The transitive ‘need’ construction in Russian: a null BE (GET) analysis

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The transitive ‘need’
construction in Russian: a null
BE GET analysis
Mikhail Knyazev
FDSL 13, Göttingen, 05.12.2018
Some ‘need’ predicates in Russian
• nado ‘need’ (non-verbal, Dat Possessor, non-agreeing (impersonal))
• nužno ‘need’ (non-verbal, Dat Possessor)
• agreeing form (Nom Theme): nužen (MASC.SG), nužna (FEM.SG), nužno
(NEUT.SG), nužny (PL)
• non-agreeing (impersonal) form nužno (= NEUT.SG)
• neobxodimo ‘necessary’ (non-verbal, agreeing & non-agreeing forms,
Dat-Possessor, Nom-Theme (≈ nužno))
• trebovat’sja ‘be required’ (verbal, Dat Possessor, Nom Theme)
• nuždat’sja ‘be in need of’ (verbal, Nom Possessor, PP Theme)
2
‘Need’ with a clausal complement
(NEED+CLAUSE)
• Dat Possessor + nado/nužno + infinitival/subjunctive clause
(a) Emu
nado / nužno
[kupi-t’ lopatu].
him.DAT need / need
buy-INF spade
‘He needs to buy a spade.’
(b) Emu
nado /nužno, [čtoby ona kupila
lopatu].
him.DAT need need
that.SUBJ she bought.SUBJ spade
‘He wants (lit. needs) her to buy a spade.’
3
‘Need’ with a nominal complement
(NEED+NOM)
• Dat Possessor + agreeing nužno + Nom-Theme
(a)
(b)
Emu
him.DAT
nužn-a /
need-F.SG
*nužno /* nado
need
need
‘He needs a spade.’
Emu
nužn-y /*nužno /* nado
him.DAT need-PL need
need
lopat-a.
spade(F)-NOM.SG
det-i.
children-NOM.PL
‘He needs children.’
≈ English intensional transitive ‘need’ (Larson et al. 1997, Harves 2008)
4
NEED+ACC construction
• Dat Possessor + Non-agreeing nužno/nado ‘need’ + Accusative Theme
(a)
(b)
Len-e
nado otdel′n-uju
komnat-u...
Lenja-DAT.SG need separate-ACC.F.SG room-ACC.SG
‘Lenja needs a separate room.’
(Valentina Oseeva, Dinka, 1959)*
Mne
nužno lopat-u.
I.DAT need spade-ACC.SG
‘I need a spade.’
(Vera Panova, Serëža, 1955)
• Nado seems to be more natural than nužno (also higher token frequency)
* examples so cited are from the Russian National Corpus
5
Examples in a larger context
(a) ― Vot èto dlja Dinki s Myshkoj, vot èta ― mame, vot èta ― mne, a vot èta ―
stolovaja, zdes’ možet na divane spat' Lenja…
― Lene nado otdel’nuju komnatu, ved’ on budet zanimat’sja!
‘This [room] is for Dinka and Myshka, this one for mom and this one for me and this
one is a dining room, Lenja can sleep here on the couch.’ ‘Lenja needs a separate
room because he will study [there].’
(b) Serezha vošel vo dvor i skazal:
― Korostelev! Mne nužno lopatu.
― Lopatu?.. ― peresprosil Korostelev.
(
‘Serjozha entered the courtyard and said, ‘Korostelev! I need a spade’. ‘A spade?’,
repeated Korostelev?
6
NEED+ACC construction
• Genitive Themes are also possible but rare
(a)
{Ja
srusskij čelovek}, mne
nužno
I.NOM Russian man
me.DAT need
‘{I am a Russian man}, I need a heroic deed.’
podvig-a.
deed-GEN.SG
(Andrej Dmitriev. Prizrak teatra, Znamja, 2003)
(b) Nado dosok,
material-a
{, čtoby
postroi-t′ lestnicu}.
need planks.GEN.PL material-GEN.SG that.SUBJ build-INF staircase
‘One needs planks, building material {to build staircase}.’
(Nikolaj Dežnëv, V koncertnom ispolnenii, 1993)
7
Basic facts about NEED+ACC
• Strong colloquial flavor  often found in dialogues
• Often rejected by the speakers (perceived as word play)
• Rare in the corpus, more frequent in the spoken corpus than in the written
one (see next slide)
• Mentioned/discussed in descriptive and theoretical literature (Bulachovskij
1948, Švedova 1980, Pesetsky 1980, Billings 1997, 2017, De Haan 2002,
Bailyn 2011), mostly in connection with Accusative-assigning non-verbal
predicates (e.g. vidno ‘visible’, slyšno ‘audible’, žal’ ‘pity’)
• No full-fledged description/analysis (absent in Harves and Kayne’s (2012)
typological survey of transitive ‘need’)
8
NEED+ACC in spoken & written parts of RNC
(Only texts written after 1950)
9
Research questions
1. What are the distributional and semantic/pragmatic properties of
NEED+ACC?
2. What is the best analysis of NEED+ACC that could account for these
differences?
