear of enemies. After many years,
buildings would begin to collapse as a result of
neglect and the effects of wind and rain. Huge
amounts of sand might be deposited by strong
winds from the desert, or sometimes the
surrounding jungle would close in, hiding the
buildings for many years.
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Language
Handbook
10 Writing Effective Sentences
Worksheet 1
Worksheet 4
Using Adjectives, Adverbs, and
Prepositional Phrases to Combine
Sentences
Using Participial Phrases to
Combine Sentences
(Revisions will vary.)
1. The river flows northward from the lake into
the city.
2. Dams on the river create water power for the
paper mills along the river’s banks.
3. Wood pulp for making paper is obtained from
many kinds of trees.
4. Tiny wood fibers are mixed with water and
squeezed between rollers.
5. Paper made from wood pulp is used for
newspapers, paper towels, and other
inexpensive papers.
Exercise
Worksheet 2
Using Participial Phrases to
Combine Sentences
(Revisions may vary slightly.)
1. Reading the newspaper, my father found my
name on the honor roll.
2. Stamping their feet and clapping, the fans
called the singing group back for an encore.
3. Cars parked on the street during street-cleaning
hours were given tickets by the police.
4. Composed by Stevie Wonder, the words of the
song inspired me.
5. The hotel overlooking the Adriatic Sea is a
traveler’s paradise.
Exercise
(Revisions may vary.)
1. Sharks, living mainly on other fish, are
carnivorous.
2. Having the evening free, Ruben offered to babysit for our neighbors.
3. The attendance varies depending on the
interest in the game.
4. Suffering from the heat, the dog lay quietly on
the floor near the fan.
5. I spent several hours in the library looking up
material on careers.
Exercise A
(Revisions may vary.)
1. The class, accompanied by their teacher, visited
a bank.
2. I found my report card buried under a pile of
newspapers.
3. The trout, broiled over a charcoal fire, had a
wonderful flavor.
4. Written hastily, the article contained many
inaccuracies.
5. The Vikings crossed the Atlantic Ocean in open
boats propelled by sails and oars.
Exercise B
Worksheet 5
Using Appositives and Appositive
Phrases to Combine Sentences
Exercise
Worksheet 3
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
Using Participial Phrases to
Combine Sentences
(Revisions may vary.)
1. Alan delivered his oral report comparing
American and British movies.
2. Drawing from her own experiences, Cynthia
Kadohata writes popular stories about family
relationships.
3. Loaded with passengers, the commuter train
crept into the station.
4. Ella Fitzgerald, considered one of the best
vocalists in jazz history, became famous for her
scat singing.
5. Returning the package filled with broken parts,
Reynold asked for a refund.
Exercise
1. I set up an appointment with my guidance
counselor, Ms. Kosky.
2. I have scheduled three elective classes, (or:)
journalism, American history, and chemistry.
3. Calle Ocho, a festival celebrating Latin
American culture and heritage, is held annually
in Miami.
4. The committee decided to cancel the field trip,
a tour of Baker’s Museum.
5. Just inside the doors there is a large abstract
sculpture, a gift from the school’s alumni.
Or Just inside the doors there is a gift from the
school’s alumni, a large abstract sculpture.
Answer Key
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Language
Handbook
Page 26
10 Writing Effective Sentences
Worksheet 6
Using Appositives and Appositive
Phrases to Combine Sentences
(Revisions may vary.)
1. The Chinese, a people with a rich and varied
culture, have given the world many inventions.
2. A popular sport today is soccer, a game with
two teams of eleven players each.
3. Solar cells and solar furnaces, a unique answer
to energy needs, generate electricity.
4. Anna Howard Shaw, a teacher, doctor, and
Methodist preacher, helped to found the
women’s rights movement.
5. The party-goers, men in baseball uniforms and
women in astronaut gear, were waiting at the
street light.
Exercise
Worksheet 7
Using Subjects, Verbs, and
Independent Clauses to Combine
Sentences
(Revisions may vary.)
Balsams make good Christmas trees; Douglas
firs have also proved quite popular.
Some Christmas trees are cut in October and
loaded on big trucks.
Coal-burning factories may pollute the air, but
solar energy has no known polluting effects.
The city formerly dumped its garbage in
landfills, and this practice caused air pollution.
To help control the pollution, the city covered
the trash with dirt and planted grass seed.
Exercise
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Worksheet 8
Using Subjects, Verbs, and
Independent Clauses to Combine
Sentences
(Revisions may vary.)
1. Both local citizens and tourists enjoy the
Polynesian Cultural Center on Oahu and visit it
often.
2. Air pollution and neglect can harm city trees.
3. Mrs. Hattie Carthen and her friends did not like
to watch city trees die.
4. The sun dance was originally performed to give
thanks, but today it has a different meaning for
each of the Plains Indian peoples.
Exercise
26
Language Handbook Answer Key
5. The Arapaho, the Cree, and other native
peoples have long performed the sun dance.
Worksheet 9
Using Adjective Clauses to Combine
Sentences
(Revisions may vary.)
1. Elizabeth Blackwell wanted to practice
medicine, which was an unusual career for a
woman in 1847.
2. Many physicians, who thought that women
should not become doctors, objected to
Blackwell’s goal.
3. In the Civil War, Elizabeth Blackwell, who
helped train thousands of nurses, proved her
ability.
4. Female doctors, whom Blackwell trained in her
school, had to meet tough standards.
5. Blackwell, whose belief was that prevention is
as important as cure, changed the way doctors
thought about medical treatment standards.
Exercise
Worksheet 10
Using Adjective Clauses to Combine
Sentences
(Revisions may vary.)
1. Dismal Swamp, which lies in Virginia and North
Carolina, contains many animals.
2. The movie is a thriller that is based on a true
spy story.
3. The guinea pig, which is not a pig at all, is a
member of the rodent order.
4. The mountain laurel has glossy leaves that are
poisonous when eaten.
5. Rita, who was standing at the window, saw the
lightning strike.
6. The word oua-oua, which is French, means
“bowwow.”
7. Sail and sale, which sound the same but have
different meanings, are called homophones.
8. The word kosher, which is a Hebrew word
meaning “fit” or “proper,” usually refers to food.
9. The crowd cheered Carrie, whose hit had won
the game.
10. Count Basie influenced the “bop” and “cool”
styles of jazz that developed during the 1940s.
Exercise
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Language
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10 Writing Effective Sentences
Worksheet 11
Using Adverb Clauses to Combine
Sentences
10. I could not believe that Susie Maroney had
swum from Cuba to Florida.
Worksheet 13
(Revisions will vary.)
1. Sammy Lee made history when he won gold
medals in diving in two consecutive Olympics.
2. As soon as you have completed this job
application, mail it in.
3. Roberta has not yet written a thank-you note to
Eloise although Eloise sent her a birthday
present.
4. Juan works on his homework in the morning
before he comes to school.
5. While we were in the supermarket, someone
tripped over a basket and fell.
6. Wendy bought a new scarf in the fall even
though she wasn’t sure that she needed it.
7. If you want a different kind of cereal, you must
write the name on the shopping list.
8. Irene takes piano lessons every week because
she wants to improve her skill.
9. Steve collects political buttons for any
campaign wherever he can find them.
10. Mr. and Mrs. Hena toured the Junipero Serra
Museum when they were in San Diego.
Using Parallel Structure
Worksheet 12
Exercise B
Exercise
Using Noun Clauses to Combine
Sentences
(Revisions may vary.)
1. I forgot to ask how we can get to the National
Museum of African Art from here.
2. When I went to her house for dinner, I found
out that Pilar’s father speaks four languages.
3. Most people know that the moon causes the
tide to rise and fall.
4. There is only one explanation for why we lost
the game.
5. The shoppers couldn’t remember where they
had parked their cars in the mall’s parking lot.
6. Mr. Clark asked me who has been elected class
president.
7. How banks pay interest on savings accounts is
baffling to me.
8. Our hostess told us that the muumuu was
introduced in Hawaii by early missionaries.
9. We wanted to know how dangerous pollutants
could have been fouling the air.
Exercise
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
(Revisions will vary.)
1. Rafael delivered his speech with confidence
and enthusiasm.
2. C
3. Mrs. Shapiro had heard that there would be a
new hockey league but not that there would be
a team in Greensboro.
4. The selection at the downtown CD store is
better than the selection at the mall.
5. C
6. Thelma likes playing the clarinet, marching in
the band, and watching the football games.
7. C
8. My friend Ray is loyal, fun-loving, and kind to
everyone.
9. The doctor told Uncle Lawrence to eat more
healthful foods and to start an exercise
program.
10. I want a new lathe, a good workbench, and
enough time to finish making the table.
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
b
a
b
a
b
Worksheet 14
Rewriting Stringy and Wordy
Sentences
(Revisions will vary.)
In the clothing store, Earline tried on a blouse
that she really liked.
We woke up early, watched the sunrise from
the balcony, and then took a long, relaxing walk
on the beach.
My favorite singer is Céline Dion.
Quanah Parker, a Comanche chief, led his
people against white settlers to try to save the
buffalo. (or C)
Mr. Sanders manages a hardware store and
usually enjoys his work, but he doesn’t like
taking inventory.
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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10 Writing Effective Sentences
6. The basketball team is made up of very
talented, hard-working players.
7. The debate team has now won five consecutive
debate tournaments.
8. C
9. The temperature was a boiling ninety degrees
in the shade, and we were uncomfortable all
afternoon.
