Creative Safety Solutions

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Creative Safety
Solutions
SECOND EDITION
Series Editor
Thomas D. Schneid
Eastern Kentucky University
Richmond, Kentucky
Published Titles
The Comprehensive Handbook of School Safety, E. Scott Dunlap
Corporate Safety Compliance: OSHA, Ethics, and the Law, Thomas D. Schneid
Creative Safety Solutions, Second Edition, Thomas D. Schneid
Disaster Management and Preparedness, Thomas D. Schneid and Larry R. Collins
Discrimination Law Issues for the Safety Professional, Thomas D. Schneid
Labor and Employment Issues for the Safety Professional, Thomas D. Schneid
Loss Control Auditing: A Guide for Conducting Fire, Safety, and
Security Audits, E. Scott Dunlap
Loss Prevention and Safety Control: Terms and Definitions, Dennis P. Nolan
Managing Workers’ Compensation: A Guide to Injury Reduction and
Effective Claim Management, Keith R. Wertz and James J. Bryant
Motor Carrier Safety: A Guide to Regulatory Compliance, E. Scott Dunlap
Occupational Health Guide to Violence in the Workplace, Thomas D. Schneid
Physical Hazards of the Workplace, Larry R. Collins and Thomas D. Schneid
Physical Security and Safety: A Field Guide for the Practitioner,
Truett A. Ricks, Bobby E. Ricks, and Jeffrey Dingle
Safety Performance in a Lean Environment: A Guide to Building
Safety into a Process, Paul F. English
Security Management: A Critical Thinking Approach,
Michael Land, Truett Ricks, and Bobby Ricks
Security Management for Occupational Safety, Michael Land
Workplace Safety and Health: Assessing Current Practices and
Promoting Change in the Profession, Thomas D. Schneid
Forthcoming Titles
Physical Hazards of the Workplace, Second Edition, Barry Spurlock
Creative Safety
Solutions
SECOND EDITION
Thomas D. Schneid
Boca Raton London New York
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Contents
Preface.......................................................................................................................xi
Preface to the Second Edition................................................................................. xiii
Acknowledgments..................................................................................................... xv
Ten Commandments for Creative Safety and Loss Prevention Professionals........xvii
Author......................................................................................................................xix
Chapter 1 Introduction........................................................................................... 1
Chapter 2 Effective Selling of Safety and Health Programs.................................5
Chapter 3 Creative Safety Equipment Purchases................................................ 13
Chapter 4 Tapping Employee Creativity.............................................................. 17
Chapter 5 Traditional “Things”........................................................................... 21
Chapter 6 Involving the Family........................................................................... 29
Chapter 7 Involving the Community................................................................... 31
Chapter 8 Establishing and Using Your Network................................................ 35
Chapter 9 Joint Ventures to Reduce Costs........................................................... 39
Chapter 10 Grants, Contracts, Tax Credits, and Deductions................................. 41
Chapter 11 Utilizing Free Services........................................................................ 45
Chapter 12 Using Internet Resources.................................................................... 51
Chapter 13 Tapping Other Resources.................................................................... 59
vii
viii
Contents
Chapter 14 Creative Safety Communication Ideas................................................ 63
Chapter 15 Acquiring University and Student Services........................................ 67
Chapter 16 Looking Outside the Safety Arena...................................................... 73
Chapter 17 Creative Solutions to Difficult Problems............................................. 77
Chapter 18 Creative Safety Programs.................................................................... 81
Chapter 19 It Is Your Safety Program—Empowering Employees in Safety......... 85
Chapter 20 Safety and Health Vision and Values.................................................. 91
Chapter 21 Safety and Health Profession.............................................................. 95
Chapter 22 Impact of Safety and Health on Your Organization............................99
Chapter 23 Human Resources and Safety and Health......................................... 103
Chapter 24 Does Happy = Safe?.......................................................................... 107
Chapter 25 Circular Safety Management............................................................. 111
Chapter 26 Injecting Creativity into Training Activities..................................... 113
Chapter 27 Combating Risk with Innovation...................................................... 117
Chapter 28 Eliminate Boring from Your Safety Programs................................. 119
Chapter 29 Critical and Creative Thinking in Safety and Health....................... 123
Chapter 30 Achievement Is Addictive................................................................. 127
Contents
ix
Chapter 31 Lost but Not Forgotten...................................................................... 131
Chapter 32 Back to Basics................................................................................... 135
Appendix A: P
otential Sources of Assistance through Local Colleges
and Universities.............................................................................. 137
Appendix B: Employee Workplace Rights......................................................... 165
Appendix C: Targeted Hazard Identification System....................................... 175
Appendix D: Sample Action Plan........................................................................ 183
Appendix E: Sample Safety Audit Assessment.................................................. 185
Appendix F: Injury and Illness Prevention Programs...................................... 191
Index....................................................................................................................... 211
Preface
Safety and loss prevention professionals are often consumed with the day-to-day
activities of achieving and maintaining compliance and the peripheral responsibilities of workers’ compensation, security, environmental, legal, and other activities.
Sometimes safety and loss prevention professionals need to stop and ascertain where
they are, where they are going, and the best way of getting there.
In today’s rapidly changing workplace, safety and loss prevention professionals
cannot always “go by the book” for the answers to new and unique problems and
issues. When there is no tried-and-true solution to a problem, safety and loss prevention professionals must think outside the box of conventional solutions and develop
new and creative solutions.
Safety and loss prevention professionals should not be afraid to try new ideas and
programs out of fear of failure. Because of the nature of the safety and loss prevention profession, most professionals have been schooled to adhere to the mandatory
standards strictly, without deviation, and to always follow the well-worn path. For
most situations, this course of action has been successful; however, what happens
when there is no standard, no track record, or no simple solution?
In this text, the author hopes to stimulate creative and, in essence, abnormal
thinking by safety and loss prevention professionals by identifying some of the new
programs, new ideas, and new solutions being tried by other professionals in the
field. The author hopes that by stimulating thinking outside the box by safety and
loss prevention professionals, new and innovative methods and programs in safety,
health, loss prevention, environmental, industrial hygiene, ergonomics, and related
areas will be created to improve the American workplace.
xi
Preface to the Second Edition
Safety and health professionals are required as part of the job function to be critical
as well as creative thinkers. Often activities within the safety and health function
require creativity to resolve the issue or simply to keep employees from being bored
with the subject matter. Sometimes the answers are not in the book and the safety
and health professional is expected to use his or her “gray matter” to think and identify creative safety and health solutions to address and rectify unique circumstances
or situations.
As we are aware, the safety and health function is as much an art as it is a science.
Simply achieving and maintaining compliance with the standards and regulations
does not create the optimal safety and health program that safeguards all employees
in the workplace. There are risks in the workplace in which there are no standards.
There are safety and health requirements that some employees do not truly understand and some employees may understand but choose not to adhere to the requirements. There are some employees who do not accept ownership of their safety and
health responsibilities. To this end, the safety and health professional uses his or
her skills, abilities, and artistry to design, develop, and implement programs and
processes that empower his or her employees within the safety and health function,
provide the education and knowledge level for employees to truly take ownership of
the safety and health function, and are the catalyst through which to achieve the cultural shift in thinking to create a world-class safety and health program. The safety
and health professional is the maestro, the coach, the teacher, the artist, and the
creative guiding force in achieving the necessary shift in the culture and thinking in
the workforce.
Although seldom recognized or acknowledged, safety and health professionals do
have a major impact on the lives of their employees as well as their families and communities. The day-to-day activities performed by the safety and health professional
reduce the risks and probabilities of injury and illness which not only impacts the
injured employee but also many others in the cascading and intertwined relationships
inside and outside of the workplace. Through the constant and creative activities of
the safety and health professional, the risks within the operations are minimized or
eliminated providing positive benefits not only to company or organization but also
to employees within the workplace.
Unlike production, engineering, and other functions, when “things” do not happen within the safety and health realm, this is a positive. When employees are being
injured, chemical being spilled, procedures not being followed, and related events,
this is a “negative” and often means that there is a problem within the safety and
health system. Safety and health professionals often need to “think on their feet”
to critically and creatively develop solutions to address the needs of the situation.
The corrective action(s) often does not come from the standards and regulations but
from the mind of the safety and health professional. Safety and health is as much an
art as it is a science.
xiii
xiv
Preface to the Second Edition
In this second edition, the author hopes that the concepts, ideas, and thoughts will
stimulate the creative side of the safety and health professional’s thought process
and offer new methods and concepts through which to enhance his or her safety and
health efforts. New ideas, new techniques, and new processes may energize current
activities or may be the spark that starts a new “fire” within the safety and health
profession. As with everything in life, nothing ventured, nothing gained. Think
creatively.
Acknowledgments
The author would like to thank the faculty and students in the Department of Loss
Prevention and Safety at Eastern Kentucky University for all of their efforts and
ideas throughout the years which culminated in this text.
To my wife, Jani, and my daughters, Shelby and Madison, for motivating me to
write this text and, more importantly, giving me the time to complete it.
To my parents, Bob and Rosella, for providing me the education, abilities, and
motivation to be able to write this text, which will assist safety and loss prevention
professionals create a safer and more healthful workplace for all employees.
xv
Ten Commandments for
Creative Safety and Loss
Prevention Professionals
1. Know your facility, equipment, and jobs intimately.
2.Become involved inside and outside of your company or organization.
3. Communicate effectively at all levels.
4.Involve your employees and managers.
5. Educate your employees and managers.
6. Get out of the office.
7. Listen intently to all ideas and comments.
8.Provide timely and pertinent feedback.
9.Work with vendors, governmental agencies, and others who can help.
10.Be creative—look for solutions outside the norm.
xvii
Author
Thomas D. Schneid earned a BS in education, MS and CAS in safety, as well as
JD from West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and LLM from the
University of San Diego, San Diego, California. He is the chair of the Department
of Safety and Security and a tenured professor in the School of Safety, Security, and
Emergency Management in the college of Justice and Safety at Eastern Kentucky
University. In his 25 years at Eastern Kentucky University, he has served in many
capacities including chair of the Department of Safety and Security, interim chair for
safety, security, and emergency management graduate studies and research; graduate
program director for the online and on-campus master of science degree in safety,
security, and emergency management; coordinator of the fire and safety engineering
program; and coordinator of safety, security, and emergency management career and
cooperative education.
Dr. Schneid has worked in the safety and human resource fields for over
30 years at various levels including corporate safety director and industrial relations director. In his legal practice, he has represented numerous corporations
in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and labor-related litigations
throughout the United States. He is a member of the bar for the U.S. Supreme
Court, 6th Circuit Court of Appeals, and a number of federal districts as well as
the Kentucky and West Virginia bar associations.
He has authored or coauthored numerous texts, including Corporate Safety
Compliance: OSHA, Ethics, and the Law (2008); Americans with Disabilities Act:
A Compliance Manual (1993); The Americans with Disabilities Act: A Practical
Guide for Managers (1992); Legal Liabilities in Safety and Loss Prevention:
A Practical Guide (2010); Fire and Emergency Law Casebook (1996); Creative Safety
Solutions (1998); Occupational Health Guide to Violence in the Workplace (1998);
Legal Liabilities in Emergency Medical Services (2001); Fire Law: The Liabilities
and Rights of the Fire Service (1995); Food Safety Law (1997); Legal Liabilities
in Safety and Loss Prevention (1997); Physical Hazards of the Workplace (2001);
and Disaster Management and Preparedness (2000) as well as over 100 articles
on safety and legal topics. Dr. Schneid recently completed work on a new text titled
Labor and Employment Issues for Safety Professionals and is currently working on
a text on legal issues in safety and security.
xix
1
Introduction
You lose it if you talk about it.
Ernest Hemingway
Originality is nothing but judicious imitation.
Voltaire
There is no “problem” that cannot be solved in the safety, health, and loss prevention
area when sufficient effort, creativity, and diligence are provided to find a solution.
Problems abound in the areas of safety, health, and loss prevention and encompass
virtually every conceivable aspect of the operations, including human difficulties,
machinery malfunctions, environmental releases, energy controls, chemical ­hazards,
and a number of other hazards and potential risks. Safety and loss prevention managers are often inundated on a daily basis with the need to “put out fires” and manage
the function. When a problem arises, the solution is often one of putting a “BandAid” on the problem or putting the problem on a back burner because a number of
other problems are waiting in line. In essence, the “fast fix” or solutions such as
“maybe if I let it alone it will go away” are frequently utilized because of other considerations such as lack of time, money, or manpower.
Safety and loss prevention professionals, as is human nature, often rely on the
“tried-and-true” solutions to problems, which have worked in the past. In the safety
and loss prevention area, this often means relying on the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) standards or other base-level requirements to resolve
the problem. If OSHA requires that a particular problem be addressed in a specific
manner, then this is the method that must be used. This tried-and-true method does
work; however, what does a safety and loss prevention professional do when the
answer to a problem is not in the OSHA standards? Are there alternative resources?
Are there other strategies that can be used to obtain a solution to the problem?
When a potential solution to a problem is derived, safety and loss prevention professionals then face a second difficulty—acquiring management support and funding in order to test or implement the potential solution. Conceptually, every officer,
shareholder, union, supervisor, manager, and employee virtually agrees that creating
and maintaining a safe and healthful workplace is a priority; however, the cost of the
solution in terms of manpower, equipment, training, and other costs is often a major
deterrent to development and implementation. Are there creative methods by which
safety and loss prevention professionals can maximize the potential of success in
their efforts to acquire management commitment and funding for solutions to problems? Can the solution be cost beneficial for the company? Are there other benefits
to be derived from the solution which can be measured and evaluated?
The usual reply to management’s question as to why resources should be allocated to safety and loss prevention projects is “OSHA tells us we need to have it.”
Many safety and loss prevention professionals sell their programs and solutions
1
2
Creative Safety Solutions
by relying on the “hammer” of OSHA compliance. For example, a safety and
loss p­ revention professional requested funding for safety glasses in the amount of
$30,000. When asked to justify this expenditure to management, the pat answer
given was the same as that used often by other safety and loss prevention professionals—OSHA requires the expenditure, and if we do not buy the safety glasses
and implement the program, then the OSHA police can fine our company several
thousand dollars. The management group analyzed the request in a negative context and justified the expenditure only because it was required by a governmental
agency. It is important to note that the management group in this case was not
informed as to the positive benefits of the safety and loss prevention program for
their employees, such as the potential cost savings achieved through reduced workers’ compensation and insurance costs. The management group did not possess
a positive motivation toward the program; rather, they felt that they were being
forced into accepting the program.
Suppose the answer given by the management group had been “no.” What does
the safety and loss prevention professional do then to resolve the problem? The problem still exists, but now the safety and loss prevention professional has no support
or funding. Does the safety and loss prevention professional simply forget about the
problem in hopes that it will fade away? Does the safety and loss prevention professional simply accept the consequences of the “no” answer? Are their alternative
solutions to be explored? Are there alternative funding sources? Are there new technologies? Can a creative solution be derived to address the problem?
In this day and age, safety and loss prevention professionals often cannot simply
accept “no” from the management group without incurring a certain level of potential risks to the company or individuals, based upon governmental regulations and
potential litigation. Consider whether your management group is fully aware of all
the pros and cons of each solution presented to them. Has the safety and loss prevention professional fully educated the management group as to all aspects of the
solution?
Although in a perfect world egos and personalities would not be involved in the
decision-making process, in reality, egos and personalities, as well as other behavioral aspects, often play a major role in the process. Is it easier to vote for or against
an issue for which you possess minimal knowledge? In most circumstances, it is
easier for an uninformed member of the management group to vote against a project
rather than raise his or her hand to ask questions and “look stupid” in front of his
or her peers. Should safety and loss prevention professionals assume that simply
because an individual is the chief executive officer (CEO) that he or she possesses
full and complete knowledge in this area? Has the safety and loss prevention professional presented the solution in terms or language that the management group can
understand?
In the safety and loss prevention area, the simplest solutions are often the best.
Remember the old axiom of KISS (“Keep It Simple, Sam”). Creative solutions to
problems in safety and loss prevention do not have to be complicated. Solutions are
often very basic in nature once they have been ascertained. They often need to be
simple, too, because of the wide distribution of the solution among various management levels and employee work activities or stations. When evaluating a problem,
Introduction
3
do not overlook the simple solutions. Be creative and prioritize potential solutions
to the problem situation. Search for the simplest but most effective solution to the
problem in the long run.
Creative solutions often lie in areas that have not been tried or tested. Safety and
loss prevention professionals should be aware that this field of study is ­relatively
young in comparison with other areas of study. How long have ­individuals been
studying Astronomy? Physics? Math? Although safety and loss prevention have
been addressed throughout the ages, the safety and loss prevention profession really
began to emerge with the passage of the Occupational Safety and Health Act in
1970. The study of safety, health, and loss prevention is less than 30 years old.
Given this relatively short period of time, is there not still room for new and creative
ideas? Have we thought of everything in the areas of safety, health, and loss prevention? Should alternate ideas and potential solution be tried and tested?
And consider the new technological advances that have been made in the last few
years. Do new technologies have a place in the safety and loss prevention function?
Can these new technologies be adapted to the safety and loss prevention function?
For example, how many safety and loss prevention professionals possessed a computer in their office in 1960? I would suspect very few. How many safety and loss
prevention professionals have at least one computer today? I would suspect most
have at least one computer, if not more, when you consider office computers, laptop
computers, and home computers.
Creative ideas or even recycled ideas can incorporate these new technologies.
For example, in 1970, even if safety and loss prevention professionals wanted to
utilize computer programming to modify their written programs periodically, the
expense of purchasing the necessary base-level computer was often prohibitive.
Additionally, the time to learn the software program and its ease of use were also
prohibitive. Today, the cost of a base-level computer is under $1000, and the software
is user friendly. Can we utilize such technology today to assist us in our safety and
loss prevention solutions?
In addition to the price and ease of use, new technology is expanding virtually
on a daily basis. Are there creative ideas to improve our safety and loss prevention programs that we shelved in the past because of cost, time, or other factors?
Could these programs be recycled today because of the new technology? In 1986,
I purchased my first computer. It was a basic model with floppy disks; the programs
required loading, and all programs required downloading to a disk because there
was no hard drive. And I thought this was the greatest time saver I had ever seen.
In 1989, I upgraded to a 286 model with a small hard drive and thought that was
fantastic. In 1992, I upgraded to a 386 and thought that it was fast as lightning. Then,
in 1994, I purchased a 486 and loved the capacity on the hard drive and the speed.
And, in 1997, I purchased a Pentium computer that was even faster and held even
more information. And this is not even the faster computer on the market as of today.
I recently found myself at another office and was required to use a 286 computer
to complete a project. This was the same model and same software that I had owned
less than 6 years earlier; however, given the technological advances, I felt as if the
286 was moving at the pace of a snail. Is it possible, then, that there are ideas or programs that could not be completed 6 years ago but that are now feasible because of
4
Creative Safety Solutions
the technology? Are there creative safety and loss prevention ideas that now can be
tried or tested given this expansion in technology?
And think beyond the basic technology. Are there new products that were not
available previously but that can be utilized today to make your safety and loss prevention program better? In the 1970s, Kevlar was used for items such as bulletproof
vests. Today, Kevlar is utilized for cut-proof gloves and other protective clothing.
In the 1950s, automobile did not have seat belts. Today, every car not only has seat
belts, but air bags as well. Are there new products and new technologies out there
that can make your creative ideas work? Are there creative ideas that have been disregarded in the past which are now technologically feasible?
Given the advances in technology and knowledge, it is vitally important that the
safety and loss prevention professionals continue to learn throughout their careers.
In essence, standing still today means that the multitude of changes are passing
you by. Creativity is permitted to blossom only when a foundation of knowledge is
­present. This is especially important in the area of safety and loss prevention, given
the downstream impact of decisions on the employee population. For example, if
an accountant makes a mistake, he or she can simply erase the mistake and make a
correction. If a safety and loss prevention professional makes a bad call, someone
can get injured or even killed. Maintaining competency, acquiring expertise and
experience, and keeping abreast of the changes are vitally important to safety and
loss prevention professionals.
And, finally, do the job but have fun. Let the creative juices flow and think about
new and novel methods of creating a safer and healthier work environment for your
employees. Great ideas, when tested and tried, often become the cornerstone for a
new generation of change. If an idea is never tried and tested, it is nothing more than
just another idea.
In this book, the author has assembled a number of creative solutions that have
been tried and tested and have worked for many organizations. These are not all of
the great ideas and solutions developed in the safety and loss prevention area—all
of the ideas have not already been used. These ideas are only the tip of the iceberg,
and the author challenges you to find new and better ways of doing your job within
the safety and loss prevention function. It is the author’s hope that these creative
solutions to safety and loss prevention problems spur you to think about your activities and job duties and find new and creative ways of advancing the safety and loss
prevention field.
2
Effective Selling of Safety
and Health Programs
Salesmanship consists of transferring a conviction by a seller to a buyer.
Paul G. Hoffman
Any fool can paint a picture, but it takes a wise man to be able to sell it.
Samuel Butler
The professional’s ability to acquire upper-management commitment and to sell a
safety and loss prevention program to upper management is often the key to the success of most safety and loss prevention efforts. But, the question for many safety and
loss prevention professionals is how does one actually acquire this commitment and
the appropriate support and funding?
First, the safety and loss prevention professional should identify the psychological motivation and modus operandi of the various levels of management and
employees. Safety and loss prevention professionals should identify what “trips the
trigger” of each of these different groups, their areas of interest, and their methods of analyzing situations. Additionally, the safety and loss prevention professional should educate, both formally and informally, the various individual groups
to ensure complete understanding of the issues and requirements. For example,
one safety and loss prevention professional meets on an individual basis with all
members of the management group days before the formal upper-management
­meeting. In these individual meetings, the safety and loss prevention professional
fully explains the proposal to be presented at the group meeting and answers any
and all of the individuals’ questions. As the safety and loss prevention professional
explained to me, upper-level managers are more likely to ask “stupid” questions or
ask for more explanation in a casual setting than in a formal one where they are
among their peers. It is easier for upper-level managers to vote “no” for projects
about which they are not knowledgeable than to expose their lack of knowledge to
their peers. With the informal preparation provided by this particular professional,
the upper-level managers have the requisite knowledge base and can more easily
support the proposal.
In general terms, the psychological “triggers” of upper-management groups can
include their tendency to evaluate and analyze safety and loss prevention programs
in terms of monetary outlay, return on investment, and reduction of risk. How much
is it going to cost? What is the company going to receive in return for this expenditure? How is it going to benefit the company? When selling a safety and loss prevention program to this group, the professional should couch his or her proposal in the
language with which this group works on a daily basis and which it understands fully
5
6
Creative Safety Solutions
(e.g., utilizing the term “return on investment” when describing the expected benefits
of the program).
Additionally, safety and loss prevention professionals should be aware that we
often talk in a “foreign” or unfamiliar language that only fellow safety and loss
prevention professionals understand, such as HazCom, MSDS, HazWopper, and
Lockout/Tagout. In the safety and loss prevention profession, these terms convey
a specific meaning; however, to a vice president of operations or other member of
the upper-management group, these terms may as well be a foreign language. Thus,
it is important for the safety and loss prevention professional to explain fully every
technical term to ensure complete understanding by the upper-management group.
Remember, it is easier for an upper-level manager to simply vote “no” than to show
a lack of understanding of the subject.
To sell safety and loss prevention programs effectively to upper management, it
is important that safety and loss prevention professionals do their homework as far
as educating upper-management groups as to the basic concepts and philosophies
of the safety and loss prevention field. In most circumstances, upper-level managers possess little or no formal training or education in the safety and loss prevention area. These managers have identified, however, that injuries and illnesses,
insurances, workers’ compensation, governmental requirements, and so on, cost
a substantial amount of money. Safety and loss prevention professionals are often
brought on board with the company to address these unique and unfamiliar areas
because the injury rate has gotten out of control, the workers’ compensation costs
are skyrocketing, or the company has been cited for noncompliance with governmental regulations. The upper-level managers have identified that the company
is experiencing one or more problems, and they have addressed the problem by
employing the safety and loss prevention professional with the experience and
expertise to address these problems. However, the upper-level managers possess
little or no knowledge with regard to the philosophies, theories, and techniques
utilized to address these problem areas. This is when the safety and loss prevention professional needs to educate the upper-level managers to ensure at least a
basic understanding that will allow appropriate funding and support necessary to
develop and implement the necessary changes.
With most upper-level management groups, time is always of the essence. This
level of managers has multiple areas of responsibility, and each area is allotted a
specific block of the manager’s time. Thus, after educating this level of managers
as to the basic philosophy and techniques to be utilized, the safety and loss prevention professional should make the analysis of the specific program being sold to the
upper-management group as simple and quick as possible. For example, below is a
proposal for an eye-protection program:
Proposal: Eye-Protection Program
Scope of Work
To develop and implement an eye-protection program for all employees in order to
reduce the number of incidents of eye injuries and thus reduce the workers’ compensation cost.
7
Effective Selling of Safety and Health Programs
Justification
The company incurred 50 eye injuries in FY 1996 with a workers’ compensation
cost of $200,000. The frequency of eye injuries escalated in FY 1997 to 85 i­ njuries
at an estimated cost of $400,000. Additionally, the 6 percent increase in workers’
compensation benefits passed by the legislature in FY 1997 takes effect in January
1998, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations require
this program.
Initial and Ongoing Costs
The initial costs of the eye-protection program include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Purchase of 400 glasses @ $3
$1200
Training of 400 employees for 1 hour @ $10
$4000
Instructor cost
$1000
Cost of training material
$500
Replacement and visitor glasses
$100
Ongoing replacement and repair
$200
Total$7000
Return on Investment
By considering the estimated cost in FY 1997 of $400,000 for eye injuries and the projected cost of $7000 for the eye-protection program, as well as an estimated program
success rate of 90 percent, it is predicted that the cost of eye injuries can be reduced by
$360,000 in FY 1998 by an initial investment of $7000. This is a return on the initial
investment of over 5142 percent (i.e., the company will receive a reduction equal to
over 51 times the initial investment).
Action Plan
Upon approval of the eye-protection program, the following action items and timeline
will take place:
Action Item
Responsible Party
Completion
1. Development of written program
Safety
30 days
2. Development of policy
Personnel
30 days
3. Employee evaluation of safety glasses
Safety
30 days
4. Purchase of safety glasses
Safety/purchasing
30 days
5. Development of training materials
Safety
60 days
6. Acquisition of supplemental materials
Safety
30 days
7. Conduct training program
Safety
90 days
8. Evaluate and modify
Safety
30 days
9. Add to inspection program
Safety
10 days
10. Train supervisors
11. Audit for effectiveness
Safety
Safety
30 days
Ongoing
The entire eye-protection program will be developed and implemented within
6 months from the date of approval by the upper-management group.
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Creative Safety Solutions
One of the common mistakes made by safety and loss prevention p­ rofessionals is
attempting to sell a program to an upper-management group based upon the threat of
an OSHA citation or other governmental regulatory agency fine structure. Although
the safety and loss prevention professional should educate the upper-management
group as to the penalty structure under OSHA or other governmental agency and the
risk involved if compliance is not achieved and maintained, the use of this scare
tactic often loses effect over time, given the statistical probability of inspection and
the underlying aversion at this level of management to govern­mental interference.
The OSHA and other governmental regulations are often simply a cost of doing business. The safety and loss prevention professional should strive for a true management
“buy-in” and commitment to creating a safe and healthful work environment for
all employees. The monetary benefits, the benefits of minimizing the risk of being
subject to governmental agency penalties, and the benefits in efficiency should all be
important but secondary benefits of this overall philosophy.
The second level of management that must be sold on the safety and loss prevention program is composed of middle managers and the supervisory ranks. Within
this group of the management team, the psychological “keys” are significantly different than the upper-management group. Although money is a motivating force with
the middle-level management group, other keys include the possibility of an increase
in workload and the impact on the employees. Where an upper-management team
member looks at the bottom line in the decision-making process, middle-level managers who work with the employees on a daily basis may also look at the impact on
their employees—their thoughts and feelings—as well as the impact in terms of
­dollars and increased workload.
Given the fact that with most safety and loss prevention programs the middle-level
manager or supervisor plays a pivotal role, it is important that the safety and loss
prevention professional sell this group on more than the straight dollars-and-cents
benefits of the program. Also, the dollars-and-cents benefits should be termed in
such a way as to have the greatest impact on the middle-level manager. For e­ xample,
­suppose a particular company makes widgets. The operation produces 10,000 widgets per day and sells them at a wholesale cost of $1 apiece. The profit margin for
making these widgets is 10 percent. If the average eye injury costs $1000 and a
severe eye injury last year cost $50,000, the safety and loss prevention professional
could explain the cost of the eye injuries in terms of widgets:
• The plant will have to make 10,000 widgets (or 1 day’s production) to pay
for the average eye injury cost.
• The severe eye injury incurred last year required the production of
500,000 widgets simply to pay for the injury.
• At 10,000 widgets being produced each day, 50 days’ production last year
went to paying for this one injury.
This type of monetary calculation often has a greater impact with middle-level managers than simply providing numerical figures that do not correlate to their work activities.
Safety and loss prevention professionals should ensure that their middle-level
managers fully understand the costs of injuries and, conversely, how much the
Effective Selling of Safety and Health Programs
9
prevention of injuries can save, in terms of direct and indirect dollars. In explaining
these costs, many safety and loss prevention professionals utilize some version of the
“iceberg” (see Figure 2.1) in order to explain the direct and indirect costs that impact
the middle-level manager.*
It is important that middle-level managers know how accidents happen and,
­specifically, how they can prevent the incidents as part of the overall program ­picture.
Additionally, middle-level managers want to know how much time and effort will
be required to perform these specific tasks. Middle-level managers and supervisors
are often heard saying, “I already have more than enough to do, and now I’m responsible for safety. Isn’t that the safety person’s job?”.
The safety and loss prevention professional should specifically show the risk
­versus return in regard to the efforts and time of middle-level managers or supervisors and the specific amount of work required to achieve the requested results. Using
the above eye-protection program as an example, the safety and loss prevention professional could provide an approximate amount of time each day the manager or
supervisor will be required to address eye protection and correlate the costs and
benefits of the expenditure of a few minutes each day.
Medical costs
Insurance premiums
Employee compensation
Direct costs
Indirect costs
Inspect/repair/remove/replace
damaged or destroyed
equipment and materials
Order replacement parts,
materials, or entire machines
Rent temporary replacement
machines/tools
Pay overtime wages
Hire and train new employee
Investigate accident
Complete written reports
File workers’ compensation or
insurance claims
Clean-up area
Repair damaged work areas
Absorb possible lost sales
FIGURE 2.1 What does a work-related injury or illness cost?
*Managing Employee Safety and Health (MESH), Tel-A-train, Inc. Chattanooga, TN 1990.
10
Creative Safety Solutions
Cost versus Benefits
Cost
Daily work load expenditure
(2 minutes per day)
versus
Benefit
No accidents, more efficient
workforce, no paperwork, etc.
Cost
Daily work load expenditure
(2 minutes per day)
versus
Failure/Accident from Lack of Eye Protection
Direct cost of average eye injury ($1000), indirect costs (first aid, completion of accident report, retraining, reduced production, reduced quality), pain and suffering of
employee, unhappiness of boss, reduced bonus, no promotion, etc.
The welfare and safety of their employees also have an impact on the acceptance
or rejection of the safety and loss prevention program. Most middle-level managers or supervisors work closely with their employees on a daily basis and are truly
concerned with their welfare. Additionally, given the close working relationship,
middle-level managers and supervisors often enjoy relationships with their employees beyond the workplace. Thus, the safety and loss prevention professional should
recognize this psychological key and should be sure to include data regarding the
potential pain and suffering of the injured employee, the impact on his or her family, the impact on outside activities, and any other important additional information.
The basic reason why most employees go to work each day is to acquire a paycheck. To most employees, the concept of safety and loss prevention is fundamental
in nature—that is, they want to return home after work the same way they began
work. Thus, employee groups (with the exception of employees with profit-sharing
or employee ownership) could not care less what costs the company is incurring as
a result of injuries. This group is more concerned with how such a safety program is
going to affect the individual, the actual work activities, and the paycheck.
Selling safety and loss prevention at this grassroots level is pure in nature.
In essence, most employees and employee representatives have the same basic goal
or objective—namely, to create and maintain a safe and healthful work environment.
Employees do not want to get hurt, and the safety and loss prevention professional
and company do not want them to get hurt. However, when trying to sell programs
to the employees, difficulties can still arise in the implementation of the programs,
such as employees not wanting to wear safety glasses because they are uncomfortable or interfere with their job function. At this level, safety and loss prevention
­professionals may want to appeal to the fundamental reasons for the program and
the possible downsides in terms of the impact on the individuals, their families, their
hobbies and outside activities, and for other basic reasons.
In conclusion, safety and loss prevention professionals should utilize creative ways
of ensuring that the safety and loss prevention message is received and embraced at
Effective Selling of Safety and Health Programs
11
every level of the organization. Searching for and finding the motivational keys,
speaking a language the group understands and is comfortable with, stressing the
issues or components that are important to the specific group, and showing the
downside as well as the upside of the particular issue will lead the specific group
to the correct conclusion and ultimately the buy-in that is necessary for a successful program. The safety and loss prevention professional is the leader in this area
of expertise and must ensure that each group is appropriately educated and fully
understands every aspect of the proposed program so that each individual can make
an informed decision. Creativity in preparation and presentation, hitting the “hot”
buttons, and transferring confidence and enthusiasm will permit the safety and loss
prevention professional to acquire a wholehearted buy-in at all levels.
3
Creative Safety
Equipment Purchases
Enter into negotiations with the intention of creating an agreement that will
allow both parties to achieve their essential goals.
Tom Hopkins
The first man to raise his voice has lost the argument.
Japanese Proverb
A substantial portion of the budget of most safety and loss prevention professionals
allows for the purchase of personal protective equipment for their employees, medical
supplies, and professional services, as well as salary and benefits for staff. Virtually
all of these costs are fixed but often possess an ongoing expense f­actor. Additionally,
safety and loss ­prevention professionals are often faced with ­emergency situations
and unforeseen costs ­requiring specific items on an immediate basis. In essence,
safety and loss prevention can be expensive, but methods are available to manage
these costs appropriately.
Through establishing ongoing business relationships with product suppliers and
buying smart, safety, and loss prevention professionals can often stretch their budget dollars to provide additional service benefits to their employees. Remember,
safety and loss prevention does not make a product or produce anything. The safety
and loss prevention function is a preservation and enhancement function. Although
important, safety and loss prevention professionals should also strive to stretch every
budget dollar to achieve maximum benefits for minimum dollars spent or, in essence,
acquire the “biggest bang” for each dollar.
The first stage of buying smart is to establish a list of the fixed costs of replacement items and a list of the new items to be purchased. It is important that the safety
and loss prevention professional closely analyze the specific needs of the operation
and the specifications of or limitations on each of the prospective purchases. For
example, an operation may require a thousand adhesive bandages over a period of a
year. Do specific brand-name bandages need to be purchased, or can a generic brand
be utilized? Are particular sizes of bandages used more often so that buying variety
packs at a higher cost is not necessary?
Loss prevention and safety professionals should identify any perimeters set by
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or other governing agency with
regard to specific equipment (i.e., earplugs, safety glasses, etc.). Such specifications
should be identified so that they may be included in the purchase order or when
contacting the vendor.
Prior to ordering, however, the safety and loss prevention professional should
establish relationships with the vendors or providers—larger vendors or those for
13
14
Creative Safety Solutions
bulk purchases, as well as local vendors or those to be used for emergency purchases.
Lists of potential vendors for particular types of equipment are often located in various association publications, as well as publications such as Best Safety Directory.
There are two basic approaches that can be utilized with regard to vendor services: (1) one-stop shop for all services and equipment and (2) competitive bids for
particular equipment purchases or services. There are positive and negative aspects
of each of these approaches.
In the one-stop vendor type of purchasing, the safety and loss prevention professionals can establish close working relationships with one or a small number of vendors to
provide virtually all their services. The vendors become familiar with the safety and
loss prevention professionals’ operations, employees, management, purchasing system,
and other aspects, and this ensures smooth acquisition of needed items. The negative
aspect of this approach is that on a single-item purchase, the price may be higher than
if bid competitively.
Under the bidding approach, each item is submitted for competitive bids, which
often yields a lower price for a specific equipment purchase, especially if the equipment or item is purchased in bulk. A negative aspect is that the safety and loss prevention professional will be dealing with a large number of vendors and an ongoing
relationship may not be established.
Under either philosophy, the concept or idea is to establish a “win-win” relationship
between the safety and loss prevention professional and the vendor. The primary concept is to get the best value for your purchasing dollar to acquire the necessary equipment and services for your operation. Purchasing of safety equipment is, in essence, a
negotiation process. Although vendors normally list prices for specific items, there is
a certain amount of flexibility that the vendor retains for specific customers or specific
orders (i.e., a large order). Loss prevention professionals should realize that most prices
on safety and loss prevention–related equipment and services are negotiable, and they
may have to ask the vendor for additional price reductions, additional services, and
other benefits as part of the negotiation process. For example, the safety and loss prevention professional at XYZ Company wishes to purchase 5000 safety glasses. He
contacts 25 of the producers of safety glasses and requests samples for the employees to evaluate. Of the 25 requests, only 20 companies provide sample safety glasses
for evaluation by the employees. This immediately eliminates the five companies that
did not provide samples. The employees evaluate the 20 different safety glasses and
select five as the ones to be utilized in the facility. These five companies can then be
contacted to ascertain price and other services that may be available. The safety glass
vendors will usually provide different prices for a small purchase, medium purchase,
and large purchase. Also, some of the vendors may provide additional items such as
training videotapes and other training materials, on-site training services, ear cushions, nose bridges, and other add-ons. After all bids are provided, the safety and loss
prevention professional can then decide on the best combination of products, services,
and add-ons.
Especially in safety, health, environmental, and related areas, it is not uncommon
for the vendor to provide training services with a substantially large p­ urchase of
safety equipment. However, this additional service is usually requested by the safety
and loss prevention professional during the purchasing process. For example, when
Creative Safety Equipment Purchases
15
the safety and loss prevention professional is purchasing self-­contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA), the vendor may provide on-site training for the employees who
will be utilizing the SCBA. It is important for the safety and loss prevention professional to ask if these services are available.
One way in which safety and loss prevention professionals may be able to stretch
their budget dollar is through the purchase of last year’s model or safety equipment
that is not currently fashionable. As long as the safety equipment meets the specific
governmental requirements and the needs of the employees, the safety and loss prevention professional can purchase the Volkswagen rather than the Cadillac. Consider
the safety and loss prevention professional who needs a noise-level decameter.
Through contacting various vendors, he ascertains that there are various models of
noise-level decameters at varying price ranges. But, if the safety and loss prevention
professional asks for a previous year’s model at a reduced cost, the vendor can often
accommodate the request.
Another possibility is to ask for a floor model of a particular high-priced piece of
equipment. The floor models are often used for demonstration purposes or at conferences. Because they have been slightly used, a vendor can often sell such equipment
to the safety and loss prevention professional at a reduced cost. However, you have
to ask.
Also, when purchasing a substantial quantity of an individual product, safety and
loss prevention professionals can ask the vendors if they will provide specific items
or other items being purchased at such a volume at a reduced cost. Or, given the substantially large purchase, will the vendor provide any additional extras? For example,
suppose a safety and loss prevention professional is buying $50,000 worth of hard
hats. He can ask the vendor if he will throw in a higher grade of helmet inserts or a
specific number of face shields.
A word of caution to the safety and loss prevention professional concerning
ethical and professional responsibility issues is necessary here. When a substantial
amount of money is changing hands during a purchase, it is highly unethical and
often a violation of company policy for the safety and loss prevention professional to
accept personal items or items of personal benefit. All bargaining power and negotiation skills must be utilized for the good of the safety and loss prevention program or
company—not for personal gain.
The idea is to negotiate to achieve a win-win situation for both the safety and
loss prevention professional and the specific vendor. Vendors often possess a certain
amount of flexibility with regard to the purchasing arrangement, and the safety and
loss prevention professionals should ascertain these perimeters in order to acquire
the best deal possible. That is not to say that you should “hold up” the vendor or
exploit the vendor in any way; however, the safety and loss prevention professional
should negotiate the best deal possible to benefit the company and employees. If you
do not ask, you will not find out.