10
Main claims
• The NEED+ACC construction is biclausal with a null possessive verb GET
• The NEED+ACC construction involves an EVAL(uative) head in the Speech Act
domain
Proposed analysis for NEED+ACC:
PossessorDATi [EVAL nado/nužno + EVAL ] ti nado/nužno [PROi GET ThemeACC]
11
Plan
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Introduction
Distributional properties of NEED+ACC
Semantic/pragmatic properties of NEED+ACC
Syntactic analysis of NEED+ACC with null GET and EVAL
Syntactic analysis of NEED+NOM
12
Plan
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Introduction
Distributional properties of NEED+ACC
Semantic/pragmatic properties of NEED+ACC
Syntactic analysis of NEED+ACC with null GET and EVAL
Syntactic analysis of NEED+NOM
13
Distributional properties of NEED+ACC
• Predicates other than nužno/nado
• Subjunctive particle by
• Order with the copula
• Deverbal nominals as Themes
• Abstract/mass nouns as Themes
• Animacy of the Dative argument
14
Predicates other than nužno/nado
• Necessity predicates with Dat Possessor other than nužno/nado are disallowed in
NEED+ACC but possible in NEED+NOM
(a)
(b)
??neobxodimo/ *trebuetsja /
Mne
me.DAT
necessary
be.required.PRES.3SG
Intended: ‘He needs a/the book.’
Mne
neobxodim-a/ trebuetsja
me.DAT necessary-F.SG be.required.PRES.3SG
‘He needs a/the book’
nužno
need
lopat-u
spade-ACC.SG
NEED+ACC
lopat-a.
spade-NOM.SG
NEED+NOM
15
Predicates other than nužno/nado
• Necessity predicates with Dat Possessor other than nužno/nado and possible in
NEED+CLAUSE
(a)
(b)
Emu
him.DAT
neobxodimo / trebuetsja [kupi-t’ lopatu].
necessary
is required buy-INF spade
‘He needs to buy a spade.’
Emu
neobxodimo /trebuetsja, [čtoby
ona kupila
him.DAT
necessary
is required that.SUBJ she bought.PST
lopatu].
spade
‘He wants (lit. needs) her to buy a spade.’
16
Predicates other than nužno/nado
• Just one example with neobxodimo ‘necessary’ in RNC (texts after 1950)
(a) Dlja moego ščast′ja
mne
neobxodimo bylo
for my
happiness me.DAT necessary
was.NEUT.SG
‘For my happiness, I needed a baby.’
rebënk-a.
baby-ACC.SG
(Jurij Dombrovskij. Roždenie myši,1951–1956)
• Significantly less frequent than nužno ‘need’
17
Verbless subjunctive
• NEED+ACC is possible with by (“Verbless subjunctive”, see Dobrushina 2015), but
disallowed with NEED+NOM (although nužno sounds somewhat stilted/archaic)
(a)
(b)
(c)
Len-e
nado
by
otdel′n-uju
komnat-u...
Lenja-DAT.SG need
SUBJ separate-ACC.F.SG room-ACC.SG
‘Lenja would need a separate room.’
??Mne
nužno by
lopat-u.
me.DAT
need
SUBJ
spade-ACC.SG
‘I would need a spade.’
*Mne
nužna
by
lopat-a.
me.DAT
need-F.SG SUBJ
spade-NOM.SG
Intended: ‘I would need a spade.’
NEED+ACC
NEED+ACC
NEED+NOM
18
Verbless subjunctive
• NEED+CLAUSE shows a similar pattern  general property of (non-agreeing) nužno
by
(a)
(b)
Len-e
nado by [pereexa-t’ v otdel′n-uju
komnat-u...]
Lenja-DAT.SG need SUBJ move -INF in separate-ACC.F.SG room-ACC.SG
‘Lenja would need to move in a separate room.’
??Mne
nužno by [kupi-t’ lopat-u.]
me.DAT
need SUBJ buy-INF spade-ACC.SG
‘I would need to buy a spade.’
19
With copula
• The NEED + copula order appears to be more natural for NEED+ACC, no strong
preference for NEED+NOM (judgments are murky)
(a)
(a)
Emu
him.DAT
(??bylo)
nado/nužno (bylo)
lopat-u.
was.NEUT.SG need/need was.NEUT.SG spade-ACC.SG
‘He needs a spade.’
Emu
(byla)
him.DAT was.F.SG
‘He needs a spade.’
NEED+ACC
nužn-a
(byla)
need-F.SG was.F.SG
lopat-a.
spade-ACC.SG
NEED+NOM
20
With copula
• The pattern is similar in NEED+CLAUSE
(a)
Emu
him.DAT
ACC.SG
(a)
(??byl-o)
nado/nužno (byl-o)
[kupi-t’ lopat-u].
was-NEUT.SG need/need was-NEUT.SG buy-INF spade-
‘He needed to buy a spade.’
Emu
(*budet) nado/nužno (budet) [kupi-t’ lopat-u].
him.DAT will be
need/need will be buy-INF spade-ACC.SG
‘He will need to buy a spade.’