10. Would you please direct me to the public library?
Exercise B
(Revisions will vary.)
Patriotism has existed throughout the world
for centuries. If you look at the culture of a country,
you will find many examples of patriotism.These
include paintings of a country’s leaders and historical
events, patriotic music and literature, and slogans
created during stressful times. Patriotism strengthens
countries by encouraging emotional ties to a country
and its people, government, and customs.
4. The gardens, laid out on terraces on top of a
building, stood above the ground.
5. The third wonder was a 40-foot statue of Zeus
made of solid gold and ivory.
6. The fourth wonder, the beautiful Temple of
Artemis, was destroyed when the Goths
invaded in A.D. 262.
7. The British Museum owns fragments of the
fifth wonder, which was a huge tomb in Asia
Minor built by a queen for her dead husband.
8. Although the statue of Helios called the
Colossus of Rhodes took twelve years to build,
it took only one earthquake in 224 B.C. to
destroy it.
9. The seventh wonder was a great lighthouse
built off the coast of Egypt in the third century
B.C.
10. Our teacher told us that the Grand Canyon is
one of the seven natural wonders of the world.
(Revisions will vary.)
1. Sophomores consult the guidance department
regularly to receive information covering career
choices.
2. Walden, a book by Henry David Thoreau, tells
about a year spent in a cabin near Walden
Pond.
3. Galen, a famous second-century physician,
added to our knowledge of the body,
discovering facts about the arteries, the brain,
and the nervous system.
4. Spinach, a hardy plant that is rich in iron and
vitamins A and C, originated in Asia and thrives
in cool weather.
5. The afternoon paper, thrown carelessly by the
news carrier, had unfolded and was scattered
around the yard in pieces.
Varying Sentence Structures and
Sentence Beginnings
Exercise
(Revisions will vary.)
With my help, Mom packed cheese, crackers,
grapes, and iced tea to take to the park. On our way,
we picked up my friend Emily. When we got to the
park, we found a nice level spot and spread out the
blankets. Emily and I munched cheese and crackers
while Mom and Dad played word games to pass the
time. Finally the band began to play a medley of
patriotic tunes.At the beginning of “God Bless
America,” the fireworks began.The splashes of color
and constantly changing designs were beautiful
against the black sky, and the grand finale
mesmerized us all.We gathered our food and blankets
and headed for home, knowing we would always
remember the inspiring music, the crackling sounds,
and the “oohs” and “aahs” of the crowd.
Worksheet 16
Test
(Revisions may vary.)
1. That only one wonder of the ancient world
survives today is a sad fact.
2. The first wonder of the ancient world is a
group of pyramids still standing in Egypt.
3. The second wonder is often listed as the
Hanging Gardens of Babylon, which were
supposedly constructed around 600 B.C.
Exercise A
28
Language Handbook Answer Key
Exercise C
(Revisions will vary.)
The party began early on Saturday
afternoon and continued until seven in the evening.
We treated our guests first to a lunch of sandwiches
and vegetable soup.Then we carefully moved all the
furniture to the middle of the living room and
covered the floor with dropcloths. Each person had
a specific job to do. Mom and her friend Sylvia used
the roller on the walls, for instance, and Arturo and I
painted the trim.We finished painting in about three
hours, and Dad ordered pizza for everyone.Then we
all relaxed and had a good time together. I was
exhausted but had a feeling of satisfaction and
accomplishment from having done a good job.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Exercise B
Worksheet 15
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Language
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11 Capitalization
Worksheet 1
Worksheet 2
Using Capital Letters Correctly
Capitalizing Proper Nouns, School
Subjects, and Titles
Exercise A
Dear Russell,
[2] It has taken me weeks to respond to
your letter, and I apologize. [3] I guess I have been
too busy studying for my English test and reading
the book of poems you sent. [4] Thank you, O kind
one, for such a perfect gift. [5] So far, I think my
favorite is the Robert Frost poem that begins
“Whose woods these are I think I know.” [6]
Would you believe I’ve read that one over and over
[1]
again?
E
S
[7] Vernon and lizabeth are fine, but oh,
how they miss you. [8] o do , of course. [9]
hope your family will be coming back to St. Paul for
a visit soon.
[10]
I
I
Your friend,
Sarah
Exercise B
[1]
s
C
D
[2] I am having the most fantastic ummer!
s you know, the Swanson amily and we three
Wrights decided to drive from hicago to olorado
in the Swansons’ van. [3]
hen we got to enver,
we had to reset our watches because olorado is
on
ountain aylight ime. [4] fter a couple of
days in what people call the “ ile igh ity,” we
headed to the beautiful, cool
ountains. [5] hen
we crossed the Continental Divide, was excited.
[6] This is the ridge of the Rockies that separates
rivers flowing west to the Pacific from rivers
flowing ast to the tlantic. [7] or my favorite
place, I think ’d choose the ocky
ountain
ational Park. [8] hat’s where we saw all sorts of
ildlife and where we got to try fly-fishing for
rout! [9] e’re n the oad back now, but ’ll
mail this when we get to the next own.
M
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Exercise
S
K
K
1. Coretta cott ing is president of the ing
enter in tlanta, eorgia.
2. Several radio stations in os ngeles broadcast
daily in panish.
3. Doctor aniel ale illiams helped improve
medical opportunities for frican mericans.
4. Is the atin class at the community college
taught by rofessor cevedo?
5. Several inviting lakes and parks are within easy
reach of our city.
6. On the weekends ofia helps
r. akano in
his garden.
7. A number of hinese hristians worship at
the irst nited
ethodist hurch.
8. Start at len ark and travel north on urtis
venue.
9. The librarian gave me a list of books by sian
authors.
10. Most of the students found art class very
worthwhile.
11. Great numbers of wedes and orwegians
emigrated to the orthwest.
12. The population of India includes people of the
uslim, indu, and ikh religions.
13. Does the restaurant on uincy treet
specialize in talian foods?
14. Ulani and uisa will be taking lgebra II and
biology.
15. The hio iver is one of many rivers that
ississippi.
flow into the
16. The last queen of awaii was ydia
amekeha iliuokalani.
17. The anama anal was started by the rench
but completed by the mericans.
18. Do the chief mountain ranges of our continent
run north to south or east to west?
19. The people of uerto ico are merican
citizens.
20. This aribbean island was discovered by
hristopher olumbus in 1493.
21. Are you going to take ntroduction to
omputers I and beginning chemistry next
year?
22. We celebrate the anniversary of the adoption of
the eclaration of ndependence with the
ourth of uly holiday.
C
A
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Dear Connie,
A
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[10]
Your friend,
Morgan
M
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23. Is octor rma
artin a family physician or a
specialist?
24. Please set the recorder for 7:00–10:00 P.M.
entral aylight ime to videotape the
program on the ivil ar.
25. When you went to ew ork, did you see the
tatue of iberty and the mpire tate
uilding?
D
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PBS
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Worksheet 3
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Language Handbook Answer Key
A
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Exercise B
C
P
1. The Ward
emorial hurch is the only
utheran church on Pierson oulevard.
2. Does the Northville ower ompany buy its
gas from a anadian company?
3. The Hillside ospital has a chapel equipped
for atholic, rotestant, and ewish religious
services.
4. After aster the Rufferts plan to tour the
outh in their new onda.
5. The colonists who signed the eclaration of
ndependence would have been arrested as
traitors by the ritish if the merican
evolution had failed.
6. The Wilsons recently visited the eorge
ashington arver ational
onument in
issouri.
7. The Pacific cean is over six-and-one-half
miles deep near the Philippine slands.
8. The purpose of the expedition by Lewis and
Clark was to chart a path to the Pacific oast
(or coast) through lands acquired in the
Louisiana urchase.
9. Did you know that the 1964 obel eace rize
was awarded to
artin uther ing, r.?
10. Civil War soldiers from both the orth and the
outh are buried in Arlington ational
emetery.
11. Chicago’s orth
ichigan venue reminds
me of New York’s ifth venue.
12. The Superior ppliance ompany is offering a
year’s supply of iffy soap with each pex
washer purchased during the month of
arch.
13. The Kansas istorical ociety will show a
color film of the great uropean cathedrals
built during the
iddle ges.
14. The first ten amendments to the onstitution
are known as the ill of ights.
15. In eptember 1992, astronaut
ae emison
made an eight-day flight on the spacecraft
ndeavor.
L
I
F
P
Using Capitals Correctly
Exercise A
P
16. On Saint atrick’s ay New York ity police
officers march in the parade.
17. The oldest known Inuit site is in the leutian
slands, across the ering trait from sia.
18. Did you know that the Atlas heater features
rench, hinese, and other foreign films?
19. Our high school opens in eptember right
after abor ay.
20. The space probe ioneer 11 arrived at the
planet aturn in 1979 and was renamed
ioneer- aturn.
P
C
1. Please welcome tonight’s speaker, rofessor
Evelyn Shaw of Ohio tate niversity.
2. Neal Stephenson’s novel now rash is an
acclaimed science-fiction fantasy.
3. Standing thirty miles off the shore of ake
Superior, the lighthouse at Stannard ock is
maintained by the ational ata uoy enter.
4. Our high school library has a framed letter
from the hite ouse, written by Eleanor
Roosevelt during orld ar II.
5. The Ace ppliance ompany in the Gardner
uilding is having a sale on the following
brand-name appliances: peedo washers,
hirlwind vacuum cleaners, and lobe
television sets.