For safety and loss prevention professionals who are purchasing or ordering
safety equipment through a specific purchasing department, it is vitally important
that the purchasing department be provided all information in order that they can
make an educated purchase of the equipment. Safety and loss prevention professionals should be aware that purchasing agents do not normally possess the experience
16
Creative Safety Solutions
and expertise with regard to purchasing safety equipment and services; thus, it is the
safety and loss prevention professional’s job to provide necessary specifications and
government requirements for the purchase order. Providing specific price ranges or
particular model numbers or types usually assists the purchasing agent in acquiring
the best possible price and appropriate equipment.
Finally, knowing your requirements, knowing your vendors, and having skills
in the art of negotiation will assist you and your program in acquiring the best possible quality and price for the purchasing dollar. Again, safety and loss prevention
professionals should become knowledgeable in the art of negotiations and practice
that skill whenever possible. Remember, the dollars you save through the negotiation
process can be used for additional training, equipment, and services to improve the
safety, health, and environment of your employees.
4
Tapping Employee
Creativity
A hunch is creativity trying to tell you something.
Frank Capra
Creativity varies inversely with the number of cooks involved in the broth.
Bernice Fitz-Gibbon
In order to tap into employees’ creativity, the safety and loss prevention professional
should create an environment in which employees are empowered to express their
creativity and possess the freedom to express that creativity without suffering any
possible adverse consequences. Who knows the equipment and operations better
than the employees who work with that equipment and operations on a daily basis?
But when was the last time we asked for their ideas and input as to better ways to
perform the job and perform it in a safer manner, to improve quality, or any other
aspects of the job?
Your employees are one of greatest sources of creativity and innovative ideas
in the area of safety, health, environmental, and related areas if their creativity
can be tapped. A strategy to entice employees to express their creativity and ideas
must be developed in conjunction with an overall plan that takes into consideration
the nature of the employer–employee relationship. Employees are often skeptical about expressing their “wild” ideas or discussing “blue-sky” concepts with
management because of potential repercussions regarding their jobs, or they may
even fear that the “boss will think I’m dumb.” An atmosphere should be created in
which employees are encouraged to express their ideas, no matter how far-fetched.
For example, suppose an employee brings an idea for a new widget to the plant
manager’s office, and the plant manager laughs at the idea. What is the probability
that the employee will bring another idea to the plant manager or to other members
of management? Most probably zero. However, what if the same employee brings
the idea to a plant manager who takes a few minutes to listen to the employee and
thanks the employee for the idea before he leaves? Even though the idea may not be
feasible, the small amount of time and courtesy extended by the plant manager will
encourage the employee to provide other ideas in the future.
To tap into the vast storehouse of your employees’ creativity successfully on an
ongoing basis, a strategic plan is necessary. This plan can be developed through
­various avenues including (but not limited to) safety committees, incentive programs, open-door policies, and other communications mechanisms. The strategic
plan should include one or more ways to capture creative ideas and one or more
methods of providing feedback to the employee or offering positive reinforcement.
17
18
Creative Safety Solutions
One avenue for open employee communications is the safety committee. Virtually
all companies possess some type of safety committee, communication committee,
employee representative committee, or other representative committee through which
employees can provide ideas to their representatives for presentation at such meetings.
Safety meetings should possess an agenda through which to accomplish the objectives or goals of the committee; however, appropriate time frames should be provided
­discussing and evaluating new ideas or suggestions:
Sample Safety Committee Agenda
5 minutes
15 minutes
15 minutes
15 minutes
10 minutes
Review last meeting’s minutes.
Evaluate past month’s accident investigation reports.
Review new safety policy.
Brainstorm solutions to X problem.
Open forum for new ideas or problems to be addressed.
Safety committees are also an exceptional opportunity by which to express the
need for employees’ ideas and creativity to address specific safety, health, and loss
prevention issues and to acquire their ideas. Additionally, the safety committee
members or representatives should be provided the appropriate education and training through which to acquire the ideas properly from the employees and to transfer
or communicate these ideas to the committee members.
It is vitally important that the employees who originally bring ideas are provided
feedback as to the status of their ideas. This can be done through the minutes of the
safety committee meeting, individual notices, verbal communications through safety
committee representatives, or by other methods.
Some companies utilize the “suggestion box” or idea box that allows employees to
write down their ideas and submit them to management on an individual and confidential basis. This type of communication mechanism has been extremely successful
for many companies; however, the suggestion box can become stale and sit unused if
appropriate feedback from management is not provided.
Other companies utilize various types of incentive programs to generate creative
ideas. For example, one company awards the employee who originally brings an idea
for a new product or patented process the monetary royalties generated from the
idea. In other companies, monetary or personal items are provided for ideas that are
utilized to improve the workplace.
One of the new creative ideas to promote employee involvement and the expression
of their ideas is the targeted hazard identification system. This system provides an
easy and cost-efficient method through which employees are trained to identify safety
hazards in their workplace and provides a mechanism through which the hazard can be
corrected. Additionally, this system provides a simple method by which employees can
express their ideas and acquire feedback within a 24-hour time period (see Appendix C
for program details). Important components of this program are the employee involvement and the acquisition of their opinions to generate corrective action.
Though often offered but seldom used by many companies, a true open-door
­policy is another mechanism by which employees can express their ideas and concerns with regard to the workplace. Under an ideal open-door policy, employees may,
Tapping Employee Creativity
19
at any time, enter the office area of the safety and loss prevention professional and
express their ideas about virtually any topic. Many companies state they have an
open-door policy, but in reality employees are often fearful of expressing ideas to
management out of fear of possible repercussions and/or embarrassment. A true
open-door policy can be one of the most effective and low-cost methods of tapping
into your employee’s creativity. However, if not effectively managed, the open-door
policy can cause a loss of productivity and create problems.
One basic way in which the creativity of your employees can be tapped is for the
safety and loss prevention professional to listen and communicate effectively with
the individual employee. Effective listening means removing all barriers and obstacles and permitting the employee and the safety and loss prevention professional to
focus on what the employee is saying and his or her specific idea. Focused listening
and completion of the communication model will permit the safety and loss prevention professional, under any of the above systems or programs, to identify effectively
the creative ideas of their employees and permit these ideas to germinate and grow
within their operations. Remember, the best ideas come from the people who know
the jobs best. It is the safety and loss prevention professional’s job to capture these
ideas and make the ideas work.
5
Traditional “Things”
No man is able of himself to do all things.
Homer
Speakers have been showering us with pearls of wisdom for centuries, and if
all of their valuable advice were laid end to end, it would still be just as good
as new.
Benjamin F. Fairless
The commitment of management to safety and loss prevention efforts is essential
for success. Without their support, personnel, and funding, any safety and loss prevention program would be nothing but “window dressing” and cause more harm
than having no program at all. In most circumstances, when management fully
understands the cost factors involved in work-related accidents, safety and loss prevention professionals will begin to achieve the “buy-in.” Safety and loss prevention professionals should also be prepared to show the dividends, in both monetary
and humanitarian terms, that can be acquired through a comprehensive and systematic management approach to safety, health, and loss prevention. To ensure that
­management fully understands the concepts involved in a proactive program, all
levels of the management team should understand how accidents happen and how
accidents can be prevented. Using the basic domino theory (see Figure 5.1), safety
and loss prevention professionals can easily explain the causal factors leading up
to an accident and the negative impact following an accident. Additionally, safety
and loss prevention professionals can explain the fact that, through the use of a proactive safety, health, and loss prevention program, the causal factors that could lead
to an accident can be identified and corrected prior to the risk factors accumulating,
which ultimately lead to an accident.
According to the domino theory of Dr. Marcum, the first three dominoes show
the underlying factors that could lead to an accident. Emphasis should be placed
on the fact that the underlying causes for workplace injuries and illnesses can be
identified and corrected through the use of a proactive safety, health, and loss
prevention program. If the underlying factors leading to an accident are not identified and corrected, the dominoes begin to fall, and then it is almost impossible
to prevent an accident from happening. The key is to ensure that management
realizes that to prevent an accident, the underlying risk factors must be minimized or eliminated rather than waiting and reacting after an accident has already
happened.
To amplify this point, safety and loss prevention professionals often use the
pyramid model to drive home the point that near-misses and other underlying factors, if not addressed, will ultimately lead to an accident. Visualize a pyramid
or triangle; starting at the bottom, for every 300 equipment damage accidents or
21
22
Incurred cost(s)
Sustained loss(es)
Adverse reaction(s)
Harmful contact incident(s)
Miscompensated risk(s)
Substandard performance(s)
Inadequate task preparation(s)
Creative Safety Solutions
FIGURE 5.1 Domino theory used by safety and loss prevention professionals.
near-misses that an employer may experience, there will be 29 minor injuries. If the
deficiencies and underlying risk factors are not identified and corrected, the 300
accidents will ultimately lead to one major injury or fatality. The key is to ensure
complete understanding that the management team must take a proactive approach
to the safety and loss prevention function rather than reacting when an incident or
accident happens.
With regard to the management of safety and loss prevention, there are several
management theories and approaches, including management control system management, management by objectives, group dynamic and human approach management, and Total Safety Management, that have successfully been utilized in different
organizations. The particular management theory selected for use within any given
organization must meet the needs and management style of the organization. There
is no one right or wrong management theory for any given organization as long as
the management system selected provides a consistent and systematic approach that
proactively addresses the underlying causes and risk factors that may ultimately lead
to an accident.
Many organizations have found that the management by objectives (MBO)
theory is a simplistic but effective systematic and practical methodology for the
management of their safety, health, and loss prevention function. This style provides a stair-step, long-term approach to achieving the ultimate safety goals or
objectives. Using the MBO theory, each element within a safety and health program can be assigned an achievable objective or goal. When all objectives from
each element within a specific safety and health program are achieved, the overall objective of the program will concurrently be achieved. When all individual
safety program objectives are achieved, the larger overall objective of the safety
and health effort will be achieved. In simple terms, MBO provides a series of
building-block objectives upon which other objectives are based, and achievement of the smaller objectives will ultimately lead to the achievement of the larger
objectives or goals.
Traditional “Things”
23
In developing specific safety, health, and loss prevention goals or objectives for an
organization, all levels of management and employees should be provided an opportunity to interject their ideas and opinions in the development of the safety, health,
and loss prevention goals or objectives. There are two basic schools of thought in this
area: the zero-accident goal theory versus the progressional accident goal theory.
Under the zero-accident goal theory, of course, the ultimate goal is zero accidents.
To attain less than this goal is to permit employees to incur injuries and illnesses on
the job. Using the ultimate goal of zero, the entire organizational team possesses a
common goal that is the pinnacle of the safety, health, and loss prevention summit.
The downside of this theory is the possibility that organizational team members may
view the zero-accident goal as unrealistic and unattainable and thus lose interest and
momentum in striving to achieve their safety and health goals. Under the progressional goal theory, organizations continuously phase in goals for safety, health, and
loss prevention over a period of time in order to achieve the ultimate goal of zero
accidents (i.e., 1991, 25 percent reduction from 1990 accident total; 1992, 50 percent
reduction from 1990 accident total, etc., ultimately reaching the zero-accident goal
over a number of months or years). The downside of this theory is the fact that the
organization will be accepting a certain number of accidents, and thus injuries and
illnesses, while the organization strives to achieve the ultimate goal.
Although the involvement of every employee of the company is important in any
health, safety, and loss prevention program, the key management position level is the
first-line supervisor or team leader. This particular management level is normally
the communications link between upper management and the employees and often
serves as the personnel or human resource manager’s eyes and ears in the production areas. In most organizations, the first-line supervisors or team leaders are the
ones who will have daily interaction with the employees within their departments
or areas, who will direct the activities of the employees in their departments or
areas, who will proscribe or perform disciplinary functions, and who will perform
the training function and other related activities. This management level embodies
the commitment of the organization to safety, health, and loss prevention and relays
it to the employees. If the first-line supervisors or team leaders have been properly
educated in, and adopt the goals and objectives of, the safety, health, and loss prevention program and effectively communicate these goals and objectives to their
employees, the employees will normally embrace the safety and loss prevention
effort or, at the very least, adhere to the safety, health, and loss prevention policies
and procedures.
The first-line supervisors or team leaders should be educated, trained, and motivated to make safety, health, and loss prevention part of their everyday activities.
First-line supervisors and team leaders must be provided the “tools” with which they
can effectively manage the safety, health, and loss prevention function just as they
manage production, quality, and the other job requirements. Necessary to acquire the
appropriate buy-in are the commitment and motivation of upper-level management
combined with the necessary education and training (i.e., the “tools”) for supervisors
or team leaders to manage safety and loss prevention effectively, as well as holding
the supervisor or team leader accountable for the safety performance or achievement
of the goals or objectives.
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Creative Safety Solutions
One of the first questions normally asked by first-line supervisors and team
l­eaders is, “Where am I going to find the time to manage safety and loss prevention
when I don’t have enough hours in the day to do my job now?” With a proactive
approach to safety, health, and loss prevention, first-line supervisors or team leaders
are being provided the skills to manage effectively the safety, health, and loss prevention function within their departments or areas instead of reacting to problems.
The management skills taught for the effective management of the safety, health, and
loss prevention function are the same basic management skills necessary to manage
the production and quality functions, as well as other related functions. Supervisors
and team leaders normally find that when they have mastered the basic management
skills, the safety and loss prevention function can be effectively managed in the same
or similar manner as the other production functions. In fact, supervisors or team
leaders will acquire more time within the workday when they manage rather than
put out fires.
The management principles that management team members use in daily super­
vision of production, quality control, or any other operation are the same when managing safety in the workplace. In production, the supervisor plans, organizes, directs,
and controls operations to produce a product, while in safety and loss prevention, the
supervisor plans, organizes, directs, and controls the safety and loss prevention function in the workplace. Basic management skills utilized in production and quality are
transferable to the safety and loss prevention function.
Another area that normally requires substantial effort in managing the safety and
loss prevention function is achieving an open communication system with e­ mployees.
All employees want to be able to work safely and not be injured while at work. The
goal of management is the same. Disagreement usually occurs in regard to the methods used to achieve this identical goal. Communication with employees, permitting
employees to voice their opinions and ideas, and inviting employee involvement in
the safety and loss prevention effort are essential to the proper management of the
safety, health, and loss prevention program.
One of the cornerstones of most safety, health, and loss prevention programs is
the presence of written safety, health, and loss prevention policies and procedures
through which the organizational team members, individually or collectively, can
acquire the necessary guidance regarding acceptable and unacceptable behaviors,
expectations as to safety and loss prevention performance, and other basic workplace
requirements. Safety, health, and loss prevention policies and procedures should be
clearly stated to remove any ambiguities or room for interpretation. Written safety,
health, and loss prevention programs provide the essential requirements for the specific safety, health, and loss prevention program, which is vital in providing continuous direction. There is no perfect safety, health, and loss prevention objective or
goal mechanism that works for all organizations. Given the substantial differences in
locations, work sites, workforces, philosophy, and so on, safety and loss prevention
professionals should select the mechanism or method that works best for their individual situation. The key factors in safety, health, and loss prevention program development under this management theory are that the organizational team possesses a
consensual safety, health, and loss prevention goal; the objectives in attaining the
goal are clearly defined and measured; the organizational team is provided input as
Traditional “Things”
25
to their achievement of the safety objectives and goals; and the organizational team
is held accountable for the achievement of the safety and loss prevention goals.
In developing a written safety and loss prevention program, there is no substitute
for knowledge of the standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, or other applicable
governmental regulations. Under the law, every organization covered under these
regulations is bound to know the law. As stated by many courts throughout history,
ignorance of the law is no defense.
A basic and general guideline to assist the safety and loss prevention professional
to develop a safety and health program for a particular standard is provided below:
1. Read the OSHA standard carefully and note all requirements.
2.Remember that all OSHA compliance programs must be in writing.
3.Develop a plan of action. Acquire management commitment and funding
for the program.
4. Purchase all necessary equipment. Acquire all necessary certifications, and
so on.
5. Remember to post any required notices.
6.Inform employees of the program. Acquire employee input in the developmental stages of the program. Inform labor organization, if applicable.
7.At this point, you may want to contact OSHA for samples of acceptable
programs (they sometimes have a recommended format available). You may
also want to have OSHA review your finished draft and provide comments.
8.Conduct all necessary training and education. Remember to document all
training.
9. Conduct all required testing. Remember to document all testing procedures,
equipment, calibrations, and so on.
10.Implement the program.
11.Ensure that all procedures are followed. Disciplinary action taken for noncompliance must be documented.
12.Audit the program on a regular periodic basis or as required under the
standard.
Remember that simply complying with the OSHA standards does not guarantee
a successful safety, health, and loss prevention program. The OSHA standards are
the bare-bones and minimum requirements that the government expects all employers to meet. A safety, health, and loss prevention program must comply with these
standards but should go far beyond these minimum standards. A good program
should incorporate ideas and programs developed by the employees and management team to strengthen and expand the safety, health, and loss prevention efforts.
Many of the best ideas in the safety, health, and loss prevention area have been originated by employees. Safety and loss prevention professionals should keep in mind
that employees normally work in only one area and perform one job. These employees are experts on those particular jobs, and their ideas and input can normally provide great insight into developing safety, health, and loss prevention programs and
policies that directly affect that particular job or area.
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Creative Safety Solutions
The basic concept in managing safety, health, and loss prevention in the workplace
is to get all employees to be conscious of their own safety as well as the safety of
­others. Safety, health, and loss prevention can be instilled into employees through a
long-term training and education program and constant, consistent, and proper management of the safety and loss prevention function. Safety and loss prevention should
be made an essential part of each employee’s daily work habits. Employee involvement in the structure, decision making, and operation of the proactive safety and loss
prevention program has often been found to be successful in achieving employee
buy-in and thus commitment. Safety and loss prevention is not the sole domain of the
safety director, personnel manager, or even the first-line supervisor. Utilizing a team
approach, the supervisor or team leader can train organizational team members to
take an active role in the specific safety and loss prevention functions. Many organizations have found that safety and loss prevention activities required for the achievement of specific objectives, such as department safety inspections, personal protective
equipment (PPE) inspections, and other duties, can be delegated from the first-line
supervisory level to the team members. In fact, the more involved the organizational
team members can be in the safety and loss prevention program, the more organizational team members feel responsible for the safety and loss prevention program.
However, too much delegation of essential duties can defeat a good program. Another
key area that is often overlooked in the management of a safety, health, and loss
prevention program is the accountability factor. All levels of the management team
must be held accountable for their divisions, departments, or areas. The individual
management team member should be involved in the development of the objectives,
goals, and necessary tools to enable the management team member to manage the
safety, health, and loss prevention function effectively. Pertinent and timely feedback
is critical.
Use of positive reinforcement has been found to be the most effective method
in motivating supervisors or team leaders to achieve the specified objectives and
goals. However, negative reinforcement or disciplinary action should be in place
as a backup if positive reinforcement is not successful. Safety and loss prevention
professionals should ensure that a fair and consistent policy with regard to disciplinary action in the area of safety is established and maintained. Organizations that
have embraced the proactive approach to managing safety, health, and loss prevention have found that the benefits achieved over time far outweigh the initial costs
involved, and, once in place, an effectively managed safety, health, and loss prevention program will pay dividends for years to come as well as minimize potential
risks and potential legal liabilities.
The ultimate goal for every safety and loss prevention professional is to safeguard
employees from harm in the workplace. A secondary goal, although equally important, is the achievement and maintenance of compliance with the OSHA standards
and requirements. In order to reach these important goals, a comprehensive management approach needs to be developed to manage the safety and health function, in
addition to an extensive, all-inclusive strategy that directs and controls completion
of the required tasks in order to achieve compliance with the OSHA standards and
regulations.
Traditional “Things”
27
The principles that managers use in their daily supervision of production,
q­ uality control, or any other operation are the same principles that should be used
when managing the safety, health, and loss prevention function in the workplace.
In ­production, managers utilize the basic management principles of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the operation to produce a product. Safety and loss
prevention professionals can utilize and teach the same basic management principles
to plan, organize, direct, and control the safety and loss prevention function in the
workplace. With the increasing costs of work-related injuries and illnesses, increasing compliance requirements and liability, and increasing costs in the area of safety,
health, and loss prevention, a proactive management approach has proven to be the
most effective way of ensuring that a safe and healthful environment is created and
maintained in the workplace.
6
Involving the Family
All happy families resemble one another; every unhappy family is unhappy in
its own way.
Leo Tolstoy
I am he
As you are me
And we are all together.
John Lennon and Paul McCartney
One of the main reasons, if not the reason, why most employees get up in the ­morning
and go to work every day is to support their family unit. The family unit is the underlying basis for the activities of most employees. The family is the motivating factor for
many employees to do a good job and advance in the company. However, how often
do we involve the family in the activities at work?
Most employees spend as many or more hours at work as they do with their
­family. Often, employees form close bonds with their coworkers, or “quasi-family”
units. Does everyone in the employee’s family know how mom or dad spends her
or his time while at work? Moreover, do the members of the family even know why
mom or dad goes to work? Do they know what the employee does on a daily basis to
earn a paycheck? Have they ever been to their workplace? Safety and loss p­ revention
professionals often lose focus regarding the underlying reason why people pull themselves out of bed in the morning and go to the workplace day in and day out, but the
primary reason for most individuals, still, is to support their family units.
The safety and loss prevention professionals should identify creative ways of
involving the family in the work activities of mom or dad, especially in the area of
safety and loss prevention. Can involvement of the family in the work activities of the
employee create a greater bond between the company and the employee? Does the
involvement of the families lead to employees thinking about what they are doing on
a daily basis and thinking about their own safety and the impact on their family if
there is a safety breakdown? Can the family involvement in safety and loss prevention have an impact not only on the job but also at home?
Most employees are proud of their work. Safety and loss prevention professionals
can provide opportunities through which employees can be rewarded by the people
who are most important in their lives by allowing the family to become involved in
the workplace. In a recent conversation with a young man who worked for a large
automobile company, he revealed that one of the high points of the year had been
when his young son, during a family tour of the operations, expressed awe and pride
in the work that his father accomplished. In fact, he stated that his son talked about
the experience excessively for a period of time and constantly asked his father if he
could go back on another tour. This small incident instilled substantial pride in the
employee and gave his work purpose and focus.
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Creative Safety Solutions
Safety and loss prevention professionals should not lose focus of the fact that
most employees spend more time at the workplace than they do with their families; however, family is the underlying reason why the employee is at work in the
first place. Creative methods can be utilized to incorporate these two major areas
of importance of most employees, and the underlying behavior and activities of the
employee can be modified in a very positive manner. For example, why do employees take risks on the job? Often, the underlying reason is to shorten the time to do the
work, to permit the employee to complete the job sooner, and the risk-versus-harm
ratio may appear small. The safety and loss prevention professional must get the idea
across to the employees that the risk-versus-harm ratio can be greater than it appears
and that the long-term harm can affect not only themselves but also their families
so that the employees think twice before accepting such risks.
Safety and loss prevention professionals should look for creative ways to involve
the family in the workplace. Some of the methods which have been utilized include
the following:
• Provide safety incentive awards that involve the family.
• Permit photographs of the family to be placed in work areas.
• Create buttons or stickers combining photographs of the family with safety
slogans.
• Hold a “Kid’s Day” when employees can bring their sons or daughters to
work.
• Provide plant tours for spouses and children.
• Publish newsletters to be sent to the families that identify plant and safety
activities.
• Place information regarding work sites unsafe for small children to visit on
the company’s Web site for viewing.
• Encourage employees to talk to school groups, their children’s school
classes, Boy/Girl Scout groups, or other organizations regarding safetyrelated topics.
• Hold corporate games for employees and their families.
One easy way of finding out what trips an employee’s creative “trigger” is simply
to ask the employees and their families for their ideas and input. Involving the ­family
with the quasi-family of employees in achieving the central and universal goal of
safety will yield results. Remember, safety and loss prevention professionals want
employees to think before they take risks in the workplace. What better way to make
employees think about safety than to have their families involved and by supporting
their safety efforts.
7
Involving the Community
The simple virtues of willingness, readiness, alertness and courtesy will carry
a man farther than mere smartness.
Randall Thomas Davidson
The world must learn to work together, or finally it will not work at all.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Most companies strive to be good corporate citizens. Safety and loss prevention
­professionals, because of their job responsibilities, often are the most visible manifestation of the company within the community. The interaction between the company and the community usually involves safety and loss prevention issues (such
as community disaster preparedness planning), which reflect on the efficacy and
reputation of the company.
The image and reputation of the company, from the viewpoint of the safety and
loss prevention professional, have a direct and indirect bearing on a number of
important issues for your company. For example, on a positive note, if your company
is perceived as being a good corporate citizen, individuals seeking employment will
be referred to your company by word-of-mouth, thus increasing your pool of qualified applicants. Conversely, if your company is not perceived as being a good corporate citizen, your company could have a hard time attracting qualified employees and
thus may be required to pay a higher wage to attract employees.
Other interactions with the community are also important, such as the relationship between the company and the local medical community. When a company
maintains a positive interaction with the medical community, a bond of mutual trust
and cooperation may exist. Thus, if the safety and loss prevention professional has
a history of working with the medical community, an injured employee’s workers’
compensation costs may be able to be reduced by returning the injured employee
to restricted or light duty. If the image and reputation of the company are poor,
the medical professionals may want to keep the injured employee away from work
for awhile, thus increasing the workers’ compensation costs, because of the fear of
­reinjury or failure to follow the proscribed medical restrictions.
Safety and loss prevention professionals should search for ways in which to involve
their company in community activities to become, or maintain the status of being, a
good corporate citizen. Generally, people think the worst of things they do not know
anything about. What do the citizens who live around your operations think happens
at your facility? If all they see is ambulances pulling in and out of your plant every
day, what perceptions will they have of your safety program and thus your company?
Is the exterior of your facility littered with debris or is it manicured grass? Does the
appearance of your plant affect your company’s image and what the citizens think
about your company?
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Creative Safety Solutions
So, how can safety and loss prevention professionals have an impact on the image
and reputation of company in the community? The easiest and simplest way is to
become involved in community activities. The job responsibilities in safety and loss
prevention require involvement with community officials in such areas as disaster preparedness and community right-to-know. Does your operations preparedness planning include involvement with the local fire department, law enforcement
agency, and medical community? Have you provided the community officials with
a plant tour so they know what to expect in an emergency situation? Is there a coordination of activities, such as correlating communications systems, to prepare for an
emergency situation? Do local officials know how much funding is provided to the
community through corporate sponsorships, employee wages, and various taxes?
Safety and loss prevention professionals can also get involved in the community through participation in organizations such as the local chamber of commerce.
Safety and loss prevention professionals bring to the table a wealth of experience and
expertise that is often needed in these types of volunteer organizations. This involvement not only assists the community but also creates an avenue of communication
for safety and loss prevention professionals and their companies.
Safety and loss prevention professionals can also lend their expertise to community emergency preparedness committees, firefighting and emergency medical
services (EMS) committees, and other similar committees or groups. Safety and
loss prevention professionals often underestimate the extent of the experience and
ideas they possess, which can enrich their communities. For example, a safety
and loss prevention professional recently donated his time to assist an elementary
school group in the development of a safe playground for the children. As one of the
­committee members stated after completion of the project, “We couldn’t have done
this without [the safety and loss prevention professional]. We didn’t know about all
of the rules; we never even thought about things like ‘fall zones’. … His services
were invaluable.”
Creative ideas abound in the area of community involvement, especially in the
area of safety and loss prevention. Virtually everything that is done possesses a
safety and loss prevention component. All that is left is for the safety and loss prevention professional to become involved.
Several safety and loss prevention professionals have taken community involvement to the next level by actually involving the community in their in-plant safety
and loss prevention programs. For example, one safety and loss prevention professional writes a column for the local newspaper that talks about the safety and loss
prevention activities of her company and other local companies. In another location, the safety and loss prevention professional published photographs of the safety
award winners each month in the local newspaper. In yet another town, a safety and
loss prevention professional held an open house for the community to tour the facility and learn about the company.
Some of the other creative ideals that safety and loss prevention professionals may
consider include
• Conducting plant tours for local schools
• Speaking to local civic groups on safety
Involving the Community
•
•
•
•
33
Serving on the local volunteer fire department or EMS
Sponsoring a “safety city” in the community
Sponsoring “stop, drop, and roll” training at elementary schools
Serving on community drug-prevention committees and campaigns
Safety and loss prevention professionals should be looking for creative ways to
involve themselves, their employees, and their companies in community activities.
Most communities would welcome involvement at any level, from donating time at
the local blood drive to being volunteer coaches for the Little League. Most communities would welcome sponsorship or financial assistance for the development of
new playgrounds, athletic fields, or other community projects. All safety and loss
prevention professionals are extremely busy; however, the investment in time spent
with your community can pay handsome dividends not only in terms of company
image and job responsibilities but also in terms of personal growth. Safety and loss
prevention professionals should become involved—how about today?
8
Establishing and Using
Your Network
One right and honest definition of business is mutual helpfulness.
William Feather
Help thy brother’s boat across, and lo! Thine own has reached the shore.
Hindu proverb
Most professionals working in the field of safety know that the job responsibilities and day-to-day activities are enormous and extremely time-consuming. Most
safety and loss prevention professionals come to realize that they cannot be “lone
rangers” and need the assistance of others on a daily basis. Unlike other functions
in most companies, such as accounting and production, safety and loss prevention
professionals are often the only individuals responsible for their function, so it is
beneficial for them to be in contact with others working in the field and to identify
outside resources to assist them with various compliance questions or other issues.
Additionally, given the stresses placed upon the safety and loss prevention professional, a network of other professionals with similar responsibilities can also serve as
a support group and provide a forum for “bouncing ideas” and venting frustrations.
As one safety and loss prevention professional recently joked, “R&D in the safety
and loss prevention profession stands for ‘rip-off and duplicate’ rather than research
and development.” The primary reason for saying this is that the basic framework
for most compliance programs is set forth by the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA), and thus it is often easier and less time-consuming to acquire
the basis for various compliance programs from another safety and loss prevention
professional rather than starting from scratch. Acquiring such a foundation makes
developing a safety program much easier and eliminates “reinventing the wheel.”
Within many safety and loss prevention networks, program foundations and sample programs are often exchanged like trading cards. When one safety and loss prevention professional has spent considerable time in the development of a particular
program, he or she can then share the basic framework or format of his or her work
with others in the network. By doing so, the others can eliminate duplicate time
spent developing similar work and instead can utilize their time for other productive
purposes. These same safety and loss prevention professionals would then reciprocate by sharing the basics of other compliance programs they develop. Although
additional time and effort are required to modify and customize programs for individual site usage, the sharing of the basics saves significant time and research. When
all of the safety and loss prevention professionals in the network share, a large number of compliance programs can be developed and implemented in a shorter time
frame than if each safety and loss prevention professional had to start from scratch.
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Creative Safety Solutions
So how do you build a safety and loss prevention network? The primary method
is simply to become involved with existing formal and informal groups composed
of safety and loss prevention professionals. For example, two of the major groups in
the safety and loss prevention field are the American Society of Safety Engineers
(ASSE) and the National Safety Council (NSC). In regard to ASSE, a safety and
loss prevention professional can join the national organization for a nominal fee.
The national organization provides professional development conferences, publications, and other supports. On a local level, each area or region is made up of smaller
groups or chapters that meet on a periodic basis. At the local meetings, a safety
and loss prevention professional often shares ideas with other professionals, invited
speakers present programs on various safety and loss prevention topics, and members become involved in local or community safety and loss prevention activities.
The safety and loss prevention professional can meet others working in the field
at such meetings and events. Often safety and loss prevention professionals collect
business cards or the names and telephone numbers of the individuals whom they
meet through these activities, and dialogs are opened with a simple telephone call
or e-mail message. When safety and loss prevention professionals have questions
or problems, they can often call upon these individuals for assistance or simply a
shoulder to cry on, if necessary.
The safety and loss prevention field is significantly different than most other
industrial groups, given the basic responsibilities and objectives. Safety and loss prevention professionals are more willing to share their experiences and expertise than
is true of other types of occupations. However, safety and loss prevention professionals cannot receive such assistance if they do not ask for it.
Another way in which network contacts can be acquired is through attendance at
continuing education classes at a local college or university. In many colleges and
universities, the safety and loss prevention professional will meet others working in
the field or pursuing common interests. Many universities hold alumni conferences
or other activities, such as homecoming events, where the safety and loss prevention
professional can meet and talk with alumni who are working in the field and offer a
variety of experiences to share.
Thanks to the growth of computer technology, safety and loss prevention professionals can hold discussions with other professionals throughout the world online
on the World Wide Web. Web sites (such as those identified in Chapter 12) offer
the opportunity for safety and loss prevention professionals to talk online among
themselves or in chatrooms with other safety and loss prevention professionals. Also,
at most of these Web sites, safety and loss prevention professionals can discuss specific problems they are encountering and acquire new and different ideas that may
enhance their safety and loss prevention efforts.
Many insurance carriers or insurance administrators are a good source for
acquiring contacts working in the field. Many insurance carriers now provide loss
prevention and safety consulting services and/or videotapes of materials to assist loss
prevention and safety professionals. The loss prevention and safety component of the
insurance carrier can usually provide information with regard to local or regional
data pertaining to loss prevention and safety and may be able to provide information
regarding similar groups in the insurance or related fields.
Establishing and Using Your Network
37
If the various associations, universities, or other areas in which networks
t­raditionally have been formed are not available, safety and loss prevention professionals may consider forming industrial groups, on a formal or informal basis,
of other safety and loss prevention professionals working within the area. For
example, the safety and loss prevention professionals at a local industrial park
meet for lunch one day a month to discuss the various aspects of their job. This
informal group provides a local support mechanism for assistance and a sounding
board for new ideas and concepts.
A side benefit of a safety and loss prevention network is the ability to locate qualified safety and loss prevention personnel who may be searching for a job and, by
the same token, to provide a potential source for employment by safety and loss
prevention professionals seeking a new position. As most safety and loss prevention
professionals are aware, it is extremely difficult to acquire individuals with experience and expertise in this unique field. When a safety and loss prevention position is
available, the pool of qualified candidates with such specific expertise is extremely
limited. A network can assist in this area by identifying individuals who are looking
for employment. Conversely, if the safety and loss prevention professional has been
downsized, rightsized, or terminated for any reason, the network can provide an
exceptional resource for identifying available job openings within the area.
In conclusion, safety and loss prevention professionals cannot stand alone and
expect to do an exceptional job. The attributes of a network not only can assist you
with the acquisition of basic information and discussion of new ideas but can also
serve as a vent at the frustrating moments that everyone encounters throughout their
career. Whether your network is next door or on the other side of the world, it is
important to establish these linkage with others within the field in order to keep up
with the new concepts and new information that are permeating the field of safety
and loss prevention on a daily basis. But you have to communicate and become
involved to achieve the benefits of the network.
9
Joint Ventures to
Reduce Costs
Whoever in trouble and sorrow needs your help, give it to him. Whoever in
anxiety or fear needs your friendship, give it to him. It isn’t important whether
he like you. It isn’t important whether you approve of his conduct. It isn’t
­important what his creed or nationality may be.
E. N. West
He who says he never needs help, most does.
Malcolm Forbes
An area often overlooked in the private sector by safety and loss prevention professionals is the opportunity to “joint venture” large or expensive safety and loss
prevention projects. Given the general requirements of the Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA), all industries in a general area are subject
to the same mandatory requirements to achieve and maintain compliance with
the standards. To address the costs of achieving and maintaining compliance and
creating a safe and healthful work environment, several creative safety and loss
prevention professionals have formed joint venture projects, especially with others in close proximity where there may often be duplication of basic resources,
and the specific equipment required is needed on an infrequent basis. For example, it is extremely expensive to develop and maintain a fire brigade for a specific industrial site. However, through a joint venture with other industries in the
area, the cost of the equipment, training, and other components could be shared
among and between several companies to reduce the overall cost expenditure.
All participating companies receive the benefits of the fire brigade, and the cost
is shared among the participating companies. The cost of this shared venture is
significantly lower for the participating companies, and the fire brigade is available within an adequate response time for all of the participating companies. For
the individual safety and loss prevention professional attempting to justify the
expense of an unshared, on-site fire brigade, the cost may be prohibitive; however,
the lower cost of joint ownership of a portion of this venture makes this important
project feasible.
Safety and loss prevention professionals should evaluate their specific needs,
­especially with big-ticket items, and identify the potential needs of other industries and companies within a close geographical area. Joint ventures or sharing of
resources is an especially good method to be considered when the initial capital
expenditure is high. For most safety and loss prevention professionals, the budgetary
allotment of funds for the purchase of new equipment is normally minimal. However,
if several safety and loss prevention professionals pool these minimal resources to
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Creative Safety Solutions
purchase a shared piece of equipment, all involved parties can utilize the equipment
with a minimal expenditure. Suppose several companies are in need of a noise-level
­survey but to do so would require the purchase of a noise-level meter. If the purchase
price on the noise-level meter is $2000, then four safety and loss prevention professionals could each contribute $500 toward the purchase of such a meter and retain
one-quarter ownership of it. A schedule could be developed with each participant
being assigned a specific number of days/weeks/months to utilize the equipment.
The safety and loss prevention professionals would be able to schedule their calendars to perform the required testing during the specified period of time. And the
noise-level meter would not be sitting in the safety and loss prevention professional’s
office collecting dust when not being used. Costs for calibration, repair, and so on
could be shared and budgeted on an annual basis.
Another method to offset large, initial capital expenditures is to rent or lease
expensive equipment to others. For example, the safety and loss prevention professional from X company could purchase the noise-level meter, and companies A, B,
and C could rent or lease the noise-level meter for a specified period of time for a fee.
The benefit of this type of arrangement is that the safety and loss prevention professional for company X would maintain ownership of the equipment, and the safety
and loss prevention professionals from companies A, B, and C would have access
to this expensive piece of equipment for a reduced fee. Company X can offset the
original capital expenditure for the equipment, and companies A, B, and C have the
use of necessary equipment without the major capital expenditure of the purchase.
Safety and loss prevention professionals may also look for potential joint ventures within the public sector (such as municipalities) for various specialty services,
such as confined-space injury and rescue. Often the expenditure required to acquire
equipment for such specialty areas can be extremely cost prohibitive; however, compliance with the OSHA standard must be achieved and maintained. A joint venture
with a local fire department that already owns the confined-space equipment may
be a viable option, considering the capital expenditure for equipment, cost of training, and potential legal risks. Some safety and loss prevention professionals have
been able to enter into joint ventures with municipalities or volunteer fire organizations to have such activities as confined-space entry and rescue performed by these
organizations.
Safety and loss prevention professionals have also used other creative methods
to enter into joint ventures with private and public sector organizations, such as the
establishment of joint daycare centers, development of local parks and playgrounds,
and even support for local hockey teams. The point of this activity is that the safety
and loss prevention professional is being creative and looking for potential partners
with which to establish a mutually beneficial and cooperative effort to achieve a
particular goal. Cooperation and communication can often achieve objectives that
individuals would not be able to achieve individually.
10
Grants, Contracts, Tax
Credits, and Deductions
Show me the money!
Tom Cruise (from the movie Jerry Maguire)
The most popular labor-saving device is still money.
Phyllis George
One area often overlooked by safety and loss prevention professionals is the indirect
cost savings of tax credits and deductions, as well as possible outside sources of
potential funding for specific projects. Although most safety and loss prevention professionals are not accountants or tax advisors, most companies or organizations possess a tax “guru” who can often provide assistance to the safety and loss prevention
professional in such areas, which can be important sources of funds to assist the
safety and loss prevention professional finance projects; however, most tax credit
and grant programs require strict adherence to the specific rules and regulations and
often require extensive “paperwork” during the application phase and throughout
the project.