21
Deverbal nominals as Themes
• Deverbal nominals are disallowed in NEED+ACC but possible in NEED+NOM
(a)
*Nam nado / nužno ubork-u
us.DAT need need tidying.up-ACC.SG
Intended: ‘We need tidying up.’
NEED+ACC
(b)
Nam
nužn-a
ubork-a
us.DAT need-F.SG tidying.up(F)-NOM.SG
NEED+NOM
‘We need (someone to) to tidy up (for us).’ (lit. ‘need tidying up’)
22
Deverbal nominals as Themes
• Deverbal nominals are disallowed in NEED+ACC but possible in NEED+NOM, Cf. other
intensional transitive verbs (note Genitive marking)
(a)
(b)
(c)
*Nam nado / nužno otdyx
(?*otdyx-a)
us.DAT need
need
rest.ACC.SG rest-GEN.SG
Intended: ‘We need rest.’
Nam
nužen
otdyx
us.DAT need-M.SG
rest(M).ACC.SG
‘We need need rest.’
My
zaslužili
otdyx
/
zasluživaem
we.NOM
deserved rest.ACC.SG
deserve
‘We deserve(d) rest’
NEED+ACC
NEED+NOM
otdyx-a
DESERVE
rest-GEN.SG
23
Deverbal nominals as Themes
• “Retroactive” deverbal nominals (where Possessor is construed with an internal
argument, see, e.g., Safir 1991)) show the same pattern
(a)
(b)
(c)
*Nam nado / nužno pomošč’(*-i)
/ podderžk-u (?*-i)
us.DAT need
need
help-ACC.SG(-GEN.SG) support-ACC.SG(-GEN.SG)
Intended: ‘We need help/support.’
NEED+ACC
Nam
nužn-a
pomošč’ /
podderžk-a
us.DAT
need-F.SG help(F)-NOM.SG support(F)-NOM.SG
‘We need help/support.’
NEED+NOM
Cel′ èta – bezuslovno, xorošaja, i zasluživaet podderžk-i.
‘This goal is surely good and deserves support[-GEN.SG].’
DESERVE
(Dmitrij Verchoturov, “Russkie v Izraile: mnenie rossijanina”, Lebed′, 2003)
24
Deverbal nominals as Themes
• “Retroactive” deverbal nominals (where Possessor is construed with an internal
argument, see, e.g., Safir 1991)) show the same pattern
(a)
(b)
*Emu
nado / nužno osmotr
him.DAT need need examination.ACC.SG
Intended: ‘He needs a [medical] examination.’
Emu
nužen
osmotr
him.DAT need.M.SG examination.NOM.SG
‘He needs a [medical] examination.’
vrač-a
doctor-GEN
NEED+ACC
vrač-a
doctor-GEN
NEED+NOM
(https://tj.sputniknews.ru/world/20180608/1025817515/ukraine-vyshinskiy-zdorove-uhudshenie.html)
25
Deverbal nominals as Themes
• “Retroactive” deverbal nominals with inanimate Possessors also possible only for
NEED+NOM (nuždat’sja ‘be.in.need’ might sound more natural for inanimate Possessors)
(a)
Volos-am (ženščin-am) nado / nužno
hair-DAT women-DAT need
necessary
*zaščit-u (?*-y)
NEED+ACC
protection-ACC.SG (-GEN.SG)
Intended: ‘Hair (women) need(s) protection.’
(b)
Volos-am
(ženščin-am)
nužn-a
zaščit-a
NEED+NOM
hair-DAT
women-DAT
need-F.SG
protection(F)-NOM.SG
‘Hair (women) need(s) protection.’ (https://books.google.ru/books?id=Xg3KCQAAQBAJ)
(c)
Volos-у
hair-NOM.PL
(ženščin-y)
women-NOM.PL
nuždajutsja
be.in.need.PRS.3PL
‘Hair (women) are in need of protection.’
v zaščit-e
in protection(F)-LOC.SG
NUŽDAT’SJA
26
Abstract/mass nouns as Themes
• Abstract/mass nouns often sound degraded in NEED+ACC (with Genitive), but are possible
in NEED+NOM, cf. other intensional transitive verbs
(a)
(b)
(c)
Ej
nužno
*porjadok / ?*porjadk-a.
her.DAT need
order-ACC.SG order-GEN.SG
Intended: ‘She needs order.’
Lel′ka – domovitaja, ej
nužen
porjadok.
Lelka houseproud her.DAT need.M.SG
order(M).NOM.SG
‘Lelka is houseproud, she needs order.’ (Daniil Granin, Zubr, 1987)
Obščestvennost’ xočet porjadk-a...
Public.NOM
wants order-GEN.SG
‘The public wants order.’ (G Arbatov, Čelovek sistemy,2002)
NEED+ACC
NEED+NOM
WANT
27
Abstract/mass nouns as Themes
• Abstract/mass Themes with inanimate Possessors also possible only for
NEED+NOM
(a)
Mo-im
myšč-am
(mne) nužno
my-DAT.PL muscles- DAT.PL me.DAT need
Intended: ‘My muscles (I) need energy.’
(b)
Mo-im
myšč-am (mne) nužn-a
my-DAT.PL muscles- DAT.PL need-F.SG
‘My muscles (I) need energy.’
