This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2017 conference.
Design of Multiband Monopole Antenna for
Wireless Applications
T. Sathiyapriya,1 V. Gurunathan,2 R. Sudhakar3 and A. Shafeek4
ECE Department, Dr. Mahlingam Collge of Engineering and Technolgy, Pollachi-03.
Email: 1 [email protected] 2 [email protected] 3 [email protected] 4 [email protected]
Abstract—A highly compact microstrip-fed monopole antenna
for Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and satellite communication is proposed. The proposed antenna design has different
geometry manipulation to achieve multi band performance with
reduced size than existing antenna. The antenna consists of
compact rectangular patch as a radiator that is fed directly by
a 50 Ω microstrip line. The rectangular patch consists of Land U-shaped slots and ground plane. The proposed antenna
consists of very small radiating patch when compared to existing
double- and triple-band monopole antennas. The radiator is
highly compact with the size of 12.5 × 10 × 1.6 mm3 . The
simulation results show that the designed antenna is capable of
operating over 3.5 GHz, 4–4.9 GHz and 5–8 GHz frequency bands
while rejecting frequency ranges between these three bands.
The design has been simulated using Advanced Design System
(ADS) 2016.
Index Terms—WLAN, Multiband, Size reduction, Advanced
Design System.
The high-performance spacecraft, aircraft, missile and satellite applications, where size, weight, cost, performance, ease
of installation and aerodynamic profile are constraints, and
other Government and commercial applications, such as mobile radio and wireless communications that have similar
specifications. To meet these requirements, microstrip antenna
is the most suitable candidate. Many antenna designs are
already present in the market that will successfully meet
the requirements. Microstrip antennas inherently have a narrow bandwidth and hence bandwidth enhancement is usually
demanded. In addition, present day wireless communication
systems usually require smaller size antennas. Thus size reduction and bandwidth enhancement are becoming major design
considerations in the case of microstip antennas. For this
reason, studies to achieve compact and broadband operations
of microstrip antennas have greatly increased.
Revolution in Information technology is one of the major
breakthroughs in wireless communications. The unlicensed
frequency band of 2.4–2.5 GHz popularly known as industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band, has become a
widespread choice for a range of wireless applications. But,
this popularity is causing congestion, resulting in more interference and eventually degrading the performance of wireless
links. Additionally, the growing level of interference from the
neighboring wireless devices enacts tough constraints on the
transceiver design, starting with the specified level for the
transmitted power and ending with the specified receiver noise
978-1-5090-4442-9/17/$31.00 2017
figure. To meet the required performance from a wireless link,
and at the same time relax the transceiver design constraints,
one can utilize the principle of Multiband antenna systems.
In wireless devices, the space might become limiting criteria
for multiple antenna configurations. Thus, how to implement
antennas into a small multi-standard device becomes a challenge. One way to address this problem is reduce the number
of antenna elements by covering multiple Radio interfaces
at wide frequency range by using dual band [1–6], Triple
Band [7–10], multi-band [11–20] and wideband antennas [21],
[22]. For example the WLAN uses a lower frequency band
2.4–2.484 GHz, for the 802.11 b/g standards, and two higher
frequency bands, 5.15–5.35 GHz and 5.725–5.825 GHz, for
the 802.11a standard. As the demand for smaller sizes of
wireless devices increases, antennas designers are making
incredible efforts in attempts to reduce the physical sizes of
the antennas, yet covering all the three operation bands.
Section I provide the introduction of antenna and proposed
antenna design. The related work details are described in
Section II. The configuration of the proposed antenna is
described in Section III. Simulation Results are presented in
Section IV.
A Rectangular Microstrip Antenna is realized by two different single-slotted single band rectangular microstrip antennas
with a slotted ground plane. The length and position of
each open-ended slot is varied in order to make the antenna
operate in a suitable resonant bands at 5.15–5.35 GHz and
5.725–5.825 GHz of WLAN IEEE 802.11a [1]. The slot
antennas with a slotted structure and an inverted-L slot structure for covering the wireless communication operations are
developed [2]. Two asymmetric horizontal strips are used to
provide two broadband dual-resonance modes. As a result, a
dual-band antenna for covering the 2.4 and 5-GHz WLAN
systems is achieved. By widening the right horizontal strip
and using an L-shaped notch in the right horizontal strip, a
multiband antenna covering DCS1800, PCS1900, UMTS2000,
and 2.4- and 5-GHz WLAN bands is then implemented which
is both compact in size and multiband operation [15]. Inverted
U shaped slot in a radiator and defected ground plane are used
to operate over WLAN and Wi-MAX frequency bands [7].
U-shaped slots on the patch geometry have been used to obtain
dual band operation [20].
This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2017 conference.
Antenna Geometry
Dielectric constant
Tangent loss
Substrate thickness
Conductor material
Conductor layer thickness
tan δ
1.6 mm
0.052 mm
Fig. 1. Geometry of the multiband monopole antenna. (a) Top view. (b) Side
In this paper, a planar multi band monopole antenna is
simulated which consists of highly compact radiator to cover
four operating bands of wireless communication. The radiator
consists of L-shaped slits and U-shaped slots to make the
antenna resonating at around 3.5 GHz and 5–7 GHz respectively. Today, the main aim of commercial communication
is to provide high speed connectivity and easy access to
networks within effective cost. Since FR4 substrate is less
cost and most suitable for low frequency wireless applications.