In regard to tax credits and deductions, safety and loss prevention professionals should become familiar with the various federal and state tax credit programs
and ascertain whether any of these programs correlate with the current activities of
the safety and loss prevention efforts. Safety and loss prevention professionals are
encouraged to look beyond the usual agencies for potential “matches” with ­specific
tax credit programs and acquire all pertinent information regarding any specific
program. The “match” programs should be discussed with the company’s tax “guru”
as well as management to ensure that there are no conflicts before pursuing such
credits. Additionally, the safety and loss prevention professional, in conjunction with
management, should closely evaluate the program requirements and ensure that
the company can achieve and maintain the strict compliance required by the tax
credit program. However, if the tax credit program is compatible with the planned
activities of the safety and loss prevention professional and/or the company, substantial benefits can often be derived from such participation. For example, a program
called Targeted Job Tax Credits (TJTC) was offered to companies several years ago.
In ­general terms, if the company qualified for the program and hired a specific category of unemployed worker, the federal government would provide tax credits to
the company for a percentage of the employee’s salary for a specified period and
a percentage of the cost of training. This incentive provided companies with the
inducement to hire specific categories of workers.
41
42
Creative Safety Solutions
Safety and loss prevention professionals should consider an inquiry into tax
c­ redits or deductions as part of the development phase of any program. If safety and
loss prevention professionals do not perform such searches, they may be passing over
cost savings that may justify acceptance of a specific program. For example, safety
and loss prevention professionals are often responsible for compliance with the new
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Tax credits and deductions are often available to eligible companies for certain expenses incurred in the process of achieving
and maintaining compliance:
• Under the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Code Section 44, small businesses
may claim a tax credit of up to 50 percent of the amount spent on eligible
expenses over $250, up to $10,250. The maximum yearly credit is $5000.
• Under IRS Code Section 190, businesses may deduct up to $15,000 per
year for expenses of removing architectural and transportation barriers to
individuals with disabilities.
Safety and loss prevention professionals should always consult their in-house
tax specialists for specific requirements and assistance with any tax deductions or
­credits. Remember, though, if safety and loss prevention professionals do not inquire
about tax credits and deductions, these important areas may be overlooked and thus
forgotten.
Safety and loss prevention professionals attempting new or innovative ideas and
programs often overlook private institutions and federally funded grants as potential
resources. Although most private sector employers have previously avoided this area
of funding, safety and loss prevention professionals with research needs, new ideas
and innovations, or other unique issues may want to consider this type of outside
funding in order to initiate and develop projects.
A grant is usually a “with-strings-attached” gift of money by the agency or institution to assist in the research or development of specific programs or projects.
Grants are often utilized in the academic environment to support new and innovative research on a specific topic or issue. Grants can be provided through federal and
state agencies or through private institutions or benefactors. A wide variety of grant
programs are available, and the safety and loss prevention professional usually must
search to locate the parties that provide grants in their particular areas of research
or programs.
The grant search can be conducted through search services, on the Internet, or at
any university library (see Chapter 12). The search is usually conducted by subject
matter to identify all possible sources of funding. Upon identification of potential
sources of funding, the usual procedure is to request an application packet for each
potential source to evaluate and complete. Safety and loss prevention professionals
should be aware that the grant applications and proposal forms may involve extensive documentation and explanation as to the proposed use of the funding, as well
as the specifics of the project or program. Upon completion of the grant proposal
and all correlating documents, the packet is submitted for analysis and evaluation.
Safety and loss prevention professionals should be aware that the competition for
such funding is usually intense and funding is usually limited. Thus, safety and
Grants, Contracts, Tax Credits, and Deductions
43
loss prevention professionals who choose to pursue this path may want to consider
­evaluating m
­ ultiple funding sources for maximum consideration.
For safety and loss prevention professionals considering a return to academia for
advanced degrees, there are often several sources of funding to assist them in their
endeavor. Grants, internal and external scholarships, graduate assistantships, student
loan programs, and other sources of funds are often available at many universities.
Additionally, many companies offer tuition reimbursement programs and employee
scholarship programs that may assist the safety and loss prevention professional to
pursue a degree program. Safety and loss prevention professionals can identify these
potential sources at their personnel and human resources office, the individual university’s financial aid office, or through several scholarship books and services that
are available.
Something else to consider for those safety and loss prevention professionals
who have the freedom to work on a project-by-project basis are governmental or
specific industry contracts. These contracts are usually for a specified period of
time or for completion of a specific project activity. For example, suppose a governmental agency requires fire training at all of the agency’s offices throughout the
United States. The contract usually would be on a fixed basis and would be competitively bid. Safety and loss prevention professionals wishing to bid on performing
this work would identify the specific requirements from the agency’s announcement,
would contact the agency to receive the bid specifications and proposal requirements, and would submit a proposal with an itemized budget to the agency by the
specified date. The agency would then make the selection and announce the contractor for the ­project. The primary location for identifying governmental contracts is
the Commerce Business Daily (see Chapter 12) and the Federal Register. Individual
company contracts are often published in professional journals, and specific notices
are sent to identified contractors. State and local contracts are usually published in
regional or local newspapers.
In conclusion, safety and loss prevention professionals should look beyond the
usual sources for funding for programs and ideas. If there is a will, there is a way.
Good ideas and programs will always find ways to be developed if safety and loss
prevention professionals are diligent and creative in their searches. Although many
doors will be closed, it takes only one door to open to permit the idea or program to
blossom and grow. The key is to find the one door.
11
Utilizing Free Services
Where the willingness is great, the difficulties cannot be great.
Niccolo Machiavelli
Do what you can, with what you have, where you are.
Theodore Roosevelt
A unique aspect of the safety and loss prevention area is the vast quantity of free
or low-cost services and information available upon request. The key, however, is
that the safety and loss prevention professional must be able to identify and locate
­available services and request further information from specific resources. A substantial number of the sources of free services and information are governmental
agencies; however, other sources, such as trade groups and universities, also provide
safety and loss prevention services.
In the past, many private sector employers did not take advantage of the many
services and sources of information provided by federal or state agencies because
of the fear of letting the agency in charge of compliance know about a potential
­deficiency, the reluctance to “open the door” for a governmental agency to interfere in the workplace, or an unfounded fear of the agency itself. In virtually every
case, this fear is unnecessary and limits the safety and loss prevention professional’s
­ability to tap into a vast governmental storehouse of knowledge and assistance that
is provided with tax dollars.
The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is an exceptional source for free information in the area of safety and loss prevention. Because
NIOSH does not have any compliance enforcement powers, safety and loss prevention professionals should not hesitate to utilize this exceptional service. The NIOSH
is primarily a research institute that has conducted research on ­virtually any area
of interest for a safety and loss prevention professional, from an analysis of fire helmets to the safety aspects of zinc. The NIOSH publishes a catalog of all of their
publications on a periodic basis and provides a Web site (http://www.cdc.gov/
niosh) that offers information about their services, publications, research, and more
(see Figure 11.1).
The U.S. Department of Labor is another source for information pertaining to
safety and loss prevention and in such peripheral areas of interest for many safety and
loss prevention professionals as the Family and Medical Leave Act. The Department
of Labor also maintains a Web site (http://www.dol.gov/elaws) that provides information and advice in the area of employment laws and safety regulations. Information
and assistance usually can be acquired by contacting the local Department of Labor
office or the Department of Labor office in Washington, DC (see Figure 11.2).
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia,
is an exceptional source for health-related information. Like NIOSH, the CDC is
45
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Creative Safety Solutions
FIGURE 11.1 NIOSH home page (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh).
a research agency and has minimal enforcement powers. The CDC is not only an
exceptional source of information but also provides on-site assistance with difficult situations. The CDC maintains a Web site (http://www.cdc.gov) that provides
information on various topics including traveler’s health, available publications and
software, data, statistics, and training (see Figure 11.3).
An often overlooked source of safety and loss prevention information is the
Consumer Information Center in Pueblo, Colorado. The Consumer Information
Center publishes a catalog of publications on a number of subjects of interest
to consumers which includes a substantial number of safety and loss prevention
­topics. The Consumer Information Center’s Web site (http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov)
provides information regarding their publications (see Figure 11.4).
Many state agencies, such as the Kentucky Labor Cabinet, are exceptional sources
of information and assistance. For example, the Kentucky Labor Cabinet, through the
Division of Education and Training, provides free seminars on various compliance
topics throughout the state of Kentucky, as well as providing ­on-site technical assistance to achieve and maintain compliance. The Education and Training Division,
although an arm of the Kentucky State Plan Program, is specifically designed to
provide assistance, as opposed to the enforcement arm of the agency. Under this
program, employers in Kentucky can utilize these ­exceptional services without fear
of being cited for violations. Safety and loss prevention professionals are urged to
explore similar types of programs in your state or region.
Utilizing Free Services
47
FIGURE 11.2 Employment Laws Assistance for Workers and Small Businesses Web site
(http://www.dol.gov/elaws/).
48
Creative Safety Solutions
FIGURE 11.3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site (http://www.cdc.gov/).
FIGURE 11.4 Consumer Information Center Web site (http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/).
Utilizing Free Services
49
FIGURE 11.5 OSHA Web site (http://www.osha.gov/).
And, finally, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is
a major storehouse of information for safety and loss prevention professionals,
although, as noted above, safety and loss prevention professionals are often reluctant to contact OSHA for assistance or information because of fear of inspection.
This fear is unfounded. Safety and loss prevention professionals should not hesitate
to contact OSHA to acquire the necessary standards, advisory information, and
new information. However, if the fear factor is still present, safety and loss prevention professionals may want to consider utilizing the OSHA Web site (http://
www.osha.gov). This site provides information about OSHA, media releases, publications, compliance assistance, technical information, and answers to frequently
asked questions (see Figure 11.5).
In summation, federal and state agencies are exceptional sources of free “stuff”
for safety and loss prevention professionals; however, the safety and loss prevention
professional must take the initiative to contact these agencies to determine the types
of assistance and information available. Additionally, safety and loss prevention professionals should not be afraid to ask for assistance or information in areas that are
not specifically listed in the printed materials or on the Web sites. Most agencies are
more than willing to provide assistance with new and creative concepts or ideas and
can guide inquirers to other potential sources of assistance if they cannot assist with
particular issues. As stated throughout this text, if the safety and loss prevention professional does not take the initiative and ask, the doors will remain closed. However,
with a little communication and exploration, there is a vast storehouse of assistance
and information just waiting for you.
12
Using Internet Resources
If you think there’s a solution, you’re part of the problem.
George Carlin
Every age has its problems, by solving which humanity is helped forward.
Heinrich Heine
Because of the new technological changes that safety and loss prevention professionals have experienced in recent years, information on almost any topic is as close as
the nearest computer. The difficulty for today’s safety and loss prevention professionals is not a lack of information but an overload of information. This information
is readily available on the World Wide Web, but locating it is often difficult without
a road map.
To maximize your efficiency in locating safety and loss prevention information,
listed below are a few safety, loss prevention, health, medical, compliance, equipment, and legal Web sites to assist the safety and loss prevention professional in his
or her quest for information (also see Figures 12.1 through 12.4).
• Able Ergonomics Corp. (http://www.ableworks.com)
• Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.
gov:8O8O/atsdrhome.html)
• American Health Consultants Media (http://www.ahcpub.com)
• American Society of Mechanical Engineers (http://www.asme.org)
• Ansell Edmont Industrial (http://www.industry.net/ansell.edmont)
• Arbill (http://www.arbill.com)
• Army Industrial Hygiene (http://chppm-www.apges.army.mil/Armvih/)
• Arthur D. Little (http://www.adlittle.com)
• Asbestos Institute (http://www.odyssee.net/ai/)
• ASSE (http://www.asse.org)
• ASSE, Puget Sound (http://www.wolfnet.com/mroc/asse.html)
• ASSE, San Francisco (http://www.midtown.net/sacasse)
• Brady (http://www.safetyonline.net/brady)
• BuilderOnline (http://www.builderonline.com)
• Cabot Safety Corp (http://www.cabotsafety.com)
• Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) (http://
www.ccohs.ca/resources/hshome.html)
• Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (http://www.cdc.gov)
• CMC Rescue Equipment (http://www.cmcrescue.com)
• Coastal Video Communications (http://www.safetyonline.net/coastal)
• Commerce Business Daily (http://www.cbd.savvy.com)
• Compliance Control Center (http://users.aol.com/comcontrol/comply.html)
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Creative Safety Solutions
FIGURE 12.1 Eastern Kentucky University Web site (http://www.eku.edu/fse/).
Using Internet Resources
FIGURE 12.2 OSHA Web site (http://www.osha.gov/safelinks.html).
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54
Creative Safety Solutions
FIGURE 12.3 U.S. government list of Web sites (http://fie.com/www/us_gov.htm).
• Conney Safety Products Co. (http://www.safetyonline.net/coppus)
• Coppus (http://www.safetyonline.net/coppus)
• Denison University, Campus Security and Safety (http://www.denison.edu/
sec-safe/)
• Duke University Occupational and Environmental Medicine (http://occ-env-​
med.mc.duke.edu/oem)
• DuPont (http://www.dupont.com)
• Eastern Kentucky University (http://www.eku.edu/fse)
• Eastman (http://www.eastman.com)
• Enviro-Net MSDS Index (http://www.enviro-net.com/msds/msds.html)
• Ergo Web (http://ergoweb.com)
• Federal agencies (http://www.lib.lsu.edu/gov/fedgov.html)
• Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (http://www.fema.gov/
femahndex.html)
• Federal government sites (http://fie.com/www/usgov.htm)
• Federal Money Retriever (http://www.idimagic.com)
Using Internet Resources
FIGURE 12.4 Healthfinder Web site (http://healthfinder.gov/).
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Federal Register (http://www.access.gpo.gov/su docs/aces/aces/40.html)
FedWorld (http://www.fedworld.gov/)
First Aid Direct (http://www.first-aid.com)
Fisher Scientific (http://www.fisher.com)
Government Service Administration (http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov)
Government Web Sites Search Engine (http://www.jefflevy.com/gov.htm)
Healthfinder (http://www.healthfinder.gov)
H.L. Bouton Co. (http://www.safetyonline.net/bouton)
Institute for Research in Construction (http://www.cisti.nrc.ca/irc/​irccontents.
html)
J.J. Keller & Associates (http://www.iikeller.com/keller.html)
Job Stress Network (http://www.serve.net/cse)
Kentucky Safety and Health Network, Inc. (http://www.kshn.org)
Kidde (http://www.netpath.net/kidde)
55
56
Creative Safety Solutions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lab Safety Supply (http://www.labsafety.com)
Lion Group (http://www.lionapparel.com)
Marshall (http://www.marshall.com)
MicroClimate Systems (http://www.microclimate.com)
MSA (http://www.msasafety.com)
MSDS, University of Utah (gopher:/aitlas.chem.utah.edu:7O/11/msds)
MSU Radiation, Chemical, and Biological Safety (http://www.orcbs.msu.edu)
National Environmental Safety Compliance (http://www.albany.net/nesc/)
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (http://
www.cdc.gov/niosh)
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (http://www.nist.gov)
National Institutes of Health (http://www.nih.gov)
National Safety Council (http://www.nsc.org/nsc)
National Technical Information Service (http://www.fedworld.govntis/
ntishome/html)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (http://www.osha.
gov/)
Occupational Safety Services (http://www.k2nesoft.com/ossinc/)
Operation Safe Site (http://www.opsafesite/com)
Pathfinder Associates (http://www.webcom.com/pathfinder/welcome.html)
Peltor (http://segwun.muskoka.net/erl/pelter/html)
Penn State University (http://www.ennr.psu.edu/www/dept/arc/server/wikaerob.
html)
Pro-Am Safety (http://www.pro-am.com)
Red Cross (http://www.redcross.org)
Reg Scan (http://www.regscan.com)
Rocky Mountain Center for Occupational and Environmental Health
(http://rocky.utah.edu)
RSI/UK (http://www.demon.co.uk/rsi)
Safety Directors’ home page (http://www.unf.edu/iweeks/)
SafetyLine (http://sa~e.wt.com.au/safetyline/)
Safety Online (http://www.safetyonline.net)
Safeware (http://www.safetyonline.net/safeware)
Seton (http://www.seton.com/directories.html)
Seton Online Work Lace Safety Information (http://www.seton.com/safety.
html)
Steel Structures Painting Council (http://www.sspc.org)
Strelinger (http://www.strelinger.com)
3M (http://www.mmm.com)
Timber Falling Consultants (http://www.empnet.com/dentd/docs/internet.htm)
TrainingNet, Trench Safety (http://www.auburn.edu/academic/­architecture/
bsc/research/trenh/index.html)
Typing Injuries (http://alumni.caltech.edu/dank/typin-archive.html)
University of Iowa Institute for Rural and Environmental Health (http://
info.pmeh.uiowa.edu)
University of Kansas School of Allied Health (http://www.kumc.edu/sah/)
Using Internet Resources
57
• University of London Ergonomics and Human Computer Interaction (http://
www.eroohci.ucl.ac.uk/)
• University of South Carolina (http://www.usc.edu/dept/issm/sh.html)
• University of Virginia EPA Chemical Substance Factsheets (http://­ecosyst.
drdr.virginia.edu/11/1ibrary/gen/toxics)
• University of Virginia’s Video Display Ergonomics (http://www.virginia.
edu/enhealth/ergonomics/toc.html)
• U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (http://www.os.dhhs.gov)
• U.S. Department of Labor (http://www.dol.gov/cgi-bin/consolid.pl?media​
+press)
• Uvex (http://www.uvex.com)
• Vallen Safety Supply (http://www.vallen.com)
• World Health Organization (http://www.who.int/en)
• World Wide Web Library (http://www.law.indiana.edu/law)
• W.W. Grainger (http://www.grainger.com)
13
Tapping Other Resources
A helping word to one in trouble is often like a switch on a railroad track—an
inch between wreck and smooth-rolling prosperity.
Henry Ward Beecher
It is one of the most beautiful compensations of this life that no man can
­sincerely try to help another without helping himself.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Safety and loss prevention professionals can often acquire services and information
from various professional organizations as well as trade groups, civic organizations,
and even individual consultants. Safety and loss prevention professionals should look
beyond the normal and traditional sources for acquisition of information and services in areas that are infrequently utilized. This is especially important with new or
innovative ideas that the safety and loss prevention professional may wish to explore
or test. Additionally, through the exploration process itself, the safety and loss prevention professional may find additional sources as a result of the initial contact with
these trade groups or other sources.
In the area of safety and loss prevention, a substantial number of professional organizations provide publications, assistance, and other services (such
as guest speaker lists) that are provided on a low-cost basis. Numerous other
­organizations focus on specific issues such as safety, health, industrial hygiene,
ergonomics, security, and fire within the broad perimeters of safety and loss
­prevention. Information regarding various organizations can usually be found in
­professional publications as well as on the Internet. The following are some of
these organizations:
AcronymOrganization
AAEE
American Academy of Environmental Engineers
AAIH
American Academy of Industrial Hygiene
AAOHN
American Association of Occupational Health Nurses
ACGIH
American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists
ACS
American Chemical Society
AGC
Associated General Contractors
AICHE
American Institute of Chemical Engineers
AIHA
American Industrial Hygiene Association
AIIE
American Institute of Industrial Engineers
AIMMPEAmerican Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum
Engineers
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Creative Safety Solutions
ANS
ANSI
APCA
API
ASA
ASAE
ASCE
ASIS
ASME
ASPA
ASQC
ASTD
ASTM
CEC
CES
CSA
CSAA
CSSE
HCMCB
HFES
HPS
IAHSS
IEEE
IIAE
ILCI
IMMS
IOSH
ISASI
ISEA
KSHN
NFPA
NIFS
NSC
NSI
NSMS
NSPE
PEPP
RIMS
SAE
SAME
SES
SFPE
SME
SSS
VOS
WSO
American Nuclear Society
American National Standards Institute
Air Pollution Control Association
American Petroleum Institute
Acoustical Society of America
American Society of Agricultural Engineers
American Society of Civil Engineers
American Society for Industrial Security
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Society for Personnel Administration
American Society for Quality Control
American Society for Training and Development
American Society for Testing and Materials
Consulting Engineers Council
Casualty Engineers Society
Campus Safety Association of National Safety Council
Construction Safety Association of America
Canadian Society of Safety Engineering
Hazard Control Management Certification Board
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Health Physics Society
International Association of Hospital Safety and Security
Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Insurance Institute of America Engineers
International Loss Control Institute
International Material Management Society
Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Great Britain)
International Society of Air Safety Investigators
Industrial Safety Equipment Association
Kentucky Safety and Health Network
National Fire Protection Association
National Institute for Farm Safety
National Safety Council
National Security Institute
National Safety Management Society
National Society of Professional Engineers
Professional Engineers in Private Practice
Risk and Insurance Management Society
Society of Automotive Engineers
Society of American Military Engineers
Standards Engineering Society
Society of Fire Protection Engineers
Society of Manufacturing Engineers
System Safety Society
Veterans of Safety
World Safety Organization
Tapping Other Resources
61
Individual industrial groups or trade groups are other potential sources of information and assistance for safety and loss prevention professionals. Often a specific
industrial group or trade group has an internal safety committee and offers safety
and loss prevention assistance to their members. For example, the North American
Association of Meat Processors has provided a number of safety services to their
members, including a specific industry safety and health manual, an internal safety
and health audit mechanism audit instrument, and safety awards to their individual
members to recognize their efforts in the areas of safety and loss prevention. Trade
groups and industrial groups can often be rich sources of information and assistance,
if the safety and loss prevention professional simply contacts the group.
Given the fact that most labor organizations share a common goal with the safety
and loss prevention professional—to create a safe and healthy work environment in
the workplace—a labor organization may be interested in a joint venture or providing specific information or assistance regarding problems common to both entities.
Many of the labor organizations have safety professionals on staff, as well as safety
committees and information that may be provided upon request.
Safety and loss prevention professionals may want to look outside the normal
safety and loss prevention agencies, such as the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH), for information and assistance for specific safety and health issues. For
example, the Service Corp of Retired Executives (SCORE) is an outstanding source
for free assistance by retired executives who have vast knowledge in the areas of
business and safety.
For safety and loss prevention professionals who may be independent contractors
or working for small entities, the Small Business Administration (SBA) may be a
source of financial assistance to support the loss prevention and safety effort. The
SBA provides a number of programs, including loans and financial packages, for
various small business entities.
Safety and loss prevention professionals should not be afraid to contact local
­consultants and consulting groups for information and services. Although most
­consultants and consulting groups are for-profit entities, often an individual consultant or consulting group can provide their services at a reduced cost for companies
within their area or may provide consulting services at no charge in return for consideration of future employment.
City governments and the local chambers of commerce often serve as conduits through which safety and loss prevention professionals can identify local
resources that may be able to assist them in their safety and loss prevention
efforts. City ­governments often have safety and loss prevention professional on
their staff, as well as individuals with expertise in fire, law enforcement, and
other such areas. Safety and loss prevention professionals can often tap into these
services provided by the city governments to assist them in assembling programs
such as disaster preparedness, fire protection, and other areas. The local chamber
of c­ ommerce or other similar business groups often have lists of affiliated members who have ­specific expertise in a variety of areas. These organizations can
also serve as intermediaries to establish contact between safety and loss prevention professionals and particular members.
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Creative Safety Solutions
Safety and loss prevention professionals should not be afraid to explore any
n­ umber of sources to acquire the specific information or assistance which is necessary to achieve the ultimate goal of creating a safe and healthful work environment for their employees. Most organizations and individuals are willing to help
if they are specifically asked to do so by safety and loss prevention professionals.
However, it is up to safety and loss prevention professionals to identify their needs
and to search for the sources available to help with those needs. In virtually all
circumstances, where there is a will, there is a way. Safety and loss prevention
professionals should not stop their search until the need has been filled.
14
Creative Safety
Communication Ideas
Workaholics are energized rather than enervated by their work—their energy
paradoxically expands as it is expended.
Marilyn Machlowitz
It seems that the creative faculty and the critical faculty cannot exist together
in their highest perfection.
Thomas Babington Macaulay
Safety and loss prevention professionals are always striving to modify employees’
unsafe behaviors to acceptable or safe behaviors. In essence, safety and loss prevention professionals are always searching for ways to communicate the concepts and
ideas of safety and loss prevention to their employees so that they can identify and
adopt such safe behaviors, replacing unsafe behaviors.
Although the author is not a proponent of behavioral-based modification programs, at least not until such time as the basic elements of the program have been
established, many safety and loss prevention professionals have been able to communicate their concepts effectively to employees using many ingenious methods.
Safety and loss prevention professionals have for years attempted to communicate
safety through signage within the facilities and keeping safety in front of the employees at all times. Safety and loss prevention professionals have used everything from
the required Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) signs within
the facilities to bulletin boards to safety slogans in an attempt to maintain safety
and loss prevention as a high priority within the minds of their employees. However,
like most things that become familiar, the signage often loses its effectiveness after
employees have seen it numerous times and it never changes. To combat this consistency and familiarity, safety and loss prevention professionals have come up with
numerous creative ideas to keep the concepts of safety and loss prevention within
the forefront of the minds of their employees. Some of the ideas that safety and loss
prevention professionals have tested include the following:
• Showing safety videotapes on television in the employees’ lunch and break
areas.
• Utilizing closed-captioned safety messages on plant televisions.
• Providing stickers with safety-related slogans for employee helmets.
• Utilizing safety-related screensavers for computer monitors.
• Providing ongoing safety messages on employees’ e-mail.
• Using anti-fog spray to write safety messages on mirrors in foggy areas.
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Creative Safety Solutions
• Changing safety messages periodically on bulletin boards.
• Providing newspapers or other pertinent information to attract employees to
the safety bulletin board.
• Providing safety information in company newsletters and publications.
As is often said, it is the little things that count. To this end, safety and loss prevention professionals have utilized many activities to focus on the safety and loss
prevention aspects of employees’ jobs. For example, many safety and loss prevention professionals utilize the concept of forklift rodeos to help employees to sharpen
their forklift skills as well as to identify and study the safety aspects of driving a
forklift. This type of event is not only fun for the employees but also encourages the
­employees’ families and members of management to have fun, as well, and emphasize the aspects of safety and loss prevention.
Given the enthusiasm for ESPN’s X Games, in which individuals perform nontraditional sporting activities, the concept of a Safety X Games is exceptionally
­appealing—employees can perform various tasks within their job function and
within the safety function on a team basis. These Safety X Games could be performed on weekends to include the families of employees and could include such
activities as creative solutions to a specific safety problem, safely loading a pallet, or
even appropriately installing a baby’s car seat.
As often seen from communications models, most employees learn through their
auditory senses, or listening. Most individuals learned how to learn in school, not only
through visually seeing the word but also by hearing spoken words. Traditionally,
in safety and loss prevention, the vast majority of information has been transferred
through the sense of vision (i.e., warning signs), and the sense of hearing has been
neglected. To promote more effective learning, safety and loss prevention professionals often have utilized lectures and audiovisual aids in training sessions; however,
this multisense concept has been neglected out in the plant. With new technology,
automobiles are now equipped with spoken advisories and warnings (i.e., “please
turn off the lights”), elevators now provide spoken feedback (i.e., “going down”),
and even children’s toys provide auditory responses. Are there ways in which safety
and loss prevention professionals can incorporate such new technology within their
safety and loss prevention programs? Some creative ideas that do so include:
• Talking danger signs (“Danger: Stay Away.”)
• Talking reminder signs (“Do you have your safety glasses on?”)
• Talking vehicular warnings (“Your speed has exceeded 65 mph.”)
Additionally, safety and loss prevention professionals have integrated auditory
messages within existing systems to provide safety and loss prevention messages
within existing programming or announcements. Some internal musical programs
and related internal background programming also have utilized safety and loss prevention auditory messaging for employees as well as customers within the facility.
Most safety and loss prevention professionals will agree that the best method of
ensuring complete understanding is through the use of all of the senses when communicating safety and loss prevention information. With most employees, a combination
Creative Safety Communication Ideas
65
of classroom as well as hands-on training provides the greatest ­possibility of ­retention.
Safety and loss prevention professionals should look for c­ reative ways of involving all
of the employee’s senses when training employees. This could include such activities
as mock lockout/tag-out models for employees to test their skills, obstacle courses for
forklift training, and other hands-on activities. These types of hands-on activities can
usually be developed on site and at a nominal cost.
Safety and loss prevention must be ever-present in the forefront of the thoughts
of employees. Providing effective visual and auditory communication with regard
to safety ideas and methods can be effective in focusing attention on the important safety and loss prevention aspects of the job. With repetition and practice, the
unacceptable and unsafe behaviors can be changed into acceptable safety and loss
prevention behaviors if the basic elements of an effective safety and loss prevention
program are in place.
15
Acquiring University
and Student Services
Education is that which remains when one has forgotten everything he learned
in school.
Albert Einstein
The two basic processes of education are knowing and valuing.
Robert J. Havignurst
A good education prepares a child to be a good employee and good citizen, in
that order, with the importance of the former never exceeding the importance
of the latter.
Cullen Hightower
Colleges and universities are often exceptional sources of free information and
­low-cost assistance for safety and loss prevention professionals. As can be seen
from Appendix A, there are approximately 137 schools in the United States offering
a wide array of safety, health, industrial hygiene, loss prevention, and related degree
programs and ranging from community colleges to major universities. Although the
academic degree may vary, these colleges and universities can be major sources of
up-to-date information in the area of safety and loss prevention information, sources
of qualified long-term and short-term personnel, and sources for free or low-cost
consultation services, as well as exceptional sources for safety and loss prevention
experience and expertise.
Also, colleges and universities are exceptional sources of free or inexpensive
continuing education courses for safety and loss prevention professionals as well
as career-enhancing degree programs. Some of the degrees offered in safety and
loss prevention or related areas are provided below. A complete list of all colleges
and universities offering safety and loss prevention or related degree programs is
­provided in Appendix A.
Academic Degrees Offered
AbbreviationDegree
AA
Associate of Arts
AS
Associate of Science
AAS
Associate Applied Science
BA
Bachelor of Arts
BBA
Bachelor of Business Administration
BEd
Bachelor of Education
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68
Creative Safety Solutions
BGE
BGS
BME
BS
BSEE
BSME
EdD
EdM
JD
LLB
LLM
MA
MAE
MBA
MME
MPH
MS
PhD
ScD
Bachelor of General Education
Bachelor of General Science
Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering
Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science, Electrical Engineering
Bachelor of Science, Mechanical Engineering
Doctor of Education
Master of Education
Juris Doctor (law)
Bachelor of Law
Master of Law
Master of Arts
Master of Aeronautical Engineering
Master of Business Administration
Master of Mechanical Engineering
Master of Public Health
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Science
Other degree programs and options may be offered by specific colleges and
universities.
Major resources available to safety and loss prevention professionals are the
information and professional publications available at local college or university
libraries. The libraries of most colleges or universities with safety and loss prevention or related programs have major texts on the subject matter and publications in the safety and loss prevention area, plus many now have online search
services, such as Nexis, Lexis, and Westlaw, which permit specific issue or case
research. College and university libraries are normally open in the evenings and
on weekends and are usually quite helpful to visiting safety and loss prevention
professionals.
The faculty members (i.e., professors, associate professors, etc.) at most colleges and universities are more than willing to provide information and assistance
to safety and loss prevention professionals working in the field. The benefit to
­faculty members is being able to share their gained knowledge and to interact
with safety and loss prevention professionals “in the trenches.” Faculty members
are sometimes willing to assist safety and loss prevention professionals at the
work site so they can learn from such an experience and carry this learning into
their classrooms.
The benefit to safety and loss prevention professionals is the fact that many
­faculty members, graduate assistants, and students are willing to assist in order to
gain hands-on experience working on particular projects. Additionally, colleges and
universities often have the most up-to-date testing equipment, which can often be
utilized by the faculty members within the project at little or no cost.
An outstanding opportunity for safety and loss prevention professionals to acquire
low-cost student assistance is a program offered by many colleges and universities
Acquiring University and Student Services
69
called “cooperative education” or “co-op.” Under most co-op programs, students in
their junior or senior year of study with a minimum grade point average are eligible
to earn classroom credit for their work with a public or private sector employer. The
student gains valuable hands-on work experience through the day-to-day employment with the safety and loss prevention professional, and the safety and loss prevention professional is able to utilize a motivated individual possessing some degree of
education in safety and loss prevention to assist with the everyday activities. Because
most co-op students complete this work on a part-time basis, they are paid at relatively low hourly rates and normally do not receive benefit packages. Co-op assignments with employers are usually a “win-win” situation for both students and safety
and loss prevention professionals, and it is highly recommended that safety and
loss prevention professionals explore this program at local colleges and universities
(see Figures 15.1 and 15.2).
Most colleges and universities provide career and employment services (such
as Career Development and Placement, or CD&P) to assist students in securing
employment after graduation. This service is also usually extended to alumni who
are seeking employment. For safety and loss prevention professionals searching for
qualified staff or plant safety and loss prevention managers, the use of this type of
FIGURE 15.1 Brochure for Eastern Kentucky University loss prevention and safety
­program.
(Continued)
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Creative Safety Solutions
FIGURE 15.1 (Continued) Brochure for Eastern Kentucky University loss prevention and
safety program.
(Continued)
Acquiring University and Student Services
71
FIGURE 15.1 (Continued) Brochure for Eastern Kentucky University loss prevention and
safety program.
FIGURE 15.2 Brochure for co-op program at Eastern Kentucky University.
(Continued)
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Creative Safety Solutions
FIGURE 15.2 (Continued) Brochure for co-op program at Eastern Kentucky University.
free ­service can avoid the costs of advertisement, recruiters’ fees, and other ­screening
and ­selection costs.
In summation, safety and loss prevention professionals should not overlook
the vast resources that are available as close as your local colleges or universities.
Usually, if the faculty does not have the ability to assist the safety and loss prevention professional with a particular issue, the faculty members will be able to provide
guidance as to other potential resources to assist in resolving the issue. However,
the safety and loss prevention professional must take the initiative and contact the
­college or university. If you ask, you will usually receive assistance.
16
Looking Outside
the Safety Arena
We are what we create.
James Oppenheim
Curiosity is the root of knowledge.
Abraham J. Herchell
Safety and loss prevention professionals today face new and complex problems and
issues that have not been addressed by their predecessors. Often, there is no standard
addressing particular issues and no framework or road map to follow. With these new
issues, safety and loss prevention professionals should search beyond the boundaries of traditional safety and loss prevention and use their creativity and ingenuity to
analyze and identify other solutions to address these issues.
One of the major issues facing many employers that has a direct impact on the
safety and loss prevention efforts is the selection and hiring of qualified employees.
Many safety and loss prevention professionals have established exceptional safety
and loss prevention programs; however, injury and illness rates continue to escalate,
with the cause of this escalation being blamed on the lack of qualified candidates.
In the tight labor market of today, more than one safety and loss prevention professional has been heard blaming his or her increased injury and illness rate on the
“bottom of the barrel” employees who were hired because “we needed warm bodies
for production.”
Once the individual is hired, responsibility for the safety of that employee in
the workplace belongs to the company and thus the safety and loss prevention professional. Complaints from safety and loss prevention professionals regarding new
employees range from employees’ drug or alcohol use to employees’ inability to be
educated. However, if an employee injuries him- or herself on the job, the employee
often becomes a long-term ward of the safety and loss prevention professional under
the dual workers’ compensation responsibilities. Safety and loss prevention professionals often feel that they are caught in a vicious circle.
To combat these issues, many safety and loss prevention professionals have
reevaluated the entire selection, hiring, and training process to be able to identify
potential problem individuals before they are hired and have instituted new methods of evaluating candidates and training employees. Some of these creative ideas
include the following.
Look outside the usual employee candidate pool. Many employers simply
run an advertisement in the newspaper and take the best of the individuals who
show up at the door. To widen the application pool, some employers have targeted
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Creative Safety Solutions
nontraditional candidate groups such as retired individuals, special education
groups, ­disabled groups, and school-to-work programs to acquire qualified candidates. In most ­circumstances, the candidates within the nontraditional groups have
an exceptional work ethic and a lower incidence of injury and are generally good
employees. Safety and loss prevention professionals often voice concern about
compliance with laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and related
laws to protect individuals with disabilities. In most circumstances, if a reasonable accommodation is necessary, the accommodation can be made at a nominal
cost. Additionally, there are several sources of financial and accommodation assistance available to aid the safety and loss prevention professional in providing such
accommodation.
Approximately 50 percent of all employers in the United States utilize some form
of alcohol and controlled substance testing to identify individuals using drugs and
­alcohol within the preemployment or postoffer stage of the employment process.
Most safety and loss prevention professionals have found that this type of testing has
provided a reduction in their incidents of work-related injuries and illnesses.
Some employers utilize various forms of psychological testing, such as the
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), as well as physical testing,
such as physical agility testing, within the postoffer stage of the selection process.
These types of tests can often identify restrictions for specific individuals and often
help in the proper placement of employees.
Most employers utilize some sort of new-employee orientation/training program
to teach newly hired employees about the expectations of their new jobs. Although
some employers provide only a “bare bones” session consisting of completing tax
forms and reading the plant rules, many safety and loss prevention professionals
have found that new-employee orientation is an exceptional opportunity to start
new employees off on the right foot in safety and loss prevention. A new-employee
­orientation can be utilized to train individuals as to safety and health rules and regulations, location of programs, proper wearing of personal protective equipment, and
numerous other aspects of safety and loss prevention.
In the area of engineering controls, safety and loss prevention professionals are
encouraged to look outside the traditional area of basic machine guarding to identify
new technologies for adaptation within the safety and loss prevention area. Just as
computers have revolutionized business in general, computers have been adapted to
numerous uses in the safety and loss prevention area, from cataloging material safety
data sheets to tracking accident reports, just to mention a couple.
New technologies and products with potential uses within the safety and loss
prevention area have been developed and continue to be developed on a daily basis.
For example, machine guarding 20 years ago primarily consisted of metal cages over
moving parts or cables to keep hands/legs away from the contact point. Today, technology has provided such sophisticated guarding as light curtails and laser-guided
operations. This new technology was science fiction not long ago; however, it is readily available today.
In the area of employee motivation and behavior modification, do employees all
have the same “motivating triggers” as employees in the past? Does the employee
growing up in the 1960s have the same motivations as an employee growing up in
Looking Outside the Safety Arena
75
the 1980s? Are the expectations of employees today different from their fathers’ or
mothers’? Is the education provided to children today in our school systems different from the education most safety and loss prevention professionals received during
their formative years? How many of today’s safety and loss prevention p­ rofessionals
spent time in daycare during their early years? How many of today’s safety and
loss prevention professionals worked during their high school years? How many of
today’s safety and loss prevention professionals had a television, let alone a personal
computer?
For most safety and loss prevention professionals, there is a significant ­difference
between the background and motivations of employees in the past and today’s
employees. So, why are safety and loss prevention professionals still using the same
old methods of attempting to motivate employees to work safely? The “carrot and
the stick” worked in the past, but is it going to work in the future? Is the “carrot”
­different today? Is the “stick” different?
Safety and loss prevention professionals should search for the new triggers
within their employee population that will motivate them to work in a safe manner. Traditionally, safety and loss prevention professionals utilized safety incentive
programs such as green stamps for not getting hurt for a period of time or monetary bonuses for reaching a specified goal to reduce lost time days. Most safety
incentive programs were short lived and focused on traditional Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) record-keeping requirements. The
safety and loss prevention incentive motivated employees during the period of
the contest; however, the overall safety and loss prevention efforts often suffered
upon achievement of the physical incentive (and subsequent loss of any further
monetary incentives). Also, traditional safety and loss prevention incentive programs often motivated employees to hide injuries or illnesses until after the contest period and often masked deficiencies in the overall safety and loss prevention
programs.
Although the author is not a proponent of safety and loss prevention incentive
programs until all basic components of the program are in place and functioning
properly, are there other “motivational triggers” that can be utilized to increase
employee awareness? Safety and loss prevention professionals may wish to consider
the following ideas:
•
•
•
•
•
A simple pat on the back and telling employees they are doing a good job
“I saw you doing something right” cards
Safety-related birthday cards
Congratulations on bulletin boards
“Thank you” in employee newsletter
These types of incentives do not cost anything in terms of monetary
e­ xpenditures, but they are great motivators for individuals. Little things mean
a lot. Individual praise or recognition goes a long way in motivating individual
employees. Positive feedback has been found to be a greater motivating factor
than negative reinforcement. When is the last time you told your employees they
were going a good job?