?*ènergi-i
/ *ènergij-u
energy-GEN.SG /energy-ACC.SG
NEED+ACC
ènergij-a.
energy(F)-NOM.SG
NEED+NOM
(Natal'ja Radulova. Krasavchik v dome // «Ogonek», 2015)
28
Abstract/mass nouns as Themes
• But there are some naturally-occurring examples with Genitive abstract/mass
Themes
(a)
{Ja
srusskij čelovek}, mne
nužno podvig-a.
I.NOM Russian man
me.DAT need deed-GEN.SG
‘{I am a Russian man}, I need a heroic deed.’ s
(Andrej Dmitriev. Prizrak teatra, Znamja, 2003)
(b) Nado dosok,
material-a
{, čtoby
postroi-t′ lestnicu}.
need planks.GEN.PL material-GEN.SG that.SUBJ build-INF staircase
‘One needs planks, building material {to build staircase}.’
(Nikolaj Dežnëv, V koncertnom ispolnenii, 1993)
29
Abstract/mass nouns as Themes
• But there are some naturally-occurring examples with Genitive abstract/mass
Themes
(a) Krys-am tože nužno
rat-DAT.PL also need
ljubv-i
love-GEN.SG
‘Do rats also need love?’
(Oleg Pavlov, “Karagandinskie devjatiny…”, Oktjabr′, 2001)
(b) Tebe
nužno garantij?
you.DAT need guarantees.GEN.PL
‘Do you need guarantees[-GEN.PL/-ACC.PL]?’
(S.A. Eremeeva, Lekcii po istorii iskusstva, 1999)
30
Abstract/mass nouns as Themes
• Genitive Themes are significantly less frequent with NEED+ACC than with intensional
verbs like xotet’ ‘want’
• Given that abstract/mass Themes are marked with Genitive, there is a dispreference
for abstract/mass Themes in NEED+ACC
31
Animacy restriction on the Possessor
• Inanimate Dat Possessors are disallowed in NEED+ACC, but possible in NEED+NOM.
• Problem: these examples could be independently blocked due to
deverbal/abstract Themes
(a)
(b)
Volos-am (ženščin-am) nado / nužno *zaščit-u (?*-y)
NEED+ACC
hair-DAT women-DAT need necessary protection-ACC.SG (-GEN.SG)
Intended: ‘Hair (women) need(s) protection.’
Volos-am (ženščin-am) nužn-a
zaščit-a
NEED+NOM
hair-DAT women-DAT need-F.SG
protection(F)-NOM.SG
‘Hair (women) need(s) protection.’’
32
Animacy restriction on the Possessor
• Inanimate Dat Possessors are disallowed in NEED+ACC, but possible in NEED+NOM.
• Problem: these examples could be independently blocked due to
deverbal/abstract Themes
(a)
(b)
Mo-im
myšč-am
(mne) nužno ?*ènergi-i / *ènergij-u
my-DAT.PL muscles- DAT.PL me.DAT need
energy-GEN.SG /energy-ACC.SG
Intended: ‘My muscles (I) need energy.’
NEED+ACC
Mo-im
myšč-am (mne) nužn-a
ènergij-a.
my-DAT.PL muscles- DAT.PL need-F.SG
energy(F)-NOM.SG
‘My muscles (I) need energy.’
NEED+NOM
(Natal'ja Radulova. Krasavchik v dome // «Ogonek», 2015)
33
Animacy restriction on the Possessor
• Inanimate Dat Possessors in NEED+NOM often take abstract/mass/deverbal
Themes  hard to establish the animacy restriction independently
• But there are some inanimate Dat Possessors in NEED+NOM with concrete Themes
(a)
Kart-e
nužen
map-DAT.SG need.M.SG
‘The map needs a table.’
stol
table.ACC.SG
NEED+NOM
(Viktor Šitarev. “Vsevidjaščij glaz navigator”, Technika – molodëži, 1991)
(b)
Avtobus-u
nužen
bus-DAT.SG need.M.SG
‘The bus needs a driver.’
voditel’.
driver.NOM.SG
NEED+NOM
(Mariam Petrosjan, Dom, v kotorom..., 2009)
34
Animacy restriction on the Possessor
• Examples in a larger context
(a)
V kroxotnoj xodovoj rubke i tak tesno ot priborov, a karte nužen stol, pričëm
ves′ma solidnyx razmerov.
‘A tiny pilot room is already packed with devices, but a map needs a table, and
a rather large one.’
(b)
Skaži, čto avtobusu nužen voditel′, a ljubomu, sadjaščemusja za rul′,
nužny voditel′skie prava.
‘Say that the bus needs a driver and anyone getting behind the wheel
needs a driving license.’
35
Animacy restriction on the Possessor
• With concrete Themes Inanimate Possessors seem to be disallowed in NEED+NOM
although they are possible with animate Possessors
(a)
*Kart-e
nužno / nado stol
map-DAT.SG
need need
NEED+ACC, INANIMATE
table.ACC.SG
Intended: ‘The map needs a table.’