6. The famous enezuelan pianist Teresa Carreño
performed Edvard Grieg’s iano oncerto
with the Philadelphia rchestra in April 1901.
7. All my uncles, aunts, and cousins plan to attend
my grandmother and grandfather’s wedding
anniversary celebration the first unday in
une.
8. As I beheld the rand anyon in rizona for
the first time, a sense of the majestic power of
nature swept over me.
9. Our textbook has a copy of a painting by the
rench artist Marc Chagall; it shows a ewish
wedding procession in a ussian village.
10. Nancy Bergman, a graduate of the Curtis
nstitute, will play one of Liszt’s “ ungarian
hapsodies” with the Lewiston ymphony
rchestra next riday in the auditorium of the
King igh chool.
11. Is the capital of orth arolina aleigh or
urham?
12. The desert area known as eath alley
extends into both alifornia and evada.
13. The etherlands, elgium, and uxembourg
are known as the ow ountries.
S
N
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O
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N
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14. The ew estament of the ible tells of the
life and teachings of Jesus and his disciples.
15. My panish teacher, Mr. Montoya, studied in
adrid, pain, this summer.
16. Did you know that the ecret ervice is a
part of the U. S. reasury epartment?
17. The author of the poem “ he aven” is Edgar
Allan Poe.
18. My dad drove unt Lois, my sister, and ousin
Larry to pringfield today.
19. Has rofessor Murphy seen the painting
ona isa at the Louvre?
20. The robotic planetary rover ojourner, which
explored Mars, is about the size of a microwave
oven.
21. Did you know that risten named her new
Dalmatian puppy “ ireman”?
22. The orn elt region of the
idwest
extendes from western hio to ansas and
ebraska.
23. Much of Kathryn’s family lives in East aton
ough arish in ouisiana.
24. Tim O’Brien’s short story “ here ave ou
one, harming illy?” focuses on a young
soldier’s feelings about combat.
25. The ake of the oods is a large lake,
extending from anada into the nited tates.
S
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Exercise
[7] She apparently saw many of the sights
around there—the French Quarter, Audubon ark,
Tulane niversity, and Lake Pontchartrain. [8] While
visiting the city’s famous Saint Louis Cathedral, she
met an elderly Catholic riest, ather Pernet, who
proved to be an ncyclopedia of unusual
information about the early history of the city. [9]
He told her that many people from different ethnic
groups live in New rleans, including African
mericans, Irish Americans, and Creoles.
P
U
p
e
F
O
A
[10] She is still opposed to movies and
urged us not to take six-year-old Jerry to see Fire n
Wheels, even though Cyclist
agazine listed it as
suitable for young children. [11] Just as Jerry was
about to protest, she produced a handful of little
gifts from one of the Royal treet antique shops.
o
M
S
[12] Have I ever told you that not until I
was in igh chool did I realize that Aunt Ada
wasn’t a “real” unt? [13] Her husband, aptain
Carey, was a great friend of my
other’s father
from their boyhood days when they used to fish for
atfish on the Mississippi River.
h
s
a
C
m
c
A
Edwin,
[2] When we returned from the Rackham
heater
onday night, we found “Aunt”Ada on our
porch with her suitcase, which had stickers from
Mammoth Cave and Mexico ity.
T
C
r
Test
[1] Dear
why she didn’t prefer to visit the city during Mardi
Gras, she said that she plans to return to enjoy those
festivities also. [6] Next time, she might ride the
train known as the ity of New Orleans.
[14] By the way, does this letter smell of
rhubarb? [15] Aunt Ada is still convinced that hubarb
is the tonic that keeps her young, and we are eating it
with her at every meal. [16] If we served her
cauliflower, she would phone mtrak to find out
when the next train leaves for the good old outh.
Worksheet 4
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
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[3] She has much to tell about New
Orleans, where she spent two weeks this fall. [4]
She especially enjoyed All Saints’ Day, which is
celebrated on November 1. [5] hen I asked her
W
S
[17] My family is calling me to join them on
Aunt Ada’s daily sightseeing tour, which is to
include Greenfield Village and the Ford Motor
Company, not far from the village. [18] Write me
when you can.
[19]
Sincerely,
[20]
Jane
Answer Key
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12 Punctuation
,
Worksheet 1
Using End Marks
Exercise A
1. August Wilson, a leading playwright, won
Pulitzer Prizes in 1987 and 1990
2. Please be careful as you step onto the escalator
3. Did you do much reading and research before
you set up your aquarium
4. My older brother, Fernando, has taken several
computer engineering classes at the
community college
5. What an incredible poet Anne Sexton is
6. Please get out of the way (or )
7. What time of year is best for planting broccoli
8. Set the thermostat at sixty-eight degrees, and
keep it there
9. What kinds of trees are found on the lower
slopes of the Southern Rockies
10. My uncle Dwayne’s CD collection includes a
broad selection of reggae music
.
.
?
.
.
!
!
?
.
?
.
Exercise B
1. Who will be the new president of Sunshine
Industries, Inc
2. Our honored guest this evening is Dr Patrick
N Morgan
3. The meeting will be held at the community
center on Locust St and will be led by Ms.
Cynthia Jee
4. C
5. For my birthday, Mrs Crane gave me a book by
N Scott Momaday.
6. Kenesha said she would meet us at the corner
of Pleasant Ave and Fifty-first St at exactly
3:45 P M
7. As I crossed the street, I spotted Donald
Ramsey, Jr., leaving the Kensington Corp
building.
8. Is it true that your parents are both originally
from Boston, Mass
9. What an unusual cat you have
10. Are you familiar with any literature from the
fourth century B C ?
.?
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.?
!
..
Worksheet 2
Using Commas in Series
(If you permit students to omit the
final series comma, then the commas that are
underscored in this exercise may be considered
optional.)
Exercise
32
Language Handbook Answer Key
,
1. Beautiful homes attractive city squares and a
mild climate are characteristics of Savannah,
Georgia.
2. C
3. Tourists enjoy shopping visiting historic
homes and sampling Southern cuisine.
4. Sea Islands’ beaches Fort Stewart and the
Atlantic Ocean are not far away.
5. Other beautiful Southern cities are Charleston
New Orleans and Beaufort.
6. C
7. She had been sure her slow start her stumble
on the third lap or her late dash had kept her
from winning.
8. Do traditional African music Jamaican folk
music and North American popular music
form the roots of reggae?
9. My favorite foods include macaroni and cheese
peanut butter and jelly and bread and butter.
10. Students must turn in their locks empty their
lockers and account for all textbooks before
leaving school.
11. The ice storm canceled flights slowed trains
and brought traffic to a standstill.
12. Chi Wan plays volleyball Roland plays softball
and Dennis runs track.
13. Is Maine known for its pine forests cool lakes
and rugged coastline?
14. Henry dusted Elia vacuumed Victor scrubbed
the kitchen and Tamisha cleaned the bathroom.
15. Sidney Poitier was born in Miami grew up in
the Bahamas and studied acting in New York
City.
16. The dog’s nose tail and bark were most like a
collie’s.
17. C
18. C
19. The roses laurel lilacs lilies and
rhododendron are all blooming at once.
20. At the Cinco de Mayo festival, we enjoyed folk
dancing speeches and Mexican music.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Worksheet 3
Using Commas to Separate
Adjectives and to Join Independent
Clauses
Exercise A
1. Jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald was known for her
pure beautiful tone and her flawless intonation.
2. C
,
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3. My cousin Rhonda is a sensitive warm
thoughtful person; I am very fond of her.
4. C
5. C
6. Marlene’s winning basket put an end to an
exciting high-scoring game.
7. It’s time to replace this old worn-out pair of
shorts with a new pair.
8. Do you like kimchi, a spicy tasty relish that
accompanies many Korean meals?
9. C
10. Father placed several steaming heaping
colorful dishes on the table and called us to
dinner.
,
,
,
,
,
,
6. Mahalia Jackson who grew up singing in a
church choir became a famous gospel singer.
7. C
8. Anita who has no sense of humor couldn’t
see what made the joke funny.
9. C
10. Have you heard of Lorraine Hansberry who
was a famous playwright?
11. Were Daniel’s directions which were very
brief clear to you?
12. Mark Twain who tried a dozen different types
of jobs became a writer.
13. C
14. Shakespeare’s father who was a merchant in
Stratford served for a time as “high bailiff,” or
mayor, of the town.
15. C
16. Why didn’t the Brahman suspect that the tiger
which was in a cage was trying to trick him?
17. The Titanic which was the largest vessel of its
time generated an enormous amount of
publicity about its maiden voyage.
18. The author Doris Lessing grew up in the
African country Zimbabwe which was then
called Southern Rhodesia.
19. Did you know that the high-wire aerialist who
is very talented has performed with the same
group for ten years?
20. Evan’s new job which is far more challenging
than his previous job pays well and provides
good benefits.
,
,
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,
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,
,
Exercise B
,
1. Dad liked the chiles rellenos but Mother found
them too spicy; I’ll make some mild ones next
time.
2. C
3. Arctic icebergs are rough but antarctic
icebergs are rather flat and smooth.
4. C
5. C
6. Did Rita make this cabinet herself or did her
teacher help her?
7. I respect your opinion yet I cannot agree
with it.
8. The painting that we saw is valued at a million
dollars yet it is really priceless.