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Creative Safety Solutions
In lieu of the traditional safety and loss prevention incentive programs, some
­professionals have tested new and innovative methods of motivating their employees:
• The winning safety group gets to run out on the field and be recognized at
a local college or National Football League game.
• The winning individuals get to shoot for a large prize at intermission in
front of the crowd at a local semipro hockey game.
• A clown with balloons and pizza treats the group at the plant.
• The winning individuals have the opportunity to putt at a local golf course
for prizes.
• The bosses are required to perform the employee’s job for a day and the
employee gets the day off.
• The safety and loss prevention professional has to kiss a pig.
These types of safety and loss prevention incentive programs are new and different for most employees. Most employees with any type of longevity in the industrial
workforce have participated in the traditional programs. Safety and loss prevention
professionals are encouraged to talk with their employees to find out what motivates
them. The employees will tell the safety and loss prevention professional their likes
and dislikes, and the safety and loss prevention professional can design a creative
program to trip their motivational trigger.
As noted previously, this author is not a proponent of the multitude of theories
and canned programs regarding employee behavior modification until the basic
­elements of the safety and loss prevention program are in place. As with safety and
loss p­ revention incentive programs, the vast majority of these programs will be short
lived and not cost-effective if the basics of the safety and loss prevention program
are not in place and functioning properly. However, for those programs that have
built a solid foundation and are looking to push the program to a higher level, safety
and loss prevention professionals may consider incorporating one or more of the
­behavioral modification programs into the safety and loss prevention mix.
Safety and loss prevention professionals are urged to look beyond the traditional
areas for new and creative way of involving and motivating employees and management in the safety and loss prevention efforts. As Aristotle said many centuries ago,
“All things grow old through time.” Many safety and loss prevention programs have
grown old with time and have lost their effectiveness. Safety and loss prevention
professionals should look beyond the norm for new and innovative ways to energize
and improve their programs through exploration of pathways in areas less traveled.
17
Creative Solutions to
Difficult Problems
To lose is to learn.
Anonymous
What is defeat? Nothing but education, nothing but the first step toward
­something better.
Wendell Phillips
Given the changing technology, new laws, changing equipment, and other factors,
safety and loss prevention professionals today are often confronted with new problems and issues that do not have “tried-and-true” solutions. More often than safety
and loss prevention professionals would like, the solution to the problem is not “in
the book” or covered by a particular Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) standard. Thus, safety and loss prevention professionals should look for new
and creative ideas incorporating input from all levels of management and employees,
evaluate new products and technologies, and utilize the expertise and experience of
outside networks and agencies to craft a creative and workable solution.
When safety and loss prevention professionals are confronted with unique ­problems,
the analysis process required to identify potential solutions can often be complex the
first few times it is tried. Below is a sample procedure that can be used when addressing
problems:
• Look in the OSHA standards. Are there any standards that apply to this
situation?
• Search various resources (such as National Institute of Occupational Safety
and Health [NIOSH]) for similar types of problems.
• Contact others in your industry to see whether they have encountered a
similar problem and what their solution was.
• Contact vendors to identify and evaluate new technologies and products.
• Brainstorm with employees and management team members to identify any
potential solution, no matter how wild.
• Evaluate each idea as to its effectiveness in addressing the problem, its cost,
manpower requirements, and so forth.
• Prioritize the creative solutions and analyze them as to their efficiency, their
potential to create other safety and loss prevention problems, their effect on
the workforce, and other factors.
• Identify the pros and cons of each potential solution.
• Identify short- and long-term solutions to the problem.
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Creative Safety Solutions
•
•
•
•
•
Select a solution, or solutions, to the problem.
Identify all equipment, personnel, and other components necessary.
Develop an action plan with a specific timetable for implementing the solution.
Implement the solution.
Evaluate, modify, or abandon the solution. Start all over if necessary.
Safety and loss prevention professionals should not fear failure when trying new
and creative ideas. Although the safety and health of employees must take top priority, safety and loss prevention professionals can often learn more from a failure than
from a success. Not all creative solutions attempted will be successful on the first
try. However, safety and loss prevention professionals should closely analyze any
failures and utilize this information to build a “bigger and better mouse trap” for the
next endeavor.
Safety and loss prevention professionals working with vendors and others have
developed exceptionally creative solutions to many difficult problems, a process
that has ultimately led to creating a safer and more healthful work environment for
employees. Discussed here are just a few of the creative ideas that have saved lives
and made American jobs safer.
Employees working with knives and sharp instruments often incurred lacerations
through contact with the sharp edges of the knives or from being stabbed by other
employees working in close proximity to their work stations. This was especially true
in such industries as the red meat, poultry, pork, and related industries. For years, the
only approved type of personal protective equipment (PPE) was either made from an
overlapping “bottle cap” metal (i.e., such as a protective apron) or metal mesh products (such as protective gloves). This PPE was often heavy and often uncomfortable
for employees. Thus, employees often assumed the risk of not wearing their PPE.
Safety and loss prevention professionals working in these industries searched for creative ways to eliminate or minimize the frequency and severity of lacerations.
Numerous potential solutions were explored but the options were limited due to
specific industry regulations; however, several companies began to work on a new
product based upon the DuPont Kevlar product, which was originally designed
for bulletproof vests for law enforcement. Safety and loss prevention professionals were able to design numerous personal protection equipment products, such
as protective gloves, protective arm guards, and other safety products, that have
had a definite impact on the injury rates from lacerations in these industries. The
expansion of this technology into new areas of safety and loss prevention continues
today.
Safety and loss prevention professionals are well aware of the changing laws and
standards that impact them on virtually a daily basis. Traditionally, new information
would be acquired through reading professional publications, attending conferences,
and sometimes taking classes at a local community college or university. However,
most of these methods are time-consuming for busy professionals, and acquiring
advanced training or an advanced degree in the field may not be feasible due to
requirements of time, distance, cost, and other factors. Thus, many safety and loss
prevention professionals have literally stopped their education and growth in their
elected field of expertise.
Creative Solutions to Difficult Problems
79
Several colleges and universities, such as Eastern Kentucky University and
Georgia Tech, have identified the continuing education difficulties encountered by
safety and loss prevention professionals, particularly as related to distance to be traveled and lack of time, and offer creative distance learning programs. These types of
programs offer safety and loss prevention professionals the ability to continue their
education through computer linkage to the work site, videotape, or even television.
Today, there is no excuse for most safety and loss prevention professionals not to continue their growth and education in the field, whether it be in front of the television or
at their personal computers, no matter where they are in the world.
For years, firefighters crawled on floors in smoke-filled rooms to search for victims. This procedure, although still used by many fire departments, posed certain
hazards to the firefighter and often was not the most efficient method of searching
for individuals trapped within the burning structure. Utilizing technology developed first for the military, now on the market are several creative products that
allow fi
­ refighters’ helmets to be equipped with sensing devices that permit them to
“see” victims through the smoke and haze.
Many safety and loss prevention professionals became aware of the fact that
employees were encountering health difficulties with their hands and arms when
working in repetitive jobs or jobs involving awkward positions or requiring substantial use of force. Also, back injuries have historically been one of the most costly
and painful injuries that employees could incur in the workplace. In recent years,
the study of ergonomics has emerged, and safety and loss prevention professionals,
as well as many vendors, have grasped the basic concepts of ergonomics to develop
myriad new and safer products ranging from lumbar supports in chairs to ergonomically designed hand tools. This concept and the ideas that ergonomics developed in
the workplace have spawned even newer ideas that have trickled out of the workplace
and into the American home, where products ranging from ergonomically designed
automobiles to ergonomically designed can openers can be found.
Safety and loss prevention professionals should be aware that not all creative solutions offer worldwide impact, but even if the creative solution impacts one employee
in a positive manner the concept is a success. A fellow safety and loss prevention
professional tells the story about a machine in his operations injuring employees
with flying product. The equipment manufacture was contacted, management analyzed the situation, and various other sources were consulted; however, the only
solution that could be developed was the installation of a permanent wall structure
that would have required shutting down the operation and major cost expenditures.
As the company prepared to embark on this major modification, the safety and loss
prevention professional went to talk with the employees who performed the job on
a daily basis. To make a long story short, the employees working on the machine on
a daily basis had a better idea. The employees designed a low-cost and highly effective screen made from a new product that one of the employees read about in a trade
magazine, and this creative idea was implemented, saving the company thousands of
dollars and creating a better working environment for the employees.
Not all creative solutions involve engineering controls and equipment. A fellow
safety and loss prevention professional tells a “war story” about his first few months
on the job. The company produced a specific product utilizing an assembly line
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Creative Safety Solutions
operation where several highly skilled employees made the difference between the
company making a profit and losing money. These employees were well aware of
their skills and the company’s dependency on their skills. However, these highly
skilled employees would not wear their PPE. The safety and loss prevention professional tried everything from pleading with the employees to offering incentives for
the employees to comply with the plant rules. However, the employees refused to
wear the required PPE and challenged the safety and loss prevention professional to
do something about it.
The safety and loss prevention professional was aware of the impact of these
employees on the profitability of the company, but he also knew that his safety and
loss prevention program was going downhill fast because other employees were following the lead of this small group. The safety and loss prevention professional had
implemented a disciplinary policy to address safety and loss prevention issues; however, the management team, realizing the impact on the bottom line, was reluctant
to utilize this methodology. Finally, though, after much cajoling from the safety
and loss prevention professional, the employees were issued disciplinary actions in
accordance with the proscribed policy. The employees laughed off the verbal warning the first day. They also laughed off the written warning. The employees did not
expect the company to shut down the operations by issuing them unpaid suspensions,
but, when the safety and loss prevention professional sent the employees home for
3 days, the point regarding the importance of safety and loss prevention was made
not only to the small group of employees but to every employee in the facility. Upon
the return of the employees, there was never another problem with regard to the
wearing of PPE.
Safety and loss prevention professionals should not be complacent regarding dayto-day activities and get stuck in the mud of doing things the same old way. Safety
and loss prevention professionals should search for and explore new and creative
ideas and solutions. There is no problem to which a solution cannot be found if the
combined brain power of the employees, management, and outside sources is harnessed and directed properly. Safety and loss prevention professionals should remove
the terminology “I can’t” from their vocabulary and adopt a “can do” philosophy
whereby every problem is just another opportunity for the safety and loss prevention
professional to shine. Remember, safety and loss prevention professionals should
Think broadly!
Think creatively!
Ask questions!
Listen attentively!
Involve everyone!
And accomplish!
18
Creative Safety Programs
The mightiest works have been accomplished by men who have somehow kept
their ability to dream great dreams.
Walter Russell Bowie
Think of yourself as on the threshold of unparalleled success. A whole clear,
glorious life lies before you. Achieve! Achieve!
Andrew Carnegie
Safety and loss prevention professionals are usually looking for new and i­nnovative
methods by which they can involve their employees, train their supervisors, or simply perform day-to-day activities better. As discussed throughout this text, there
are many outstanding programs, training curricula, policies, and procedures that
have been developed and tested by safety and loss prevention professionals who are
more than willing to share their ideas and successes with other safety and loss prevention professionals. Also, there are a growing number of vendors who have developed “canned” safety and loss prevention compliance and training programs that
are readily available at a reasonable cost. Although not every program and idea can
be discussed within the confines of this text, below are a few to stimulate the creative
juices.
STORYBOARDING A CONCEPT
One of the more innovative methods to address a problem situation or develop a strategic plan for safety and loss prevention is through the use of a storyboarding p­ rocess.
In essence, a team of the affected individuals or departments is assembled in one
­location. The trained leader asks the individuals to identify the various problems, and
each problem is depicted on a card or by a picture on a board or wall. Once problems
are identified, the individuals discuss the various problems and prioritize the problems
through a democratic voting system during which sticky dots are attached to the pictures to tally the votes. After the problems are prioritized, the solutions are brainstormed
and discussed. Again, cards with information or pictures are provided for each idea or
potential solution. This process is followed until all problems are prioritized and provided prioritized solutions. The participants are provided a visual map of the process,
and a specific plan of action is assembled. All participants are offered the opportunity
to provide input, and specific dates/responsibilities are provided.
There are various modifications or versions of this basic concept, and specific
leader training programs and outside leader services are available from vendors and
universities for learning to conduct this unique process. The primary benefits of this
type of program are its visual nature, its ability to provide input into the process, and
its ability to develop a final solution to the problem or issue.
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Creative Safety Solutions
ACTION PLANNING PROGRAM
For new safety and loss prevention professionals, often one of the primary d­ ifficulties
encountered is transforming the safety and loss prevention theory of the classroom to
practical application on the shop floor. In essence, “Where do I start and what do I do?”
An action planning program can assist new safety and loss prevention professionals in
identifying the various needs of the particular workplace, prioritizing the work load
into a manageable form, delegating responsibilities, and providing a timetable for completion of the various components and programs.
In the action planning program, the safety and loss prevention professional initially identifies the various needs of the overall program and prioritizes each major
program. Each major program is then broken down into each of the various components or action items required for completion, and specific responsibilities with target dates are provided to assist employees. As action items are completed, the action
plan notes this completion and moves on to the next action item (see Appendix D,
for example). With this program, safety and loss prevention professionals will know
exactly where they are in completion of the overall project and will be able to hold
responsible parties accountable for their performance.
TEAM-BUILDING PROGRAMS
Safety and loss prevention professionals may want to consider incorporating one
or more of the various team-building programs into their overall safety and loss
­prevention efforts. Team-building programs include a wide variety of activities ranging from weekend adventure activities to simple on-site exercises. The basic concept
is to create reliance on other team members, provide common experiences, identify individual strengths and weaknesses, build trust, and create a more cohesive
team through activities that transfer into the workplace. Although this approach has
been utilized for various levels of management, this approach offers a multitude of
applications in the safety and loss prevention area. For example, a safety and loss
prevention professional recently incorporated several team-building exercises into
his weekend training program for safety committee members.
MANAGING EMPLOYEE SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM
Safety and loss prevention professionals should be aware that a number of very
­effective training and education programs have been developed by various vendors
and are on the market. These types of programs can be utilized in the developed
form or usually can be modified to meet a specific need.
One of these programs was developed by Tel-A-Train, Inc. (Chattanooga, Tennessee)
called Managing Employee Safety and Health (MESH). For safety and loss prevention professionals requiring training and education for their supervisors, team leaders,
or others, MESH provides a modular series of instructor-driven ­training programs
covering virtually every safety and loss prevention topic that a supervisor or team
leader needs to know in a highly effective, condensed format. This p­ rogram features
manuals, videotapes, exercises, and hands-on experiences regarding MESH, effective
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83
communications, accident investigation, performing a job-hazard analysis, inspecting,
special compliance concerns, safety meetings, ergonomics, and more. In situations
where the safety and loss prevention professionals face time constraints, expertise deficiencies, or other difficulties, utilization of prepared outside resources may be helpful
in accomplishing the requisite training or education.
TARGETED HAZARD IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
Unique problems require unique solutions. In this case, employees at the Philips
Lighting facility boasted a good safety and loss prevention record; however, they
were, for a number of reasons, simply not viewing or identifying various hazards
in the workplace. The safety and loss prevention professional tried several conventional programs; however, the deficiencies continued to resurface. To address this
situation, the Targeted Hazard Identification System (THIS) was developed to assist
employees in focusing on specific but changing hazards in the workplace. In essence,
THIS reeducated employees in the basic theories of safety and loss prevention and
gave employees a simple method for reporting hazards and acquiring feedback. This
low-cost program required employees to focus on three specific hazards (although
employees were encouraged to report all hazards) and report these hazards for
immediate correction during the month. Each month or specified time period the
“targeted” hazards would be changed to address new hazards, and employees were
motivated to participate actively through positive reinforcement (see Appendix C).
PASSPORT TO SAFETY
With the emergence of employee empowerment and ownership in the safety and
loss prevention efforts, a unique program has emerged in the area of ongoing training whereby the safety and loss prevention professional no longer “rounds up” the
employees for a required compliance training class but simply provides a schedule of training classes. Employees are permitted to schedule their participation in
the class to work around their individual schedules. Each employee is provided a
passport that identifies the specific training requirements for the quarter or year. The
safety and loss prevention professional schedules several specific training classes on
each shift during the period, and it is the employee’s responsibility to register and
attend the classes. When the employee successfully completes the required training,
the employee’s passport is signed or stamped and a record is noted in the safety and
loss prevention computer. Employees who complete all of the required training are
rewarded with positive reinforcement, and those who do not complete the training
would be provided negative reinforcement, such as deductions in their bonuses and
additional required training sessions.
SAFETY AND LOSS PREVENTION AUDIT ASSESSMENT
If your boss walked into your office and asked you how the safety and loss ­prevention
program was doing, how would you answer? The program is doing “okay”?
The ­program is doing “good”? Most members of management are seeking objective
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Creative Safety Solutions
results rather than subjective opinions. However, in safety and loss prevention, the
results are either reactive (i.e., “We only have two recordable injuries this month”) or
very subjective (i.e., “We’re doing good … knock on wood”).
Through the use of an objective analysis method, such as a safety and loss
­prevention audit instrument/assessment, the various factors and components of an
overall safety and loss prevention program can be analyzed and assigned a numerical
value. Although there remains a certain amount of subjectivity, the safety and loss
prevention audit instrument/assessment can provide numerical values to each component and provide an overall percentage of efficiency for the safety and loss prevention efforts. So, when the boss is evaluating the safety and loss prevention program,
the professional can state that the program is 75 percent completed, and specific
components or items need to be improved or initiated. In essence, the safety and
loss prevention audit assessments remove the subjectivity and provide solid numerical objective results as to the status of the overall safety and loss prevention efforts
(see Appendix E).
Safety and loss prevention professionals should seek new and innovative programs for energizing and improving their ongoing programs and efforts. Discussed
here were only a few of the thousands of great programs and great ideas that are
available for the asking throughout the safety and loss prevention community. Safety
and loss prevention professionals are urged to “think outside the box” and create
new and revolutionary concepts and ideas to improve the safety and loss prevention
profession and the American workplace. The activities and programs that safety and
loss prevention professionals have developed in the past are not necessarily what
the safety and loss prevention professional will need in the future. Safety and loss
prevention professionals should seek better ways of doing their jobs, develop new
and better protective systems, and create a safer, more healthful, and more efficient
workplace in the future.
19
It Is Your Safety
Program—Empowering
Employees in Safety
The business world reaches out for and rewards leaders who can relegate and
delegate.
Arnold Glasow
The secret of getting ahead is getting started. The secret of getting started is
breaking your complex overwhelming tasks into small manageable tasks, and
then starting on the first one.
Mark Twain
Who “owns” the safety and health program within your organization? Your
­organization pays the costs incurred by the safety and health function so do they
“own” the p­ rogram? The safety manager provides leadership and completes many of
the required tasks within the safety and health function so does the safety manager
“own” the program? The supervisor or team leader who is responsible for the daily
safety activities and functions, do they “own” the safety and health program? Or do
the employees, the beneficiaries of the safety and health program in safeguarding
their activities on the job, do they “own” the safety and health program? In short,
who really “owns” your safety and health program?
The safety and health function in many organizations, unlike other functions
such as production, engineering, and accounting, is a multilevel, multiparticipant,
and multibeneficiary function that requires the knowledge, skills, and abilities of
everyone within the organization. However, as the result of regulatory requirements,
managerial hierarchies and the “lines” between management and employees, the
safety and health function has often developed as a specified managerial function
with top-down direction and dollar motivation.
In order to achieve the optimal level of workplace safety and health, it is essential that
all employees at all levels become actively involved and possess a vested interest in the
safety and health program. The safety and health professional, with the support of management, should take a leadership role in designing, implementing, and orchestrating
the empowerment of all employees within the safety and health function. Achievement
of the “buy-in” and active participation of all employees will take substantial time and
requires a constant and sustained effort at all levels of the organization.
In order to achieve the active involvement of your employees, safety and health professionals should consider the following activities as part of the overall trek toward your
safety and health cultural shift in the mindset of your management and employees.
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Creative Safety Solutions
BE AN ACTIVE LISTENER
Employees generally come to the realization that they are expected to listen to their
supervisors and seldom express their thoughts and ideas in the workplace. Safety
and health professionals should create opportunities for every employee to share
their safety-related ideas as well as their specialized expertise in their individual job
function. Who knows the job better than the individual who performs the job on a
daily basis? Who knows the equipment, risks, and short-cuts in the job better than
the individual performing the job? When was the last time anyone within the organization stopped and simply listened to the individual and permitted the individual to
share his or her knowledge and expertise with management?
OBSERVE/PERFORM EVERY JOB
Despite the many demands that require safety and health professionals to be
“chained to their desk,” it is essential that safety and health professionals allot time
in their weekly schedule to be actively involved within the operations. Although
safety and health professionals often perform weekly inspections, job hazard observations, safety audits, and related activity, it is import for safety and health professionals to make time to meet and talk with every employee on every job. Safety and
health professionals should engage the employee and ask the employee to explain
what he or she does in his or her job function.
PROVIDE THE TOOLS TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN SAFETY
Just as your employees need the right hammer or wrench to do their jobs successfully from an operational prospective, it is essential that the safety and health professional properly equip your employees with the essential “tools” and knowledge in
safety and health function. Employees should be equipped with not only the “tools”
but also the reason why the particular “tool” is to be utilized in a particular job or
circumstance as well as the underlying safeguards the particular “tool” provides to
the individual employee. For safety and health professionals, it is relatively simple to
provide the safeguard, such as personal protective equipment (PPE), and inform the
employee he or she is required to wear the PPE. However, if the employee possesses
a voice in the PPE selection process, fully understands the reason for the PPE as well
as the strengths and weaknesses of the PPE, there is a substantial likelihood that the
employee will wear and appreciate the PPE in the workplace.
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
The safety and health function historically has been top-down driven and enforced
through negative reinforcement or, in other terms, disciplinary action for noncompliance. Although negative reinforcement is often essential in order to ensure compliance, safety and health professionals should utilize positive reinforcement whenever
possible. Although this author is not a proponent of safety and health incentive programs, safety and health professionals should seek methods within the safety and
It Is Your Safety Program—Empowering Employees in Safety
87
health function to utilize positive reinforcement with their employees. The smallest
positive action can have a large impact on how your employees view the overall
safety and health function within your organization.
STOP WHAT YOU ARE DOING
Although safety and health professionals are often overwhelmed with the daily
workload, it is important to show your respect for your employees when they come to
your office to ask a question or wish to talk with you. When an employee has utilized
his or her time to make the effort to come to your office to talk to you, there is a very
important reason for this visit. The safety and health professional should stop what
he or she is doing and provide his or her full and complete attention to the employee.
This simple act shows the safety and health professional’s respect for the employee
and that the employee’s comments and ideas are important.
BUILD TRUST
Trust is hard to earn and easy to lose. This is especially true within the safety and
health function. Safety and health professionals are often managerial employees with
specific managerial responsibilities; however, they are also often the intermediary or
even the champion of the employees within the safety and health area. Your employees must get to know you and trust that the decisions you are making within the
safety and health area are in their best interest.
GET EMPLOYEES INVOLVED
It is essential that your employees are actively involved in all phases of the safety and
health function. Involvement leads to understanding; understanding leads to acceptance; and acceptance leads to ownership. To achieve the cultural shift within your
workforce, safety and health professionals must actively involve their employees in
all phases of the safety and health function.
EMPLOYEE IDEAS ARE IMPORTANT
Who knows the job better than the employee who performs the job function on a daily
basis? Are your employees fearful of coming to you with a new safety idea? Safety and
health professionals should create an environment where employees’ ideas are valued
and employees are challenged to improve safety and health not only on their job but
throughout the operations. Safety and health professionals should encourage new ideas
and concepts and always provide a timely response to the employees’ idea or comment.
TATTLETALES
Whether on the playground in first grade or in the American workplace, there
is a thin line between employees taking an active role and being a “tattletale.”
As ­employees become empowered within your safety and health function, it is
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important that employees are equipped with the skills, abilities, and knowledge to
be able to interact among and between individual employees as well as with you to
identify and correct unsafe acts and behaviors. Employees should understand that
observations and interventions in the area of safety and health are for their fellow
employees’ safety or to improve the overall safety and health f­ unction. Conversely,
if an employee’s intervention or observation results in an adverse action by the
safety and health professional or management, the employee may be perceived as
a t­ attletale, resulting in adverse actions against the intervening employee as well
as by the general workforce.
FOCUS ON BEHAVIORS
After compliance with the regulatory requirements is achieved and maintained, it
is important that the focus be placed upon the behaviors of the individuals within
the workforce. Employees working the same job for 40 hours a week, every week,
acquire “habits” within the performance of their job function. The employee may
not even realize that the behavior exhibited placed him or her or others within the
workplace at risk. Although safety and health professionals often perform job observations, job hazard analysis, and other periodic activities, the safety and health professional cannot be everywhere in the workplace. Employees should be aware of
not only the risks and safeguards of their job function but also actively involved in
assisting fellow employees in improving their safety and health performance.
EDUCATE–EDUCATE
Education within the safety and health functions does not always mean a lecture and
slides. Safety and health professionals should look for activities and situations on
a daily basis through which to educate employees. Safety and health professionals
should be identifying the informal leaders within their workforce who may take an
active leadership role in educating others within the workplace. If employees are
truly going to be empowered within the safety and health function, the safety and
health professional should be the “coach” and the employee the team members
who play the game on a daily basis. The “coach” can design the plays; however, the
employees should be empowered to design the programs and share the safety and
health knowledge with their fellow employees.
MAKE SAFETY FUN
No one likes boring and stuffy activities. Safety and health is important but can also be
fun. Your employees can learn while also enjoying the experience. To build a ­culture
where employees are empowered and actively involved in the safety and health function, the activities must be energizing and your employees ­enthusiastically involved in
the activity. The attention span of most adults is limited in scope and duration. If your
safety and health activity is fun, there is a likelihood that your employees will engage
and learn. If your safety and health activity is boring and unengaging, especially if
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89
the activity is before or after the employee’s work shift, there is a ­substantial l­ ikelihood
the employee’s thoughts are not on safety and health.
Safety and health is as much an art as science. There is no “one right way” that
works for every safety and health professional. Once compliance is achieved and
maintained, changing the behaviors and culture of the workplace to where safety
and health is paramount is the challenge. The employee’s, as well as his or her fellow
employee’s, safety and health should expand and grow in importance to become an
essential component of the daily job function. However, safety and health professionals should be aware that there is no “magic wand” in creating this cultural shift in
safety and health within the workforce. Just as Rome was not built in a day, changing the safety and health culture within a workforce takes time and constant and
continuous efforts by the safety and health professional. Employee empowerment in
safety and health as well as achieving a cultural change is and has been achievable;
however, the safety and health professional must be an artist as well as a technician
in safety and health.
20
Safety and Health Vision
and Values
Nothing of worth or weight can be achieved with half a mind, with a faint heart
and with lame endeavor.
Isaac Barrow
Every man is valued in this world as he shows by his conduct that he wishes to
be valued.
Jean De La Bruyere
What is your long-range vision for your safety and health program? Beyond your
daily safety and health-related activities, what do you want to achieve over time
through your safety and health efforts? When you take a step back and look
at the broad spectrum that is your safety and health program, what do you want
to achieve within your safety and health program within a proscribed period of
time? What is your vision of where your safety and health program will be in the
future?
Virtually every company or organization today has taken the time and effort to
explore their functions to create a vision through which every employee, as well as
customers and other entities, would know what the company or organization does as
well as the “road map” as to where the company or organization will be going in the
future. This vision is often very broad in spectrum and scope; however, it provides
guidance as to the goals and objectives of the company or organization. For example, a company’s vision may be number one in their industry, to deliver customer
value through innovation, to improve productivity through economy of scale, and to
create a safe and environmentally friendly workplace.
Within the safety and health realm, the vision for the safety and health p­ rogram
is often tied to creating and maintaining a safe and healthful work environment
and/or reducing work-related injuries or illnesses. Safety and health professionals should provide the time and effort necessary to develop, establish, and integrate your safety and health vision into the company’s or organization’s vision
that provides employees, contractors, and all others affiliated with your safety
and health efforts a clear direction as to where your safety and health direction
is focused.
To get started with the development of your vision, safety professionals should
consider the following questions:
• What are the purposes of the safety and health functions?
• Do the safety and health functions correlate with the organization’s mission?
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• Does the safety and health vision correlate with the organization’s strategic
plan?
• What vision will motivate and enable employees and others to see how they
contribute to the overall purpose?
To achieve this vision, companies and organizations often establish imperatives
or directives that parallel and provide guidance in the achievement of the organizational vision. These imperatives or directives often provide more technically based
direction through which the vision becomes clearer for employees and other constituents. For example, a company’s vision may include creation of a completely safe
and healthful work environment, while the imperatives may include the achievement
of functional excellence in safety and large-scale safety systems to reduce workplace
risk by 90 percent.
Correlating and often paralleling the company’s or organization’s vision, a
safety and health professional may identify and establish more specific values for
their overall safety and health program. What are the core values that guide your
safety and health program and efforts? Is safety and health a core value within
your company or organization? What values are paramount within your safety
and health program and within your company or organization? What values define
what your safety and health program is to you, your employees, your company,
and others?
Although values may vary among and between individuals and organizations,
please consider generally the values of what it takes to be a successful cowboy
(a person who herds cattle). In his book titled, Cowboy Ethics: What Wall Street
Can Learn from the Code of the West, author Jim Owens (summarized by Dr. Roy
Burris) identifies the ­following personal principles to live by for cowboys. Please
give some thought to the application of these “cowboy” principles in the safety and
health arena.
The Code of the West–Ten Principles to Live by:
1.
Live each day with courage. Have the courage of your convictions. You have
to stand for something….
2.
Take pride in your work. Be craftsman-like and proud of your work.
Most masterpieces are signed but few are ever acknowledged.
3.
Always finish what your start. Don’t leave in the middle of a task, even if
it is quitting time. If your start it–finish it.
4.
Do what has to be done. Don’t always look for an easy way out. Sometimes
there isn’t one.
5.
Be tough but fair. People will respect you for making tough decisions as long
as you are fair in dealing with them.
6.
When you make a promise, keep it. Do what you say you will do–(e)nough
said.
7.
Ride for the brand. One of my favorites. Don’t forget who signs your
check. My pet peeve is people who get comfortable in a job and then
think that the job is just there for their benefit–instead of them being there to
do a job.
Safety and Health Vision and Values
93
8.
Talk less and say more. A sure-fire cowboy trait. It does no good to rambleon when no one is listening.
9.
Remember that some things aren’t for sale. Like your principles, for example.
10.
Know where to draw the line. There has to be limits to what we are willing
to do–because of our principles. Most of us know where to draw the line but
we don’t always realize when we step over it.*
For many safety and health professionals, a strategic planning process is often
utilized to develop and align your vision, mission, and values into workable methodology with achievable goals and objectives and the performance measurements
necessary to achieve and maintain your strategic direction. The strategic planning
process is utilized to establish safety and health priorities; focus the energy, funding,
and other resources toward the vision; improve existing safety and health programs;
and ensure management, employees, contractors, and others are working toward
common safety and health goals.
More specifically, strategic planning for safety and health involves all levels within
the organization working together to develop a written document used to communicate to all levels of the organization the vision and goals as well as the activities and
actions necessary to achieve the goals and other critical elements developed within
the safety and health vision. Within the strategic planning process, the safety and
health activities and processes are developed and incorporated in a systematic manner
that coordinates with the safety and health vision and strategy.
Safety and health professionals should be aware that there are many different
methodologies and designs through which safety and health strategic planning
and management can be accomplished. In general, the steps for strategic planning
and management can include
1. Develop a vision, and identify your core values.
2.Analyze and assess the current safety and health structure, programs, and
other components.
3. Develop a strategy and your written document(s).
4.Initiate your strategy at all levels through operational planning or action
planning.
5.Evaluate your safety and health strategy and performance, and adjust as
necessary.
More specific to the individual safety and health professional leadership, consideration should be provided to your individual and professional values and the
applicability of these values to individual safety and health professionals as leaders
within the company or organization as well as within the profession. These individual values often can integrate company and organizational values but often are
far more specific to the individual safety and health professional. These foundational
* My Heroes Have Always Been Cowboys, Dr. Ray Burris, Cow Country News, April 2011. (Adapted
from Cowboy Ethics: What Wall Street Can Learn from the Code of the West, James P. Owen,
Stoechlein Publishing, Ketchum, ID, 2005.)
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values assist the safety and health professional in “drawing the lines” that he or she
will not cross. These values can include the following:
1.Safety and health professionals must have passion for the safety and health
function.
2.Safety and health professionals must be technically competent at all times.
3. Safety and health professionals must have a critical eye.
4.Safety and health professionals are made–not born. Continuously learn!
5. Safety and health professionals motivate and educate others to lead.
6. Safety and health professionals are “change agents.”
7. Safety and health professionals possess continuous and constant intensity.
8.Safety and health professionals put the “right people in the right places.”
9. Safety and health professionals possess integrity and take responsibility for
their mistakes.
10.Safety and health professionals avoid ineffective strategic barriers.
11. Safety and health professionals forget the politics and “ride for the brand.”
12. Safety and health professionals “see” situations from all angles.
13. Safety and health professionals have self-confidence and “make the hard calls.”
14. Safety and health professionals should exhibit gratitude and humility.
15.Safety and health professionals should “stay on course” with their individual moral compasses.
In summation, safety and health professionals should develop a long-range vision
and strategy to direct their efforts. Through strategic planning and management,
the vision of safety and health programs can be achieved, which not only provides
benefits to their organizations but also to their employees, management, contractors,
and all others directly or indirectly involved with the program. In order to provide
guidance, safety and health professionals search and identify their personal values
through which to guide their professional lives or the “lines” that they will virtually
never cross, no matter what the circumstances.
In short, the development of your strategic plan with your vision and values
­provides an exceptional road map for your successful safety and health career.
21
Safety and Health
Profession
The Art of Teaching is the Art of Assisting Discovery.
Mark Van Doren
Laws are not invented; they grow out of circumstances.
Azarias
The individuals who manage and direct the safety and health efforts of companies
and organizations impact not only the companies or organizations but also the health
and even the lives of individual employees. If we assembled a hundred U.S.-based
companies and organizations of varying sizes in a room and asked them to identify
the qualifications of the person they wanted to manage their safety and health efforts,
we would receive a multitude of different responses depending on the structure and
requirements of the specific organization. If we probed a little further with these
companies and organizations, we would also find that there would be different educational requirements, different weight provided to the value of certificates, different
pay scales, varying weights provided to professional association affiliation, different
managerial levels, different job descriptions, and virtually no ethical or professional
conduct guidance. We would also find very quickly that there are no standardized
educational requirements, no competency testing, no licensure, no required professional organizations, and no mandatory codes of ethics or professional conduct
required to be a safety and health professional. In short, a safety and health professional is primarily whomever the company or organization hires and places the title
“safety and health manager” on their office door. Given the above, is safety and
health truly a “profession” within the perimeters of other recognized professionals
within our society?
Conversely, let us examine other occupations that are considered “professions”
within our society—namely, the legal profession and medical profession—and
­compare these occupations with those of the safety and health “professional.”
The medical and legal professions require specific educational requirements and
curriculum. The safety and health profession possesses no specific educational
requirements:
• The medical and legal professions possess competency testing. The safety
and health profession possesses no competency testing.
• The medical and legal profession requires a license. There is no licensure
requirement for safety and health professionals.
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Creative Safety Solutions
• The medical and legal professions possess a code of professional conduct
and ethics that is mandatory and aligned with licensure. The safety and health
profession possesses no mandatory code of professional conduct and ethics.
• The medical and legal professions possess a required curriculum and course
of study in preparation for required testing. The safety and health profession possesses no specified curriculum correlating to competency testing.
• The medical and legal profession required specified hours of continuing
education each year in order to maintain licensure. The safety and health
profession possesses no mandatory continuing education requirements.
• The medical and legal professions require membership in specific professional organizations. The safety and health profession possesses no mandatory organizational requirements.
• The medical and legal professions require a number of years of higher
­education and specialty education. The safety and health profession possesses no required level of higher education.
Just as the medical and legal professional impacts the lives of individuals as well
as the viability of companies and organizations, so too does the safety and health
professional. In fact, on a day-to-day basis, the safety and health professional arguably may have a greater impact on the lives and well-being of the employees within
their organization than the medical or legal professions. Safety and health professionals, through their compliance program development, safety and health activities, and other essential safety and health functions, ensure the safety of a multitude
of individual employees on a daily basis. If the safety and health professional is
performing the functions properly, nothing happens and employees return home to
their families and friends at the end of the day, a few dollars richer. However, if the
safety and health professional does not competently design, direct, organize, and
control the safety and health function properly, incidents will happen. Employees
who placed their faith and personal safety in the hands of the safety and health professional may be injured or killed while on the job.
Throughout the last 45 years since the birth of the modern safety and health
profession in 1970, those individuals functioning in organizational safety and health
capacities have banded together in voluntary organizations with a singular goal of
improving the safety and health profession. Organizations such as the American
Society of Safety Engineers, National Safety Management Society, and others have
evolved to provide comradery, voluntary educational activities, professional conferences, educational certificates, and other activities to enhance the skills and abilities
of their members. However, the one common denominator of all of these exceptional organizations is that they are voluntary. The legal profession and the medical
profession possess voluntary membership and an enforcement mechanism through
their licensure mandates. Has the time come for the safety and health profession to
truly become a “profession” and those tasked with the responsibility to safeguard the
safety and health of the American labor force be required to possess an established
and mandatory level of competency?
Although additional governmental bureaucracy is virtually never in favor by the
business community, the time may have come where there is a need, at a minimum,
Safety and Health Profession
97
for mandatory government oversight to establish and maintain a baseline safety
and health competency level and establish an enforceable code of professional conduct and ethics for those who safeguard the American workforce. Although there
are many very good companies and organizations that possess internal codes of
­professional conduct and ethics, individuals selected to manage their safety and
health programs are appropriately educated, continuing educational opportunities
are provided and funded, and overall they have established successful safety functions, these activities are internal to the company or organization and enforceable
only through internal disciplinary actions. Additionally, as can be seen from the
annual injury, illness, and fatality data, there are companies and organizations that
may or may not even employ a safety and health professional and, if they do employ
a safety and health professional, may not provide the necessary resources and support to the safety and health professional to achieve even a minimal level of protection for their employees. And there are companies and organizations that employ
individuals who are provided the job or label of a safety and health professional, as
part of multiple managerial functions or as their sole job responsibility; however,
these individuals do not possess the skills, abilities, or time to s­ uccessfully manage
the safety and health function and are not provided the resources and abilities to
acquire the n­ ecessary skills.
In seeking a creative solution for this bedrock issue within the safety and health
profession, we need to search inward to determine whether or not we are truly a
“profession” or simply a collection of individuals performing the same or similar
job functions within the American workforce. Although governmental involvement
to establish mandatory educational requirements, mandatory testing requirements,
mandatory licensure and enforcement of a code of professional conduct and ethics
has been offered, is there a better way to truly create and maintain safety and health
as a recognized profession? The ball is in your court.
22
Impact of Safety
and Health on
Your Organization
A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.
Henry Adams
Many ideas grow better when transplanted into another mind than in the
one where they sprung up. That which was awed in one becomes a flower
in the other, and a flower again dwindles down to a mere weed by the same
change. Healthy growths may become poisonous by falling upon the wrong
mental soil. And what seemed a nightshade in one mind unfolds as a morning
glory in the other.
Oliver Wendell Holmes
Unique to the safety and health function is the fact that this function impacts, directly
or indirectly, virtually every function within your company or organization. If the
safety and health function is working properly, nothing happens. Nothing h­ appening,
as a general rule, is good thing within the safety and health function. Equipment
malfunctions, employee injuries and illnesses, fires, chemical spills, faulty products,
workplace violence, and related activities within the operations often mean that our
safety and health system has failed in some manner. The safety and health function,
although primarily focused on the higher-risk areas, is the only function within most
companies or organizations which “crosses all lines” and interacts with virtually
every other function within the company or organization.