(b)
Nam
nužno/nado
us.DAT need need
stol
NEED+ACC, ANIMATE
table.ACC.SG
‘We need a table’
36
Animacy restriction on the Possessor
• With concrete Themes Inanimate possessors seem to be disallowed in NEED+NOM
although they are possible with animate Possessors
(a)
*Avtobus-u
nužno / nado
voditelj-a.
bus-DAT.SG
need
driver-ACC.SG
need
NEED+ACC, INANIMATE
Intended: ‘The bus needs a driver.’
(b)
Im
nužno
Them.DAT need
/ nado voditelja.
need
NEED+ACC, ANIMATE
driver-ACC.SG
‘They need a driver.’
37
Animacy restriction on the Possessor
• There is also an animacy restriction in NEED+CLAUSE  control properties
(a)
(b)
*Kart-e
nužno / nado [leža-t’
na stol-e]
NEED+CLAUSE
map-DAT.SG need need lie-INF
on table-LOC.SG
Intended: ‘The map needs to lie on the table.’
Kart-a
dolžn-a
[leža-t’
map(F)-DAT.SG must-F.SG
lie-INF
‘The map must lie on the table.’
na
on
stole]
table-LOC.SG
38
Animacy restriction on the Possessor
• There is also an animacy restriction in NEED+CLAUSE
(a)
(b)
*Avtobus-u
bus-DAT.SG
nužno / nado
need
need
[upravlja-t’-sja voditel-em].
be.led-INF-REFL driver-INS.SG
Intended: ‘The bus needs to be led by a driver.’
Avtobus
dolžen
[upravlja-t’-sja
bus(M).NOM.SG
must.M.SG be.led-INF-REFL
‘The bus must be led a driver.’
NEED+CLAUSE
voditel-em].
driver-INS.SG
39
Animacy restriction on the Possessor
• However, the effect was not confirmed in an acceptability rating (1–7 Likert scale)
study (2 × 2 factorial design (NOM/ACC × ANIMACY/INANIMACY), N = 71)
• Perhaps a floor effect
40
Summary of the distributional properties
Other modal predicates
(neobxodimo, etc.)
Subjunctive by
Copula + NEED order
Deverbal Themes
Abstract/Mass Themes
Inanimate Dat argument
NEED+ACC
NEED+NOM
NEED+CLAUSE
✗
✓
✓
✓
✗ (?)
✗
✓
✗
Rare
✓
✓
✓
✓
✗
N/A
N/A
✗ (?)
✗
41
Roadmap
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Introduction
Distributional properties of NEED+ACC
Semantic/pragmatic properties of NEED+ACC
Syntactic analysis of NEED+ACC with null GET and EVAL
Syntactic analysis of NEED+NOM
42
Semantic and pragmatic properties
• Non-possessive paraphrases
• “Requirement” reading
• Inchoative possessive (‘get’) paraphrases
• Subjective necessity
43
Obligatory possessive paraphrases
• Paraphrases with non-possessive verbs are disallowed in NEED+ACC even when the
pragmatically more plausible, implausible possessive interpretation is forced
 against ellipsis analysis
(a)
Mne
nado / nužno musor
me.DAT need need garbage.ACC
NEED+ACC
‘I need (to get/#throw out) the garbage’
(b)
Mne
nado / nužno arendn-uju
plat-u
NEED+ACC
me.DAT need need leasing-ACC.F.SG
payment-ACC.SG
‘I need (to get/#pay) the rent’ (when uttered by a tenant)
44
Obligatory possessive paraphrases
• Paraphrases with non-possessive verbs are also disallowed for NEED+NOM, at least
for concrete Themes
(a)
Mne
nužen
musor
me.DAT need.M.SG garbage(M).NOM.SG
‘I need (to get/#throw out) the garbage.’
(b) Mne
nužn-a
arendn-aja
plat-a
me.DAT need.F.SG leasing-ACC.F.SG payment(F)-ACC.SG
‘I need (to get/#pay) the rent’
NEED+NOM
NEED+NOM
45
”Requirement” reading
• “Requirement” reading (‘X requires Y for proper functioning’) is possible for
NEED+NOM (with inanimate Possessors and/or deverbal/abstract/mass Themes),
but disallowed for NEED+ACC
(a)
(b)
Mo-im
myšč-am
nužno ?*ènergi-i / *ènergij-u
my-DAT.PL muscles- DAT.PL need energy-GEN.SG /energy-ACC.SG
Intended: ‘My muscles need (=require) energy.’
NEED+ACC
Mo-im
myšč-am
nužn-a
ènergij-a.
my-DAT.PL muscles- DAT.PL need-F.SG
energy(F)-NOM.SG
‘My muscles need (=require) energy.’