9. The train we were on had started to move and
we couldn’t find Sofia anywhere.
10. Does he always rush around like that or is he
really late for something?
,
,
,
,
,
,
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
Worksheet 4
Using Commas to Distinguish
Essential from Nonessential Clauses
Exercise A
,
,
1. Anthony who won the race became the first
one in our class to receive a trophy.
2. My left ankle which I broke last winter is still
too weak for track.
3. The teacher was annoyed when Hillary who
lives right across the street from school was
late.
4. C
5. Our City Hall which was built in 1912 is now
too small.
,
,
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,
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,
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,
,
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,
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
,
N— . . .“The Jacket ” which . . . .
E
E
N— . . . Stacy Kerwin who . . . .
E
E
N— . . . Oxford Drive which . . . .
E
N—Buffalo Bill whose . . .William F. Cody
was . . . .
N— . . .“Mac ” which . . . .
E
N—Grasshoppers which . . . pests can . . . .
E
N—Cindy who . . . inning hit . . . .
E
N— . . . moon which . . . brightly suddenly . . . .
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Answer Key
33
6/2/09
9:40 PM
Language
Handbook
17.
18.
19.
20.
Page 34
12 Punctuation
,
,
,
N—Britain which . . . war paid . . . .
N—“Green Willow ” which . . . class is . . . .
E
E
,
,
,
Using Commas
,
,
Exercise A
,
1. Yes I would love to go see Los Lobos with you.
2. C
3. When we finally made up our minds the car
had been sold.
4. Stumbling down the ravine Dale lost his shoe
as well as his compass.
5. C
6. After a breakfast of pancakes and fruit we
were ready for the hike.
7. C
8. Next add potting soil to make sure the roots
are completely covered.
9. With money in their hands they headed for
the popcorn stand.
10. Losing patience with the dough Miwa added
more flour and rerolled the noodles.
11. C
12. Starting in a pile of oily rags in the basement
the fire traveled up the stairway to the first floor.
13. Early in her career in the 1970s Martina Arroyo
was the first soprano in thirty years to perform
the opening night at the Metropolitan Opera
for three consecutive years.
14. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution
some workers feared that machines would take
away their jobs.
15. C
16. For the rest of our trip to Ohio the baby
behaved well.
17. Well we could either go see the Frank Romero
exhibit or go shopping downtown.
18. By keeping the car at home and fixing the
motor ourselves we saved more than a
hundred dollars.
19. Whenever it hears a siren our dog begins to
howl.
20. Upon graduating from Spelman College
Belinda became a reporter.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
1. A white dove the symbol of peace appears on
the stamp.
34
,
,
Worksheet 5
Exercise B
,
2. Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales a poet and activist
has been at the forefront of the Chicano
movement.
3. In this book for example all the characters are
animals.
4. Hollywood the movie capital of the world is a
part of Los Angeles.
5. The gas from a car’s exhaust contains carbon
monoxide a deadly poison.
6. C
7. My lunch usually a sandwich and a glass of
milk costs about four dollars.
8. At any rate a hammer and a screwdriver are all
you need for this job.
9. Tom did you know that the game drew a
crowd of nearly a thousand the largest
attendance this year?
10. Estevanico a black slave from Morocco
became one of the first explorers of the
southwestern United States.
11. Lake Louise one of the beautiful lakes in the
Canadian Rockies attracts many visitors.
12. It is considered careless Marcia to confuse the
adverb there with the pronoun their.
13. Jane Goodall the famous ethologist will
address the group.
14. The fox trot I believe was named after Harry
Fox a vaudeville dancer.
15. Williamsburg as I recall has been rebuilt to look
just as it did before the American Revolution.
16. The snake dance a sacred ceremony of the
Hopis is held each August.
17. Blondin a Frenchman walked a tightrope
across Niagara Falls in 1859.
18. My friend Cynthia showed us Pickfair the
home of Mary Pickford.
19. The electric eel a South American fish
generates enough electricity to stun people and
kill small fish.
20. In 1898, working with her French husband,
Marie Curie a Polish scientist discovered
radium a previously unknown element.
21. Your suggestion is I believe a good one, but I
must consider the alternatives.
22. Please set the table for dinner Jenny and call
your sister to come downstairs.
23. Did you know that Reid the captain of the
football team made the honor roll?
24. The Parkers’ house an ornate Victorian
structure is costly to paint.
25. When will the veterinarian a graduate of
Texas A&M University begin work?
Language Handbook Answer Key
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© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
6/1/09
6:47 PM
Page 35
Language
Handbook
12 Punctuation
Worksheet 6
Worksheet 7
Using Commas Correctly
Using Commas, Semicolons, and
Colons
Exercise A
1. Our records show that you made a call from
Dallas Texas to Buffalo New York on May 3
2000.
2. C
3. Virgil Dunning Jr. made a presentation to our
class.
4. Send your application to Ms. Michelle
Kawamoto 1300 Stratton Avenue before
September 1.
5. Our store at 520 Dwyer Street opened on
Monday August 2 1999.
6. C
7. The American Library Association (50 E. Huron
St. Chicago Illinois 60611) distributes these
pamphlets.
8. Marconi transmitted the letter s by wireless
from Cornwall England to St. John’s
Newfoundland on December 12 1901.
9. C
10. The geographic center of the United States is in
Butte County South Dakota.
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Exercise A
,
[1] Dear Pauline
,
[2] Well, we have been here in Toronto
Ontario since June 2. [3] So far we are having a
great time however, I do miss you and all my other
friends back in Huntsville. [4] We have visited the
Art Gallery of Ontario, the Ontario Science Centre,
and the Metro Toronto Zoo and Aunt Stephanie
even took Bill Elizabeth and me to see a Blue Jays
game at the SkyDome.
,
;
,
;
,
[5] We have met a very interesting man,
Howard Jordan M.D. he is a friend of my uncle
Vincent’s. [6] Dr. Jordan has traveled to so many
different places Madrid Spain Lima Peru and
Anchorage,Alaska, just to name a few. [7] He is
never at a loss for an entertaining story. [8] He even
had an article published in a travel magazine it is
titled “Madrid’s Museums A Guided Tour.”
,
:
;
,
;
,
;
;
:
[9] Remember, I’ll be getting back home at
around 8 30 on Saturday June 20 and I can’t wait
to tell you all about our vacation.
:
Exercise B
,
,
[1] Dear Uncle Jack
,
,
[10]
[2] Thank you, for your letter. [3] It is nice
of you, to invite me to spend a week with you, and
Aunt Linda, this summer. [4] I talked to Mom and
Dad, about the idea, and they are in favor of it.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
[5] I have, also, been talking to a friend’s
father, Mr. Sidney Price Jr. about your fine city. [6]
He lived in Seattle, for many years. [7] Uncle Jack if
there is time during my stay, maybe, we could visit
the Woodland Park Zoo. [8] Mr. Price recommended
it, as an enjoyable place to spend a day, in Seattle.
, ,
,
Your friend
Alice
Exercise B
;
1. Ms. Zacharias is an excellent music teacher, in
fact, I don’t think I’ve ever had a better teacher.
2. We will have short quizzes in class on the
:
;
following dates Monday, February 9, Wednesday,
;
February 25, and Monday, March 16.
:
3. Misty read Luke 10 1–27 in preparation for her
Sunday school class.
[9] I look forward to talking to you, soon,
about the details, of my visit.
4. Tomorrow in class we will be discussing
:
“America The Multinational Society,” an essay
[10]
Sincerely
Anthony
,
by Ishmael Reed.
;
5. Gloria is a talented painter she won a blue
ribbon in the district art contest.
Answer Key
35
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9:40 PM
Language
Handbook
Page 36
12 Punctuation
6. My whole family, along with the Drapers, is
Worksheet 8
;
going to a powwow in Celilo, Oregon, we will
be gone all weekend.
Exercise A
7. The speech is officially scheduled to begin at
: ;
7 30, however, it would be wise to arrive early
8. In one scene in the film, the main character
rests by a sparkling stream and recites Psalm
,
1. To tell the truth I was really disappointed.
2. The cabin I suppose has a fireplace.
3. Watch out for the icy sidewalk (or . . .
sidewalk )
4. Our treasury fellow members is in urgent
need of your dues.
5. C
6. You’ll be feeling like new in just a few days my
friend.
7. My dear Janis all of us make mistakes once in a
while.
8. Dr Draper you know has met Colin Powell.
9. The rain I believe lasted only a few minutes.
10. What experience have you had that would
qualify you for this job
11. You know Kareem how eager we are to
see you.
12. C
13. Maxine does Samuel Cabrera or Carol Milner
ever write you?
14. Please tell me the number of years you have
lived at this address
15. It was your encouragement Mother that
helped me succeed.
16. I’m afraid Mr Dale that you lack experience
for this type of job.
17. Lila has just taken a new job at Howard
University by the way.
18. Some birds for example have better vision
than humans.
19. Did you say you were going to call to awaken
me at 6:00 or at 6:30 A M
20. Guess what I’m getting for my birthday Peggy.
21. The children of course can hardly wait for
Hanukkah.
22. I have decided my friend to take your advice.
23. Children you’re ruining Mr Shapiro’s flower
bed.
24. C
25. Don’t tell me that you’re going to get up to
catch your flight at 4:30 A M (or A M )
,
.
in order to get a good seat.
,
!
,
,
,
:
104 1–35.