Let us examine an average day of a safety and health professional: First is the
morning meeting with operation and accounting to review the budget expenditures
followed by a meeting with maintenance and engineering to address the items from
last week’s safety and health inspection. Next, prepare for your upcoming safety
and health training session with the production supervisors and quality control
­followed by taking a call from corporate to review your numbers. After your call,
meet with the human resource director to review the upcoming safety and health–
related ­disciplinary actions and then attend a quick meeting with the union steward
regarding your new safety and health program. When you return to the office, there
are several messages to call your workers’ compensation administrator and insurance risk manager. The security manager wants to talk with you, and you have a
meeting with the operation manager after lunch, and you still need to complete your
safety and health inspections and complete the work you started on your new written
­compliance ­program. Sounds like your normal day?
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Safety and health impacts everyone, and everyone looks to the safety and health
professional to provide his or her expertise and insight with virtually every activity.
Safety and health professionals, in addition to all of their daily activities, must be
proactive in identifying and addressing risks in the workplace and beyond as well
as developing countermeasures through which to minimize or eliminate the identified risk. Identify the risk and eliminate the risk so that nothing happens. Safety and
health professionals prefer that nothing happens.
However, it is relatively easy for a safety and health professional to become complacent over time if everything is running smoothly. This is a trap that must be
avoided at all costs. Safety and health professionals must be proactive and constantly
improving in order that inherent risks that were thought to have been eliminated
do not resurface within the operations. An example is your emergency and disaster
preparedness plan. Every year you review and update your plan, train new employees, practice your evacuation, and conduct other related activities in preparation for
the unforeseen event when you will need for your plan to work. This preparation
has costs in terms of time, money, and effort for an event which may never happen.
However, if the safety and health professional becomes complacent and does not
prepare his or her company or organization, the day the emergency and disaster plan
is needed and does not function properly, the costs will be substantially higher in
terms of lives as well as money.
Safety and health professionals should be proactive in their attempts to reduce
potential risks in the workplace. Although much of the average safety and health
professional’s day involves “putting out fires” or reacting to issues and situations that
emerge within the workplace, it is important for safety and health professionals to
maintain a proactive view and try their very best to design and develop programs that
reduce or eliminate the potential risks at the workplace.
The safety and health professional is a vital position within any operation given
the fact that his or her actions or inactions have a direct impact on every employee
within the operation. Although most safety and health professionals were hired for
other reasons by the management team and the goals or objectives may be focused
on such areas as workers’ compensation cost reduction, Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) compliance, and related objectives, the ultimate goal
or objective is to safeguard the operation’s employees while they perform the functions of their jobs. In the hustle and bustle of daily activities, it is essential that the
safety and health professional not lose focus of this ultimate goal of safeguarding the
health and safety of the operation’s employees. Many of the other reactive “issues”
that dominate the daily activities of the safety and health professional can be reduced
or eliminated as proactive activities are focused on the ultimate objective. Reducing
or eliminating injuries and illnesses equates to reductions in workers’ compensation,
reductions in compliance exposure, and reductions in many of the reactive activities
that dominate the safety and health professional’s day.
Safety and health professionals are often under a tremendous amount of stress
as a result of the reactive nature of the position. No matter how stressful the situation, safety and health professionals should remember to always remain calm, “be
nice,” and think before they speak. As not only a safety and health professional, you
are a representative of your company or organization and a very visible member
Impact of Safety and Health on Your Organization
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of the management team. In most situations, the management team and employees
look to the safety and health professional for guidance and direction. There is usually
no “upside” to yelling, screaming, degrading others, using foul language, or otherwise exhibiting generally unacceptable behavior, no matter what the situation. Stay
calm. Think before you speak. And always be nice.
The impact a safety and health professional can have on a company or o­ rganization
can be monumental. From the top to the bottom, safety and health impacts all areas,
all functions and departments, and all personnel. The safety and health professional’s actions or inactions can, directly or indirectly, impact the company’s or
organization’s bottom line, the company’s image, and even the products. Safety and
health professionals impact every employee on a daily basis and make their working environment a place they enjoy. From top to bottom, every function within the
company or organization benefits from the activities developed and implemented
by the safety and health professional. The safety and health function impacts every
function and person within your company or organization. Being a safety and health
professional can often feel like an enormous responsibility. Through your constant
proactive efforts, you are safeguarding the lives of your employees and management
team while improving the profitability and reducing the risk profile of your company
or organization. Safety and health professionals impact lives.
23
Human Resources and
Safety and Health
Laws should be like clothes. They should be made to fit the people they are
meant to serve.
Clarence Darrow
Lost wealth may be replaced by industry, lost knowledge by study, lost health
by temperance or medicine, but lost time is gone forever.
Samuel Smiles
In many companies and organizations, the safety and health function reports directly
to the human resource department, while in other organizations the safety and health
function reports to other functions while working directly with the human resource
function. Given the fact that both functions work directly with the issues and personnel within the labor force, it is relatively common for the safety and health professional to work closely with the human resource function. Additionally, given the
various federal, state, and local laws that are intertwined with the human resource
function and the safety and health function, it is important that safety and health
professionals possess, at a minimum, an awareness of these laws in order to be able
to recognize potential violations or conflicts when addressing employee situations
within the safety and health function.
Given this close working relationship between the human resource and safety
and health functions, it is essential for the safety and health professional to also
possess a working knowledge of the internal human resource policies as well as
the areas within the laws and regulations managed by the human resource function which intersect and directly impact the safety and health function. Below
please find several of the general human resource policies common in many companies or organizations as well as federal laws with which the human resource
function ensures compliance and that often impact the safety and health function.
Safety and health professionals should also be aware that there are federal laws
and regulations as well as state laws and regulations (which are dependent upon
the location of your operation) as well as local laws and regulations that can
impact your safety and health efforts. Safety and health professionals usually do
not need to become expert in these laws and regulations but must simply be able
to recognize if and when a law or regulation may be applicable to the situation.
When the safety and health professional recognizes the potential application of
the law to the circumstances, the general rule of thumb is to contact the human
resource department or legal counsel before taking action or providing a decision
in the matter.
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INTERNAL COMPANY POLICIES
• Disciplinary policy: Safety and health professionals should be well-versed
in the internal company policy regarding negative reinforcement, especially disciplinary action for violation of safety and health requirements.
Company disciplinary policies usually consist of various versions of verbal
warnings, written or formal warnings, suspension from work without pay,
and involuntary termination.
• Antidiscrimination policies: Allegations of discrimination in the workplace can be very detrimental to the company or organization in not only
monetary terms but also terms of brand, reputation, and other damages.
Safety and health professionals are often the “eyes and ears” within the
operations and should be able to recognize and report language, actions,
publications, and other issues that may place the company or organization at risk. On the federal level, safety and health professionals should be
aware that most companies and organizations possess policies and procedures to address the requirements of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, Age
Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), Americans with Disabilities
Act (ADA) and Americans With Disabilities Amendment Act (ADAAA),
Pregnancy Disability Act (PDA), and Family and Medical Leave Act
(FLMA) among the many federal antidiscrimination laws.
• Disability-related policies: Given the responsibilities of the safety and
health function, it is imperative that the safety and health professional possess, at a minimum, an awareness of the company’s requirements regarding
disability, accommodation, short-term disability, and long-term disability
policies.
• Collective bargaining agreement: For unionized operations, the safety
and health professional should have a working knowledge of the various
­provisions and requirements applicable to the safety and health function
within the collective bargaining agreement.
FEDERAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
• Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964* and related laws and executive orders: The safety and health professional should possess a working
­knowledge of the prohibition against discrimination based upon race, sex,
color, creed or religion, and national origin.
• Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Americans with Disabilities
Amendment Act (ADAAA): The ADA and ADAAA provide protection
against discrimination based upon disability. This law often impacts the
safety and health function in the areas of accommodation and within the
defense categories.
• Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): The FMLA impacts the safety
and health function in the area of work-related injuries as well as injuries
* 42 U.S.C Section 2000e-2.
Human Resources and Safety and Health
•
•
•
•
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and illnesses that occur outside of the workplace by employees, as well
as injuries and illnesses to those close to the employee. Safety and health
professionals should have a working knowledge of the FMLA as well as
protections provided to veterans.
Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA): This law prohibits discrimination
or retaliation based on pregnancy.
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA): This relatively new
law prohibits discrimination based upon genetic information.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and governmental agencies:
Although most safety and health professionals possess direct responsibility for compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act,
additional responsibilities in the areas of environmental protection, security, and related responsibilities are often added to the safety and health
function. Additionally, safety and health professionals often serve as the
company’s or organization’s liaison with various federal governmental
agencies.
National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) and labor laws: Safety and health
professionals should have a working knowledge of the requirements of the
federal NLRA and related labor laws.
STATE LAWS
• Individual state workers’ compensation act: Whether the safety and
health professional possesses a direct or indirect responsibility for
­workers’ compensation claims, it is imperative that an expert-level knowledge of the applicable workers’ compensation laws and regulations for
each state in which employees are working be acquired and maintained.
Additionally, safety and health professionals should possess a thorough
knowledge of all aspects of the workers’ compensation administration
and management.
• Specific state labor laws: In addition to the federal labor and employment
laws, many states possess state laws that are often more restrictive or unique
to the individual state.
• State antidiscrimination laws: Individual states often possess laws addressing antidiscrimination issues. These state laws may be more restrictive than
federal antidiscrimination laws.
• Disability or handicap antidiscrimination laws: State laws may provide
different or broader protections in the areas of handicap and/or disability
than federal laws provide.
Safety and health professionals work hand-in-hand with the human resources
function in most, if not all, companies and organizations. As the “eyes and ears”
of the company or organization within the operations, safety and health professionals should, at a minimum, possess a working knowledge of the prohibitions and
risks created by the various internal policies, federal laws and regulations, and state
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laws and regulations. With this awareness-level knowledge, the safety and health
­professional, as part of his or her daily activities such as inspections and audits, can
identify potential risks in these correlating areas through which the human resource
function can take corrective action. Knowledge in these correlating areas expands
the risk profile and affords greater protections to the company or organization.
24
Does Happy = Safe?
Profit is a by-product of work; happiness is its chief product.
Henry Ford
Happiness is someone to love, something to do, and something to hope for.
Chinese Proverb
Based upon the hypothesis that happy employees work in a safer manner, let us
explore this proposition and identify the potential benefits for safety and health professionals. There have been a number of studies that have identified that some people
may be predisposed to be happier than other people. There are studies that identify
that people tend to be happier or more satisfied if their basic needs are met. However,
if an employee has his or her basic needs, such as compensation, security, working
environment, and related needs met by the employer, and the employee is satisfied
and generally “happy” in the job function, will this equate to an employee working
safer in the workplace?
One variable that cannot be discounted is the fact that virtually all employees
encounter stressors from outside of the workplace which they bring with them as
baggage to the workplace. These stressors can include such issues as divorce, sick
children, aging parent issues, medical problems, and other non-work-related issues.
These outside issues can potentially impact the thought patterns and concentration
of employees while performing functions within the workplace.
Safety and health professionals are aware of the issues that generally make an
employee unhappy—namely, lack of perceived adequate compensation levels, too
few or too many work hours, unsafe working environments, rigid management, and
little or no “say” as to their job functions or activities. Safety and health professionals
are also aware that outside influences such as a labor disputes, workers’ compensation claim disputes, disciplinary actions, and related activities can also impact the
employee’s satisfaction in the workplace.
However, if we could remove these variables, do employees who are happy with
their job function and working environment perform in a safe manner? Start with
data from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). What is
the number one way in which an employer is identified for a compliance inspection? The way is with an employee complaint. If the employee is satisfied with the
safety and health programs, activities, and performance, is there a need to complain to OSHA? Why are some employers frequently inspected while others have
gone years without a compliance inspection? Based upon manpower, funding,
and related issues, OSHA is generally allocating their limited resources to where
there is the greatest need. If the safety and health professional has developed and
implemented an effective safety and health program, employees are satisfied or
even happy with their job functions and working environment, is there a need
for the employee to contact and complain to OSHA? No complaint (in addition
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to no deaths, multiple injury situations, or other triggering events) equals a lower
probability of a compliance inspection (and the potential of correlating monetary
penalties).
Examine compensation and its relationship to happiness. Assuming adequate compensation levels, why would an employee leave one employer for another? As safety
and health professionals are aware, replacing skilled employees in the workplace costs
in terms of retraining, reduced production and quality, cost of hiring and screening,
and many other costs. Arguably, if the employee enjoys his or her working environment
and has bonded with his or her fellow employees, would an increase in compensation
motivate a happy employee to leave the workplace? If the answer is arguably “yes,”
how much of an increase? If the employee is happy in the workplace and appreciates
his or her safety and healthful working environment, would 5 percent motivate the
employee to leave? How about 10 percent? Or how about a promotion and 20 percent?
Arguably, if the employee is “happy” in his or her current capacity and job function,
it would take a substantial amount of compensation, promotion, or other incentive to
motivate the employee to leave the current environment for an unknown opportunity
where the workplace may not be as satisfying.
Arguably, employees who are “happy” and enjoy their working environment also
enjoy working with their team or fellow employees. Often a bond is formed between
the team members who often spend more time at work with these individuals than
with their family members. From a safety and health prospective, it is substantially
more likely that a fellow employee would go out of his or her way to assist his or her
team members in such job functions as lifting, pushing, pulling, and other manual
tasks. Additionally, the probabilities increase that the team members would assist and
“go the extra mile” to safeguard their fellow employees in the workplace. If there is
strife among team members, there is a substantial likelihood that individual employees may not assist other team members, which may place them at risk. A “happy”
team member assists others, while unhappy employees can increase the risk profile
through simple inactions.
Safety and health professionals should also be cognizant of the rise in whistleblower actions and often correlating retaliation actions by employees as a result
of increased protections added to existing laws including the Occupational Safety
and Health Act. With a transparent and inclusive safety and health program with
happy employees, the probabilities of incurring such whistleblower actions are
minimized. The OSHA and most safety and health professionals are striving to
achieve a safe and healthful work environment for employees with employer and
employee safety behaviors being modified either through negative reinforcement
(e.g., penalties) or positive reinforcement (e.g., encouragement and guidance).
Empowered employees who work in a transparent and positive environment that
openly strives to ensure compliance and are “happy” with their environment,
coworkers and management possess little or no need to report their employers to
appropriate governmental agencies to generate change in the workplace. “Happy”
employees enjoy their working environment and possess little or no need to force
change, especially in the area of safety and health, through compliant or whistleblower actions.
Does Happy = Safe?
109
Although this concept is a bit esoteric and is difficult to quantify, safety and
health professionals can see the distinction between happy and unhappy employees
by simply watching the smiles on the faces of their employees. If your e­ mployee’s
basic needs, including safety and health, are met and a fair compensation level is provided, the safety and health professional will have an impact on the ­happiness l­evels
of his or her employees through the creation of a safe, healthful, environmentally
sound, employee-empowered workplace that is free of conflict and strife. Arguably,
a “happy” employee will work safer, and the creation of this “­happiness” will pay
dividends to employees as well as your company or organization. Happy = Safe.
25
Circular Safety
Management
So much of what we call management consists in making it difficult for people
to work.
Peter Drucker
Take my assets—but leave me my organization and in five years I’ll have it all
back.
Alfred M. Sloan
All safety and health professionals possess one common problem—namely, not
enough hours in a day to complete everything. Many safety and health professionals
maintain calendars and “to do” lists through which to manage their daily activi­
ties; however, in the area of compliance programs often requiring annual review
and training, effective management is essential. One creative method for consider­
ation by safety and health professionals to maintain compliance is the circular safety
­management technique.
Circular safety management is primarily a technique through which to bal­
ance the requirements of many different compliance programs on an annual basis.
In essence, this technique permits safety and health professionals to “keep all of the
balls in the air.” This is especially important in the area of compliance programs
given the fact that all aspects of every compliance program must be operational and
functioning correctly as well as the fact that new compliance programs are being
added on a periodic basis.
The initial step of the circular safety management technique is to select a methodo­
logy through which to keep track of the important dates and information regarding
each compliance program. This is the safety and health professional’s preference.
Different methods include computer database, written calendar, action planning for­
mat, and other methods. The key is to be able to return to the program for review
each year at the same time period to complete the review.
Starting with the initial compliance program of the safety and health ­professional
selection, the safety and health professional should identify the specific ­program
requirements, training requirements, and any updates or standard changes. The
safety and health professional should complete the program review, complete all
required training, and note the review or completion date on the program as well
as that identified in your database. This will be the cornerstone program in which
starts the circular review. Each year at the same time period identified in your data­
base, the safety and health professional will begin the review and training for this
specific compliance program.
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The safety and health professional should move to the second compliance program
and repeat the process. Within the first year, safety and health professionals should be
able to complete the review process, update the program, and complete all required
training or other requirements for a number of compliance programs. Most companies
or organizations have between 12 and 20 compliance programs depending upon their
operations; thus, the circular safety management methodology may take several years
to fully implement.
Visualizing the circular safety management methodology, imagine drawing with
a pen concentric circles starting with the first program where the safety and health
professional starts and returns to the starting point at the same time each year. It is
essential that every compliance program be reviewed and, if necessary, modified
to ensure complete and total compliance with the applicable standard on an annual
basis. As additional compliance programs are developed and assessed, the program
is added to the circle, and the safety and health professional is moved to the next
compliance program. The next program is reviewed and added to the circle, and over
time, a compliance program will be added to the circle and thus scheduled for review
at the same time period each year. In essence, as safety and health professionals
juggle activities on a daily basis, no balls or activities with regard to your compli­
ance programs are dropped. All compliance programs are reviewed and updated
on an annual or semiannual basis depending on the requirements of the particular
standard.
Whether safety and health utilize the circular safety management methodology
or another methodology, it is essential that the safety and health program review,
evaluate, assess, and modify all compliance-related programs on at least an annual
basis. Safety and health programs cannot simply be developed and implemented but
must be monitored, assessed, and modified in order to work at maximum efficiency.
The circular safety management methodology is just one way to remind safety and
health professionals to allot a specified time period in order to carefully and system­
atically assess every element within every safety and health program on at least an
annual basis and make appropriate adjustments to achieve maximum effectiveness.
In the hectic work life of a safety and health professional, time is extremely valuable.
However, it is essential that safety and health professionals allot time to ensure all
implemented programs are operating effectively and continue to operate effectively
before initiating additional programs.
26
Injecting Creativity into
Training Activities
Ideas are the mightiest influence on earth. One great thought breadth into a
man may regenerate him.
William Ellery Channing
Your most brilliant ideas come in a flash, but the flash comes only after a lot of
hard work. Nobody gets a big idea when he is not relaxed and nobody gets a big
idea when he is relaxed all of the time.
Edward Blakeslee
One of the major activities conducted by a safety and health professional is education
and training of virtually all levels within the company or organization. This training, often compliance-driven, has traditionally been lecture, lecture and videotape,
or ­lecture with supplemental activities. No matter which technique was utilized,
employees were primarily “talked at” with a period at the end of the session for
questions. This type of compliance training is often dry and “canned,” and primarily
developed to meet training schedules.
The questions that many safety and health professionals ask are whether or not the
employees grasp the knowledge provided in the training session, and will the employees utilize the important information and knowledge after they leave the training
session. Safety and health professionals often possess a duty to ensure and verify
employee participation in the training; however, the acquisition of the ­provided
knowledge by the employees is always in question.
Active employee involvement can improve the knowledge level that employees
acquire through the training exercises. Rather than sitting and listening to the safety
and health professional or viewing a videotape addressing the important safety issues
or topics, active involvement by employees can improve attention and spur d­ iscussion
and learning regarding the specific safety and health topics. Historically, hands-on
activities achieved a greater level of learning, and oral presentations and group activities related to the safety and health topic generated more discussion. However, safety
and health professionals might consider actively involving and training individual
employees, safety committee members, supervisors, and others to create and lead or
facilitate the safety and health training. Empowering employees to train and educate
their fellow employees is one method through which to encourage active learning on
the important safety topics.
Taking the concept of employee empowerment further, safety and health professionals might consider actively involving and actually permitting their employees
to design and structure the safety and health training with oversight by the safety
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and health professional. Although safety and health training, especially compliancerelated training, can sometimes be complicated, tasking employees to train their
fellow employees can create new, novel, and ingenious methods through which to
impart the subject matter.
Safety and health professionals should consider the demographics of the ­various
training populations and the methods through which they are most familiar and
­comfortable in learning. In essence, is the employee a visual learner? Does the
employee learn best in a group? Is the employee technologically phobic? Is the
employee a technology enthusiast? Safety and health professionals should attempt
to identify the best training and education method that will permit the employee to
comfortably learn and retain the subject matter.
All safety and health training programs should be designed or customized to
meet the educational levels as well as the learning methodology through which
the employees will best learn and retain the important safety and health information. Additionally, it is essential that safety and health professionals provide training and education in the language(s) specific to the employee groups and ensure
that all interpretations from English to the employee’s language provided the accurate ­interpretation. All tests or other verification methods utilized to ensure complete
understanding of the safety and health materials should also be in the same language
as the safety and health training.
Given the time constraints for safety and health professionals and others to provide
training and educational opportunities to their employees, some safety and health professionals have incorporated self-paced online education and training opportunities for
their employees. Although there is software available on the market, safety and health
professionals can develop customized safety and health training and education programs in-house utilizing platforms such as Blackboard. These online programs can be
interactive, instructor-driven, or self-paced and can be completed by individual employees within a specified time period. Given the various federal and state labor laws,
employees are usually required to complete the online training while “on the clock” or
are compensated for work outside of the normal work hours. Virtually, all online safety
and health programs possess some type of employee verification as well as competency
testing at the end of the training.
Safety and health professionals should consider tapping the creativity of their
employees in this important area of training and education. It is amazing the concepts that employees can develop if tasked and empowered to develop safety and
health training and education programs. Some of the ideas developed by employees
include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Utilizing YouTube videos
Videotaping employees performing the job function
Interviewing employees identifying to right-away perform the function
Integrating small rewards within the training
Injecting friendly department competition in the training
Incorporating social media into the training
Taking photographs/slides of every employee in the training
Celebrating graduation at a ceremony for completion
Injecting Creativity into Training Activities
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When a safety and health professional empowers his or her employees and values
their ideas, the safety and health training can truly become your employee’s safety
and health training and education programs. Although strict adherence to your
­company and organization’s policies and procedures is required, your employees
should be encouraged to be creative and have fun with safety and health training and
education activities. When your safety and health training and education component
truly becomes your employee’s safety and health training, safety and health learning
is no longer a grudgingly required chore but has become an anticipated event, and
employees look forward to participating.
27
Combating Risk with
Innovation
Let us think of quietly enlarging our stock of true and fresh ideas, and not, as
soon as we get an idea of half an idea, be running out with it into the street, and
trying to make it rule there. Our ideas will, in the end, shape the world all the
better for maturing a little.
Matthew Arnold
The reward in business goes to the man who does something with an idea.
William Benton
Our industrial world is changing rapidly, and safety and health professionals should
embrace the changing and improving technology to eliminate or minimize known
risks in the workplace. In many companies or organizations, there are specific jobs
that maintain a higher risk of injury or illness as a result of the job function such as
working at heights or entering confined spaces. The question for safety and health
professionals is whether there is technology available that can eliminate or minimize
the risk of performing these jobs by employees or contractors.
Safety and health professionals should “think outside of the box” in searching to
identify possible technologies through which to adapt to reduce the risks in the job
function. Although the technology may have been designed for other marketable
usage, safety and health professionals can often work with the vendor or manufacturer to adapt the technology to the needs of the workplace. As an example, a drone
may have been designed for primarily military use; however, can a drone be adapted
for use for tower or high-elevation inspections?
The area of robotic technologies has improved and expanded substantially. Safety
and health professionals may want to explore the potential of the utilization of robotic
technology in areas requiring heavy or repetitive lifting, repetitive performance of a
singular job function, or when the job function places the employee at risk for exposures to harmful elements, among other risks. American industry has embraced the
­utilization of industrial robots and the expansion in use has increased substantially,
­primarily to improve operational performance. However, safety and health professionals should consider the utilization of robotic instruments to reduce inherent risks
within the workplace.
As with the consideration in adopting any technological innovations, safety and
health professionals should consider the extent to which the risk is eliminated or minimized, the cost of purchase and maintenance, the new risks which may be created
through the use of the technology as well as the impact on the operations, impacts
on any collective bargaining agreement, and other considerations. Safety and health
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professionals should be aware that any technology modifications may impact or even
eliminate individual jobs as part and parcel of the elimination of the inherent risk
within the job function.
Safety and health professionals should be aware that most technologies can be a
“double-edged sword” proving both positive and potentially negative benefits. For
example, many companies and organizations have adopted the utilization of cameras
in company or organization-owned vehicles. The benefits of the use of the cameras
can include better assurance of compliance by drivers, lower speeds, more focus by
drivers, lower insurance costs, and related benefits. Conversely, the camera would
also document noncompliance and arguably can be utilized against the employee
and company in the event of an accident. Do the benefits and costs of utilizing cameras in company vehicles outweigh the potential negative impacts? It will be up to
the safety and health professional and company to determine whether the use of the
technology provides a cost benefit as well as creates a safer and more healthful work
environment.
Safety and health professionals should keep current with the new technologies
and information that is rapidly being developed and marketed. New technologies
such as cloud, apps, battery technologies, and others are being developed for ­specific
industry purposes; however, safety and health professionals can explore the technologies for application within their individual workplaces. For example, the computer software app industry has grown and matured rapidly to the point that today
we have numerous apps that are specifically developed to address safety and health
activities.
Older technologies can also be adapted to reduce risks within the workplace.
Safety and health professionals can explore the broad spectrum of available technologies when attempting to reduce risks in the workplace. Safety and health professionals should not accept the status quo, and investigate and explore alternatives
through asking the right questions. Simply because the job function is being performed in the same manner as it has always been performed is often not the correct
answer. Safety and health professionals should strive to identify all potential changes
that eliminate or minimize the risk within the job function. Accepting the answer
“That’s the way we always did it” should not be an acceptable response for safety
and health professionals.
In today’s society with iPhones, Google Glass, paperless offices, and battery-­powered
vehicles, safety and health professionals are provided with new and innovative technological options through which to address potential risks within the workplace. Safety
and health professionals should be creative in exploring and adapting new or existing
technologies to address the specific identified risks within the particular job function.
In short, safety and health professionals should leave “no stone unturned” in exploring
new and existing technologies through which to reduce the risks of injury and illnesses
at your workplace. The status quo is no longer acceptable. Through the creativity of the
safety and health professional in conjunction with the existing and emerging technologies, virtually any risk in the workplace can be reduced.
28
Eliminate Boring from
Your Safety Programs
Highly educated bores are by far the worst; they know so much, in such fiendish
detail, to be boring about.
Louis Kronenberger
We are raising a generation that has woefully small stock of ideas and interests
and emotions. It must be amused at all costs but it has little skill in amusing
itself. It pays some of its members to do what the majority can no longer do for
themselves. It is this inner poverty that makes the worst kind of boredom.
Robert J. McCracken
The management of the safety and health function is often viewed as being boring.
When accidents and incidents do not happen, that means the safety and health professional’s programs are working. However, the activities viewed by employees, namely
safety and health training and education, compliance inspections, and related activities, are perceived as being boring. Safety and health professionals should energize
the safety and health efforts and strive for the exact opposite from boring—namely,
enthusiasm.
Through communication and education, safety and health professionals should
strive to actively involve upper management beyond their basic commitment to
safety and health. In most circumstances, top-level management are more than
happy to be actively involved in safety and health programs; however, they are not
invited to participate or they do not wish to sound uninformed with their peers or
employees. Often a customized education program or one-on-one education with
members of top management not only pays dividends in support for your safety
and health programs but also provides a comfort level for top-level managers
which will permit them to take a more active and enthusiastic role in your safety
and health activities.
Along with your management team, every employee should be provided appropriate education and training activities to permit them to find their comfort level within
the safety and health programs. As employee knowledge and involvement increases,
safety and health professionals can begin to transfer specified and appropriate safetyand health-related duties and responsibilities to employees. With this comfort level,
employees will begin to embrace these responsibilities and achieve a level of empowerment where the safety and health programs truly become their programs. With
time and continuous nurturing, a cultural shift will take place where employees will
truly take “ownership” of the responsibilities for not only their safety and health but
also that of their fellow employees.
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Creative Safety Solutions
Safety and health professionals should be looking for opportunities within the safety
and health program structure through which to energize and empower ­employees.
One very basic method to energize employees is simply to make safety and health
activities fun. Although there are times to be serious, there are times when fun can
be injected into safety and health activity. If your employees enjoy and are active participants in training activities or other safety and health activities, the probabilities tell
us that they are more likely to pay attention and thus increase their knowledge of the
subject matter. Conversely, if the employee is bored, he or she will be checking e-mails
or doodling on the materials, and his or her mind will most definitely not be focused on
the subject matter.
Enthusiasm can be infectious. Safety and health professionals should look for
opportunities through which to also educate and involve their upper and ­middle
­management in safety and health activities. Companies or organizations hire safety
and health professionals for their knowledge, skills, and abilities because ­others
within the company or organization do not possess the knowledge, skills, and
­abilities. To this end, safety and health professionals often do not realize that they
must also educate the upper management team as to the activities, requirements,
and duties of the safety and health function. And, because the individuals serving
in upper management positions do not want to appear uninformed or unknowledgeable, s­ eldom will an upper management team member ask to participate in safety and
health activities or ask for an explanation as to safety and health issue. It is the safety
and health professional’s responsibility not only to keep upper management informed
but also to attempt to actively involve upper management team members in safety
and health activities. Let me provide the following scenario as an example: The
safety and health professional is presenting to the upper management team regarding the need for funding to update the “Haz Com” program to ensure compliance
with the new global harmony requirements. The safety and health professional uses
the acronyms “Haz Com” and “MSDS” within the presentation without explaining
that “Haz Com” means hazard communications and “MSDS” means material safety
data sheet, what is the probability a vice president or other upper management team
member will raise his or her hand in front of their bosses and peers?
The point of this example is that your upper management team may be brilliant
people but their background and education is not in safety and health. This is why
they hired you. However, safety and health professionals should not only explain
acronyms within the presentation but also take the time to meet and explain the need
for funding, standard requirements, and otherwise educate the upper management
team members individually before the presentation. It is far too easy to vote against
something you have no idea about the subject matter. Ideally, the safety and health
professional will educate his or her upper management team as to the needs and
requirements of the safety and health programs as well as the benefits to employees
and the company in order to not only acquire their full support and commitment but
also their active involvement in the safety and health function.
Safety and health professionals should be aware that no matter what is espoused
by the company or organization, production is always job one. The safest operation
is the operation that is shut down and padlocked. Production, quality, and safety can
take priority within the hierarchy of priorities at any given time. For most upper
Eliminate Boring from Your Safety Programs
121
management teams, these three priorities encompass their daily activities. It is
essential that in addition to educating your management team, safety and health
professionals maintain safety and health as a priority and ensure that your upper
management team maintains their enthusiasm and commitment to the safety and
health function.
The enthusiasm reflected by the safety and health professional in his or her daily
activities can have an impact on the view and opinion of employees on the safety
and health function. The simple acts of smiling and talking to employees while conducting activities such as inspections within the operations has an impact. When an
employee has a question, answer the question. If the safety and health professional
does not know the answer, tell the employee that you will find out the answer, and
provide the answer to the employee in a timely manner. Remembering and calling
employees by their first names when the safety and health professional talks with
employees has an impact. The enthusiasm exhibited by the safety and health professional will be contagious.
Managing the safety and health function is as much an art as a science. Safety
and health professionals need to know the standards and regulations, and need to
be able to interact and energize their employees as well as supervisory and upper
management teams. Safety and health professionals should look for every opportunity to remove the boring and inject fun and enthusiasm into their safety and health
programs.
29
Critical and Creative
Thinking in Safety
and Health
If we would keep filling our minds with the picture of happy things ahead,
many of the worries and anxieties, and perhaps ill health, would naturally
melt away…. If we lived in the atmosphere of expectancy, so many of our petty
problems would be no problems at all! Always expect the best. Then if you have
to hurdle a few tough problems, you will have generated the strength and courage to do so. Successful businesses are forever planning and dreaming ahead.
And so should we, as individuals…. Expect to discover the best in people and
they will do the same for you. We must be constructive in our thoughts and our
attitude toward life.
George Matthew Adams
We get into the habit of living before acquiring the habit of thinking.
Albert Camus
As safety and health professionals are aware, upper management not only wants to
know about the safety and health “problems” and risks but also expects the safety
and health professional to have thought through the issues and identified the various
options and costs as to the methods through which to rectify the problem or eliminate the risk. Bosses generally do not simply want to hear about all of the problems
and risks identified by the safety and health professional without identifying the
various ways in which the problem or risk can be addressed—and always the costs.
Given the myriad of laws, regulations, and standards as well as the unique facts
of most problems or risks, safety and health professionals are often challenged when
assessing and evaluating the problem or risk requiring the safety and health professional to think critically and often creatively in order to be able to identify various
corrective options. From a critical-thinking prospective, safety and health professionals should become familiar with the work of Richard Paul and Linda Elder,* as
well as others, in the area of critical thinking as well as the methods through which
to improve effective problem-solving skills.
“Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view
to improving it. …(as well as) self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored and
self-corrective thinking.Ӡ In essence, critical thinking, in one form or another, is
being utilized by safety and health professionals on a daily basis; however, a careful
* Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools, 7th ed. Richard Paul and Linda Elder, California, 2014.
† Id.
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Creative Safety Solutions
e­ xamination of the critical-thinking process can be beneficial for safety and health
professionals. “Everyone thinks it is in our nature (to think critically). But much of
our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed or down-right
prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that of what we produce, make, or build
depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in
money and in quality of life. Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically
cultivated.”*
Seasoned safety and health professionals who have “been through the wars” and
learned the skills of a critical and creative thinker are able to
Raise(s) vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely.
Gather and assess relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively.
Come to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria
and standards.
Think open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences.
Communicate effectively with others in figuring our solutions to complex problems.†
The skills and abilities acquired in becoming a critical thinker have daily
i­mplications for safety and health professionals. The Universal Intellectual standards of “clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic and fairness”
should be infused into the thinking of safety and health professionals and serve as
guidance when assessing every situation as well as formulating options to address
the situation.‡ Given the fact that many of the decisions made by safety and health
professionals possess life-impacting implications, it is essential that safety and
health professionals think and examine the issues critically before offering potential options. Safety and health professionals should examine and assess the issues
critically from all perspectives as well as identify the implications as well as costs
of each potential option.
Safety and health professionals, as effective problem solvers, should be able to:
* Id.
† Id.
‡ Id.
1.Figure out, and regularly rearticulate, your goals, purposes, and needs.
Recognize problems as obstacles to reach your goals, achieve your purpose,
or satisfy your needs.
2. Whenever possible take problems one by one. State each problem as clearly
and precisely as you can.
3.Study the problem to determine the kind of problem you are dealing with.
For example, what do you have to do to solve it?
4.Distinguish problems over which you have control from problems over
which you have no control. Concentrate your efforts on problems you can
potentially solve.
5. Figure out the information you need to solve the problem. Actively seek that
information.
Critical and Creative Thinking in Safety and Health
125
6. Carefully analyze and interpret the information you collect, drawing reasonable inferences.
7. Determine your options for action. What can you do in the short term? What
can you do in the long term? Recognize your limitations in terms of money,
time, and power.
8. Evaluate your options, determining their advantages and disadvantages.
9. Adopt a strategy. Follow through on it. This may involve direct action or a
carefully thought-through wait-and-see approach.
10. When you act, monitor the implications of your actions. Be ready to revise
your strategy if the situation requires it. Be prepared to change your analysis
or statement of the problem, as more information about the problem becomes
available.*
For most problems or issues that safety and health professionals encounter on
a daily basis, critical-thinking skills provide the road through which the ­various
applicable options can be obtained to address the issues. However, in unique
­situations where the standards, laws, or regulations, as well as the safety and health
­professional’s critical-thinking skills and abilities, do not provide a clear pathway to
potential solutions, safety and health professionals may wish to consider e­ mploying
applied ­
creative thinking methodologies to identify nontraditional pathways.
Although there is a debate as to whether creative thinking can be taught and learned,
Drs. Carpenter, Sweet, and Blythe† have identified several basic creative strategies
through which the safety and health professional can energize the creative process.
These strategies include shifting perceptions, brainstorming, recognizing patterns,
and piggybacking among other strategies.‡
Managing safety and health is as much an art as it is a science. Depending upon
the issue or risk, safety and health professionals may be required to employ their
critical-thinking skills or creative-thinking skills, or both, to be able to appropriately identify, assess, and prepare viable options through which to address the issue
or risk. Whether or not safety and health professionals realize it, the skills of critical and creative thinking are utilized by safety and health professionals on a daily
basis. Recognition and improvement of your critical- and creative-thinking skills
can improve your managerial performance and may open otherwise closed doors to
new and innovative methods and ideas to assist in the achievement of your safety and
health goals and objectives.
* Id.
† Introduction to Applied Creative Thinking, Russell Carpenter, Charlie Sweet, and Hal Blythe,
New Forum Press, Stillwater, Oklahoma, 2012.
‡ Id.
30
Achievement Is Addictive
Do not follow where the path may lead. Go instead where there is no path and
leave a trail.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Big thinkers are specialists in creating positive, forward-looking, optimistic
picture in their minds and in the minds of others.
David J. Schwartz
Safety is as much an art as it is a science. In order to achieve the cultural shift to
the integration of safety into all activities and to empower your employees to take
­“ownership” of the safety function, your workforce, from top to bottom, must be
motivated as well as empowered to make this change. Generally, different l­evels
within the organization or company possess different motivating factors; however, the motivating factors may also be unique to the working area or individual
­employees. Painting with a very broad brush, upper management is often motivated
by monetary gain in the form of profit, shareholder returns, production increases,
bonuses, or related areas. Mid-level managers are motivated by monetary gains but
also in terms of time and job functions. Base-level employees are motivated beyond
the paycheck in terms of time, activities beyond the workplace, lifestyle, and ­family/
friends. As we can see, each level as well as each individual possesses different
­motivating factors, and these factors can change with the circumstances.
In addition to the motivating factors, safety and health professionals should be
aware that the safety and health function, unlike other operational functions, can
be influenced by other factors beyond the safety and health professional’s control,
which can impact the safety and health function and motivation of the workforce.
For example, if the operation is anticipating a reduction in the workforce (RIF),
this anticipation could result in higher injury rates, increased workers’ compensation
costs, and related factors. The safety and health function also possesses the seasonal
or operational “ebb and flow” of the specific operations. For example, the number
of slip-and-fall injuries increases during the months of November through February
when snow is on the ground. Safety and health professionals should be “keyed in” to
the unique features of the specific operations and workforce.
Not unlike a sports team, the safety and health professional is an equivalent to
the coach, and he or she must strive to train, educate, and motivate the players or
employees to achieve maximum safety and health performance. The safety and
health professional is knowledgeable in the rules of the sport, ensures that the players are aware of the rules, educates the employees and practices the “plays,” initiates
positive and negative reinforcement as necessary, maintains all of the equipment,
practices to improve performance, and motivates the employees to achieve the common objective of a safe and healthful environment.
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Creative Safety Solutions
Again, correlating the safety and health professional to an athletic coach, a coach
will analyze his or her players, competition, strengths, and weaknesses as well as
what motivates the team and players. The coach and team establish the common
achievable goal that everyone works to achieve. The safety and health professional,
working with all levels of management and hourly personnel, should establish common achievable safety and health goals from which all employees are challenged to
achieve. This common goal can be delineated into small or compartmentalized subgoals through which the ultimate goal can be achieved. For example, if the goal is the
championship, the team will need to establish subgoals of competing and winning a
requisite number of games or competitions in order to be eligible to compete for the
championship. Within the safety and health function, this may correlate to periodic
safety and health objectives, departmental objectives, or other objectives.
When the safety and health professional has established the foundation of compliance and the program and employees have achieved a level where employees can
accept responsibility for the function and the culture shift has been initiated within
the operation, safety and health professional, not unlike the coach, may wish to seek
methods through which to energize the workforce and continue the momentum that
has been created. Historically, safety and health professionals would often turn to
safety incentive programs of varying types to increase employee motivation. Many
different companies offer safety incentive programs that span the spectrum as to
the motivating methods and items with the variation usually determined by cost.