NEED+NOM
46
”Requirement” reading
• “Requirement” reading (‘X requires Y for proper functioning’) is possible for
NEED+NOM (with inanimate Dat Possessors and/or Deverbal Themes), but
disallowed for NEED+ACC
(a)
(b)
Volos-am
nado / nužno *zaščit-u /
(??-y)
hair-PL.DAT need need protection-ACC.SG -GEN.SG
Intended: ‘Hair needs (=requires) protection’
Volos-am
nužn-a
zaščit-a
hair-DPL.AT need-F.SG
protection(F)-NOM.SG
‘Hair needs (=requires) protection’
NEED+ACC
NEED+NOM
47
”Requirement” reading
• “Requirement” reading (‘X requires Y for proper functioning’) is possible for
NEED+NOM (with inanimate Dat Possessors and/or Deverbal Themes), but
disallowed for NEED+ACC
(a)
(b)
*Kart-e
nužno / nado stol
map-DAT.SG need need table.ACC.SG
Intended: ‘The map need (=requires) a table.’
Kart-e
nužen
stol
map-DAT.SG need.M.SG table(M).ACC.SG
‘The map needs (=requires) a table.’
NEED+ACC
NEED+NOM
48
”Requirement” reading
• “Requirement” reading (‘X requires Y for proper functioning’) is possible for
NEED+NOM (with inanimate Dat Possessors and/or Deverbal Themes), but
disallowed for NEED+ACC
(a)
(b)
*Avtobus-u nužno / nado
voditelj-a.
bus-DAT.SG need need driver-ACC.SG
Intended: ‘The bus needs (=requires) a driver.’
Avtobus-u
nužen
voditel’.
bus-DAT.SG need.M.SG driver.NOM.SG
‘The bus needs (=requires) a driver.’
NEED+ACC
NEED+NOM
49
Obligatory paraphrases with ‘get’
• NEED+ACC disallows non-inchoative possessive (‘get’) paraphrases, cf. Harley
2004, whereas they are possible for NEED+NOM
(a)
(b)
Emu
him.DAT
nužn-a
mašina.
need-F.SG car(F)-NOM.SG
‘He needs (= to get/have) car.’
Emu
nužno mašin-u.
him.DAT need car-ACC.SG
NEED+NOM
NEED+ACC
‘He needs (= to get/#have) a car.’
50
Obligatory paraphrases with ‘get’
• NEED+ACC disallows non-inchoative possessive (‘get’) paraphrases, cf. Harley
2004, whereas they are possible for NEED+NOM
(a)
(b)
Emu
him.DAT
nužn-a
need-Fs.SG
(ego)
his
mašina.
car(F)-NOM.SG
‘He needs (= to have/#to get) (his) car.’ {He will not sell it}’
#Emu
nužno (ego) mašin-u.
him.DAT need his
car-ACC.SG
NEED+NOM
NEED+ACC
‘He needs (#to get/#to have) (his) car.’ {He will not sell it}’
51
Subjectivity necessity
• NEED+ACC expresses subjective necessity
‘According to the Speaker/Attitude Holder,
X needs to get X’
• NEED+ACC cannot be embedded under proferring predicates like ‘demonstrate’
[Anand and Hacquard 2012], which present the embedded proposition as an
objective fact
(a) Psichologičeskij test pokazal, čto Lëne…
i. ??…nužno otdel′nuju komnat-u
NEED+ACC
ii.
nužna otdel′naja komnat-a
NEED+NOM
‘The psychological test demonstrated that Lenja needs a separate room’
52
Subjectivity necessity
• Evidence: Dat Possessor in NEED+ACC is more frequently realized as
1SG pronouns than in NEED+NOM  Subjective judgments will be
more likely be about Speaker’s own needs than objective judgments
Subjectivity necessity
• Evidence: Neobxodimo ‘necessary’ and trebovat’sja ‘required’ are disallowed in
NEED+ACC  they could be taken to express objective necessity
(a)
??neobxodimo/
Mne
me.DAT
necessary
‘I need a spade.’
*trebuetsja/
be.required.PRES.3SG
nužno
need
lopat-u
spade-ACC.SG
• Independent evidence: Neobxodimo ‘necessary’ cannot be combined with the
subjunctive particle by, which is subjective (see Dobrushina 2015)
(b)
*neobxodimo by/nado by/nužno by
54
Summary of semantic & pragmatic properties
NEED+ACC
NEED+NOM
Obligatory possessive paraphrases
with concrete Themes
“Requirement” reading
✓
✓
✗
✓
Non-inchoative possessive
paraphrases
Objective necessity
✗
✓
✗
✓
55
Roadmap
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Introduction
Distributional properties of NEED+ACC
Semantic/pragmatic properties of NEED+ACC
Syntactic analysis of NEED+ACC with null GET and EVAL
Syntactic analysis of NEED+NOM
56
Syntactic analysis for NEED+ACC
• Analysis with null GET
• Evidence for Null GET from BY+ACC construction
• Potential problems for null GET
• EVAL as expression of subjective necessity
57
Syntactic analysis for NEED+ACC: null GET
• NEED+ACC is biclausal with an abstract infinitival complement with
control properties (assuming NEED+CLAUSE is a control structure (cf.
animacy restriction on the Dat argument)
• Infinitival complement is headed by null possessive verb GET, cf.