9. Some of the faraway cities Mrs. Simmons has
;
;
visited include Tokyo, Japan, Sydney,Australia,
and Bombay, India.
10. I always keep my dog on a leash when we are
;
outside I don’t want him to run into the street
and be hit by a car.
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
?
,
Exercise C
:
[1] Dear Ms. Endo
[2] I am a student at Lakewood High
School as a member of the newspaper staff, the
yearbook staff, and the Camera Club, I have been
developing my photography skills for several years.
[3] Mr. Daniel Ferguson, advisor for the Camera
Club, suggested I write to you he said you may
need some extra help in your studio this summer.
;
;
[4] I hope you will consider hiring me. [5]
You would not be sorry in fact, I believe you would
find me to be a reliable and efficient employee. [6]
As a sample of my technical abilities, I have
enclosed the following items an artistic portfolio,
prints of some of my yearbook photographs, and
several informal portraits of friends. [7] In addition,
Mr. Ferguson has agreed to send you a
recommendation letter on my behalf it should
arrive within days of this packet.
;
:
;
[8] You can reach me at 555-0110 weekdays
between the hours of 6 00 and 10 00 P.M. or on
weekends at almost any time of day. [9] Thank you for
your time I will look forward to hearing from you.
:
:
;
[10]
Sincerely,
Ted Bennett
36
Test
Language Handbook Answer Key
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, .
,
,
,
,
,
,
. .?
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
. .!
..
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
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Page 37
Language
Handbook
12 Punctuation
(If you permit students to omit
the final series comma, then the commas that are
underscored in this exercise may be considered
optional.)
Exercise B
[1] We are always getting telephone calls
for Fred A. Smith the plumber. [2] My father’s name
you know is also Fred A. Smith. [3] Early in the
morning late at night or on Sunday, someone is
sure to call to report that the furnace is out of
order the kitchen drain is clogged up or a water
pipe is leaking. [4] Dad advised Jerry my older
brother to become a plumber. [5] He could as a
matter of fact do a thriving business right from the
start. [6] The other day, a truck driver tried to
deliver a load of stovepipe several water heaters
and a kitchen sink at our front door. [7] They were
of course for the other Fred A. Smith the plumber.
[8] Another time, a very angry man phoned to say
that we had promised to fix his washing machine
on Wednesday March 4 and that we hadn’t kept
our word. [9] We also by the way received a bill
for $300 from the Cadillac Plumbing Supply Co.
Kalamazoo Michigan. [10] The bill included a note
reminding us that the amount was due on June 10.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
(If you permit students to omit
the final series comma, then the commas that are
underscored in this exercise may be considered
optional.)
Exercise C
[1] When I took my first regular job on June
22 1999 I was just sixteen years old. [2] I worked
for the Vine Company whose address is 73 Elk
Street Buffalo New York 14210. [3] During the first
few weeks of my employment I was given the job
of unpacking sorting and checking stock in the
basement a rather dreary and cheerless place.
,
,
,
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
,
,
,
,
,
,
[4] After I had been doing this work for
several weeks you can imagine how pleased I was
one day to hear Mrs. Cartwright the manager of the
store say,“Helen we need someone for the glassware
counter upstairs and I’ve decided to give you a try.”
,
,
,
,
,
[5] The glassware counter was difficult for
me a new employee to handle. [6] I would get
very nervous when children would brush recklessly
up against glassware that was on display.
,
,
[7] My most frustrating customers were
usually the ones who couldn’t make up their minds.
[8] One such customer for example told me that
she wanted six blue-flowered glasses. [9] As soon as
I had wrapped them she said in a pleading voice,“I
hate to bother you my dear but would you mind
,
,
,
,
,
giving me three blue and three yellow glasses
instead?” [10] What could I do but smile and agree
to the customer’s whims begin the wrapping
process all over again and hope that she wouldn’t
see anything that she liked better?
,
,
Exercise D
1. We spent the afternoon at the Santa Fe Indian
Market, with our cousins.
2. Mrs. Kerr, Uncle Ed, and Myra, met Toni, and
Diane at the airport.
3. During the winter months in northern Norway,
the sun rises, and sets within a few minutes.
4. C
5. Having skipped my lunch, I was famished, by
the end of my program.
6. Yes, I shall write to you, as soon as I receive my
final grades.
7. C
8. Not a thing was broken, lost, or mislaid, as a
result of our moving.
9. C
10. We hope to reach Northfield, Minnesota, by
Friday, or Saturday.
11. C
12. It is dangerous to drink water, that has not
been tested for purity.
13. The band played “Pomp and Circumstance,” as
we marched.
14. When children are tired, sleepy, and hungry,
they are often cross, and irritable.
15. Montana’s Jeannette Rankin, was the first woman
elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
16. C
17. Longfellow wrote “The Wreck of the Hesperus,”
while he was living in Craigie House.
18. One of the early leaders in the struggle against
racial discrimination, was Ida B.Wells-Barnett.
19. Ynes Mexia started her botanical explorations,
and plant collecting in South and Central
America at the age of fifty-five.
20. C
Answer Key
37
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9:40 PM
Language
Handbook
Page 38
13 Punctuation
Worksheet 1
Using Italics
Exercise
1. I accidentally typed the letter o instead of the
numeral 0.
2. Have you ever seen Lorraine Hansberry’s play A
Raisin in the Sun?
3. The phrase shiba inu is Japanese for
“brushwood dog.”
4. For his science homework, Jim had to define
the words immunity, antibody, and antigen.
5. Ceremony, a novel by Leslie Marmon Silko, tells
of the postwar experiences of a World War II
veteran.
6. I can never remember whether the word
broccoli has one or two l’s.
7. My sister, a junior in college, is reading The
Grapes of Wrath for her social psychology class.
8. Although the term repoussé is sometimes used
as a synonym for embossing, the two words do
not have exactly the same meaning.
9. One of Nam June Paik’s well-known artworks,
Video Fish, includes working television sets and
tanks filled with tropical fish.
10. The Mary Tyler Moore Show was one of the
longest-running sitcoms on television.
11. Tamara’s mother subscribes to the magazine
Native Peoples.
12. What was the first year Seventh Heaven
appeared on TV?
13. Stopping at a small newsstand, Susanna bought
the latest issue of Entertainment Weekly.
14. Last night the entire family watched a
documentary about the sinking of the
Lusitania.
15. Space shuttles such as Endeavour make it
possible for astronauts to retrieve and repair
broken satellites.
16. The movie The Buddy Holly Story tells the life
story of musician Buddy Holly.
17. The phrase c’est la vie is French for “that’s life.”
18. Scott wrote the word illusion where he meant
to write allusion.
19. Cole Porter wrote the music and lyrics for the
musical High Society.
20. You left out the second n in the word
beginning.
21. Aren’t the special effects in the movie
Armageddon spectacular?
22. Alfred Hitchcock’s movie The Birds was based
on Daphne du Maurier’s story with the same
title.
38
Language Handbook Answer Key
23. The American composer Leonard Bernstein
wrote the musical West Side Story in 1957.
24. Lydia, did you mean to write the word affect
instead of the word effect?
25. Don’t call me on Tuesday evenings; I’ll be
watching Nova, my favorite television program.
Worksheet 2
Punctuating Direct Quotations
Exercise
1.
We bake all our own tortillas,” said the
“waitperson.
2. (indirect quotation)
3. Jody said
et’s listen to the Emilio Navaira
CD next.
4. Have you ever seen a germ
little Viola
asked challengingly.
5. The fortune cookie was actually invented in
San Francisco, explained Lien.
6. What a funny name for a cat exclaimed Jerry.
7. The driver of a passing car called to us
our
tire is flat!
8. (indirect quotation)
9. I get tired of being asked
s it hot enough for
you? every August.
10. A sign on the lawn says
our feet are killing
me.
11. (indirect quotation)
12. There is no better tire made said the
salesclerk.
13. The parking attendant shouted
ook out for
the child!
14. The officer said to Pilar
et me see your
driver’s license.
15. Have you ever had the measles
asked Dr.
Murray.
16. (indirect quotation)
17. Dr. Iris Murray asked
ave you ever had
measles?
18. Education is much more than just studying
books began the speaker.
19. (indirect quotation)
20. Didn’t Rudolph Fisher write that story
asked Mrs. Sheldon.
ho will come to the
21. Ms. Scovil asked
board and work this math problem?
22. (indirect quotation)
23. (indirect quotation)
24. Didn’t Patricia go to the coast this
weekend
inquired Vickie.
25. (indirect quotation)
, “L
”
“
“
“
?”
”
!”
, “Y
”
, “I
, “Y
”
”
,”
, “L
“
”
”
“
“
, “L
”
?”
, “H
,”
?”
“
, “W
“
?”
”
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
6/1/09
6:47 PM
Page 39
Language
Handbook
13 Punctuation
Worksheet 3
Worksheet 4
Punctuating Split Quotations
Punctuating Dialogue
Exercise
Exercise
“
2. “
3. “
4. “
“T
5. “
,”
6. “
,“
7. “
,“
.”
8. “
“T
9. “
,”
10. “
“
11. “
12. “
“
13. “
,”
14. “
!”
!”
15. “
, ,”
1.
16.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
“
“
18. “
19. “
17.
20.
,”
?”
?”
,“
.“
.”
,”
,“
,”
.”