“Packaged” safety incentive programs can achieve the intended motivation in the
short term if the other foundational elements of the program are in place and functioning appropriately. However, safety and health professionals should utilize safety
incentive programs strategically, and safety incentive programs should not be utilized in substitution for a fundamentally sound safety and health program.
Once the safety and health professional has identified the methodology through
which to energize his or her organizational team, the implementation stage is vital
in order to establish the appropriate momentum toward your safety and health objectives. Momentum in your safety and health efforts, just as in sports, is often elusive
and can shift at any time. Maintaining the momentum toward the safety and health
objectives is essential to achieving the cultural change among and between all levels
and all individuals within your operations.
Safety and health professionals should also be cognizant to the subtle changes,
both positive and negative, within the operations and safety and health function. As
your workforce becomes empowered and positively motivated toward the achievement of the objective, often small and/or subtle changes from internal as well as
external sources can impact the overall effectiveness of the safety and health efforts.
Safety and health professionals, just as coaches in sporting activities, must “have
their finger on the pulse” of the team and strategically initiate those activities or
modifications necessary to keep the team on track and energized.
In virtually every study, positive motivations achieve better results than negative
reinforcement. Within the safety and health area, negative reinforcement is required
for compliance purposes; however, it is often up to the safety and health professional to design and develop positive reinforcement activities. These activities can be
part of the overall empowerment and motivational activities, or separate and more
Achievement Is Addictive
129
personalized activities. For example, a simple “pat on the back,” a smile, and “good
job” to an employee, or related positive act. Safety and health professionals should
be on the constant lookout for ways to inject positive motivational acts and activities
within the overall safety and health efforts.
At every stage of the safety and health effort, all levels within the organization
should be provided timely and accurate feedback as to their safety and health status.
This feedback should be positively couched and not personally directed. As with any
challenge, safety and health professionals should be cognizant of the peer pressure
that may develop, both positive and negative, and manage this pressure appropriately.
And with Gen Y employees and the increasing utilization of social media, safety
and health professionals should be cognizant of information and activities initiated
within the context of the workplace which may evolve within the social media space.
Above all, safety and health professionals want to instill a sense of pride and
ownership in the safety and health function at all levels within the organizations.
Motivated, empowered employees can change the thinking as well as the culture
within the workplace and create a working environment that is truly beneficial to all
and far beyond the boundaries initiated within the safety and health function. With
the safety and health professional as the coach, the team will only progress as far as
the coach trains, motivates, and prepares the players. Once equipped with the skills,
abilities, and motivation by the coach, the players play the game and utilize these
skills and abilities to achieve the established objectives.
Safety and health professionals should also take pride in what we do. Safety and
health professionals have an impact on every employee within the operations. The
safety and health professional sets the tone and example for the every day safety and
health efforts. The safety and health professional is the coach, the strategist, and
the motivator. These important functions are never reflected in the job description,
however are essential functions of the safety and health profession. Safety and health
is as much an art as it is a science!
31
Lost but Not Forgotten
Greater even than the greatest discovery is to keep open the way to future
discovery.
John Jacob Abel
An inventor is an engineer who doesn’t take his education too seriously.
Charles F. Kettering
Safety and health professionals sometimes find themselves in compliance predicaments where there is no guidance within the Occupational Safety and Health
standards or the situation may be in violation of a specific standard; however, compliance cannot be achieved under the circumstances. The safety and health professional has identified the situation as a potential risk and the situation possesses a
high probability of being cited under a specific standard or under the general duty
clause.* All potentially applicable standards have been analyzed, but there is just
not a good fit. What is the safety and health professional supposed to do?
One possible solution that creative safety and health professionals may want to
explore is the use of a variance action. In short, a variance allows the safety and health
professional to analyze the unique situation and offer alternative methods through
which to create a safe and healthful working environment outside of the specific
standard.
OSHA’S VARIANCE PROGRAM
A variance is a regulatory action that permits an employer to deviate from the requirements of an OSHA standard under specified conditions. A variance does not provide
an outright exemption from a standard, except in cases involving national defense as
described below. Sections 6 and 16 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
(OSH Act), and the implementing rules contained in the Code of Federal Regulations
(29 CFR 1905 and 1904.38), authorized variances from the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) standards. An employer or class of employers may
request a variance for any specific workplaces. Employers can request a variance
for many reasons, including not being able to fully comply on time with a new safety
or health standard because of a shortage of personnel, materials, or equipment.
Employers may prefer to use methods, equipment, or facilities that they believe protect
workers as well as, or better than, OSHA standards.
The Office of Technical Programs and Coordination Activities (OTPCA) in OSHA’s
Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management (DTSEM) receives and
processes variance applications. OTPCA processes variance applications in close
collaboration with other affected regional offices and directorates. OSHA’s mandate is to ensure that employers’ alternatives for worker protection proposed in their
* Sec. 5, 29 U.S.C. 654 (1970).
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Creative Safety Solutions
variance applications are as effective in providing worker protection as the standards
from which the employers are seeking a variance.
For questions about the variance process contact OSHA at [email protected]
dol.gov.*
Safety and health professionals should be aware that there are several different
types of variance actions to consider, including permanent variances, temporary
variances, experimental variances, as well as variances for National Defense and
recordkeeping as well as interim orders that often accompany the variance actions.
Safety and health professionals should carefully analyze their unique situation and
draft the written request specifically identifying the unique situation, any/all applicable standards, type of variance requested, and posting of notice and related information. It is important that safety and health professionals carefully analyze and
research the situation with attention to applicable standards, interpretations, similar
variance actions, and related research before applying for a variance.
HOW TO APPLY FOR A VARIANCE
OSHA developed four variance application forms and four corresponding application
checklists. Use of the forms can significantly reduce the burden of wading through the
complexity of federal standards in order to interpret and understand the information
requirements associated with applying for a variance. When used together with the
appropriate application forms the checklists can prevent common errors likely to
occur in completing variance applications. The forms are based on the Occupational
Safety and Health (OSH) Act and the implementing rules (for further information and
links see Variance Application Checklists and Forms below).
As the regulations do not specify a format, the application also can be prepared and
submitted in the form of a letter with the following information included:
• An explicit request for a variance.
• The specific standard from which the employer is seeking the variance.
• Whether the employer is applying for a permanent, temporary, experimental, national defense, or recordkeeping variance, and an interim order. (If the
application is for a temporary variance, state when the employer will be
able to comply with the OSHA standard.)
• A statement of the alternative means of compliance with the standard from
which the applicant is seeking the variance. The statement must contain
sufficient detail to support, by a preponderance of the evidence, a conclusion that the employer’s proposed alternate methods, conditions, practices,
operations, or processes would provide workers with protection that is at
least equivalent to the protection afforded to them by the standard from
which the employer is ­seeking the variance. (National defense variances do
not require such a statement, and the statement submitted by an employer
applying for a temporary variance must demonstrate that the employer is
taking all available steps to safeguard workers.)
• The employer’s address, as well as the site location(s) that the variance will
cover.
• A certification that the employer notified employees using the methods specified in the appropriate variance regulation.
* OSHA Web site located at http://www.osha.gov
Lost but Not Forgotten
133
Submit the original of the completed application, as well as other relevant
documents,* to:
By regular mail:
Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health
Director Office of Technical Programs and Coordination Activities
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
U.S. Department of Labor
Room N3655
200 Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20210
By facsimile:
202 693-1644
Electronic (email):
[email protected]†
In some states, safety and health professionals may also acquire the assistance of
the education and training divisions of their applicable state plan program. In many
states, the education and training division is provided as a no-cost assistance to
employers to provide consultation and training opportunities. In most education and
training divisions, the consultant cannot cite the employer unless there is imminent
danger or the employer refuses to correct the identified hazard. Below please find
the mission of the Education and Training Division of the Kentucky Labor Cabinet,
Education and Training Division.
The mission of Education and Training is to do everything possible to make the commonwealth of Kentucky’s workplace a safer and healthier environment. We are seeking
an environment where employees can complete their work day and go home uninjured, as healthy as when they started the work day. To accomplish this, it is essential
to increase awareness of the services that the Division of Education and Training,
Kentucky OSH offers, to provide FREE safety and health training to more employers
and employees and provide FREE confidential safety and health consultation services
to facilities and organizations or groups requesting those services.
To make this goal a reality, we are offering FREE population center training opportunities and presenting them in areas of the state wherever we are invited. We are
offering training opportunities across the state on regulation changes. Our FREE and
confidential safety and health consultation services are available upon request. We
are continuously updating reference materials and staying in touch with the needs of
Kentucky.
The Division of Education and Training has some of the most experienced and
well-trained safety and health consultants in the nation. Our consultants are constantly
* Other documents may include photos, blueprints, drawings, models, reports, data, and other information and evidence necessary to describe the proposed alternative, and to demonstrate the level of
employee protection it provides.
† Id.
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Creative Safety Solutions
striving to improve expertise through training and interactions with other experts to
provide the highest level of service to the citizens and employers of Kentucky.
You can assist us in our mission to make Kentucky a safer workplace by taking
advantage of the resources offered by the Division of Education and Training and the
highly qualified and capable consultants that are available and FREE to assist you.
View our Web site or contact this office for more information on what we can do to
assist you.*
Safety and health professionals should never stop attempting to find solutions
in creating and maintaining a safe and healthful workplace for their employees.
Although OSHA and state plan standards may not be applicable or may be in conflict with the unique situation at hand, working with your regional OSHA office or
state plan office often yields workable solutions and avoids the potential of penalties.
Creative safety and health professionals should “leave no stone unturned” in finding
solutions to potential risks in the workplace.
* Kentucky Labor Cabinet Web site (http://www.labor.ky.gov).
32
Back to Basics
Initiative is to success what a lighted match is to a candle.
Orlando A. Battista
When the ancients said a work well begun was half done, they meant to impress
the importance of always endeavoring to make a good beginning.
Polybius
Given the volume of issues, the complexity of these issues, the limited time and
resources, and many other factors, safety and health professionals may need to “go
back to basics” when starting a new program or retooling an existing program. If in
doubt, go back to the foundation. The “tried-and-true” elements of a safety and
health program have worked successfully for over 45 years and will continue to work
in creating and maintaining safe and healthful work environments for companies
and employees.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recently published the
new Injury and Illness Prevention Program (known as “I2P2”) and identified in the
2014 Congressional Budget Justification publication* that OSHA considered the Injury
and Illness Prevention Program (I2P2) rule as OSHA’s highest priority. However, as of
2015, I2Ps has not been enacted into law.
The injury and Illness Prevention program provides many of the basic priorities
commonly utilized by safety and health professionals. As identified by OSHA, the
six major elements of an effective injury and illness prevention program include
1. Management Leadership
2. Worker Participation
3. Hazard Identification and Assessment
4. Hazard Prevention and Control
5. Education and Training
6. Program Evaluation and Improvement†
The identified common elements are the basic foundation upon which a safety and
health professional can build a successful safety and health program. Although all
of the identified elements are important, the lynchpin of any successful safety and
health program is the leadership of the management team as well as the funding and
support to permit the development of the other essential elements. Under I2P2, each
of the elements are further clarified:
Management Leadership
• Establish clear safety and health goals for the program and define the
actions needed to achieve those goals.
* OSHA Web site located at http://www.osha.gov
† OSHA Web site located at http://www.osha.gov
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Creative Safety Solutions
• Designate one or more individuals with overall responsibility for implementing and maintaining the program.
• Provide sufficient resources to ensure effective program implementation.
Worker Participation
• Consult with workers in developing and implementing the program and
involve them in updating and evaluating the program.
• Include workers in workplace inspections and incident investigations.
• Encourage workers to report concerns, such as hazards, injuries, illnesses
and near misses.
• Protect the rights of workers who participate in the program.
Hazard Identification and Assessment
• Identify, assess and document workplace hazards by soliciting input from workers, inspecting the workplace and reviewing available information on hazards.
• Investigate injuries and illnesses to identify hazards that may have caused them.
• Inform workers of the hazards in the workplace.
Hazard Prevention and Control
• Establish and implement a plan to prioritize and control hazards identified
in the workplace.
• Provide interim controls to protect workers from any hazards that cannot be
controlled immediately.
• Verify that all control measures are implemented and are effective.
• Discuss the hazard control plan with affected workers.
Education and Training
• Provide education and training to workers in a language and vocabulary
they can understand to ensure that they know
• Procedures for reporting injuries, illnesses and safety and health c­ oncerns.
• How to recognize hazards.
• Ways to eliminate, control or reduce hazards.
• Elements of the program.
• How to participate in the program.
• Conduct refresher education and training programs periodically.
Program Evaluation and Improvement
• Conduct a periodic review of the program to determine if it has been implemented as designed and is making progress towards achieving its goals.
• Modify the program, as necessary, to correct deficiencies.
• Continuously look for ways to improve the program.*
Although the elements espoused in OSHA’s Injury and Illness Prevention Program
would appear basic and foundational for most experienced safety and health professionals, it is essential that safety and health professionals ensure that these foundational
elements have not “sprung a leak” and are functioning appropriately. Most successful safety and health programs have built upon these foundational elements and have
advanced far beyond the basics. However, it is imperative to cultivate the culture of
continuous improvement to ensure that your safety and health programs are functioning at maximum efficiency and effectiveness on a daily basis in order to safeguard all
employees in the workplace.
* OSHA Web site located at http://www.osha.gov/dsg/topics
Appendix A: Potential Sources
of Assistance through Local
Colleges and Universities
Auburn University
Leo A. “Tony” Smith, Professor
Industrial Engineering Department
College of Engineering
Auburn University
207 Danston Hall
Auburn, AL 36849-5346
205-844-1415
BS/MIE/MS/PCD, Industrial Engineering with concentration in Safety
and Ergonomics
University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa
Dr. Paul S. Ray, Assistant Professor
Industrial Engineering Department
P.O. Box 870288
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0288
205-346-1603
BS/MS, Industrial Engineering
University of Alabama, Birmingham
Joan Gennin, Program Administrator
Department of Environmental Health Sciences
School of Public Health
Titmell Hall
Birmingham, AL 35294-0008
205-934-8488
MPH/PhD/DrPH, Environmental Health Sciences
MSPH/PhD Industrial Hygiene; Environmental Toxicology
MPH/DrPH, Occupational Health and Safety
137
138
Jacksonville State University
J. Fred Williams, Program Director
Department of Technology
Jacksonville State University
Room 217 Self Hall
700 Pelham Road North
Jacksonville, AL 36265
205-782-5080
Occupational Safety and Health Technology
University of North Alabama
Dr. Robert Gaunder, Professor
Chemistry/Industrial Hygiene
UNA Box 5049
Florence, AL 35632
205-760-4474
BS, Industrial Hygiene
Gateway Community College
Ginger Jackson, Program Director
Industrial Technology Division
Gateway Community College
108 N. 40th Street
Phoenix, AZ 85034
602-392-5000
AA, Occupational Safety and Health
Southern Arkansas University
James A. Collier, Program Head
School of Science and Technology
100 East University
Magnolia, AR 71753
501-235-4284
BS, Industrial Technology
University of California, Berkeley
Jeanne Bronk, Coordinator
Environmental Health Science Program
School of Public Health
Berkeley, CA 94720
510-643-5160
MS/MPH/PhD, Environmental Health
Appendix A
Appendix A
California State University, Fresno
Dr. Sanford Brown, Advisor
Environmental Health Science Program
2345 E. San Ramon
Fresno, CA 93740-0030
209-278-4747
BS, Environmental Health
California State University, Fresno
Dr. Michael Waite, Advisor
Occupational Safety and Health Program
2345 E. San Ramon
Fresno, CA 93740-0030
209-278-5093
BS, Occupational Safety and Health
University of Southern California
William J. Petak, Professor
Institute of Safety and Systems Management Building
University Park
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0021
213-740-2411
BS/MS, Safety and Health
California State University, Los Angeles
Dr. Carlton Blanton, Professor
Health and Science Department
5151 State University Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90032
213-343-4740
BS, Health Science; Occupational Safety and Health
MA, Occupational Safety and Health
Certificate, Occupational Safety and Health; Environmental Health, Alcohol,
and Drug Problems
California State University, Northridge
Brian Malec, Chair
Health Science Department
18111 Nordhoft Street
Northridge, CA 91330
818-885-3100
BS/MS, Environmental Health
139
140
Appendix A
Merritt College
Larry Gurley, Assistant Dean
Technical Division
12500 Campus Drive
Oakland, CA 94619
510-436-2409
AS, Occupational Safety and Health
National University
Ernest Wendi, Program Chair
Management and Technology
Department of Computers and Technology
Suite 205
4141 Camino Del Rio South
San Diego, CA 92108
619-563-7124
BS/MS, Occupational Health and Safety
Colorado State University
Kenneth Blehm, Coordinator
Department of Environmental Health
College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedicine
Fort Collins, CO 80523
303-491-7038
BS/MS/PhD, Environmental Health
Red Rocks Community College
Anne-Mario Edwards, Department Coordinator
Department of Occupational Safety Technology
Campus Box 41
13300 W. 6th Avenue
Lakewood, CO 80401-5398
303-914-6338
MS, Occupational Safety Technology
Certificate, Occupational Safety Technology
Trinidad State Junior College
Charles McGlothlin, Associate Professor
Occupational Safety Department
600 Prospect Street
Trinidad, CO 81082
719-846-5502
AAS, Occupational Safety and Health Certificate, Occupational Safety and
Health
Appendix A
Central Connecticut State University
Andrew Baron, Assistant Dean
Occupational Safety Health Department, School of Technology
1615 Stanley Street
New Britain, CT 06050
203-827-7997
BS, Occupational Safety and Health; Public Safety
University of New Haven
Dr. Garher, Director
Department of Occupational Safety and Health
300 Orange Avenue
West Haven, CT 06516
203-932-7175
AS/BS, Occupational Safety and Health Administration; Occupational Safety
and Health Technology
MS, Occupational Safety and Health Management; Industrial Hygiene
Florida International University
Gabriel Aurioles, Professor
Construction Management Department
University Park VH230
107th and 8th Avenue
Miami, FL 33199
305-348-3542
BS/MS, Construction Management
Miami-Dade Community College
Wilfred J. Muniz, Director
Fire Science Technology
Academy of Science
Miami-Dade Community College
11380 NW 27th Avenue
Miami, FL 33167
305-237-1400
AS, Fire Science Technology, Fire Science Administration
Hillsborough Community College
Keith Day, Coordinator
Fire Safety Department
R.D. Box 5096
Tampa, FL 33675-5096
813-253-7628
AS, Fire Science Technology
141
142
University of Florida
Dr. Richard Coble, Associate Professor
M.E. Rinker Senior
School of Building Construction
FAC 100/BON
Gainesville, FL 32611-2032
352-392-7521
MS, Building Construction with concentration in Construction Safety
University of Florida
Dr. Joseph J. Delsino, Chair
Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences
P.O. Box 116450
Gainesville, FL 32611-6450
352-392-0841
BS/MS/PhD, Environmental Engineering
University of Georgia
Harold Barnhart, Coordinator
Environmental Health Science
Room 206
Dairy Science Building
Athens, GA 30602-2102
706-542-2454
BS, Environmental Health Science
Georgia Institute of Technology
Dr. Leland Riggs, Associate Director/Academic
Graduate Program of Environmental Engineering
School of Civil Engineering
790 Atlantic Drive
Atlanta, GA 30332
404-894-2000
MS/PhD, Environmental Engineering
University of Hawaii
Arthor Kodama, Department Chair
Environmental and Occupational Health Program
Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health
1960 East-West Road
Honolulu, HI 96822
808-956-7425
MS/MPH, Environmental Health
Appendix A
Appendix A
143
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale
Keith Contor, Associate Professor
Department of Technology
Carbondale, IL 62901
618-536-3396
BS, Industrial Technology
University of Illinois, Chicago
Dr. William Hallenbeck, Director
Industrial Hygiene Programs, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences,
School of Public Health West
2121 W. Taylor
Chicago, IL 60612
312-996-8855
MS/PhD, Safety Engineering; Environmental Health; Industrial Hygiene;
Industrial Safety
Northern Illinois University
Earl Hansen, Chair
Department of Technology
Still Hall, Room 203
DeKalb, IL 60115-1349
815-753-0579
BS, Industrial Technology with concentration in Safety
MS, Industrial Management with concentration in Safety or Industrial Hygiene
PhD, Education with concentration in Safety
Western Illinois University
Dan Sigwart, Professor
Health Sciences Department
402 Stipes Hall
Macomb, IL 61455
309-298-2240
BS, Health Science with minor in Industrial Safety
Illinois State University
Edmond Corner, Director
Safety Studies
Department of Health Sciences
College of Applied Science and Technology
Mail Code 5220
Normal, IL 61790-5220
309-438-8329
BS, Safety, Environmental Health
144
University of Illinois, Champaign
Vernon Snoeyink, Supervisor
Environmental Engineering and Science Program
Civil Engineering Department
3230 Newmark CE Lab
205 N. Matthews
Urbana, IL 61801
217-333-6968
BS/MS, Civil Engineering with Environmental emphasis
Indiana University
James W. Crowe, Chair
Hazard Control Program
Applied Health Science/HCP
School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation
HPER 116
Bloomington, IN 47405
812-855-2429
AS, Hazard Control
BS, Occupational Safety and Health
MS, Safety Management
HSD, Safety Education
Indiana State University
John Doty, Chair
Industrial Health and Safety Management Program
Applied Health Science Department
School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation
Terre Haute, IN 47809
812-237-3079
BS, Safety Management; Environmental Health
MS, Health and Safety
Purdue University
Dr. Paul Ziemer, Department Head
School of Health Sciences
1163 Civil Engineering Building
West Lafayette, IN 47907
317-494-1392
BS, Environmental Health; Environmental Engineering
BS/MS/PhD, Industrial Hygiene; Health Physics
Appendix A
Appendix A
145
Purdue University
William E. Field, Professor
Department of Agricultural Engineering
1146 Agricultural Engineering Building
West Lafayette, IN 47907-1146
317-494-1173
MS/PhD, Agricultural Safety and Health
Iowa State University
Jack Beno, Coordinator
Occupational Safety Program
School of Education
Industrial Education Building 2
Room 122
Ames, IA 50010
515-294-5945
BS, Occupational Safety and Health
Western Kentucky University
Donald Carter, Coordinator
Occupational Health and Safety Program
Department of Public Health
1 Big Red Way
Bowling Green, KY 42101
502-745-5854
AS, Occupational Safety and Health
BS, Industrial Technology with concentration in Occupational Safety and Health
Morehead State University
Dr. Brian Reeder, Coordinator
Department of Biological-Environmental Sciences
Morehead, KY 40351
606-783-2945
BS, Environmental Studies
Murray State University
David G. Kraemer, Chair
Occupational Safety and Health Department
P.O. Box 9
Murray, KY 42071
502-762-2488
BS/MS, Occupational Safety and Health
146
Appendix A
Eastern Kentucky University
Larry Collins, Coordinator
Fire and Safety Engineering Technology Program
Loss Prevention and Safety Department
College of Law Enforcement
220 Stratton Building
Richmond, KY 40475
606-622-1051
AA, Fire and Safety
BS, Fire and Arson; Industrial Risk Management; Fire Protection Administration;
Fire Protection Engineering Technology; Insurance and Risk Management
MS, Loss Prevention and Safety
Louisiana State University
Lalit Verma, Department Head
Department of Agriculture-Engineering
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
504-388-3153
BS, Industrial and Agricultural Technology
Nicholls State University
Michael Flowers, Program Coordinator
Petroleum Services Department
P.O. Box 2148
University Station
Thibodaux, LA 70301
504-448-4740
AS, Petroleum Safety
University of Southwestern Louisiana
Thomas E. Landry, Associate Professor
Department of Industrial Technology
P.O. Box 42972
Lafayette, LA 70504
318-482-6968
BS, Industrial Technology with concentration in Safety
Central Maine Technical College
Patricia Vampatella, Assistant Dean
Occupational Health and Safety Department
1250 Turner Street
Auburn, ME 04210
207-784-2385
AAS, Applied Science
Appendix A
Johns Hopkins University
Dr. Patrick Breysse, Director
School of Hygiene and Public Health Environmental Sciences
615 N. Wolfe Street
Baltimore, MD 21205
410-955-3602
MHS/PhD, Environmental Health, Engineering, and Safety Sciences;
Industrial Hygiene and Safety Sciences
Salisbury State University
Elichia A. Venso, Assistant Professor
Environmental Health Department
Salisbury, MD 21801
410-543-6490
BS, Environmental Health
University of Maryland
Dr. Steven Spivak, Chair
Department of Fire Protection Engineering
Room 0151, Engineering Classroom Building
A. James Clark School of Engineering
Glenn L. Martin Institute of Technology
College Park, MD 20742-3031
301-405-6651
BS, MS, ME, Fire Protection Engineering
North Shore Community College
Frank Ryan, Chair
Fire Protection Safety Department
1 Ferncroft Road
Danvers, MA 01923
508-762-4000, ext. 5562
AA, Fire Protection Safety Technology
University of Massachusetts
Dr. Michael Ellenbecker, Coordinator
Work Environments Department
1 University Avenue
Lowell, MA 01854
508-934-3250
MS, Engineering with concentration in Industrial Hygiene and Ergonomics
MS/ScD, Engineering with concentration in Work Environments and Safety
Ergonomics
147
148
Tufts University
John Kreilfeldt, Professor
Human Factors Program, Mechanical Engineering Department
College of Engineering
Anderson Hall
Medford, MA
617-628-5000, ext. 2209
BS, Engineering Psychology
MS/PhD, Human Factors
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
David Lucht, Director
Fire Protection Engineering, Center for Fire Safety Studies
100 Institute Road
Worcester, MA 01609
508-831-5593
MS/PhD, Fire Protection Engineering
Henry Ford Community College
Sally Goodwin, Director
Management Development Division
22586 Ann Arbor Trail
Dearborn Heights, MI 48127
313-730-5960
AS, Fire Science
AA, Property Assessment
Wayne State University
Dr. David Bassett, Chair
Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences
College of Pharmacy and Allied Health
628 Shapero Hall
Detroit, MI 48202
313-577-1551
MS, Occupational and Environmental Health
Madonna University
Florence Schaldenbrand, Chair
Physical and Applied Sciences
College of Science and Mathematics
36600 Schoolcraft Road
Livonia, MI 48150-1173
313-591-5110
AS/BS, Occupational Safety, Health, and Fire Science
Appendix A
Appendix A
Central Michigan University
Louis Ecker, Professor
Department of Industrial and Engineering Technology
Mount Pleasant, MI 48859
517-774-6443
BS, Applied Science with minor in Industrial Safety
MS, Industrial Management and Technology
Oakland University
Dr. Sherryl Schutz, Director
Industrial Health Program
School of Health Sciences
Rochester, MI 48309-4401
313-370-4038
BS, Industrial Safety
Grand Valley State University
Dr. Eric Van Fleet, Director
Occupational Safety and Health Program
School of Health Sciences
1 Campus Drive
Allendale, MI 49401-9403
616-895-3318
BS, Occupational Safety and Health
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Frances Bourdas, Graduate Program Assistant
Industrial Operations Engineering
1205 Beal Avenue, IDE Building
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2117
313-764-6480
BS/MS/MSE/PhD, Industrial and Operations Engineering
MS, Engineering/Occupational Ergonomics
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Dr. Richard Garrison, Director
Environmental and Industrial Health Department
School of Public Health
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2117
313-764-2594
MS/MPH, Industrial Hygiene
MPH/PhD, Environmental Health
149
150
Appendix A
Ferris State University
Lori A. Seller, Assistant Professor
College of Applied Health Sciences
200 Ferris Drive
Big Rapids, MI 49307
616-592-2307
BS, Industrial Safety and Environmental Health
University of Minnesota, Duluth
Bernard DeRobels, Director
Master of Industrial Safety Program
Department of Industrial Engineering
105 Voss-Kovach Hall
Duluth, MN 55812
218-726-8117
MIS, Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Safety
University of Minnesota
Kathy Soupir, Coordinator
Environmental and Occupational Health
School of Public Health
R.D. Box 807, UMHC
Minneapolis, MN 55455
612-625-0622
MS/PhD, Environmental Health
University of Southern Mississippi
Dr. Emmanuel Ahua, Program Director
Center for Community Health
College of Health and Human Sciences
Box 5122 Southern Station
Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5122
601-266-5437
MPH, Public Health with concentration in Occupational and Environmental Health
Central Missouri State
Dr. John J. Prince, Department Head
Safety Science and Technology Department
Humpreys Building, Room 325
Warrensburg, MO 64093
816-543-4626
BS, Safety Management
BS/MS, Industrial Hygiene
MS, Transportation Safety; Fire Science; Public Service Administration; Security;
Industrial Safety Management
ED, Safety
Appendix A
St. Louis Community College, Forest Park
Emil Hrhacek, Coordinator
Municipal Services
5600 Oakland
St. Louis, MO 63110
314-644-9310
AA, Fire Protection Safety
Montana Tech
Julie B. Norman, Department Head
Occupational Safety and Health/Industrial Hygiene Department
1300 W. Park Street
Butte, MT 59701
406-496-4393
AS/BS, Occupational Safety and Health
BS, Environmental Engineering
MS, Industrial Hygiene
University of Nebraska, Kearney
Darrel Jensen, Director
Nebraska Safety Center, West Center
Kearney, NE 68849
308-234-8256
BS, Safety Education; Occupational Safety and Health; Transportation Safety;
Driver Education
Community College of Southern Nevada
Sonny Lyerly, Chair
Department of Mathematics, Health and Human Services
6375 W. Charleston
Las Vegas, NV 89102
702-643-6060, ext. 439
AAS, Fire Science Technology
Keene State College
David Buck, Director
Safety Center
Keene State College
229 Main Street
Keene, NH 03431
603-358-2977
AS, Chemical Dependency
BS, Industrial Safety; Occupational Safety and Health
151
152
Appendix A
Camden County College
Matthew Davies, Coordinator
Information Services
R.D. Box 200
Blackwood, NJ 08012
609-227-7200, ext. 251
AA, Occupational Safety; Fire Science
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Frank Haughey, Director
Radiation Science Program
Building 4087
Livingston Campus
New Brunswick, NJ 08093
908-932-2551
BS/MS, Radiation Science
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Howard Gage, Director/Associate Professor
Occupational Safety and Health Department of Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering
University Heights
Newark, NJ 07102
201-596-3653
MS, Occupational Safety and Health
Thomas Edison State College
Janice Touver, Admissions
Applied Science and Technology
101 W. State Street
Trenton, NJ 08608-1176
609-984-1150
AS/BS, Fire Protection Science; Environmental Science and Technology;
Industrial Engineering Technology
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
Dr. Clint Richardson, Associate Professor
Department of Mineral and Environmental Engineering
801 Leroy
Socorro, NM 87801
505-835-5345
BS, Environmental Engineering
Appendix A
153
Broome Community College
Francis Short, Chair
Special Career Programs Department
R.D. Box 1017
Binghamton, NY 13902
607-778-5000
AAS, Fire Protection Safety
Mercy College
Dr. Joe Sullivan, Chair
Criminal Justice and Public Safety Department
Social Science Building
555 Broadway
Dobbs Ferry, NY 10522
914-674-7320
BS, Public Safety Certificates, Fire Science, OSHA, Public Safety, Private Security
New York University
Katie B. Shadow, Graduate Coordinator
Environmental Health Sciences Program
Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine
A.J. Lanza Laboratories
Long Meadow Road
Tuxedo, NY 10987
914-351-5480
MS, Occupational and Industrial Hygiene
PhD, Environmental Health Sciences
State University of New York
John Tiedemann, Department Head
College of Technology
Department of Industrial Technology-Facility Management Technology
State Route 110
Farmingdale, NY 11735
516-420-2326
BS, Industrial Technology
Columbia University
Anne Hutzelmann, Administrative Assistant
Division of Environmental Sciences
Columbia University
188th Street
New York, NY 10032
212-305-3464
MS/DrPH, Public Health
154
Appendix A
University of Rochester
Mary Wahlman, Coordinator
Department of Biophysics
School of Medicine
Rochester, NY 14642
716-275-3891
MS, Environmental Studies; Industrial Hygiene
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
David Leith, Program Director
Environmental Sciences and Engineering
School of Public Health
201 Columbia Street
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400
919-966-3844
BSPH/PhD, Environmental Science and Policy
MS, Public Health
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Larry Hyde, Deputy Director
Research Center
109 Conners Drive, #1101
Chapel Hill, NC 27514
919-962-2101
Continuing Education in Occupational Health and Safety
private seminars
Central Piedmont Community College
Andy Nichols, Director
Industrial Safety
R.D. Box 35009
Charlotte, NC 28235-5009
704-342-6582
AA, Industrial Safety
Western Carolina University
Robert Dailey, Coordinator
Occupational Safety Program
Industrial and Engineering Technology Department
226 Belk Building
Cullowhee, NC 28723
704-227-7272
BS, Electronics Engineering Technology; Industrial Technology; Manufacturing
Engineering Technology; Industrial Distribution
MS, Technology
Appendix A
North Carolina A&T State University
Dillip Shah, Coordinator
Department of Construction Management and Safety
Price Hall, Room 124
Greensboro, NC 27411
919-334-7586
BS, Occupational Safety and Health
East Carolina University
Dr. Mark Friend, Program Director
Department of Industrial Technology
105 Flanagan
Greenville, NC 27858
919-328-4249
BS, Environmental Health with option in Industrial Hygiene
MSIT, Occupational Safety
North Carolina State University
Richard G. Pearson, Professor
Department of Industrial Engineering
Box 7906
Raleigh, NC 27695
919-515-6410
PhD, Industrial Engineering with concentration in Ergonomics
North Dakota State College of Science
Linda Johnson, Instructor
800 N. 8th Street
Wahpeton, ND 58076
701-671-2202
AS, Industrial Hygiene; Occupational Health and Safety
University of Akron
Dr. David H. Hoover, Program Head
Fire Protection Program
Division of Public Service Technology
Akron, OH 44325-4304
216-972-7789
AAS, Fire Protection Technology; 2+2 option in Technical Education
BS, Fire Protection
155
156
Appendix A
University of Cincinnati
William M. Kraemer, Director
College of Applied Science
2220 Victory Parkway, ML 103
Cincinnati, OH 45206
513-556-6583
AAS, Fire Science Technology
BS, Fire Science Engineering
University of Cincinnati
Dr. Rod Simmons, Assistant Research Professor
Department of Mechanical, Industrial, and Nuclear Engineering
Mail Location 116
Cincinnati, OH 45221-0116
513-556-2738
MS/PhD, Industrial Engineering with concentration in Occupational Safety
Stark Technical College
Cameron H. Speck, Program Developer
Safety/Risk Management
Continuing Education
6200 Frank Avenue, N.W.
Canton, OH 44720
216-494-6170
AS, Engineering Technology; Allied Health
Wright State University
Allan Burton, Director
Environmental Health Sciences Program
Biological Sciences Department
Colonel Glenn Highway
Dayton, OH 45435
513-873-2655
BS, Environmental Sciences
Wright State University
Dr. Jennie Gallimore, Associate Professor
Department of Biomedical and Human Factors Engineering
College of Engineering
207 Russ Center
Dayton, OH 45435
513-873-5044
BS, Human Factors Engineering
Appendix A
East Central University
Dr. Paul Woodson, Chair
Environmental Science Program
Physical and Environmental Sciences Department
Ada, OK 74820
405-332-8000, ext. 547
BS, Environmental Science with concentrations in Environmental Health,
Industrial Hygiene, and Environmental Management
University of Central Oklahoma
Dr. Lou Ebrite, Department Chair
Occupational and Technology Education Department
College of Education
100 N. University Drive
Edmond, OK 73034-0185
405-341-5009
BS, Industrial Safety
University of Oklahoma
Deborah Imel Nelson, Program Head
Civil Engineering and Environmental Science Department
202 W. Boyd Street, Room 334
Norman, OK 73109
405-325-5911
MS, Environmental Science
University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City
Robert Nelson, Associate Professor
Occupational and Environmental Health Department
P.O. Box 26901
Oklahoma City, OK 73190
405-271-2070
MS/MPH, Environmental Management; Environmental Toxicology;
Industrial Hygiene
Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Dr. Robert Semonisck, Professor
School of Applied Science and Technology
Station A
Durant, OK 74702
405-924-0121, ext. 2464
BS, Occupational Safety and Health
157
158
Appendix A
Oklahoma State University
Dr. Don Adams, Coordinator
Fire Protection and Safety Technology Department
303 Campus Fire Station
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078
405-744-5639
BS, Fire Protection and Safety Engineering Technology
Mount Hood Community College
Dr. David Mohtasham, Coordinator
ESHM Program
Route 26,000 S.E. Stark Street
Gresham, OR 97030
503-667-7440
AAS, Environmental Safety and Hazardous Materials Management
Southwestern Oregon Community College
Darryl Saxton, Coordinator
Fire Science Program
Coos Bay, OR 97420
503-888-2525
AAS, Fire Protection
Oregon State University
Dave Lawson, Associate Professor
Safety Studies Program
Department of Public Health
Oregon State University
Waldo Hall, Room 256
Corvallis, OR 97331-6406
503-737-2686
BS, Environmental Health and Safety
MS, Safety Management; Environmental Health Management with concentration in
Occupational Safety
PhD, Health
Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Dr. Robert Soule, Chair
Safety Science Department
College of Health and Human Science
117 Johnson Hall
Indiana, PA 15705
412-357-3019
BS/MS, Safety Sciences
Appendix A
159
Millersville University of Pennsylvania
Dr. Paul Specht, Coordinator
Department of Industry and Technology
Millersville University of Pennsylvania
P.O. Box 1002
Millersville, PA 17551
717-872-3981
BS, Occupational Safety and Hygiene Management
Northampton Community College
Kent Zimmerman, Program Director
Safety, Health and Environmental Technology
3835 Green Pond Road
Bethlehem, PA 18017
610-861-5590
AAS, Applied Science with concentrations in Safety, Health, and Environmental
Technology
Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania
Dr. Joseph Calli, Chair
Allied Health Department
Behavioral Science Building, Room 208
Slippery Rock, PA 16057
412-738-2017
BS, Safety and Environmental Management
Francis Marion University
Dr. W.H. Breazeale, Department Head
Department of Chemistry and Physics
R.D. Box 100547
Florence, SC 29501
803-661-1440
BS, Health Physics
University of South Carolina, Columbia
Dr. Edward Oswald, Professor
Department of Environmental Health
School of Public Health Sciences
Health Sciences Building, Room 311B
Columbia, SC 29208
803-777-4120
MSPH/MPH/PhD, Occupational Health; Environmental Duality; Hazardous
Materials Management
160
East Tennessee State University
Creg Bishop, Interim Chair
Environmental Health Department
College of Public and Allied Health
Johnson City, TN 37614
615-929-4268
BS/MS, Environmental Health Minor in Safety
Middle Tennessee State University
Dr. Richard Redditt, Professor
Industrial Studies Department
P.O. Box 19
Murfreesboro, TN 37132
615-898-2776
MS, Industrial Studies with concentration in Safety
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Charles Hamilton, Chair
Health, Leisure, and Safety Department
1914 Andy Holt Drive
Knoxville, TN 37996-2700
615-974-6041
BS/MS/EdD/PhD, Health Education
MS/EdS, Safety Education
MS, Public Health
Lamar University
Dr. Victor Zalcom, Department Chair
Industrial Engineering
P.O. Box 10032-LUS
Beaumont, TX 77710
409-880-8804
BS, Industrial Technology; Industrial Engineering
University of Houston, Clearlake
Dr. Dennis Casserly, Associate Professor
Division of Natural Sciences
2700 Bay Area Boulevard
Houston, TX 77058
713-283-3775
BS, Environmental Science
Appendix A
Appendix A
Texas A & M University
Dr. James Rock, Associate Professor
Safety Division
Nuclear Engineering
College Station, TX 77843-3133
409-862-4409
BS/MS, Safety Engineering; Industrial Hygiene; Health Physics
Texas Tech University
Dr. Mica Endsley, Assistant Professor
Department of Industrial Engineering
P.O. Box 43061
Lubbock, TX 79409
806-742-3543
BS/MS/PhD, Industrial Engineering with concentration in Ergonomics
Sam Houston State University
Dr. James R. DeShaw, Program Head
Department of Biological Sciences
P.O. Box 2116
Huntsville, TX 77341-2116
409-294-1020
BS, Environmental Sciences
San Jacinto College Central
Gary M. Vincent, Chair
Division of Health Science
Health and Safety Technology Department
8060 Spencer Highway
Pasadena, TX 77501-2007
713-476-1834
AA, Occupational Health and Safety Technology
University of Texas at Tyler
Dr. W. Clayton Allen, Chair
School of Education and Psychology
Department of Technology
3900 University Boulevard
Tyler, TX 74799
903-566-7331
BS/MS, Technology with concentration in Industrial Safety
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Appendix A
Texas State Technical College
David Day, Department Chair
Occupational Safety and Health Department
3801 Campus Drive
Waco, TX 76705
817-867-4841
AAS, Occupational Safety and Health; Hazardous Materials Management;
Radiation Protection Technician
University of Utah
Donald S. Bloswick, Associate Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
3209 MEB
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
801-581-4163 ([email protected])
MS/ME/PhD, Mechanical Engineering with concentration in Ergonomics and Safety
MPH/MSPH, Public Health with concentration in Ergonomics and Safety
Virginia Commonwealth University
Michael McDonald, Coordinator
Safety and Risk Administration Program
Justice/Risk Administration Department
School of Community and Public Affairs
913 W. Franklin Street
Richmond, VA 23284
804-828-6237
BS, Safety and Risk Control Administration
Virginia Tech
Tom Dingus, Professor
Department of Industrial Engineering
302 Whittemore Hall
Blacksburg, VA 24061
540-231-8831
MS, Safety Engineering
Central Washington University
Ronald Hales, Professor
Industrial Engineering
Technology Department
Hebeler Hall
Ellensburg, WA 98926
509-963-3218
BS, Loss Control Management
Minor in Traffic Safety; Loss Control Management
Appendix A
University of Washington
Mary Lou Wager, Graduate Program Assistant
Environmental Health Department School of Public Health and Community
Medicine
Mail Stop SC-34
Seattle, WA 98195
206-543-3199
MS/PhD, Industrial Hygiene and Safety
Fairmont State College
John Parks, Safety Coordinator
Technology Division
Locust Avenue
Fairmont, WV 26554
304-367-4633
BS, Safety Engineering Technology
West Virginia University
Terrence Stobbe, Director
Department of Industrial Engineering
College of Engineering
R.D. Box 6101
Morgantown, WV 26506-6101
304-293-4607
MS, Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Safety
West Virginia University
Daniel E. Della-Guistina, Chair
Department of Safety and Environmental Management
P.O. Box 6070, COMER
Morgantown, WV 26506
304-293-2742
MS, Safety and Environmental Management
Marshall University
Keith Barenklau, Program Director
Safety Technology Department
Gullickson Hall, Room 3
College of Education
Huntington, WV 25755-2460
304-696-4664
BS/MS, Safety Technology with Occupational Safety option
MS, Safety Technology with Safety Management option; Mine Safety
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Appendix A
University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire
Dale Taylor, Chair
Department of Allied Health Professions
Eau Claire, WI 54702-4004
715-836-2628
BS/MS, Environmental and Public Health
University of Wisconsin, Stout
John Olson, Director
Safety and Loss Control Center
Industrial Management Department
205 Communications Center
Menomonie, WI 54751
714-232-2604
MS, Occupational Safety and Health
University of Wisconsin, Platteville
Roger Hauser, Professor
Industrial Studies Department
309 Pioneer Tower
Platteville, WI 53818
608-342-1187
BS/MS, Industrial Technology; Management and Occupational Safety with
concentration in Safety
University of Wisconsin, Steven’s Point
Dr. Ann Abbott, Director
School of HPERA
131 Quandt
Steven’s Point, WI 54481
715-346-4420
BS, Health Promotion and Safety Health Protection
Minor in Safety
University of Wisconsin, Whitewater
Jerome W. Witherill, Chair
Department Safety Studies
800 W. Main Street
Whitewater, WI 53190
414-472-1117
BS/MS, Safety majors in Institutional Safety, Occupational Safety, and Traffic Safety
Appendix B: Employee
Workplace Rights
INTRODUCTION
The Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act of 1970 created the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) within the Department of Labor and
encouraged employers and employees to reduce workplace hazards and to implement safety and health programs. In so doing, this gave employees many new rights
and responsibilities, including the right to do the following:
• Review copies of appropriate standards, rules, regulations, and requirements that the employer should have available at the workplace.