Harley 2004, Harves 2008
• GET has selectional restrictions on its Possessor and Theme
arguments and assigns Acc
(a)
(b)
PossessorDATi nado/nužno [PROi GET ThemeACC]
GET: <Possessor (Animate), ThemeACC (Concrete Object)>
58
Syntactic analysis for NEED+ACC: null GET
• The analysis in (a)–(b) accounts for:
Obligatory ‘get’ paraphrases
 Lack of the “requirement” reading
 No deverbal/abstract/mass Themes
Animacy restriction on the Possessor
Patterning with NEED+CLAUSE wrt ??Copula+ ‘need’, cf. NEED+NOM
Patterning with NEED+CLAUSE wrt possibility of subjunctive, cf. NEED+NOM
Acc marking on the Theme
(a)
(b)
PossessorDATi nado/nužno [PROi GET ThemeACC]
GET: <Possessor (Animate), ThemeACC (Concrete Object)>
59
Evidence for null GET: BY+ACC construction
• Family of “verbless subjunctive” constructions (Dobrushina 2015), including the
BY+ACC construction (p.c. Ora Matushansky):
(a)
(b)
Len-e
by
Lenja-DAT.SG SUBJ
otdel′n-uju
komnat-u...
separate-ACC.F.SG room-ACC.SG
‘Lenja would rather get a separate room.’
Mne
by
lopat-u.
me.DAT SUBJ
spade-ACC.SG
BY+ACC
BY+ACC
‘I would (rather) get a spade.’
60
Evidence for null GET: BY+ACC construction
• Same distributional and semantic/pragmatic properties are obtained
for the BY+ACC construction as for the NEED+ACC
•
•
•
•
Accusative marking on the Theme
Obligatory possessive readings
No deverbal & abstract Themes
No inanimate possessors & requirement readings
61
Evidence for null GET: BY+ACC construction
• Nominative Themes are disallowed (Dobrushina 2015)
(a)
(b)
*Len-e
by
Lenja-DAT.SG SUBJ
otdel′n-aja
komnat-a...
separate-NOM.F.SG room-NOM.SG
Intended: ‘Lenja would rather get a separate room.’
*Mne
by
lopat-a.
me.DAT
SUBJ
spade-NOM.SG
BY+NOM
BY+NOM
Intended: ‘I would (rather) get a spade.’
62
Evidence for null GET: BY+ACC construction
• Paraphrases with non-possessive verbs are disallowed
(a)
(b)
Mne
by
musor
I.DAT SUBJ
garbage.ACC
‘I would (to get/#throw out) the garbage
Mne
by
arendn-uju
plat-u
I.DAT SUBJ
leasing-ACC.F.SG payment-ACC.SG
‘I would (to get/#pay) the rent’
BY+ACC
BY+ACC
63
Evidence for null GET: BY+ACC construction
• Deverbal & abstract Themes are disallowed
(a)
*Nam
we.DAT
by
SUBJ
ubork-u
/ otdyx
tidying.up-ACC.SG
rest.ACC.SG
Intended: ‘We would rather tidy up / rest’
?*porjadk-a.
(b) Ej
by
*porjadok/
her.DAT
SUBJ
order-ACC.SG order-GEN.SG
Intended: ‘She would rather have order.’
BY+ACC
BY+ACC
64
Evidence for null GET: BY+ACC construction
• Inanimate Possessors & requirement readings are disallowed
(a)
(b)
*Kart-e
by
map-DAT.SG SUBJ
stol
table.ACC.SG
Intended: ‘The map would need (=require) a table.’
Volos-am by
*zaščit-u /
(??-y)
hair-DAT SUBJ
protection-ACC.SG -GEN.SG
BY+ACC
BY+ACC
Intended: ‘Hair would need (=require) protection’
65
Evidence for null GET: BY+ACC construction
• Same distributional and semantic/pragmatic properties are obtained for
the BY+ACC construction as for the NEED+ACC
 Structure of BY+ACC as in (a) with Dative assigned by Infinitival Clause
(contra Dobrushina 2015, who argues for the ellipsis analysis)
 independent evidence for GET
(a)
PossessorDAT by [PossessorDAT GET ThemeACC]
66
Potential problems for null GET
• Overt polučit’ ‘get’ paraphrases often do not work, overt imet’ or byt’ ‘be’
paraphrases seem to be more generally available GET should be more abstract
than its overt paraphrases, cf. van Riemsdijk 2002
(a) Ej
nužno detej,
{pora vydava-t’}
her.DAT need kids.ACC.PL time marry-INF
‘She needs kids, {it is high time to marry her}’
NEED+ACC
Vladimir Recepter. Uzlov, ili Obrashhenie k Kazanove (1993)
(b) Ej
nužno [#polučit’/ imet’
detej]
her.DAT need get-INF
have-INF kids.ACC.PL time
‘She needs to have kids, {it is high time to marry her}’
marry-INF
67
Syntactic analysis for NEED+ACC: subjectivity
• NEED+ACC Is headed by the EVAL head (expressing subjective
evaluation) in the Speech Act domain (Speas & Tenny 2003)
• EVAL head must be overtly realized by [+EVAL] elements including
nado/nužno and subjunctive by  nado/nužno moves to EVAL
(a)
(b)
(c)
PossessorDATi [EVAL nado/nužno + EVAL ] ti nado/nužno [PROi GET ThemeACC]
PossessorDATi [EVAL nado/nužno + by ] ti nado/nužno [PROi GET ThemeACC]