. “V
Where are you going Jean asked dressed
up in your vest and tie
Where are you going
Jean asked I
thought you expected company
I will be glad to help you he replied after
I finish this problem
My rough draft is almost finished Leon said
he topic is Acoma myths
No parking the sign warned
iolators
will be towed away
To keep the sauce smooth cautioned Miss
Teng stir constantly
Because of the cold spring explained the
professor the water temperature is below
normal
Be sure to take an umbrella Mother added
he forecast is for rain
Please Maria begged let me have just a
bite of your empanada
You must pull out the choke Father said
or the lawn mower won’t start
This is an old radio the clerk grumbled I
don’t carry the parts
On our trip to California Ramona began
we had dinner one night in Little Saigon
I’m sorry the waitperson apologized that
I mixed up your order
Strike three shouted the umpire
ou’re
out
Hey Amy Fred whispered are you going
to the party Saturday night
My aunt is teaching me how to make latkes
Bruce said
hey are a traditional Hanukkah
dish
The meeting has been postponed he
announced until Monday
Hello the tour guide said
elcome to
historic Natchez
Genius is one percent inspiration said
Thomas Edison and ninety-nine percent
perspiration
Is this the house she inquired where
they’re giving away kittens
“
.”
.”
,”
,”
.”
,”
.”
,“
.”
,”
.”
,”
.
.”
,”
.”
?”
,
.“
,
.”
,“
. “Y
,“
,”
. “T
.”
,”
,“
.”
,“
.”
,”
.
.”
. “W
,”
,”
?”
,“
“
,” Mika
[1] Your cat looks awfully skinny
said. [2] Doesn’t it like its food?
“
”
¶ [3] Laura chuckled and responded,
H
aven’t
you ever seen a Siamese cat?”
“
¶ [4] “ Yes, I’ve seen them, but I guess I’ve
never seen one this close,” Mika replied.
“
,”
. “
.”
[7] “ Oh, I see,” said Mika. [8] “ Do these
cats make good pets?”
¶ [9] “ While I can’t speak for all Siamese
owners,” Laura said, “ I really enjoy Princess’s
company. [10] She can be rather loud sometimes,
¶ [5] Siamese are usually slender and
long, just like my little Princess here Laura
explained [6] They always have blue, almondshaped eyes
but she’s extremely smart, playful, and sociable. [11]
Sometimes I even take her for walks on a leash.
”
“
¶ [12] That’s funny
heard of walking a cat.
”
“
,” said Mika, “ I never
¶ [13] Well, I guess Siamese are a little
unusual Laura responded. [14] Another good
quality about them is that they don’t have to be
brushed very often because their fur is so short and
fine.
,”
“
”
[15]
Mika asked.
“ Where do Siamese cats come from?”
“
¶ [16] It’s impossible to tell the exact
history of the breed Laura answered although
its origin is Asian. [17] Legend has it that the
ancestors of today’s Siamese were kept by the kings
and priests of Siam, which is known as Thailand
today. [18] Some say they were trained to guard the
royal palaces and temples.
,”
,“
”
“
¶ [19] Wow, you sure know a lot about
cats (or . . . cats said . . .) said Mika. [20]
Thanks for educating me.
“
!”
,”
”
Answer Key
39
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9:40 PM
Language
Handbook
Page 40
13 Punctuation
10.
Worksheet 5
Using Quotation Marks
Read Chapter 3, ‘ The Digestive System,’ and
“answer
the mastery questions,” Ms. Rhodes
instructed.
Exercise A
Worksheet 6
[1] Glen finally found the announcement
about the Spring Concert at the end of the
newspaper feature About Town. [2] On Friday,
April 10, at 8:00 P.M., the announcement read, the
Central High Choral Society will present its annual
Spring Concert. [3] The Central Songsters, as they
are commonly called, will perform a wide range of
entertaining selections, the announcement
continued. [4] Mrs. Maxine Arroyo, director of the
Songsters, would not reveal the opening number
but did hint, It is one of my favorite tunes, and it
was popularized by Van Morrison. [5] However,
Mrs. Arroyo did tell us the names of some of the
other titles that will contribute to the eclectic mix.
[6] They include Oh, Pretty Woman, Big Yellow
Taxi, and Misty.
”
”
‘
’
‘
’”
‘
“
”
“
’
“
’‘
“
[7] Advance tickets for the event are on
sale now, Glen read. [8] They can be purchased
through the school (555-0180). [9] Tickets will also
be available at the box office the night of the
show. [10] The announcement concluded, The
box office will open in the Central High lobby at
7:00 P.M.
”
“
”
“
’”
1. The witness told the police officer, I heard a
woman’s voice crying Stop, thief!
2. My uncle Ross, Miriam said is fond of
saying It’s all relative.
3. For tomorrow’s class said Mrs. Mayer
please read Toni Cade Bambara’s short story
Raymond’s Run.
4. What does Aunt Connie mean Allen asked
when she says something is just ducky ?
5. Byron, said Sharon, when I told you your
book report was killer, I meant that it was
very impressive.
6. Didn’t Chuck Berry write the song Johnny B.
Goode
Monique asked.
7. At her job, John explained, my mother
tests computer software and fills out bug
reports. (or . . . fills out bug reports. )
8. Lisa noted, Mending Wall is one of the
poems I need to study for the test.
9. Did I hear someone say, This game is over
yelled Brian. (or . . . over already
already
yelled . . .)
40
,‘
,“
’”
,”
,
’”
”
’”
“
”
,‘
’?”
’?”
2.
3.
“
We should have left earlier; we’re going to
miss the beginning of the movie said George.
C
How many centimeters asked Nash are in
a meter?
Wait for me yelled Janet I’ll be there in a
second.
Martha said earnestly
he test is on Friday. I
think we should start studying tonight.
C
C
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is in
Cleveland, and I believe said Randy the
building was designed by I. M. Pei. (or
Cleveland, and I believe . . .)
Mr. Sata asked
an anyone tell me what a
molecule is?
Painting said Ms. Johnson is more than
just a hobby to me.
,”
“
4. “
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
,”
”
!”
”
.“
, “T
“
,”
“
”
,“
”
,”
,”
,
, “C
”
,“
,“
”
Exercise B
Exercise B
“
“
1.
“
”
“
“
“
‘
“
“
“
Exercise A
‘
”
‘
“
’
,”
’”
,
‘
”
“
“‘
’
‘
Language Handbook Answer Key
‘
”
’
”
?”
1. Origami is a Japanese word meaning folded
paper.
2. This year’s school play will be The Sound of
Music.
3. The audience cheered when Céline Dion began
singing Because You Loved Me, one of her
most popular songs.
4. Are you watching another All in the Family
rerun? Gerald asked.
5. I just finished reading All Things Bright and
Beautiful, a book by James Herriot, said Yokio.
6. The xiao and the di are two kinds of Chinese
flutes.
7. Mike left out the second l in the word illegible.
8. My aunt Louise still sometimes uses old slang
terms like groovy and far out.
9. Yesterday in English class, we discussed Audre
Lorde’s poem Hanging Fire.
10. I believe, said Eric, that both Tom Hanks
and Tim Allen provided voices for the movie
Toy Story.
“
“
“
”
”
”
“
“
”
”
”
“
“
“
”
”
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
“
Test
6/1/09
6:47 PM
Page 41
Language
Handbook
13 Punctuation
14.
Exercise C
”
“
‘
1. “In football, Kerry explained, the shotgun
is an offensive formation in which the
quarterback lines up several yards behind the
line of scrimmage.”
’
15.
2. Sometimes when my dad is working around the
apartment, I’ll hear him break into his own
rendition of the song Mona Lisa.
“
“ Did Ms. Levine really say, ‘ Be prepared for a
quiz’?” asked Donna?.
4. “ Braly Street,” a poem by Gary Soto, is in my
sister’s literature textbook.
“
5. Have you read this article, How to Make Your
Own Sushi ?
”
,
”
6. Before Lou could yell “Watch out, the ball hit
Mark right on the shoulder.” (or . . . yell “Watch
out . . . or . . . yell “Watch out, . . . or . . . yell
“Watch out . . . )
!”
,
“ Please remember to take out the trash
tonight,” Mom told Chico.
8. “ For Friday,” Mrs. Harrison said, “ read “‘ The
Enchanted Garden.’ It’s a short story by Italo
7.
Calvino, and we’ll be discussing it in class.”
“ ‘I distinctly heard him say, ‘ I have seen this
movie five times.,’ ” repeated Cynthia.
10. “ ‘Responsibility,” said Uncle Bart, “ is
9.
something you must earn.’ Be careful how
much you earn, though, because you’ll probably
be stuck with it.
”
11.
“
I’m pleased that you’ve raised your grades
from seven C’s to five B’s and two C’s, said
Terry’s mother.
”
12. According to my music teacher,“Leonard
Bernstein wrote the composition Mass to
celebrate the opening of the John F. Kennedy
Center for the Performing Arts in Washington,
D.C.”
13.
“
Since the radio announcer said that there is
an accident on Loop 360, we should take Route
620 this morning said Marie.
,”
‘
’
,”
“ There are many works of art portraying Don
Quixote,” said Raquel, “ but my favorite is
”
16.
“
Have you seen the incredible photographs of
tigers in the latest issue of National
Geographic
inquired David.
?”
17. The stockbroker who spoke to our math class
Friday said “that we should read The Wall Street
Journal every day to learn about the world of
finance.”
, “ I have trouble
18. Jerry complained
remembering whether the last four letters of
the word proceed are ceed or cede.