• Request information from the employer on safety and health hazards in the
workplace, precautions that may be taken, and procedures to be followed if
the employee is involved in an accident or is exposed to toxic substances.
• Have access to relevant employee exposure and medical records.
• Request the OSHA area director to conduct an inspection if it is believed
that hazardous conditions or violations of standards exist in the workplace.
• Have an authorized employee representative accompany the OSHA compliance officer during the inspection tour.
• Respond to questions from the OSHA compliance officer, particularly if
there is no authorized employee representative accompanying the compliance officer on the inspection “walkaround.”
• Observe any monitoring or measuring of hazardous materials and see the
resulting records, as specified under the act and as required by OSHA
standards.
• Have an authorized representative, or themselves, review the Log and
Summary of Occupational Injuries (OSHA No. 200) at a reasonable time
and in a reasonable manner.
• Object to the abatement period set by OSHA for correcting any violation
in the citation issued to the employer by writing to the OSHA area director
within 15 working days from the date the employer receives the citation.
• Submit a written request to the National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health (NIOSH) for information on whether any substance in the workplace has potentially toxic effects in the concentration being used, and have
their names withheld from the employer, if so requested.
• Be notified by the employer if the employer applies for a variance from
an OSHA standard, and testify at a variance hearing, and appeal the final
decision.
• Have their names withheld from the employer, upon request to OSHA, if a
written and signed complaint is filed.
165
166
Appendix B
• Be advised of OSHA actions regarding a complaint and request an informal
review of any decision not to inspect or to issue a citation.
• File a Section 11(c) discrimination complaint if punished for exercising the
above rights or for refusing to work when faced with an imminent danger of
death or serious injury and there is insufficient time for OSHA to inspect,
or file a Section 405 reprisal complaint (under the Surface Transportation
Assistance Act [STAA]).
Pursuant to Section 18 of the Act, states can develop and operate their own occupational safety and health programs under state plans approved and monitored by
Federal OSHA. States that assume responsibility for their own occupational safety
and health program must have provisions at least as effective as those of Federal
OSHA, including the protection of employee rights. There are currently 25 state
plans. Twenty-one states and two territories administer plans covering both private
and state and local government employment, and two states cover only the public
sector. All the rights and responsibilities described here are similarly provided by
state programs.
Any interested person or groups of persons, including employees, who have a
complaint concerning the operation or administration of a state plan may submit a
Complaint about State Program Administration (CASPA) to the appropriate OSHA
regional administrator. Under CASPA procedures, the OSHA regional administrator investigates these complaints and informs the state and the complainant of these
findings. Corrective action is recommended when required.
OSHA STANDARDS AND WORKPLACE HAZARDS
Before OSHA issues, amends, or deletes regulations, the agency publishes them in the
Federal Register so that interested persons or groups may comment. The employer
has a legal obligation to inform employees of OSHA safety and health standards that
apply to their workplace. Upon request, the employer must make available copies of
those standards and the OSHA law. If more information is needed about workplace
hazards than the employer can supply, it can be obtained from the nearest OSHA
area office.
Under the act, employers have a general duty to provide work and a workplace
free from recognized hazards. Citations may be issued by OSHA when violations of
standards are found and for violations of the general duty clause, even if no OSHA
standard applies to the particular hazard. The employer also must display in a prominent place the official OSHA poster that describes rights and responsibilities under
OSHA’s law.
Right to Know
Employers must establish a written, comprehensive hazard communication program that includes provisions for container labeling, material safety data sheets, and
an employee training program. The program must include a list of the hazardous
chemicals in each work area, the means the employer uses to inform employees
Appendix B
167
of the hazards of nonroutine tasks (e.g., the cleaning of reactor vessels), hazards
­associated with chemicals in unlabeled pipes, and the way the employer will inform
other employers of the hazards to which their employees may be exposed.
Access to Exposure and Medical Records
Employers must inform employees of the existence, location, and availability of
their medical and exposure records when employees first begin employment and at
least annually thereafter. Employers also must provide these records to ­employees
or their designated representatives, upon request. Whenever an employer plans to
stop doing business and there is no successor employer to receive and maintain
these records, the employer must notify employees of their right of access to records
at least 3 months before the employer ceases to do business. The OSHA standards
require the employer to measure exposure to harmful substances; the employee
(or representative) has the right to observe the testing and to examine the records
of the results. If the exposure levels are above the limit set by the standard, the
employer must tell employees what will be done to reduce the exposure.
Cooperative Efforts to Reduce Hazards
The OSHA encourages employers and employees to work together to reduce hazards.
Employees should discuss safety and health problems with the employer, other workers, and union representatives (if there is a union). Information on OSHA requirements can be obtained from the OSHA area office. If there is a state occupational
safety and health program, similar information can be obtained from the state.
OSHA STATE CONSULTATION SERVICE
If an employer, with the cooperation of employees, is unable to find acceptable
­corrections for hazards in the workplace, or if assistance is needed to identify hazards, employees should be sure the employer is aware of the OSHA-sponsored, state-­
delivered, free consultation service. This service is intended primarily for small
employers in high hazard industries. Employers can request a limited or comprehensive consultation visit by a consultant from the appropriate state consultation service.
OSHA INSPECTIONS
If a hazard is not being corrected, an employee should contact the OSHA area office
(or state program office) having jurisdiction. If the employee submits a written complaint and the OSHA area or state office determines that there are reasonable grounds
for believing that a violation or danger exists, the office conducts an inspection.
Employee Representative
Under Section 8(e) of the act, the workers’ representative has a right to accompany an
OSHA compliance officer (also referred to as a compliance safety and health officer,
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Appendix B
CSHO, or inspector) during an inspection. The representative must be chosen by the
union (if there is one) or by the employees. Under no circumstances may the employer
choose the workers’ representative.
If employees are represented by more than one union, each union may choose a
representative. Normally, the representative of each union will not accompany the
inspector for the entire inspection, but will join the inspection only when it reaches
the area where those union members work. An OSHA inspector may conduct a comprehensive inspection of the entire workplace or a partial inspection limited to certain areas or aspects of the operation.
Helping the Compliance Officer
Workers have a right to talk privately to the compliance officer on a confidential
basis whether or not a workers’ representative has been chosen. Workers are encouraged to point out hazards, describe accidents or illnesses that resulted from those
hazards, describe past worker complaints about hazards, and inform the inspector if
working conditions are not normal during the inspection.
Observing Monitoring
If health hazards are present in the workplace, a special OSHA health inspection may
be conducted by an “industrial hygienist.” This OSHA inspector may take samples
to measure levels of dust, noise, fumes, or other hazardous materials. The OSHA
will inform the employee representative as to whether the employer is in compliance.
The inspector also will gather detailed information about the employer’s efforts to
control health hazards, including results of tests the employer may have conducted.
Reviewing OSHA Form 200
If the employer has more than 10 employees, the employer must maintain records
of all work-related injuries and illnesses, and the employees or their representative
have the right to review those records. Some industries with very low injury rates
(e.g., insurance and real estate offices) are exempt from recordkeeping.
Work-related minor injuries must be recorded if they resulted in restriction
of work or motion, loss of consciousness, transfer to another job, termination of
employment, or medical treatment (other than first-aid). All recognized work-related
illnesses and nonminor injuries also must be recorded.
AFTER AN INSPECTION
At the end of the inspection, the OSHA inspector will meet with the employer and
the employee representatives in a closing conference to discuss the abatement of
hazards that have been found.
If it is not practical to hold a joint conference, separate conferences will be
held, and OSHA will provide written summaries, on request. During the closing
Appendix B
169
conference, the employee representative may describe, if not reported already,
what hazards exist, what should be done to correct them, and how long it should
take. Other facts about the history of health and safety conditions at the workplace may also be provided.
Challenging Abatement Period
Whether or not the employer accepts OSHA’s actions, the employee (or representative) has the right to contest the time OSHA allows for correcting a hazard. This
contest must be filed in writing with the OSHA area director within 15 working
days after the citation is issued. The contest will be decided by the Occupational
Safety and Health Review Commission. The Review Commission is an independent
agency and is not a part of the Department of Labor.
Variances
Some employers may not be able to comply fully with a new safety and health standard in the time provided due to shortages of personnel, materials, or equipment.
In situations like these, employers may apply to OSHA for a temporary variance
from the standard. In other cases, employers may be using methods or equipment
that differ from those prescribed by OSHA, but which the employer believes are
equal to or better than OSHA’s requirements, and would qualify for consideration as
a permanent variance. Applications for a permanent variance must basically contain
the same information as those for temporary variances.
The employer must certify that workers have been informed of the variance
­application, that a copy has been given to the employee’s representative, and that a
summary of the application has been posted wherever notices are normally posted in
the workplace. Employees also must be informed that they have the right to request
a hearing on the application.
Employees, employers, and other interested groups are encouraged to participate
in the variance process. Notices of variance application are published in the Federal
Register inviting all interested parties to comment on the action.
Confidentiality
The OSHA will not tell the employer who requested the inspection unless the complainant indicates that he or she has no objection.
REVIEW IF NO INSPECTION IS MADE
The OSHA area director evaluates the complaint from the employee or representative and decides whether it is valid. If the area director decides not to inspect the
workplace, he or she will send a certified letter to the complainant explaining
the decision and the reasons for it. Complainants must be informed that they have
the right to request further clarification of the decision from the area director;
if still dissatisfied, they can appeal to the OSHA regional administrator for an
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Appendix B
informal review. Similarly, a decision by an area director not to issue a citation
after an inspection is subject to further clarification from the area director and to
an informal review by the regional administrator.
DISCRIMINATION FOR USING RIGHTS
Employees have a right to seek safety and health on the job without fear of punishment. That right is spelled out in Section 11(c) of the act. The law says the employer
“shall not” punish or discriminate against employees for exercising such rights as
complaining to the employer, union, OSHA, or any other government agency about
job safety and health hazards, or for participating in OSHA inspections, conferences,
hearings, or other OSHA-related activities.
Although there is nothing in the OSHA law that specifically gives an employee
the right to refuse to perform an unsafe or unhealthful job assignment, OSHA’s
regulations, which have been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, provide that an
employee may refuse to work when faced with an imminent danger of death or serious injury. The conditions necessary to justify a work refusal are very stringent,
however, and a work refusal should be an action taken only as a last resort. If time
permits, the unhealthful or unsafe condition should be reported to OSHA or other
appropriate regulatory agency.
A state that is administering its own occupational safety and health enforcement
program pursuant to Section 18 of the Act must have provisions as effective as those
of Section 11(c) to protect employees from discharge or discrimination. The OSHA,
however, retains its Section 11(c) authority in all states regardless of the existence of
an OSHA-approved state occupational safety and health program.
Workers believing they have been punished for exercising safety and health rights
must contact the nearest OSHA office within 30 days of the time they learn of the
alleged discrimination. A representative of the employee’s choosing can file the
11(c) complaint for the worker. Following a complaint, OSHA will contact the complainant and conduct an in-depth interview to determine whether an investigation is
necessary.
If evidence supports the conclusion that the employee has been punished for exercising safety and health rights, OSHA will ask the employer to restore that worker’s
job, earnings, and benefits. If the employer declines to enter into a voluntary settlement, OSHA may take the employer to court. In such cases, an attorney of the
Department of Labor will conduct litigation on behalf of the employee to obtain this
relief.
Section 405 of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act was enacted on
January 6, 1983, and provides protection from reprisal by employers for truckers
and certain other employees in the trucking industry involved in activity related to
commercial motor vehicle safety and health. Secretary of Labor’s Order No. 9-83
(48 Federal Register 35736, August 5, 1983) delegated to the Assistant Secretary of
OSHA the authority to investigate and to issue findings and preliminary orders under
Section 405.
Employees who believe they have been discriminated against for exercising
their rights under Section 405 may file a complaint with OSHA within 180 days of
Appendix B
171
the discrimination. OSHA will then investigate the complaint, and within 60 days
after it was filed, issue findings as to whether there is a reason to believe Section 405
has been violated.
If OSHA finds that a complaint has merit, the agency also will issue an order
requiring, where appropriate, abatement of the violation, reinstatement with back
pay and related compensation, payment of compensatory damages, and the payment of the employee’s expenses in bringing the complaint. Either the employee
or employer may object to the findings. If no objection is filed within 30 days, the
finding and order are final. If a timely filed objection is made, however, the objecting
party is entitled to a hearing on the objection before an Administrative Law Judge of
the Department of Labor.
Within 120 days of the hearing, the Secretary will issue a final order. A party
aggrieved by the final order may seek judicial review in a court of appeals
within 60 days of the final order. The following activities of truckers and certain
employees involved in commercial motor vehicle operation are protected under
Section 405:
• Filing of safety or health complaints with OSHA or other regulatory agency
relating to a violation of a commercial motor vehicle safety rule, regulation,
standard, or order
• Instituting or causing to be instituted any proceedings relating to a violation
of a commercial motor vehicle safety rule, regulation, standard or order
• Testifying in any such proceedings relating to the above items
• Refusing to operate a vehicle when such operation constitutes a violation
of any federal rules, regulations, standards or orders applicable to commercial motor vehicle safety or health; or because of the employee’s reasonable
apprehension of serious injury to him- or herself or the public due to the
unsafe condition of the equipment
• Complaining directly to management, coworkers, or others about job safety
or health conditions relating to commercial motor vehicle operation
Complaints under Section 405 are filed in the same manner as complaints under
11(c). The filing period for Section 405 is 180 days from the alleged discrimination,
rather than 30 days as under Section 11(c).
In addition, Section 211 of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act provides employee protection from discrimination by school officials in retaliation for
complaints about asbestos hazards in primary and secondary schools.
The protection and procedures are similar to those used under Section 11(c) of
the OSH Act. Section 211 complaints must be filed within 90 days of the alleged
discrimination.
Finally, Section 7 of the International Safe Container Act also provides employee
protection from discrimination in retaliation for safety or health complaints about
intermodal cargo containers designed to be transported interchangeably by sea
and land carriers. The protection and procedures are similar to those used under
Section 11(c) of the OSH Act. Section 7 complaints must be filed within 60 days of
the alleged discrimination.
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Appendix B
EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES
Although OSHA does not cite employees for violations of their responsibilities, each
employee “shall comply with all occupational safety and health standards and all
rules, regulations, and orders issued under the Act” that are applicable. Employee
responsibilities and rights in states with their own occupational safety and health
programs are generally the same as for workers in states covered by Federal OSHA.
An employee should do the following:
• Read the OSHA Poster at the job site.
• Comply with all applicable OSHA standards.
• Follow all lawful employer safety and health rules and regulations, and
wear or use prescribed protective equipment while working.
• Report hazardous conditions to the supervisor.
• Report any job-related injury or illness to the employer, and seek treatment
promptly.
• Cooperate with the OSHA compliance officer conducting an inspection if
he or she inquires about safety and health conditions in the workplace.
• Exercise rights under the Act in a responsible manner.
CONTACTING NIOSH
The NIOSH can provide free information on the potential dangers of substances
in the workplace. In some cases, NIOSH may visit a job site to evaluate possible
health hazards. The address is National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Centers for Disease Control, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, telephone
404-639-3061. The NIOSH will keep confidential the name of the person who asked
for help if requested to do so.
OTHER SOURCES OF OSHA ASSISTANCE: SAFETY
AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES
Effective management of worker safety and health protection is a decisive factor
in reducing the extent and severity of work-related injuries and illnesses and their
related costs. To assist employers and employees in developing effective safety and
health programs, OSHA published recommended Safety and Health Management
Program Guidelines (Federal Register 54(18): 3908–3916, January 26, 1989). These
voluntary guidelines apply to all places of employment covered by OSHA.
The guidelines identify four general elements that are critical to the development
of a successful safety and health management program:
•
•
•
•
Management commitment and employee involvement
Worksite analysis
Hazard prevention and control
Safety and health training
Appendix B
173
The guidelines recommend specific actions, under each of these general ­elements,
to achieve an effective safety and health program. A single free copy of the guidelines can be obtained from the OSHA Publications Office, U.S. Department of
Labor, OSHA/OSHA Publications, P.O. Box 37535, Washington, DC, 20013-7535,
by sending a self-addressed mailing label with your request.
Appendix C: Targeted Hazard
Identification System
INTRODUCTION
The Targeted Hazard Identification System (THIS) is specifically designed to
enhance employees’ ability to recognize and target safety and health hazards in the
workplace, which in turn enhances the company’s proactive approach to the prevention of costly occupational injuries and illnesses. The THIS also provides an easy
and cost-effective way for employees to communicate their observations of safety
and health hazards in the workplace to other employees and management.
The THIS program is specifically designed to permit the Philips Lighting
Company (Danville facility; see Figure A3.1) to focus all employees’ attention on
the top three safety and health hazards that are the root cause of the vast majority
of their occupational injuries and illnesses. The three identified or targeted hazards
for the initial training are
• Eye injuries (i.e., lack of safety glasses)
• Cut or laceration injuries (i.e., lack of personal protection equipment and
appropriate safeguards)
• Sprains and strains (i.e., lack of ergonomics)
The THIS will focus an employee’s attention on these targeted hazards through
an intensive 1-hour training program that the safety and loss prevention professional
will present, and the basic skills will be provided upon completion of the THIS
observation cards. The premise is simple—stop the unsafe act to prevent the accident
from happening.
The THIS program consists of four simple steps that employees can complete
easily in less than 2 minutes:
• Observe and identify the hazard.
• Complete the THIS observation card.
• Talk with the employee performing the unsafe act or complete a work order
for repair of unsafe conditions.
• Drop the THIS card in the THIS workstation for review and follow-up by
management.
It is vitally important that the representatives of management acquire the completed THIS cards from the workstations on a daily basis and provide feedback to the
employees completing the cards. This feedback can be in the form of daily notices on
the workstations or bulletin boards, among other methods.
175
176
Appendix C
Also, THIS allows the management team the flexibility to modify the targeted
h­ azards, for individual departments or entire work areas, on a periodic basis or as work
conditions and equipment change in the workplace. For example, Philips Lighting has
identified the above-mentioned three hazards as being the targeted hazards for their
facility for the next month. After this period, the management team at Philips Lighting
may decide to keep targeted hazard 1 on the list but replace targeted hazards 2 and
3 with newly identified hazards. Over a period of a year, the employees at Philips
Lighting will be exposed to a number of hazards in the workplace, requiring them to
be aware of all of them but focusing particular attention on the top priority hazards.
Over a period of time, all hazards in the workplace can be minimized or eliminated.
FIGURE A3.1 THIS booklet and observation card.
(Continued)
177
Appendix C
FIGURE A3.1 (Continued) THIS booklet and observation card.
178
Appendix C
FACULTY PREPARATION
In preparation for the initial kickoff of the THIS program, the Philips Lighting
Company management team is encouraged to utilize every method possible to create enthusiasm for the program and motivate employees to participate actively in the
scheduled training sessions. Activities can include
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Posters (i.e., “THIS is coming!”)
Computer screensavers
Discussion in departmental, safety, and other meetings
E-mail announcements
Information in company newsletter
Information in union newsletter
Information included with employee paychecks
The Philips Lighting management team must identify the management team
member responsible for collecting THIS observation cards on a daily basis. Also,
this management team member must review the observation cards, analyze the information provided, discuss the identified hazard or corrective action with the appropriate members of the management team, and post a response or feedback for review by
employees in a timely manner. Appropriate and timely feedback is essential for the
success of the THIS program.
CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION
The initial training program at the Philips Lighting facility in Danville, Kentucky,
will take place in the conference room (or other designated location). The training
schedule will consist of 20 one-hour sessions offered in blocks of two sessions each
day beginning December 1 through December 14 from 2:00 to 3:00 p.m. and 3:00 to
4:00 p.m. The number of employees per session may vary.
CLASSROOM EQUIPMENT
Each THIS instructor should ensure that the following audiovisual equipment is
available in the classroom prior to starting THIS training:
•
•
•
•
Television and VCR player
Overhead projector
Chalkboard or flip chart
Chalk or marker pens
EMPLOYEE HANDOUT MATERIALS
Each employee involved in THIS training sessions should be provided with a THIS
booklet and a pencil. All employees should be informed that THIS observation
cards are included in their THIS booklets and additional THIS observation cards are
Appendix C
179
available at eight designated THIS workstations located throughout the facility. They
can also be acquired from safety or personnel offices.
INSTRUCTORS’ MATERIALS
Each instructor should have the following items on hand prior to initiating training:
•
•
•
•
Introductory videotape
Five overhead transparencies
Communications videotape
One THIS booklet for each employee in the session
INSTRUCTORS’ INFORMATION
All THIS instructors are reminded to provide a spirited, upbeat, and enthusiastic
presentation. Please follow the THIS training schedule for each 1-hour session and
allow a minimum of 10 minutes at the end of the session for questions and answers
and to assist individual employees who may require more help.
The THIS instructors are reminded that all parts of the THIS training must be
covered within a 50-minute period of time. Please answer any questions that arise
during the training, but do not substantially deviate from the subject matter.
COURSE OBJECTIVES
By the end of the THIS training session, all Philips Lighting employees at the
Danville facility will understand
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How accidents happen
Unsafe acts and unsafe conditions
How a proactive approach can eliminate accidents
What accidents cost
How corrective hazards can stop accidents
How to communicate hazard information to other employees and management
How to complete the THIS observation cards
Where THIS workstations are located
Where the feedback information is posted
The purpose and importance of the THIS program
RUNNING THE TRAINING PROGRAM
Instructors must arrive at the classroom at least 15 minutes prior to initiation of the
session.
2 minutesInstructor and training program introduction circulate employee
sign-in document.
2 minutes
Review objectives of this training (Overhead 1).
8 minutes
Show introduction videotape.
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Appendix C
5 minutesExplain how accidents happen, focusing on unsafe acts and unsafe
conditions (Overhead 2).
5 minutesExplain the domino sequence, focusing on how, if unsafe acts and
conditions are stopped, accidents will be prevented (Overhead 3).
5 minutes
Explain pyramid of accidents (Overhead 4).
5 minutes
Explain what accidents cost; focus on potential pain for the
employee (Overhead 5).
10 minutesExplain how THIS works; review the THIS booklet and observation cards. Discuss THIS workstations and how to complete THIS
observation cards. Explain feedback procedure.
5 minutesDiscuss targeted hazards and provide examples. Explain how to
complete a THIS observation using one of the targeted hazards as
an example.
8 minutes
Show communications segment of second videotape (if time
permits).
5 minutesQuestions and answers—review objectives of the THIS training
session (Overhead 1).
Remember to remind all employees that they can identify other safety and health
hazards beyond the three targeted hazards.
TRAINING PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
Introduction
The instructor should introduce him- or herself and explain the meaning and purpose of the Targeted Hazard Identification System (THIS), focusing on the proactive
activities of the program. The instructor should place Overhead 1 on the overhead
projector and review each objective for the THIS training program.
Videotape
The instructor should introduce the videotape and explain that Philips Lighting is
committed to the success of the THIS program. The videotape will show various
members of the management team and labor organization explaining their commitment to the program. In the event that a videotape of the management team members and labor representatives is unavailable, an introductory statement recorded by
Professor Schneid can be substituted.
How Accidents Happen
The instructor should ask the group the following:
1. How do accidents happen?
2.Do you have accidents in your plant?
3. Can accidents be stopped?
Appendix C
181
The instructor should place Overhead 2 on the overhead projector and explain
that all accidents are caused by unsafe acts and unsafe conditions. The instructor
should ask the group to provide examples of unsafe acts and unsafe conditions in
their work areas.
Domino Sequence
The instructor should place Overhead 3 on the overhead projector and explain that
accidents happen because of unsafe acts and conditions. If employees permit unsafe
acts and unsafe conditions to exist, the first domino will fall. All of the dominoes
will fall in sequence and cause an accident; harm is the ultimate result. The instructor should focus on the fact that if the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions are stopped,
then the dominoes will not fall.
Pyramid
To further explain the importance of identifying and correcting unsafe acts and unsafe
conditions before an accident happens, the instructor should place Overhead 4 on the
overhead projector. He or she should then explain that for every 600 unsafe acts and
unsafe conditions that exist (bottom level), there will be 30 property damage accidents
(level 2), 10 minor injury accidents (level 3), and 1 serious accident (top level). Again,
the instructor should emphasize that if the 600 unsafe acts and unsafe conditions are
corrected, the probability of a serious accident will be reduced. The instructor should
ensure that all employees fully understand this concept prior to moving to the iceberg.
Iceberg
The instructor should ask the group the following questions and write the answers
on the flip chart:
1. How much do accidents cost?
2.What kind of costs are incurred when an employee is injured at the plant?
3. Are there different kinds of costs?
The instructor should place Overhead 5 on the overhead projector and explain
direct costs (such as workers’ compensation) and indirect costs (such as overtime or
training). The instructor should also explain the pain and suffering experienced by
the injured employee and his family. The instructor should end the discussion with,
“So, if we can stop accidents, what should we do?”
THIS Explanation
The instructor should ask each employee to open the THIS training booklet. The
instructor should review the “Quick Instructions” and go through each page of
the booklet. The instructor should then review each line of the THIS observation
182
Appendix C
cards and show where the workstations are. The instructor should then discuss the
targeted hazards for the initial period and explain how to complete the THIS observation cards by using each targeted hazard as an example.
Communication Videotape
If time permits, the instructor should explain that employees should stop and talk to an
employee involved in an unsafe act or unsafe condition. The method of communicating with fellow employees is important, to avoid conflicts and miscommunications.
The instructor should then show the videotape about employee communications.
Questions and Answers
The instructor should answer completely all questions posed by participants.
Conclusion
The instructor should tell all employees the location of their workstation and thank
them for their participation. Also, the instructor should remember to tell participants that additional THIS observation cards are available at each workstation.
If more cards are needed, they can be provided by the manager of quality assurance
or safety representative.
SUMMATION
The THIS training should be lively and spirited to keep THIS training fun. It is
vitally important that the employees of Philips Lighting identify the importance of
their participation in the THIS program and the essential need for them to identify
safety and health hazards in the workplace to safeguard themselves and their fellow
employees. The THIS is not designed to place blame or identify individual employee
weaknesses. The THIS is focused on specific hazards present in the employee’s dayto-day workplace. The THIS provides a methodology by which employees can focus
their attention on a small number of specific and changing hazards to eliminate or
minimize the risk of these hazards resulting in injury or illness.
The THIS is for you and all employees at the Philips Lighting Company!
Appendix D: Sample
Action Plan
Action Item
Specific Activity
Date
Initiated
Date
Completed
Party
Responsible
Confirmation
to OSH
Education and
training
Request EKU
co-op
Required postings
Request assistance
10/15
Ongoing
T. S.
11/2
Request assistance
10/17
Ongoing
T. S.
11/3
Citations
Notice of appeal
Notice of informal
conference
General posting
Written program
Exposure control
plan
Posted
Posted
Posted
Ongoing
Ongoing
Ongoing
R. P.
R. P.
R. P.
Yes
Yes
Yes
Posted
11/1
11/1
Ongoing
11/30
11/30
R. P.
K. T.
K. T.
Yes
12/1
12/1
Blood-borne
pathogen
program
183
Appendix E: Sample Safety
Audit Assessment
Quarterly report for ____________ quarter of ______________ year
Facility name ___________________
Total points available _____________
Total points scored _______________
Percentage score ________________%
Audit performed by _________________
(Total points scored divided by total
Date _____________________________
points available)
Signature _________________________
Management Safety Responsibility
1. Are the safety responsibilities of each management team
member in writing?
2. Are the safety responsibilities explained completely to
each team member?
3. Does each team member receive a copy of his or her safety
responsibilities?
4. Has each team member been provided the opportunity
to discuss his or her safety responsibilities and to add
input into the methods of performing these
responsible acts?
Section total
Safety Goals
1. Has each member of the management team been able to
provide input into the development of the operations safety
goals?
2. Has each member of the management team been able to
provide input into his or her department’s goals?
3. Are goals developed in more than one safety area?
4. Are the goals reasonable and attainable?
5. Is there follow-up with feedback on a regular basis?
Answer
Total
Points
Score
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
5
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
35
_____
Answer
Total
Points
Score
Yes
No
5
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
10
10
15
_____
_____
_____
Continued
185
186
Safety Goals
6. Is there a method for tracking the department’s progress
toward their goal?
7. Is the entire program audited on a regular basis?
8. Does your management team fully understand the purpose
of the Safety Goals Program?
9. Does your management team understand the OSHA
recordable rate, loss-time rate, and days-lost rate
(per 200,000 man-hours)?
10. Does your management team fully understand the
provisions and requirements when the safety goals are
not achieved on a monthly basis?
11. Is your management team provided with daily/weekly
feedback regarding the attainment of their safety
goals?
Section total
Accident Investigations
1. Is your medical staff thoroughly trained in the completion
of the Accident Investigation Report?
2. Are all supervisory personnel thoroughly trained in the
completion of the Accident Investigation Report?
3. Are all management team members completing the
Accident Investigation Report accurately?
4. Are the Accident Investigation Reports accurate, complete,
and readable?
5. Are the Accident Investigation Reports being monitored
for timeliness and quality?
6. Are management team members receiving feedback on
the quality of the Accident Investigation Reports?
7. Are management team members receiving feedback on
safety recommendations identified on the Accident
Investigation Reports?
8. Is your Accident Investigation Report system
computerized?
9. Is there follow-up on any items identified on the Accident
Investigation Report to ensure correction of the deficiency
before there is a reoccurrence?
10. Are Accident Investigation Reports being discussed
in staff meetings, line meetings, or safety committee
meetings?
Section total
Appendix E
Answer
Total
Points
Score
Yes
No
15
_____
Yes
Yes
No
No
10
10
_____
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
115
_____
Total
Points
Score
Answer
Yes
No
5
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
5
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
15
_____
Yes
No
15
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
100
_____
187
Appendix E
Supervisory Training
Answer
Total
Points
Score
1. Have all supervisors been orientated to the safety system,
policies, and procedures?
2. Have all supervisors completed the job safety
observations?
3. Have all supervisors been educated in the accident
investigation procedure?
4. Have all supervisors been given a list of the personal
protection equipment that their employees are required
to wear?
5. Have all supervisors been instructed on how to conduct
a safety meeting properly?
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
6. Have all supervisors been instructed on how to conduct
a line meeting properly?
7. Have all supervisors been educated in proper lifting
techniques?
8. Have all supervisors been orientated in hazard
recognition?
9. Are all the supervisors conducting near-miss
investigations?
10. Do all supervisors stop employees who are performing
unsafe acts?
11. Are all supervisors first-aid trained?
12. Are all supervisors CPR trained?
13. Are all supervisors educated in the evacuation procedure?
14. Do all supervisors know their responsibilities in an
evacuation?
15. Are all supervisors aware of the safety goals?
16. Have all supervisors developed department and line safety
goals?
17. Are all supervisors fork-lift qualified?
18. Do all supervisors check their employees’ personal
protection equipment daily?
19. Do all supervisors, superintendents, and/or other
management team members talk with employees regarding
cumulative trauma illnesses?
20. Are all employees educated and trained in the respiratory
protection program?
21. Are all supervisors educated in and completely familiar
with the safety policies?
22. Have all supervisors completed the Hazard
Communication program?
23. Are all supervisors aware of their responsibilities under the
nonroutine training section of the Hazard Communication
program?
Section total
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
15
_____
Yes
No
15
_____
Yes
No
20
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
15
5
10
10
_____
_____
_____
_____
Yes
Yes
No
No
10
10
_____
_____
Yes
Yes
No
No
10
15
_____
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
15
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
260
_____
188
Hourly Employee Training
1. Do you have a written safety orientation for new
employees?
2. Do you use audiovisual aids to help employees understand
safety precautions?
3. Do you discuss the reporting of all injuries and hazards
with all employees?
4. Have all new employees read, do they understand, and
have they signed the documentation sheet for all safety
policies?
5. Does the trainer or supervisor discuss the proper use and
method of wearing the required personal protection
equipment?
6. Are all safety rules and regulations discussed with all
employees?
7. Does the trainer/supervisor discuss muscle soreness and
cumulative illnesses with new employees?
8. Does the trainer/supervisor recommend exercises or other
techniques to assist the employee through the break-in
period?
9. Are specific job skill techniques taught?
10. Are proper cleaning procedures taught to all new employees?
11. Are the proper safety procedures taught to all new
employees?
12. Is the new employee receiving follow-up instruction on
specific skill techniques?
13. Does the supervisor/trainer discuss proper lifting
techniques with each employee?
14. Is the proper method of performing the job thoroughly
explained to the new employee?
15. Is the new employee receiving daily positive feedback
from the supervisor?
16. Is the new employee encouraged to report all “pain” to
the supervisor?
Section total
Fire Control
1. Are weekly documented inspections being conducted on
the fire extinguisher?
2. Are weekly/monthly documented inspections being
conducted on all phases of the fire system?
3. Are all fire inspection records being kept updated?
4. Do you have a written fire plan?
Appendix E
Answer
Total
Points
Score
Yes
No
5
_____
Yes
No
5
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
5
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
15
10
10
_____
_____
_____
Yes
No
15
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
15
_____
Yes
No
5
_____
155
_____
Answer
Total
Points
Score
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
Yes
No
No
10
15
_____
_____
Continued
189
Appendix E
Fire Control
5. Do you have a notification list of telephone numbers to
call in case of a fire?
6. Do you have a fire investigation procedure?
7. Does the maintenance department utilize the call-in
procedure whenever the fire system is shut down?
8. Do you have a designated individual thoroughly trained in
the use of the fire system to conduct tours with the fire
inspector, loss control personnel, etc.?
9. Is the Safety Department being notified of all fires?
10. Are you maintaining the required inspection
documentation properly?
Section total
Answer
Total
Points
Score
Yes
No
10
_____
Yes
Yes
No
No
5
10
_____
_____
Yes
No
5
_____
Yes
Yes
No
No
10
10
_____
_____
95
_____
Appendix F: Injury and Illness
Prevention Programs
White Paper
January 2012
INTRODUCTION/EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
An injury and illness prevention program* is a proactive process to help employers
find and fix workplace hazards before workers are hurt. We know these programs
can be effective at reducing injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. Many workplaces have
already adopted such approaches, for example as part of OSHA’s cooperative programs. Not only do these employers experience dramatic decreases in workplace
injuries, but they often report a transformed workplace culture that can lead to higher
productivity and quality, reduced turnover, reduced costs, and greater employee
satisfaction.
*The occupational safety and health community uses various names to describe systematic approaches
to reducing injuries and illnesses in the workplace. Consensus and international standards use the
term Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems; OSHA currently uses the term Injury
and Illness Prevention Programs and others use Safety and Health Programs to describe these types
of systems. Regardless of the title, they all systematically address workplace safety and health hazards
on an ongoing basis to reduce the extent and severity of work-related injuries and illnesses.
191
192
Appendix F
Thirty-four states and many nations around the world already require or encourage employers to implement such programs. The key elements common to all of
these programs are management leadership, worker participation, hazard identification and assessment, hazard prevention and control, education and training, and
program evaluation and improvement.
Based on the positive experience of employers with existing programs, OSHA
believes that injury and illness prevention programs provide the foundation for
breakthrough changes in the way employers identify and control hazards, leading
to a significantly improved workplace health and safety environment. Adoption
of an injury and illness prevention program will result in workers suffering fewer
injuries, illnesses and fatalities. In addition, employers will improve their compliance with existing regulations, and will experience many of the financial benefits of a safer and healthier workplace cited in published studies and reports by
individual companies, including significant reductions in workers’ compensation
premiums.
