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TCC ITP 100 Computer Programming Computer Science Part 1 Sections 4, 5, & 6 Data Storage Complete this worksheet and submit it: Part 1 – Section 4 – Representing Information as Bit Patterns: A. Define the following terms: a. American National Standards Institute (ANSI): The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) was founded in 1918 by a small consortium of engineering societies and government agencies as a nonprofit federation to coordinate the development of voluntary standards in the private sector. b. American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII): This code uses bit patterns of length seven to represent the upper- and lowercase letters of the English alphabet, punctuation symbols, the digits 0 through 9, and certain control information such as line feeds, carriage returns, and tabs. Today, ASCII is often extended to an eight-bit-per-symbol format by adding a 0 at the most significant end of each of the seven-bit patterns. c. Unicode: was developed through the cooperation of several of the leading manufacturers of hardware and software and is rapidly gaining support in the computing community. This code uses a unique pattern of 16 bits to represent each symbol. As a result, Unicode consists of 65,536 different bit patternsenough to allow text written in such languages as Chinese, Japanese, and Hebrew to be represented. d. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): The International Organization for Standardization (more commonly called ISO) was established in 1947 as a worldwide federation of standardization bodies, one from each country e. Text File: A file consisting of a long sequence of symbols encoded using ASCII or Unicode f. Text Editors: simple text files that are manipulated by utility programs g. Word Processors: more elaborate files Документ1 h. Binary Notation: using binary notation we can store any integer in the range from 0 to 65535 in these 16 bits. Thus, binary notation (or variations of it) is used extensively for encoded numeric data for computer storage. i. Two’s Complement: common for storing whole numbers because it provides a convenient method for representing negative numbers as well as positive. j. Floating-point: representing numbers with fractional parts such as 4Vi or 'A, k. Pixel: “picture element” an image is represented as a collection of dots l. Bit-map: originated from the fact that the bits representing an image in a one-bit-per-pixel format are little more than a map of the image. Today the term has been generalized to include all systems in which images are encoded in a pixelby-pixel manner. For example, in the case of black and white photographs, each pixel is represented by a collection of bits (usually eight), which allows a variety of shades of grayness to be represented m. Computer-aided Design (CAD): in which drawings of three-dimensional objects are displayed and manipulated on computer screens. n. Dotted Decimal Notation: which each byte in the pattern is represented by its base ten equivalent. o. Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI): widely used in the music synthesizers found in electronic keyboards, for video game sound, and for sound effects accompanying websites. B. Fill-in The Blank: a. In the case of color images, each pixel is encoded by a more complex system. What are the Two (2) approaches are common. Name and Explain each: i. GIF: dictionary encoding system that was developed by CompuServe. It approaches the compression problem by reducing the number of colors that can be assigned to a pixel to only 256. The red-green-blue combination for each of these colors is encoded using three bytes, and these 256 encodings are stored in a table (a dictionary) called the palette. Each pixel in an image can then be represented by a single byte whose value indicates which of the 256 palette entries represents the pixel's color. ii. JPEG: It is a standard developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group (hence the standard's name) within ISO. JPEG has proved to be an effective standard for compressing color photographs and is widely used in the photography industry, as witnessed by the fact that most digital cameras use JPEG as their default compression technique. b. What is a disadvantage of representing images as bit maps? They are usually very large c. A gray-scale version of an image can be produced by using only the luminace components of the encoded color image. Документ1 d. What is the difference between “digital zoom” and “optical zoom”? Digital Zoom: the only way to enlarge the image is to make the pixels bigger, which leads to a grainy appearance Optical zoom: that is obtained by adjusting the camera lens e. The most generic method of encoding audio information for computer storage and manipulation is to sample the amplitude of the sound wave at regular intervals. Part 1 – Section 5 – The Binary System & Section 6 – Storing Integers: Complete the following Exam NUMBERING SYSTEMS EXAM DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter that corresponds to the one (1) best answer for each of the questions below. 1: All functions of a computer are based upon the use and manipulation of numbers. Which number system is most native to a computer? A. binary B. decimal C. hexadecimal D. octal 2: What is the decimal conversion of the binary number 11011001? A. 221 B. 193 C. 217 D. 192 3: What is the hexadecimal conversion of the decimal number 224? A. F0 B. E0 C. 92 D. 9E 4: What is the decimal conversion of the hexadecimal number 7F? A. 115 B. 134 C. 201 D. 127 5: What is the binary conversion of the hexadecimal number CB? A. 10111001 B. 11100001 C. 11000100 D. 11001011 6: Which binary number represents the decimal number 133? A. 10001011 B. 11000001 C. 10000111 D. 10000101 7: What is the hexadecimal equivalent of the decimal number 241? A. E7 B. D3 C. F1 D. A9 8: What is the decimal value of the binary number 11111111? A. 0 B. 64 C. 192 D. 255 9: What is the definition of a bit? A. the section of a network that is bounded by bridges, routers, or switches B. a binary digit used in the binary number system, either 0 or 1 C. the interface on an internetworking device, such as a router D. the network areas within which data packets that have collided are propaga-ted 10: Which of the following phrases best describes the decimal numbering system? Документ1 A. It is also called the Base 100 Number System. B. It is based on powers of 1. C. It uses the 10 symbols 0 - 9. D. It is the same as the ASCII numbering system. 11: Which numbering system is based on powers of 2? A. octal B. hexadecimal C. binary D. ASCII C. 10101011 D. 10010011 12: What is the decimal number 151 in binary? A. 10010111 B. 10010110 13: What is the binary number 11011010 in decimal? A. 218 B. 202 C. 222 D. 186 C. EF D. 1A 14: Convert the decimal number 43 to Hex. A. 2B B. 1F 15: Hexadecimal is used to represent what kind of addresses? A. IP B. Octal C. MAC D. Digital C. hex FF D. hex 16 C. ED D. CAD 16: What is 16 raised to the first power (16 1 )? A. decimal 1 B. decimal 16 17: Convert the decimal number 2989 to Hex. A. FDD1 B. BAD 18: What is the decimal value of the hex number ABE? A. 2750 B. 5027 C. 2570 D. 7250 19: What is the hex value of the binary number 11100010? A. D2 B. E2 C. G2 D. H20 20: Which numbering system is based on powers of 10? A. octal B. hexadecimal C. binary D. decimal