”
!”
“
Anna Akhmatova, the poet who wrote Lot’s
Wife, believed that poetry should be free of
ambiguous symbolism stated Suzanne as she
began her interpretation of the poem.
Francisco Torrome’s painting Don Quixote and
the Windmill.
”
3.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
”
“ I have that problem, too,” said Samantha,
“ and I can’t remember if the word niece is
spelled with an ie or an ei.”
20. “ Don’t you remember that Ms. Majors said,
‘ The dictionary is your most reliable friend, ’?”
19.
asked Jeffrey.
Exercise D
“
,”
[1] Being on the swim team is a big
commitment Van said, but it’s worth it. [2] I’ve
learned a lot from Mr. Fuentes, and the conditioning
has helped me so much.
“
”
“
¶ [3] Yes, Mr. Fuentes seems like a great
coach Gary responded [4] I know I would like
being on the team. [5] Still, I’m worried that I don’t
really have the time for another activity.
,”
.
“
”
?”
“
¶ [6] What are you talking about
Van
pleaded. [7] We practice only three days a week.
“
”
“
¶ [8] Gary sighed, But there are the
meets themselves to think about, too. [9] I don’t
want my grades to start falling.
”
“
,”
“i
¶ [10] Well Van conceded, t’s your
decision, but it would be great to have you on the
team.
”
Answer Key
41
6/2/09
9:40 PM
Language
Handbook
Page 42
14 Punctuation
Worksheet 1
Using Apostrophes to Form
Possessives
Exercise
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
man’s
men’s
kitten’s
children’s
Plumbers’
people’s
Mary’s
boys’
girls’
boss’s
workers’
woman’s
doctors’
child’s
owners’
clerks’
Miss Tallchief’s
Tallchiefs’
dog’s
Women’s
store’s
clerks’
gentlemen’s
mothers’
person’s
Worksheet 2
Placing Apostrophes
Exercise
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
governor’s, women’s
woman’s, teachers’
parents’, principal’s
Kawamotos’
museum’s
customers’
women’s
Stevie Smith’s
McGeorges’
Banneker’s
Mrs. Barry’s, players’
People’s, patrons’
graduates’, secretary’s
42
Language Handbook Answer Key
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
mice’s
Sandra’s, members’
guests’, Baranskis’
company’s
doctors’
Men’s, women’s
Year’s
Illinois’, Iowa’s
Langston Hughes’s, mother’s
air conditioner’s, Nicholas’
Monday’s, Amy Tan’s
Spencers’, son’s
Worksheet 3
Identifying Where Apostrophes
Are Needed
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Juan’s
Malcolm’s
C
C
boys’
Wordsworth’s, Coleridge’s
mother-in-law’s
C
Maria’s
C
Exercise B
[1] “Over thirty years’ of service I gave
them—never took longer than two weeks for a
vacation!” Uncle Bevan says with feeling’s of both
pride and regret. [2] “They are just plain crazy if they
think a person s motor run’s down at sixty-five.”
’
[3] That is what Uncle Bevan say’s when you
take him your father’s electric razor or your
mother s’ hedge trimmer to be fixed. [4] Since the
company’s rule’s forced him to retire as J.E. Porter
Company’s chief maintenance worker, his and my
aunt s house has become known as Mr. Fixit’s place.
[5] The garage s shelves, as well as it’s floor, are
cluttered with neighbors’ broken articles, ranging
from babies’ toys to people s’ vacuum cleaners.
’
’
’
’
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
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Page 43
Language
Handbook
14 Punctuation
[6] My aunt Martha serve’s as a secretary.
[7] She answers question’s on the telephone as to
whether Uncle Bevan can fix a boy’s bicycle, a
woman s’ electric toothbrush, or the Jones’es TV
set. [8] She complains that the customers’
appliances work better than her’s.
’
’
[9] What is Uncle Bevan’s reward for his
helpful services to the folk’s of the neighborhood?
[10] He gets not only countless hours worth of fun
but many men s’, women s’, and children’s friendly
gratitude.
’
’
’
Worksheet 4
Using Apostrophes in Possessives
and in Contractions
Exercise A (The first item in a pair is the
correct possessive form. The second is the incorrect
form.)
1. brother-in-law’s—brother’s-in-law’s
2. everyone’s—everyones
3. C
4. Manheim Market’s—Manheim Markets,
anyone’s—anyones
5. Sabrina’s and Lucy’s—Sabrina and Lucy’s
6. C
7. Kathleen Battle’s and Jessye Norman’s—
Kathleen Battle and Jessye Norman’s
8. Ted and Betty’s—Ted’s and Betty’s
9. C
10. mother-in-law’s—mother’s-in-law
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
It’s, its
yours
hers, theirs
It’s, it’s
ours
It’s
Ours, its
Its, it’s
yours
It’s, its
Worksheet 5
Using Apostrophes for Contractions
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
where’s
let’s
can’t
she’d
we’re
that’s
wasn’t
they’ve
who’s
I’m
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
what’s
they’d
weren’t
o’clock
won’t
’99
isn’t
he’ll
aren’t
it’s
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
their, they’re
They’re, their
They’re, they’re
Who’s, whose
whose, who’s
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Its, its
It’s, its
Your, you’re
You’re, your
your, it’s
Worksheet 6
Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses
(The first item in a pair is
correct. The second is incorrect.)
1. C
2. mayor-elect—mayor elect;
mid-January—midJanuary
3. self-confidence—self confidence
4. ex-president—expresident;
well-respected—well respected
5. clearly defined—clearly-defined
6. drain cleaners—drain-cleaners;
medications—medicati-ons
7. eighty-seven—eighty seven
8. two thirds—two-thirds
9. eight-tenths—eight tenths
10. C
Exercise A
Exercise B
—
1. Is that lady over there
the one wearing the
blue sweater
the new gym teacher? or Is
that lady over there the one wearing the blue
sweater the new gym teacher?
2. The next ingredient
and this is what gives
this dish its distinctive flavor
is ground
cumin. or The next ingredient and this is what
gives this dish its distinctive flavor is ground
cumin.
—
)
(
—
—
(
)
Answer Key
43
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9:40 PM
Language
Handbook
Page 44
14 Punctuation
(
)
3. Manuel Gamio 1883–1960 has often been
called the father of Mexican anthropology.
4. Andy rehearsed his part for two hours
sometimes longer
every night for three
weeks. or Andy rehearsed his part for two
hours sometimes longer every night for
three weeks.
5. The contents of the shopping bag
four
coffee mugs wrapped in tissue paper, a pepper
mill, and three large cookbooks
spilled onto
the sidewalk. or The contents of the shopping
bag four coffee mugs wrapped in tissue paper,
a pepper mill, and three large cookbooks
spilled onto the sidewalk.
6. Bake the bread in a very hot oven about 450
degrees for thirty-five minutes.
7. “Don’t you think
oh, I just don’t know how
to put it,” Peter stammered.
8. The Pomeranian see photo on page 34
would be a good dog for someone who lives in
an apartment.
9. George Takei
he played Mr. Sulu in the
original Star Trek series
has a place on
Hollywood’s Walk of Fame. or George Takei he
played Mr. Sulu in the original Star Trek series
has a place on Hollywood’s Walk of Fame.
10. The Blue Ridge Mountains in Virginia, which
separate the Piedmont Region from the Great
Valley, are 12 to 14 miles 19 to 23 kilometers
wide.
—
—
(
)
—
—
(
)
(
)
—
(
—
)
—
(
)
(
Worksheet 7
Test
(The first item in a pair is
correct. The second is incorrect.)
1. Roy’s—Roys; pre-Enlightenment—pre
Enlightenment
2. Spiffy Uniforms Company’s—Spiffy Uniform’s
Companys; won’t—wont
3. children’s—childrens; haven’t—hav’ent
4. forty-eight—forty eight
5. don’t—dont; all-important—all important
6. parents’—parents; self-discipline—self
discipline
7. partially completed—partially-completed
8. part-time—part time; Mom and Dad’s—Mom’s
and Dad’s
9. one third—one-third
10. your—you’r; you’ll—youll
Exercise A
44
Language Handbook Answer Key
)
Exercise B
—
—
—
1. Whitney Houston
she is the greatest!
is
giving a concert in Chicago next month.
2. “All I’m trying to say
” Rudy began as the
phone rang.
3. Ernesto Galarza 1905–1984 was not only a
writer but also an educator and labor leader.
4. Mrs. Betz
she coaches the girls’ softball
team
grew up in Annapolis, Maryland. or
Mrs. Betz she coaches the girls’ softball team
grew up in Annapolis, Maryland.
5. The extreme heat
it was 102 degrees in the
shade
kept many people away from the
afternoon concert in the park. or The extreme
heat it was 102 degrees in the shade kept
many people away from the afternoon concert in
the park.
6. Before she began work on her garden,Tiwa
gathered her equipment
garden hose, rake,
hoe, shovel, and spading fork. or Before she
began work on her garden,Tiwa gathered her
equipment garden hose, rake, hoe, shovel, and
spading fork.
7. Alaska see map on page 103 is the largest
state in the United States but has a relatively
small population.
8. The Rocky Mountain chain extends more than
3,000 miles 4,800 kilometers and is about
350 miles 563 kilometers wide in places.
9. Our dog Becky
she’s been in the family for
almost nine years
isn’t as playful and
energetic as she used to be. or Our dog Becky
she’s been in the family for almost nine years
isn’t as playful and energetic as she used to be.