The simulations are carried out in Advanced Design System
(ADS 2016).
The multiband applications of an antenna such as applications in WLAN, Wi-MAX, C-Band satellite communication
and 2.4 GHz ISM band can be easily achieved with this type
of antenna by adjusting the dimensions and positions of the
slots on the upper patch and on the ground plane. The substrate
used here is FR4 with specifications as given in Table I.
Fig. 1 shows the geometry of a compact monopole antenna
for wireless applications. It consists of rectangular radiating
Value (mm)
patch, 50 Ω microstrip feed line and a bottom metal plane as
ground plane. The antenna has two U shaped slots around the
centre of the patch. The antenna which is rectangular in shape
has an area of 12.5 × 10 × 1.76 mm3 before the slots were
made. It consists of two U shaped slots and two L shaped
slits which decides the multiband performance of proposed
antenna. The relative dimensions of the antenna and the ground
plane are given in Fig. 1 and Table II.
Microstrip patch antenna usually has single band operation
with very narrow bandwidth. There were lots of techniques to
improve the bandwidth as desired. Multiband antenna is one
of the methods to enhance the performance of antenna to make
it working for different applications at different frequency
ranges. Different shapes of slots and slits at various positions
on radiating patch will definitely affect the current flow
through the conductor which in turn has an impact on antenna
performance parameters like radiation pattern, gain, directivity,
bandwidth and etc. Proper selection of slot or slit shape and
location on patch decides the improved performance of the
antenna. Two L shaped slits and U shaped slots are selected for
proposed antenna design to simultaneously achieve multiband
radiation and size reduction.
Two L shaped slits contributing for triple band performance
at 3.5 GHz and 5.5 GHz. By etching U shaped slots at the
center of the patch gives four bands with reduction in patch
area. The simulation result of normal patch antenna with same
size of proposed antenna will show single band response.
The consequent sections will give performance of proposed
antenna. Both the results are compared simultaneously to
prove the performance of the proposed antenna. Fig. 2 shows
the geometry of antenna with two L shaped slits etched on
both side of patch antenna.
The simulation results shows that L shaped slits contributed
for triple band characteristics of proposed antenna design.
Three bands occur at 3.9 GHz, 4.84 GHz, and 5.704 GHz
(see Fig. 3).
The proposed antenna characteristics are examined using
the tool Advanced Design System (ADS) 2016. Here the
monopole antenna is implemented with slotted patch antenna
as shown in Fig. 4. Comparing to antenna 1, two U slots
at the centre of the patch provides multiband performance.
Fig. 5 shows the simulation results of proposed antenna with
This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2017 conference.
Fig. 2. Layout of the antenna with L shaped slits.
Fig. 5. Simulation result of the antenna with L shaped slits and U shaped
Fig. 3. Simulation result of the antenna with L shaped slits.
Fig. 6. Simulated elevation plane pattern of the antenna at 5.5 GHz.
Fig. 4. Layout of the antenna with L shaped slits and U shaped slots.
four rejection band. The lower band covers 3.6 GHz and other
bands are covering the range from 4.4 GHz to 8 GHz. The
second band covers wide range of frequencies including 5 GHz
WLAN band.
The 5 GHz WLAN band includes frequency bands of IEEE
802.11a, IEEE 802.11g, and IEEE 802.11n.
Various plots are simulated and analyzed to assure the
performance of proposed antenna. Radiated power pattern
is analyzed in both azimuthal and elevation plane at three
different notch frequencies.
Figs. 6 and 7 shows the 2D radiation pattern of proposed
antenna at 5.5 GHz in both elevation and azimuthal plane.
This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2017 conference.
Fig. 10. Simulated elevation plane pattern of the antenna at 3.5 GHz.
Fig. 7. Simulated azimuthal plane pattern of the antenna at 5.5 GHz.
Fig. 8. Simulated elevation plane pattern of the antenna at 4.4 GHz.
Fig. 11. Simulated azimuthal plane pattern of the antenna at 3.5 GHz.
Fig. 12 shows the 3D radiation pattern of the proposed
antenna, in which red color indicates maximum radiation and
green color indicates minimum radiation.
Fig. 9. Simulated azimuthal plane pattern of the antenna at 4.4 GHz.
Similarly Figs. 8 and 9 gives the radiate power at 4.4 GHz.
After observing power radiated at 3.5 GHz from Figs. 10
and 11, the proposed antenna shows good radiating capabilities
at all three center frequencies.
A compact multiband monopole antenna is proposed in
this paper. It uses different shapes of slots and slits in the
upper patch and includes truncated ground plane. The slots
and slits introduced in the patch reject all undesired bands
and provides the resonance at the desired resonant frequencies.
The proposed monopole antenna can offer adequate impedance
bandwidths and omni-directional radiation patterns for wireless operations. Three resonant frequencies are obtained at
3.5 GHz,4.7 GHz and 5.8 GHz respectively with an appreciable return loss. The antenna is suitable for the applications like
5 GHz (WLAN applications of IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11n
& IEEE 802.11ac) & 5.5 GHz (IEEE 802.11 WiMAX) and
also covers the part of 4–8 GHz (C-band) satellite frequency
band. Therefore, the proposed design of monopole antenna
This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2017 conference.
Fig. 12. 3D Radiation pattern of proposed antenna.
is highly compact and primary option for many commercial
wireless applications.
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