PossessorDATi [EVAL by ] [PossessorDATi GET ThemeACC]
68
Syntactic analysis for NEED+ACC: subjectivity
• Analysis in (a)–(c) accounts for:
Copula + ‘need’ position (assuming T below EVAL)
No objective necessity modals like neobxodimo ‘necessary’ and trebovat’sja
‘be required’ (no [+EVAL] feature)
Availability of by in NEED+ACC but not in NEED+NOM (no EVAL)
 acceptability of neobxodimo ‘necessary’ and nužno in NEED+BY+ACC and
NEED+BY+CLAUSE correlate (conditioned by the same [+EVAL] feature)
(a)
(b)
(c)
PossessorDATi [EVAL nado/nužno + EVAL ] ti nado/nužno [PROi GET ThemeACC]
PossessorDATi [EVAL nado/nužno + by ] ti nado/nužno [PROi GET ThemeACC]
PossessorDATi [EVAL by ] [PossessorDATi GET ThemeACC]
69
Roadmap
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Introduction
Distributional properties of NEED+ACC
Semantic/pragmatic properties of NEED+ACC
Syntactic analysis of NEED+ACC with null GET and EVAL
Syntactic analysis of NEED+NOM
70
Syntactic analysis for NEED+NOM
• Harves 2008: NEED+NOM is biclausal with a null BE/GET predicate (although no
explicit analysis is provided), as in (a)
• Main challenge:
1. explain away non-possessive/requirement reading (with deverbal/abstract
Themes and/or inanimate Possessors)
2. at the same time explain obligatory possessive paraphrases with concrete
Themes
(a)
PossessorDATi nužno [PossessorDATi/PROi BE/GET ThemeNOM]
71
Syntactic analysis for NEED+NOM
• Deverbal/abstract Themes: possessive paraphrase with a silent
present tense copula (p.c. Dmitry Zelensky)
(a) Emu
nužen
osmotr
him.DAT
need.M.SG examination.NOM.SG
‘He needs to be examined by a doctor’
(b) U nego
*est’ / OK∅ osmotr
at him.GEN is
examination.NOM.SG
‘He is having an examination’
BY+NOM
72
Syntactic analysis for NEED+NOM
• Deverbal/abstract Themes: possessive paraphrase with a silent
present tense copula (p.c. Dmitry Zelensky)
(a)
Ej
nužen
porjadok.
her.DAT need.M.SG
order(M).NOM.SG
‘She needs order.’
(b) U
nee
*est’/ OK∅ porjadok
at her.GEN is
order(M).NOM.SG
#‘She has order.’
BY+NOM
73
Syntactic analysis for NEED+NOM
• Requirement reading: No possessive paraphrase available
(a) Kart-e
nužen
stol
map-DAT.SG need.M.SG
table.NOM.SG
‘The map needs (=requires) a table.’
(b) *U kart-y
est’/ ∅ stol
at map-GEN.SG is
table.NOM.SG
Intended: ‘#The map has a table.’
NEED+NOM
74
Syntactic analysis for NEED+NOM
• Requirement reading: No possessive paraphrase available
(a)
Volos-am
nužn-a
zabot-a
hair-PL.DAT need-F.SG care(F)-NOM.SG
‘Hair needs (=requires) protection’
(b) *U volos
est’/ ∅ zabot-a
at hair.GEN.PL is
care-NOM.SG
Intended: #‘Hair has care.’
NEED+NOM
75
Syntactic analysis for NEED+NOM
• Analytical options:
1. NEED+NOM is sometimes (e.g. with ‘requirement readings’) monoclausal
2. BE is more abstract  does not have to license possessive paraphrases with
byt’ ‘be’ (cf. van Riemsdijk 2002)
3. NEED+NOM Is always monoclausal  possessive meaning (with concrete
Themes) arises via a different mechanism, perhaps a special “rule of
composition” for want+NP, see Fodor & Lepore 1998
(3) might be preferred given that NEED+NOM patterns NEED+CLAUSE
wrt OKCopula + ‘need’ order
76
Summary and conclusion
• Proposed biclausal analysis for NEED+ACC with null possessive GET and
EVAL(uative) head in (a) accounts for all its distributional and semantic/pragmatic
properties:
• restriction to nado/nužno
• availability of subjunctive by
• Preferred ‘Need’ + Copula order
• Restrictions with Deverbal/Abstract/Mass Themes
• Obligatory inchoative possessive meaning
• Animacy restriction on the Dative argument & no requirement reading
(a)
PossessorDATi [EVAL nado/nužno + EVAL ] ti nado/nužno [PROi GET ThemeACC]
77
Summary and conclusion
• Harves’s (2008) biclausal analysis of NEED+NOM with possessive BE/GET in (a)
faces difficulties with non-possessive/requirement reading
should be made more precise/revised along the following lines:
• Monoclausal + special rule of composition
• Ambiguous between biclausal and monoclausal
• More abstract semantics of possessive BE
(a)
PossessorDATi nužno [PossessorDATi/PROi BE/GET ThemeNOM]
78
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79
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