10. Now stir the mixture
oops, be careful
until it becomes smooth and creamy.
(
—
)
—
(
)
—
—
(
)
—
(
(
(
)
)
(
)
—
—
)
(
)
—
—
Exercise C
’
’
-
1. Both Ralph s and Jenna s papers’ were on pre
Revolutionary Virginia.
2. After the game
— go Bears!— I’ ll meet you at
the concession stand.
( ’
)
twenty- two matches this year.
4. Thirty- two freshly groomed poodles entered
the showroom in two single- file groups.
3. Kirk he s an all American wrestler has won
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
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Page 45
Language
Handbook
14 Punctuation
5. Joanna’s parents’ enjoyed the
ikebana
ir workshop in
— the Japanese art of arranging cut
flowers.
(
’
6. This year s debate team an award-winning
)
’
r
—
—
)
(
(
)
)
(
7. For you biographical sketches, you may
-
choose from this list of thirty-five well known
artists.
— nighttime
temperatures were as low as twenty- five
degrees— kept most people indoors. or The
unseasonably cold weather (nighttime
temperatures were as low as twenty-five
degrees) kept most people indoors.
9. Our governor- elect ran a well- organized
8. The unseasonably cold weather
campaign.
-
—
(
team has gotten everyone s attention.
(
2. They can, however, live almost anywhere
in deserts, forests, grasslands, lakes,
else
rivers, and the sea.
3. The leatherback turtle
it is the largest turtle
species
can be from 4 to 8 feet 1.2 to
2.4 meters long. or The leatherback turtle
it is the largest turtle species can be from
4 to 8 feet 1.2 to 2.4 meters long.
4. The common bog turtle, on the other hand, is
only about 4 inches 10 centimeters long.
5. Pet shops used to sell thousands of painted
turtles and red eared turtles each year.
6. When it was discovered that many of these
turtles carried bacteria that caused salmonella
poisoning a serious illness in humans , the
sale of most pet turtles was banned.
7. A turtle s shell has two layers
an inner layer,
made up of bony plates, and an outer layer,
usually consisting of hard, calloused structures
called scutes.
soft shelled turtles and
8. In some turtles
leatherback turtles, to be exact
the outer
layer consists of tough skin rather than scutes.
or In some turtles soft shelled turtles and
leatherback turtles, to be exact the outer layer
consists of tough skin rather than scutes.
9. The carapace the part of the shell that covers
the turtle s back and the plastron the part
that covers the turtle s belly are joined by a
bony structure called the bridge.
10. Turtles senses of sight and touch are
well developed, and they can hear low pitched
sounds about as well as humans can.
)
10. Leontyne Price the world famous soprano
has a brilliant voice with an unusually-wide
range.
)
-
(
)
’
—
-
—
—
( -
’
’
(
)
’
)
)
(
-
Exercise D
’
1. Turtles can t live in areas that are cold all year
long.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
TX_L10LHAK
Answer Key
45
6/2/09
9:40 PM
Language
Handbook
Page 46
15 Spelling
Using Word Parts
(Wording of definitions will vary.)
enlarging instrument for seeing
see again
to direct one’s eyes in order to see above,
across
able to be heard
tending to have a moderate degree of heat
cut off with
quality of being not eager to work
instrument for measuring time
having more than normal sound
to speak against
weave together, fasten between
by the side of something written
move back in a winding course
join or fasten between
to two sides
counsel wrong
domain or dominion of a male monarch
full of glad feeling
doing or moving across, through
not of the same quantity, nor having the same
rights
full of tension
not essential
to cause to be illuminated
in an unhappy manner
two wheel
Exercise
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
(The first item in a pair is the
correct spelling.The second is the incorrect spelling.)
1. weights—wieghts
2. recede—receed
3. thieves—theives
4. C
5. patiently—pateintly
6. interceded—interceeded
7. conceive—concieve
8. neither—niether
9. C
10. succeeds—succedes
Exercise B
Worksheet 1
Worksheet 2
Using Spelling Rules
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
relieve
accede
briefcase
secede
review
supersede
neighborhood
precede
foreigner
neither
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
46
Language Handbook Answer Key
patiently
concede
beige
reprieve
pierce
proceed
ceiling
intercede
premier
weightless
Worksheet 3
Adding Prefixes and Suffixes
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
tardiness
derangement
lapping
prebake
warily
uncaring
admittance
spying
casement
simplest
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
traceable
indirect
dyeing
gaily
spinning
defamed
hovering
truly
silliness
thirtieth
Exercise B (The first item in a pair is the
correct spelling.The second is the incorrect spelling.)
1. paid—payed
2. C
3. replayed—replaid
4. draped—drapped
5. C
6. misstep—mistep
7. outrageous—outragous
8. reevaluating—revaluating
9. unneeded—uneeded
10. scurried—scurryed
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Language
Handbook
15 Spelling
Forming Plurals of Nouns
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
patios
classes
sisters-in-law
geese
phenomena
boxes
enchiladas
cellos
Martinezes
monkeys
(The first item in a pair is the
correct spelling.The second is the incorrect spelling.)
1. Beaches—Beachs
2. brothers-in-law—brother-in-laws
3. mice—mouses
4. stories—storys
5. roofs—rooves
6. teeth—tooth’s
7. journeys—journies
8. phenomena—phenomenon
9. C (or E’s)
10. C
Exercise B
Worksheet 4
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
quantities
i’s
chiefs of police
Vietnamese
women
10s (or 10’s)
bookmarks
board games
heroes
bleaches
(The first item in a pair is the
correct spelling.The second is the incorrect spelling.)
1. sheep—sheeps
2. photos—photoes
3. runners-up—runner-ups
4. waxes—waxs
5. C
6. weeklies—weeklys
7. C (or t’s)
8. Gomezes—Gomezs
9. hairdos—hairdoes
10. C
Exercise B
Worksheet 6
Test
Exercise A (The first item in a pair is the
correct spelling.The second is the incorrect spelling.)
1. arrangement—arrangment
2. indexes (or indices)—indexs
3. supersede—supercede
4. ancient—anceint
5. shabbiness—shabbyness
6. keys—keyes
7. C
8. beautifully—beautifuly
9. grandchildren—grandchilds
10. cities—citys
Worksheet 5
Forming Plurals of Nouns
Exercise A
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
fifteen-year-olds
dishes
kitties
turkeys
armies
fruit stands
loaves
twos
solos
tributaries
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
canoes
Barrys
Lebanese
ponchos
bird feeders
upperclassmen
&’s (or &s)
vetoes
crises
mice
Exercise B (The first item in a pair is the
correct spelling.The second is the incorrect spelling.)
1. friend—freind
2. succeeded—succeded
3. enjoyed—enjoied
4. decided—decideed
5. trying—triing
6. knowledgeable—knowledgable
7. peaches—peachs
8. shadiness—shadyness
9. sisters-in-law—sister-in-laws
10. tomatoes—tomatos
Answer Key
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Language
Handbook
Page 48
15 Spelling
(The first item in a pair is the
correct spelling.The second is the incorrect spelling.)
1. reins—riens
2. brownness—browness
3. peaceable—peacable
4. C
5. exceeded—exceded
6. Trapping—Traping
7. chiefly—cheifly
8. families—familys
9. wolves—wolfs
10. analysis—analyses
(The first item in a pair is the
correct spelling.The second is the incorrect spelling.)
1. variable—varyable
2. said—sayed
3. argument—arguement
4. running—runing
5. backgrounds—backsground
6. enjoyment—enjoiment
7. Siamese—Siameses
8. histories—historys
9. concede—consede
10. view—veiw
Exercise D
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Exercise C
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Language
Handbook
16 Glossary of Usage
Worksheet 1
Worksheet 3
Common Usage Problems
Test
Exercise A
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
fewer
than
Who’s
among
altogether
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
kind of
broke
besides
Anyway
good (or well, if
describing health)
(The first item in a pair is
correct. The second is incorrect.)
1. Their—There
2. that—what
3. to—and
4. teach—learn
5. those—them
6. badly—bad
7. As—Like
8. C
9. infer—imply
10. everywhere—everywheres
Exercise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
It’s
that
try to
way
a lot
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Sequoyah
anyway
teach
They’re
that
Exercise B (The first item in a pair is
correct. The second is incorrect.)
1. their—they’re
2. it’s—its
3. Those—Them
4. well—good
5. kind of pet—kind of a pet
6. as if—like
7. C
8. burst (or broke)—busted
9. have—of
10. somewhat—some
Exercise C
Worksheet 2
Common Usage Problems
Exercise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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TX_L10LHAK
Because
off
well
that
good
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Where
rather
himself
ought to
tells
Exercise B (The first item in a pair is
correct. The second is incorrect.)
1. let—leave
2. themselves—theirselves
3. inferred—implied
4. types—type
5. Whose—Who’s
6. a kind of—a kind of a
7. as if—like
8. Carver was—Carver he was
9. C
10. Among—Between
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
themselves
had
who
fewer
that
Somewhere
because
besides
well
did
(The first item in a pair is
correct. The second is incorrect.)
1. bike after—bike at after
2. chocolate, etc.—chocolate, and etc.
3. good—well
4. C
5. Your—You’re
6. badly—bad
7. than—then
8. There’s—Theirs
9. who (or that)—which
10. infer—imply
Exercise D
Answer Key
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