BACKGROUND
In the four decades since the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) was
signed into law, workplace deaths and reported occupational injuries have dropped
by more than 60 percent. Yet the nation’s workers continue to face an unacceptable
number of work-related deaths, injuries and illnesses, most of them preventable:
• Every day, more than 12 workers die on the job—over 4,500 a year.
• Every year, more than 4.1 million workers suffer a serious job-related injury
or illness.
An enhanced focus on prevention is needed to bring these numbers down.
To accomplish this, an effective, flexible, commonsense tool is available that can
dramatically reduce the number and severity of workplace injuries and illnesses:
the injury and illness prevention program. This tool helps employers find hazards
and fix them before injuries, illnesses or deaths occur. It helps employers meet their
obligation under the OSH Act to “furnish to each of his employees employment and
a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or
are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.” It also helps
employers avoid the significant costs associated with injuries and illnesses in the
workplace.
Injury and illness prevention programs are not new, nor are they untested. Most
large companies whose safety and health achievements have been recognized
through government or industry awards cite their use of injury and illness prevention
programs as their key to success. Convinced of the value, effectiveness, and feasibility of these programs, many countries around the world now require employers
to implement and maintain them. These countries include Canada, Australia, all
27 European Union member states, Norway, Hong Kong, Japan and Korea. This
initiative also follows the lead of 15 U.S. states that have already implemented regulations requiring such programs.
193
Appendix F
HOW DOES AN INJURY AND ILLNESS PREVENTION
PROGRAM WORK?
Most successful injury and illness prevention programs include a similar set of commonsense elements that focus on finding all hazards in the workplace and developing a plan
for preventing and controlling those hazards. Management leadership and active worker
participation are essential to ensuring that all hazards are identified and addressed.
Finally, workers need to be trained about how the program works and needs to be periodically evaluated to determine whether improvements need to be made.
These basic elements—management leadership, worker participation, hazard
identification and assessment, hazard prevention and control, education and training, and program evaluation and improvement—are common to almost all existing
health and safety management programs. Each element is important in ensuring the
success of the overall program, and the elements are interrelated and interdependent.
When it comes to injury and illness prevention programs, every business is different, and one size certainly does not fit all. Employers who implement injury and
illness prevention programs scale and adapt these elements to meet the needs of their
organizations, depending on size, industry sector or complexity of operations.
WHAT ARE THE COSTS OF WORKPLACE INJURIES, ILLNESSES
AND DEATHS TO EMPLOYERS, WORKERS AND THE NATION?
The main goal of injury and illness prevention programs is to prevent workplace
injuries, illnesses and deaths, the suffering these events cause workers, and the financial hardship they cause both workers and employers.
Workplace incidents cause an enormous amount of physical, financial and emotional hardship for individual workers and their families. Combined with insufficient workers’ compensation benefits and inadequate medical insurance, workplace
injuries and illnesses can not only cause physical pain and suffering but also loss of
employment and wages, burdensome debt, inability to maintain a previous standard
of living, loss of home ownership and even bankruptcy. When implemented effectively, injury and illness prevention programs can help workers and their families
avoid these disruptive and sometimes calamitous impacts on their lives.
Cost of the most disabling injuries 1998–2008
54
51.7
52
Billions ($)
50
47.4
48
46
36
48.3
53.0
53.4
41.1
42
38
48.6
48.6
44.2
44
40
50.7
37.1
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
194
Appendix F
At the same time, these programs will help employers avoid the substantial cost
impacts and business disruptions that accompany occupational injuries, illnesses and
deaths. One widely-cited source regarding estimates of the magnitude of these costs
is the Liberty Mutual Research Institute, which reports the direct cost of the most
disabling workplace injuries in 2008 to be $53 billion (Liberty Mutual Research
Institute 2010).* Another source, the National Academy of Social Insurance (NASI),
estimates the annual workers’ compensation benefits paid for all compensable injuries and illnesses in 2009 at $58 billion (National Academy of Social Insurance
2011). NASI further reports the total costs paid by employers for workers’ compensation increased from $60 billion in 2000 to $74 billion in 2009.
In addition to these direct costs, employers incur a variety of other costs that may
be hidden or less obvious when an employee is injured or ill, but in most cases involve
real expenditures of budget or time. These expenditures are commonly referred to
as indirect costs and can include:
• Any wages paid to injured workers for absences not covered by workers’
compensation
• The wage costs related to time lost through work stoppage
• Administrative time spent by supervisors following injuries
• Employee training and replacement costs
• Lost productivity related to new employee learning curves and accommodation of injured employees
• Replacement costs of damaged material, machinery and property.
Establishing safety as a value rather than a priority tells our employees and our
customers that safety is built into our culture, not something we do to merely
comply with regulations.
Our excellent safety performance over the past seven years has been a key
factor in reducing our insurance cost. Our low EMR [Experience Modification
Rate], incidents rates, and SHARP Management System have impressed our
customers and, in many cases, was a key factor in selecting Parsons to perform
their project.
Charles L. Harrington
Chairman & CEO, Parsons Corp.
Source: National Safety Council.
*The “most disabling” injuries are defined by Liberty Mutual as those causing the injured employee to
miss 6 or more days from work.
Appendix F
195
OSHA has historically used the results of one study (Stanford University 1981)
that found the indirect costs can range from 1.1 (for the most severe injuries) to 4.5
(for the least severe injuries) times the direct costs.*
When workers are killed, are injured or become ill, there are substantial costs
beyond those borne by employers. A variety of approaches can be used to estimate
these costs. For example, Viscusi and Aldy (2003) provided estimates of the monetary value of each life lost. OSHA updated these estimates (to account for inflation)
to 2010 dollars, yielding a value of $8.7 million for each life lost. Multiplying this
value by the 4,547 workplace deaths reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for
2010, OSHA estimates the annual cost of known workplace fatalities to be nearly
$40 billion.
This estimate does not include the cost of non-fatal injuries, or of occupational
illnesses like cancer and lung disease. These illnesses generally may occur many
years or even decades after workers are exposed and are therefore seldom recorded
in government statistics or employer surveillance activities.
The human and economic costs of these conditions are indisputably enormous. Leigh et al. (1997) estimated that more than 60,000 workers die each
year from occupational illnesses, and more than 850,000 develop new illnesses
annually. Similarly, Steenland et al. (2003) estimated that between 10,000 and
20,000 ­workers die each year from cancer due to occupational exposures, and
between 5,000 and 24,000 die from work-related Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
Disease.
In summary, the number and costs of workplace injuries, illnesses and fatalities
are unacceptably high. Injury and illness prevention programs have been proven
to help employers and society reduce the personal, financial and societal costs that
injuries, illnesses and fatalities impose. As described below, the thousands of workplaces that have implemented these programs in some form have already witnessed
the resulting benefits, in the form of higher efficiency, greater worker productivity
and lower costs.
*
For more details see OSHA’s Safety and Health Management Systems eTool, available at http://www.
osha.gov/SLTC/etools/safetyhealth/mod1_costs.html
196
Appendix F
WHAT IS THE EVIDENCE THAT INJURY AND ILLNESS
PREVENTION PROGRAMS PROTECT WORKERS
AND IMPROVE THE “BOTTOM LINE”?
Top benefits of effective workplace safety programs cited
by financial decision makers (percent of respondents)
Better
employee
morale and
greater job
satisfaction
6%
Greater
retention of
employees
7%
Other
16%
Increased
productivity
43%
Reduced costs
28%
Numerous studies have examined the effectiveness of injury and illness prevention programs at both the establishment and corporate levels (e.g., Alsop and
LeCouteur 1999; Bunn et al. 2001; Conference Board 2003; Huang et al. 2009;
Lewchuk, Robb, and Walters 1996; Smitha et al. 2001; Torp et al. 2000; Yassi
1998). This research demonstrates that such programs are effective in transforming workplace culture; leading to reductions in injuries, illnesses and fatalities;
lowering workers’ compensation and other costs; improving morale and communication; enhancing image and reputation; and improving processes, products
and services. The studies also highlight important characteristics of effective programs, including management commitment and leadership, effective employee
participation, integration of health and safety with business planning and continuous program evaluation. They suggest that programs without these features are
not as effective (Shannon et al. 1996, 1997; Gallagher 2001; Gallagher et al. 2003;
Liu et al. 2008).
One study (Smitha et al. 2001) focused on manufacturing facilities in 13 states
with mandatory injury and illness prevention programs and/or mandatory health
and safety committee requirements. The authors found that both types of regulations
were effective in reducing injury and illness incidence rates. Three of the four states
with only safety and health program requirements experienced the greatest reductions in injury and illness rates following promulgation of these mandatory program
regulations.
OSHA examined the injury and illness prevention programs in eight states where
the state had either required a program or provided incentives or requirements
through its workers’ compensation programs. The successes of these state programs,
which lowered injury and illness incidences by 9 percent to more than 60 percent,
Appendix F
197
are discussed below: Source: Huang et al. 2009. Data based on responses from 231
U.S. companies with 100 or more employees.
• Alaska had an injury and illness plan requirement for over 20 years (1973
to 1995). Five years after the program was implemented, the net decrease
in injuries and illnesses (i.e., the statewide reduction in injuries and illnesses over and above the national decrease during the same time period)
for Alaska was 17.4 percent.
• California began to require an injury and illness prevention program in
1991. Five years after this requirement began, California had a net decrease
in injuries and illnesses of 19 percent.
• Colorado has a program that allows firms to adopt basic injury and illness prevention program components in return for a workers’ compensation premium reduction. The cumulative annual reduction in accidents was
23 ­percent and the cumulative reduction in accident costs was between
58 and 62 percent.
• Hawaii began to require employers to have injury and illness prevention programs in 1985. The net reduction in injuries and illnesses was
20.7 percent.
• Massachusetts Workers’ Compensation program firms receive a premium
credit for enrolling in a loss management program. In the first year of this
program, firms participating in the program had a 20.8 percent ­improvement
in their loss ratios.
• North Dakota has a program under its workers’ compensation program
for employers who have a risk management program. The incentive is a
5 percent discount on annual workers’ compensation premiums. These risk
management programs contain many of the elements of an injury and illness prevention program. They resulted in a cumulative decline for serious
injuries of 38 percent over a four-year period.
• Texas had a program under its workers’ compensation commission from 1991
to 2005 which identified the most hazardous workplaces. Those e­ mployers
were required to develop and implement injury and illness prevention
There are many benefits from developing a safety culture at your company—
none of which is more valuable than employee loyalty. When employees
know you care about their personal well-being and you prove that to them in
their workplace, it increases morale, engagement, awareness, motivation and
productivity.
Daniel R. Nobbe
Plant Leader, Fiberteq LLC, Danville, IL
Source: National Safety Council.
198
Appendix F
programs. The reduction in injuries, over a four-year period ­(1992–1995),
averaged 63 percent each year.
• Washington began requiring establishments to have injury and illness prevention programs in 1973. Five years later the net decrease in injuries and
illnesses was 9.4 percent.
OSHA also examined fatality rates and found that California, Hawaii and
Washington, with their mandatory injury and illness prevention program requirements, had workplace fatality rates as much as 31 percent below the national average
in 2009.
Liu et al. (2008) examined the effectiveness of Pennsylvania’s voluntary program
that provides workers’ compensation premium discounts to employers that establish joint labor-management safety committees. These committees are responsible
for implementing several injury and illness prevention program elements: hazard
identification, workplace inspection and safety management. The authors found that
among program participants there was a strong association between improved injury
and illness experience and the level of compliance with the program requirements.
This is further evidence that programs with strong management commitment and
active worker participation are effective in reducing injury risk, while “paper” programs are, not surprisingly, ineffective.
The literature on injury and illness prevention programs also includes numerous
studies that attempt to identify the critical success features associated with superior health and safety performance. Gallagher (2001) concludes that m
­ anagement
commitment and employee involvement are the keys to program success: “[R]
ecurring findings across these studies were the critical role played by senior managers in s­ uccessful health and safety management systems, and the importance of
effective communication, employee involvement and consultation.”
Worker participation, a fundamental element of injury and illness prevention programs, makes an important contribution to an employer’s bottom line.
When workers are encouraged to offer their ideas and they see their contributions being taken seriously, they tend to be more satisfied and more productive
(Huang et al. 2006). Engaging employees in dialogue with management and
each other about safety and health can lead to improved relationships and better overall ­communication, along with reduced injury rates. Improved employee
morale and satisfaction translates to greater loyalty, lower absenteeism and higher
productivity.
This body of research, combined with studies of individual companies (see
boxes, below, with Case Studies of Programs Implemented under OSHA’s Voluntary
Protection Program (VPP) and Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program
(SHARP)) demonstrate clearly that injury and illness prevention programs are effective at the establishment level in dramatically reducing risk of workplace injury. This
effect has also been detected in state-wide comparisons.
Based on its review of the literature on the effectiveness of these programs and
on the experience of the states that have implemented injury and illness prevention
program requirements, OSHA estimates that implementation of injury and illness
199
Appendix F
prevention programs will reduce injuries by 15 percent to 35 percent for employers who do not now have safety and health programs. At the 15 percent program
effectiveness level, this saves $9 billion per year in workers’ compensation costs;
at the 35 percent effectiveness level the savings are $23 billion per year.* In addition to these workers’ compensation savings, employers could also save indirect
costs incurred when an employee is injured or ill. Beyond the monetized benefits
of injuries and illnesses averted, and lives saved, nonmonetized costs of workplace
injuries and deaths include uncompensated lost wages, the loss of human capital assets, the loss of productivity, the cost of other government benefits required
by injured workers or their survivors, the loss of government tax revenues, other
business expenses, and other losses not compensated by workers’ compensation or
other insurance.
HOW WIDESPREAD ARE INJURY AND
ILLNESS PREVENTION PROGRAMS?
Courtesy of Elena Finizio, Braintree, MA Area Office
*If injury and illness prevention programs achieve a 15 percent reduction in injuries and illnesses
for employers who do not currently have safety and health programs, the overall reduction in injuries and illnesses for all employers including those that already have programs is estimated at
12.4 ­p ercent. Applying this 12.4 percent to NASI’s estimate of the $74 billion in direct workers’
compensation costs in 2009, workers’ compensation savings could be as high as $9 billion per
year. With a 35 percent program effectiveness, the overall reduction in injuries and illnesses for all
employers is estimated at 30.8 percent and workers’ compensation savings could reach $23 billion
per year.
200
Appendix F
Employers across the United States have implemented injury and illness prevention programs, and many jurisdictions, in the United States and abroad, currently require or encourage implementation of these programs. Currently, 34 U.S.
states have established laws or regulations designed to require or encourage injury
and illness prevention programs, including 15 states with mandatory regulations
for all or some employers.* Other states, while not requiring programs, have created financial incentives for employers to implement injury and illness prevention
programs. In some instances this involves providing—or facilitating—workers’
compensation insurance premium reductions for employers who establish programs meeting specified requirements. And 16 states, in all three of these groups,
provide an array of voluntary guidance, consultation and training programs, and
other assistance aimed at helping and encouraging employers to implement injury
and illness prevention programs. Depending on the state, these programs apply
to all employers, employers above or below a certain size threshold, employers
with injury and illness rates above industry average, employers in “high-hazard”
industries or employers with above-average workers’ compensation experience
modification rates.
*The 15 states are: Arkansas, California, Hawaii, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi,
Montana, North Carolina, New Hampshire, Nevada, New York, Oregon, Utah, and Washington.
201
Appendix F
Summary of Existing State Programs
State
Mandatory
Regulation
Mandatory
Safety
Committees
Consulting
or
Recognition
Insurance
Premium
Reductions
If Mandatory, Who Is
Covered?a
Alabama
All employers
Arkansas
“Hazardous” employers
California
All employers
Colorado
Connecticut
Employers with
>25 employees
“Hazardous” small
employers
Delaware
Hawaii
All employers
Idaho
Indiana
Kansas
Louisiana
Employers with
>15 employees
Michigan
Employers in
construction industry
Minnesota
Employers with
>25 employees
Committees required
for “hazardous”
employers
Missouri
All employers
Mississippi
Montana
Employers with
>5 employees
North
Carolina
“Hazardous” employers
Committees required
for employers with
>5 employees
North
Dakota
Nebraska
All employers
New
Hampshire
Employers with
>10 employees
Committees required
for employers with
>5 employees
New Mexico
Continued
202
Appendix F
RECOGNIZING BUSINESS EXCELLENCE
IN SAFETY AND HEALTH
The Robert W. Campbell Award recognizes organizations that achieve business excellence by integrating environmental, health and safety (EHS) management into their business operating systems. The Award aims to:
• Recognize businesses that uphold EHS as a key business value and
link measurable achievement in EHS performance to productivity
and profitability.
• Establish a validated process by which industries can measure the
performance of their EHS operations system against well-tested
and internationally accepted key performance indicators.
• Use a rigorous systematic review process to capture and evaluate the
successes and lessons learned.
• Share leading edge EHS management systems and best practices for
educational purposes worldwide.
The Award program is supported by a network of 22 Global Partners across
five continents committed to promoting EHS as an integral component of business management worldwide.
Source: http://www.campbellaward.org
203
Appendix F
Summary of Existing State Programs
State
Mandatory
Regulation
Mandatory
Safety
Committees
Consulting
or
Recognition
Insurance
Premium
Reductions
Nevada
Employers with
>10 employees
Committees required
for employers with
>25 employees
New York
Employers with payroll
>$800,000
Other “hazardous”
employers
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
All construction
employers
All other employers
with >10 employees
(except logging and
agriculture)
Pennsylvania
Tennessee
“Hazardous”
employers
Texas
Utah
“Hazardous”
employers
Vermont
“Hazardous”
employers
Washington
All employers
West
Virginia
“Hazardous”
employers
Wyoming
If Mandatory, Who Is
Covered?a
Source: OSHA Directorate of Standards and Guidance.
a
States define “hazardous” employers individually, using criteria such as above-average injury
incidence rates for their industry or above-average workers’ compensation claim experience.
The more than 2,400 establishments that belong to OSHA’s Voluntary Protection
Program have programs that are based on the same core elements found in the
injury and illness prevention program that OSHA will be proposing. The same is
true for OSHA’s Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program, in which
more than 1,500 smaller employers are enrolled. Each year, dozens of organizations
seeking international recognition for their safety and health program proudly submit
204
Appendix F
THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMBRACES INJURY
AND ILLNESS PREVENTION PROGRAMS
DOD is committed to keeping workers safe from preventable injuries, and has
embraced the safety and health management system approach through its participation in OSHA’s Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP). The leaders of our
armed forces understand that employees are critical to mission readiness, and
recognize the link between lost time injuries and illnesses and lost productivity. The Secretary of Defense has set a goal of reducing preventable injuries
by 75 percent from a 2002 baseline, with the ultimate aim of achieving zero
injuries. VPP participation has proven a powerful tool in this effort.* The 2009
DOD Safety Perception Survey of Senior Leaders captured many positive comments on VPP Successes. According to the head of the Defense Safety Oversight
Council (DSOC), which manages DOD’s VPP Program, DOD saw a lost day rate
reduction of 41 percent, from 31.5 per 100 full-time workers in FY 2002 (before
any VPP programs were implemented) to 18.7 per 100 workers in FY 2009.
DSOC publishes a list of the “Top 40” installations with the highest lost day
rates. One installation that ranked among the highest of these dropped to one of
the lowest in under two years through implementation of VPP. The chart below
illustrates some of the dramatic improvements in service-wide injury and illness
rate performance, comparing data from before and after VPP participation.
VPP Implementation Impacts on Service-Wide Lost
Day Rates (per 100 Workers)
All DOD
Army
Navy
Marines
Air Force
Defense
Logistics
FY 02
FY 09
Rate
Reduction
Percent
Improvement
31.5
29.3
39.8
73.8
25.6
25.6
18.7
17.8
21.2
36.7
16.5
16.9
12.8
11.5
18.6
37.1
9.1
8.7
41
39
46
50
36
34
Source: Angello (2010).
CASE STUDIES OF PROGRAMS IMPLEMENTED UNDER
OSHA’S VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAM (VPP)
• Hypotherm is a 900-employee, New Hampshire-based manufacturer of high-tech plasma and laser-cutting tools and machines. The
company provides an extensive employee training program that
*As of November 30, 2011, there were 39 DOD sites in VPP and approximately 200 additional sites working toward VPP status (Source: OSHA Directorate of Cooperative and State
Programs, 2011).
Appendix F
emphasizes health and safety as part of an overall focus on quality.
Through this investment the firm’s highly skilled, safety-oriented
workforce has driven a 25 percent reduction in costly machine crashes
and down time, and over a 3-year period (2007–2010), the company’s
workers’ compensation costs have fallen by 90 percent. Hypotherm
has consistently been named a “Best Place to Work” in the state of
New Hampshire and plans to add 100 positions over the next year.
• Allegheny Energy’s LM6000 Group operates three combustion turbine facilities in southwestern Pennsylvania. Facing complaints about
the use of arc flash hoods required for certain operations (fogging,
visibility), the company asked a group of employees to investigate
alternatives. The employees identified, evaluated and recommended a
power ventilated hood, which the company then purchased. In another
case, employees were provided time and resources to identify a way
to incorporate fall protection in one particular area. The employees
found several locations where vertical lifeline systems could be safely
installed and used, and a vendor was brought in to assist with the
installation. Involving employees and giving them a role in finding
solutions has helped Allegheny Energy foster a culture of safety and
remain incident-free since the group began operation.
• Pittsburgh-based McConway & Torley has been producing steel castings, rail couplings, and car-connecting systems for the railroad industry since 1868. The company believes it has the best foundry workers
in the world, but also realized that its compliance-focused approach to
safety was not enough to prevent workers from getting injured. Working
with OSHA, the company began filling gaps in its injury and illness
prevention program by following the VPP model. During the process
of implementing the VPP program at its two foundries, managers and
workers discovered that the required high level of employee involvement really made a difference. With top management’s full commitment and support, foundry managers and employees work together to
proactively resolve safety issues like repetitive motion problems, to
improve work practices and to develop job safety analyses. Employees
participate in monthly safety audits, facility-wide inspections, accident investigations and self-assessments, and are actively involved in
conducting safety training. They feel free to submit ideas for safety
improvements—and then they help implement those improvements,
a degree of empowerment that continues to make a difference in injury
reduction and a safer workplace. The impact of the VPP program was
powerful: between 2006 and 2010, McConway & Torley was able to
reduce workers’ compensation cases in its facilities by 79 percent and
reduce related direct costs by 90 percent.
Source: OSHA Directorate of Cooperative and State Programs.
205
206
Appendix F
applications to the National Safety Council for the Robert W. Campbell award (see
text box). Case studies of past winners are available on the Campbell Award website.
There are at least two industry consensus standards for injury and illness
prevention programs. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and
American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) have published a voluntary
consensus standard, ANSI/AIHA Z10—2005 Occupational Safety and Health
Management Systems (ANSI/AIHA 2005). The Occupational Health and Safety
Assessment Series (OHSAS) Project Group, a consortium of selected Registrars,
national standards bodies, professional associations and research institutes, has
produced a similar document, OHSAS 18001—2007 Occupational Health and
Safety Management Systems (OHSAS Project Group 2007). These consensusbased standards have been widely accepted in the world of commerce and adopted
by many businesses on a voluntary basis.
Canada, Australia and all members of the European Union operate programs
that either require employers to adopt injury and illness prevention programs, or
provide incentives or recognition to those who do so. For example, under the 1989
EU Framework Directive (89/391), EU member countries must have national legislation in place requiring employers to maintain risk identification and prevention
programs that are very similar to OSHA’s injury and illness prevention program
concept (European Union 1989). U.S. companies operating internationally are
familiar with these requirements and have already put in place their own programs
to meet these requirements. Finally, many private workers’ ­compensation ­carriers
offer incentives to employers who have injury and illness prevention programs and
provide technical assistance to help them implement their programs.
Courtesy of Frank Wenzel, Washington DOSH
207
Appendix F
SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAM EXAMPLE:
ANTHONY FORESTRY PRODUCTS
Anthony Forestry Products is a fourth generation, family-owned lumber and
wood products company. Its laminated wood products plant in El Dorado,
Arkansas, employs a staff of 80. The company initiated efforts to improve its
safety practices and, in 2001, began working with OSHA’s On-Site Consultation
Program on a voluntary basis to put in place a working safety and health management system. By 2002, the site was accepted into the SHARP. As a result of
this work, the company’s workers’ compensation loss rate (in losses per $1,000
of payroll) decreased from $18.20 in 1998 to $0.30 in 2007.
Payroll ($M)
$2.5
$2.0
$1.5
$1.0
$0.5
$0
1998
1999
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2005
2006
2007
$0
$0.70
$0.30
2005
2006
2007
Losses ($000)
$35
$30
$25
$20
$15
$10
$5
$0
$20
1998
1999
2003
2004
Losses per $1,000 of payroll
$18.20
$15
$14.20
$10
$5
$0
$3.90
1998
Source: ERG 2008.
1999
2003
$0.30
2004
208
Appendix F
The United States Departments of Defense (DOD) and Energy (DOE) have
both adopted this approach for protecting workers employed or stationed at the
nation’s military installations and nuclear weapons factories, including DOE’s
high hazard establishments. The success of DOD’s program is described in the
box below. DOE’s program, entitled Integrated Safety Management, includes an
expectation that the facilities will “embrace a strong safety culture where safe
performance of work and involvement of workers in all aspects of work performance are core values that are deeply, strongly, and consistently held by managers and workers.” According to DOE, the aspects of this safety culture that
impact safety performance are Leadership, Employee/Worker Involvement and
Organizational Learning (DOE 2011).
Despite the value to employers and workers in terms of injuries prevented and dollars saved, many U.S. workplaces have not yet adopted injury and illness prevention
programs. Based on the positive experience of employers with existing programs,
OSHA believes that injury and illness prevention programs provide the foundation
for breakthrough changes in the way employers identify and control hazards, leading to significantly improved workplace health and safety environments. Adoption
of injury and illness prevention program will result in workers suffering fewer injuries, illnesses and fatalities. In addition, employers will improve their compliance
with existing regulations, and will experience many of the financial benefits of a
safer and healthier workplace described in the literature and in reports by individual
companies.
ARE INJURY AND ILLNESS PREVENTION PROGRAMS TOO
COMPLICATED AND EXPENSIVE FOR SMALL BUSINESSES?
For many small businesses, establishing an injury and illness prevention program
may seem daunting. Any program based on formal structures can be difficult to
establish in a small organization because of tight budgets. Yet simple, low-cost
approaches have been shown to be effective in small businesses (Hasle and Limborg
2006). Injury and illness prevention programs lend themselves to such low-cost
approaches because they are highly flexible—the core elements can be implemented
at a basic level suitable for the smallest business, as well as at a more advanced,
structured level that may be needed in a larger, more complex organization.
OSHA’s Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP), which
recognizes small employers that operate exemplary injury and illness prevention
programs, provides compelling evidence that such programs can and do work for
small businesses. For example, the Ohio Bureau of Workers’ Compensation (2011)
analyzed the policies of 16 SHARP employers over a 12-year period from 1999
to 2010. The study compared the employers’ experience prior to and after achieving entry into the SHARP program. The preliminary results of the study show
that the average number of claims for these employers decreased by 52 percent,
the average claim cost decreased by 80 percent, the average lost time per claim
decreased by 87 percent, and claims (per million dollars of payroll) decreased by
88 percent.
Appendix F
209
An internal OSHA study of nine SHARP firms, ranging in size from 15 to 160
employees, found that the firms achieved the following as a result of their programs:
• A reduction in the number of injuries and illnesses.
• Improved compliance with regulatory requirements.
• Improved business and cost savings including reduced workers’ compensation premiums, reduced administrative and human resources burden
associated with filing injury and illness reports, managing workers’ compensation cases and training new employees. The companies also experienced improved efficiency in operations and material use, and improved
productivity. They were able to leverage their limited health and safety
resources.
• An improved workplace environment with greater collective responsibility
for workplace health and safety.
• Improved reputation and image in the community including relationships
and cooperation between employers and OSHA, between employers and
employees, and among employers in the business community.
CONCLUSIONS
• Despite the combined efforts of employers, workers, unions, safety professionals and regulators, more than 4,500 workers lose their lives and
more than four million are seriously injured each year. Tens of thousands
more die or are incapacitated because of occupational illnesses including
many types of cancer and lung disease. The human toll from this loss is
­incalculable and the economic toll is enormous.
• Many employers in the U.S. have been slow to adopt a workplace “safety
culture” that emphasizes planning and carrying out work in the safest way
possible.
• Injury and illness prevention programs are based on proven managerial
concepts that have been widely used in industry to bring about improvements in quality, environment and safety, and health performance. Effective
injury and illness prevention programs emphasize top-level ownership of
the program, participation by employees, and a “find and fix” approach to
workplace hazards.
• Injury and illness prevention programs need not be resource-intensive and
can be adapted to meet the needs of any size organization.
210
Appendix F
Courtesy of Roberto Rodriguez, Mesquite, Texas
OSHA believes that adoption of injury and illness prevention programs based
on simple, sound, proven principles will help millions of U.S. businesses improve
their compliance with existing laws and regulations, decrease the incidence
of workplace injuries and illnesses, reduce costs (including significant reductions in workers’ compensation premiums) and enhance their overall business
operations.
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Index
A
Accidents
domino theory of, 21–22
prevention of, 9, 21
pyramid model of, 21–22
Accountability, 26
Achievement, 127–129
Action plan, 7, 82, 183
Active listening, 86
ADA. See Americans with Disabilities
Act (ADA)
ADAAA. See Americans with
Disabilities Amendment Act
(ADAAA)
ADEA. See Age Discrimination in Employment
Act (ADEA)
Advanced degrees, 43
Age Discrimination in Employment Act
(ADEA), 104
Alcohol testing, 74
American Society of Safety Engineers
(ASSE), 36, 96
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA),
42, 74, 104
Americans with Disabilities Amendment Act
(ADAAA), 104
Antidiscrimination policies, 104, 105
ASSE. See American Society of Safety
Engineers (ASSE)
Audit assessment, 83–84, 185–189
Auditory safety messages, 64
B
Back injuries, 79
Behavior modification, 74, 76
Best Safety Directory, 14
Bids, 14
Boring programs, 119–121
C
Career and employment services, 69, 72
CDC. See Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC), 45–46, 48
Chambers of commerce, 61
Chief executive officers (CEOs), 2
Circular safety management, 111–112
City governments, 61
Civil Rights Act, 104
Classroom training, 65
Code of the West, 92–93
Collective bargaining agreements, 104
Colleges, 36, 67–72, 79, 137–164
Commerce Business Daily, 43
Communication
creative ideas for safety, 63–65
open, 24
Community involvement, 31–33
Company policies, 104
Company reputation, 31–33
Compensation, 108
Competitive bids, 14
Consultants, 61
Consumer Information Center, 46, 48
Continuing education courses, 67–72, 79
Contracts, 43
Controlled substances testing, 74
Cooperative (co-op) education, 68–69
Corporate citizenship, 31–33
Cost-benefit analysis, 9–10
Costs
initial and ongoing, 7
joint ventures to reduce, 39–40
of work-related injuries, 9, 21
Coworkers, 29, 108
Creative problem solving, 1–4, 77–80
Creative thinking, 123–125
Creativity
tapping employee, 17–19, 114
in training activities, 113–115
Critical thinking, 123–125
D
Decision-making process, 1–2
Deductions, 41–43
Degree programs, 67–68
Department of Labor, 45, 47
Difficult problems, creative solutions to, 77–80
Disability-related policies, 104, 105
Disciplinary actions, 26, 80
Disciplinary policy, 104
Discrimination, 104
Distance learning, 79
Domino theory, 21–22
Drug testing, 74
213
214
Index
E
F
Eastern Kentucky University, 52, 69–72, 79
Education. See also Training programs
classroom training, 65
continuing, 67–72, 79
co-op, 68–69
degree programs, 67–68
distance learning, 79
employee, 88
higher, 43
online, 114
Egos, 2
Emergency and disaster preparedness
plans, 100
Emergency preparedness committees, 32
Employees
behaviors of, 88
building trust with, 87
buy-in from, 10, 127
compensation of, 108
complaints by, 107–108
creativity of, 17–19, 114
drug testing, 74
educating, 88
empowerment of, 85–89, 113–114,
119–120, 128–129
families of, 29–30
happy, 107–109
input from, 25, 87
involvement of, 23, 26, 85–89, 113–114
motivation of, 74–76, 127, 128–129
open communication with, 24
orientation and training of new, 74
proper tools for, 86
psychological testing of, 74
recruitment and hiring of, 73–75
respect for, 87
safety consciousness of, 26
safety incentive programs for, 75–76
tattletales, 87–88
training programs for, 65, 82–83, 113–115
workplace rights of, 165–174
Employer-employee relationship, 17
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), 25, 105
Equipment
floor models, 15
personal protective, 13–16, 78, 86
previous year’s models, 15
purchase of shared, 39–40
renting or leasing, 40
safety equipment purchases, 13–16
Ergonomics, 79
Ethics, product purchases and, 15
Eye-protection program, 6–7
Faculty members, of colleges and universities,
68, 72
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA),
45, 104–105
Family involvement, 29–30
Federal agencies, 45–49, 105
Federal employment laws, 104–105
Federal Information Exchange, 54
Federal Register, 43
First-line supervisors, 23–24, 26
Floor models, 15
FMLA. See Family and Medical Leave
Act (FMLA)
Forklift rodeos, 64
Free services, 45–49
Funding sources, 41–43
G
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act
(GINA), 105
Georgia Tech, 79
Goal setting, 23, 26, 128
Governmental agencies, 45, 105
Government contracts, 43
Government oversight, 96–97
Government regulations, 1–2, 8, 25
Grants, 42–43
H
Hands-on training, 65
Happiness, 107–109
Hazard identification system, 18, 83
Healthfinder Web site, 55
Higher education, 43
Hiring process, 73–75
Human resources, 103–106
I
Idea boxes, 18
Incentive programs
for employee creativity, 18
safety, 75–76, 128
Industrial groups, 36–37, 61
Information sources
additional sources, 59–62
colleges and universities, 67–72, 137–164
government agencies, 45–49
Internet resources, 51–57
local resources, 61
professional organizations, 59–62
Injury and Illness Prevention Program
(I2P2), 135–136
215
Index
Injury and illness prevention programs, 191–208
Innovation
employees as source of, 17–19
risk and, 117–118
Insurance carriers, 36
Internal company policies, 104
Internet resources, 51–57
J
Jargon, 6
Job candidates, 37, 73–74
Joint ventures, 39–40
Justification, for program, 7
K
Kentucky Labor Cabinet, 46
Kentucky State Plan Program, 46
Kevlar, 4, 78
KISS (Keep It Simple, Sam), 2
L
Labor laws, 105, 114
Labor organizations, 61
Legal profession, 95–96
Library resources, 68
Listening skills, 19
Local consultants, 61
M
Management
educating, about safety and loss
prevention, 5, 6, 120
first-line supervisors, 23–24
middle, 8–10
motivations of, 127
psychological “triggers” for, 5–6, 8
safety and loss prevention professionals
and, 1–2, 5–11
support from, 5–11, 21, 23, 127
Management by objectives (MBO), 22
Management principles, for safety and loss
prevention, 22–27
Management theories, 22
Managing Employee Safety and Health
(MESH) program, 82–83
“Match” programs, 41
Medical community, 31
Medical profession, 95–96
Middle managers, 8–10
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Inventory (MMPI), 74
Motivations
of employees, 74–76, 127, 128–129
of management, 127
Municipalities, joint ventures with, 40
N
National Institute of Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH), 45, 46, 61
National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), 105
National Safety Council (NSC), 36
National Safety Management Society, 96
Negative reinforcement, 26, 128
Networking, 35–37
North American Association of Meat
Processors, 61
O
Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970), 3, 108
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA), 105
compliance, 1–2, 8, 25, 26, 35, 131
employee workplace rights and, 165–174
equipment specifications of, 13
as information source, 49, 61
Injury and Illness Prevention Program
(I2P2), 135–136
inspections, 107–108
regulations of, 25, 39
signage, 63
standards, 1
variance program, 131–134
Web site of, 49, 53
Office of Technical Programs and Coordination
Activities (OTPCA), 131
Online education, 114
Online networking, 36
Open-door policies, 18–19
OSHA. See Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA)
P
Passport to safety, 83
Personalities, 2
Personal protective equipment (PPE), 13–16, 78, 86
Positive feedback, 75, 129
Positive reinforcement, 26, 86–87, 128–129
Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), 104, 105
Price negotiations, 14, 16
Problem solving
creative, 1–4, 77–80
OSHA standards for, 1
procedure for, 77–78
216
skills, 123–125
“tried-and-true” methods for, 1
Production, 120–121
Product suppliers, 13–14, 15
Professional networking, 35–37
Professional organizations, 59–62, 96
Progressional accident goal theory, 23
Psychological testing, 74
Purchasing department, 15–16
Pyramid model, 21–22
R
Recruitment process, 73–75
Reduction in workforce (RIF), 127
Resource allocation, 1–2
Return on investment (ROI), 6, 7
Risk, innovation and, 117–118
Risk factors, mitigation of, 21
Robotic technologies, 117
S
Safety, health, and loss prevention
audit assessment, 83–84, 185–189
community involvement in, 31–33
creative safety programs for, 81–84
factors affecting, 127
family involvement in, 29–30
goals for, 23, 26, 128
impact of, 99–101
management principles for, 22–27
management support for, 1–2, 5–11, 21, 23
proactive approach to, 24, 26, 100
problems in, 1
resource allocation to, 1–2
study of, 3
technology for, 3–4
vision for, 91–94
written policies for, 24–25
Safety and health profession, 95–97
Safety and health programs
back to basics in, 135–136
creative, 81–84
effective selling of, 5–11
eliminating boring, 119–121
employee empowerment and, 85–89
making fun, 88–89
sample proposal, 6–7
Safety and loss prevention professionals
active involvement of, 86
average day for, 99
backgrounds of, 95
as coach, 127–128
enthusiasm of, 119–121
equipment purchases by, 13–16
impact of, 99–101
Index
management and, 1–2, 5–11
networking by, 35–37
requirements for, 95–97
stress on, 100–101
Ten Commandments for, xv
vision and values of, 91–94
Safety committees, 18
Safety communication, 63–65
Safety consciousness, 26
Safety equipment purchases, 13–16
Safety incentive programs, 75–76, 128
Safety management, circular, 111–112
SBA. See Small Business Administration (SBA)
Scholarships, 43
Senior management. See Upper management
Service Corp of Retired Executives
(SCORE), 61
Services, free, 45–49
Signage, 63
Simple solutions, 2–3
Small Business Administration (SBA), 61
Solutions
creative, 77–80
implementing, 1
simple, 2–3
Specialty services, 40
Spoken safety messages, 64
State agencies, 45, 46, 49
State employment laws, 105
Storyboarding, 81
Strategic planning process, 93
Stressors, 107
Student services, 67–72
Suggestion boxes, 18
T
Targeted Hazard Identification System (THIS),
175–182
Targeted Job Tax Credits (TJTC), 41
Tattletales, 87–88
Tax credits, 41–43
Tax deductions, 41–43
Team-building programs, 82
Team leaders, 23–24, 26
Technical terms, 6
Technology
advances in, 3–4, 117–118
incorporation of new, 64, 74, 79
robotic, 117
Terminology, 6
Title VII of Civil Rights Act, 104
Trade groups, 61
Training programs, 74. See also Education;
Safety and health programs
creativity in, 113–115
eliminating boring, 119–121
217
Index
hands-on, 65
market-based, 82–83
online, 114
Training services, 14–15
Trust, 87
U
Universities, 36, 67–72, 79, 137–164
Upper management. See also Management
buy-in from, 5–11, 23
educating, about safety and loss prevention,
5, 6, 120
V
Values, 91–94
Variance actions, 131–134
Vendors, 13–14, 15, 78
Vision, 91–94
Volume discounts, 15
W
Web sites, 36, 51–57
Whistleblowing, 108
Workers’ compensation costs, 31
Workers’ compensation laws, 105
Workplace rights, 165–174
Work-related injuries. See also Accidents
costs of, 9, 21
ergonomics and, 79
pyramid model of, 21–22
Written policies, 24–25
Z
Zero-accident goal theory, 23
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