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Principles of Engineering STUDY GUIDE for Semester 1 Final Units 1.1-1.3 and 2.1.1-2.1.4 Test on Wednesday, December 19, 2018 BE SURE TO BRING YOUR CALCULATOR AND PLTW FORMULA SHEET FOR THE FINAL! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Simple Machines Know the definition of simple machines Know what the 6 simple machines are, and be able to identify examples of each type. What is Mechanical Advantage? What is the definition of work? What is IMA? What is the equation? What is AMA? What is the equation? What is rotational equilibrium? What is efficiency? What is the equation? Know how to calculate IMA and AMA for simple machines. Understand the naming convention for a screw - (1/4 – 20 UNC-2A) for example. Gears, Pulley Drives and Sprockets 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. What is a gear? What is a gear train? What is an idler gear? Know the gear ratio formula, and how to use it. Know how the gear ratio formula works for compound machines. Know how the belt and pulley systems work – and know the associated formula. Know how the sprocket and chain systems work – and know the associated formula. What are the advantages/disadvantages of a pulley vs. sprocket system? Energy Sources 17. Energy Sources: Know the difference between renewable, nonrenewable and inexhaustible energy sources. Know which energy sources fall into which category. For example, is biomass a nonrenewable energy source? 18. Know the basics in each type of energy source. For example, what is Geothermal energy? For each energy source, where does the energy come from? 19. Know how the energy sources are used to produce energy. Refer back to the powerpoint in Activity 1.2.1: Energy Sources: Nonrenewable, renewable and inexhaustible for reference. Electrical Circuits 20. Be able to identify the schematic representation of a power source (Battery), Switch, Resistor, Diode (LED). 21. Know how to use the multimeter. If you were to measure 12 V DC, where would you put the red and black leads? Which dial setting would you use? (HINT: always use a larger value than you are expecting. For example, if you are measuring 12 V, use the 20 V setting. If you were to measure 120 VDC, use the 200 Volt setting. Similar for current and resistors!) “By wisdom a house is built, and by understanding it is established;” - Proverbs 24:3 22. The multimeter has the ability to measure Volts AC and Volts DC. Know the difference on the multimeter. In our class we will only be using Volts DC. So, which is the correct dial setting? 1. 23. Know the correct process to measure current with a multimeter. (Hint: Break the circuit, and insert the multimeter in line with the circuit. Also specify what the multimeter settings should be!!) 24. Know how the breadboard works. Know which holes are connected to each other. a. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Know the definition of Ohms Law Know the definition of Kirchoff’s Current and Voltage Laws Know how to use a multimeter to test Voltage Know how to use a mulitimeter to test Current Know how to use a multimeter to test resistance Know the difference between a series circuit and a parallel circuit. Know how current flows in each. Be prepared to calculate the Total Resistance of a Series Circuit Be prepared to calculate the Total Resistance of a Parallel Circuit Know what’s unique about a series circuit. (Hint: the voltage drops across all the resistors in series add up to the Voltage supplied by the source/battery. Note also, the current flowing through each resistor is the same.) 34. Know what’s unique about a parallel circuit. (Hint: the voltage drops across each parallel branch are the same, and the same as the voltage supplied by the source/battery. Note also that the current flowing though each parallel branch adds up to the current supplied by the source/battery. 35. Know how to convert mA to A, kOhms to ohms. Know how to add up mA values and A values. Similarly, know how to add KOhm values with Ohm values. “By wisdom a house is built, and by understanding it is established;” - Proverbs 24:3 36. For parallel and series circuits containing LED’s, know the effect of removing a bulb from a circuit. (HINT: in a series circuit, if a bulb is removed, current will not flow (circuit has been opened) and none of the bulbs will work. What about a parallel circuit???) Work, Energy and Power 37. Know the Work and Power formulas and be able to calculate work and power. Remember to be very careful and not include time values in work formulas! (Recall our example of Allison and Ethan and the medicine ball) 38. Be able to use SI units for Work and Power calculations. REMEMBER: This means Newtons and Meters. It does not mean Newtons and feet, or Newtons and centimeters. 39. Know the units for Power. 40. Know the definition of a Joule and a Watt in terms of SI units. 41. Know the efficiency formula for a motor. Know how to calculate the efficiency (%) given input and output criteria. 42. Know how to calculate the efficiency of a winch, given test data similar to the activity in class. Solar Fuel Cell 43. Know that if you have two AA batteries in series, their voltage is additive. Know that if you have two batteries in parallel, the voltage output is the same as one battery. So what’s the difference? It’s a voltage vs. current trade off. More V in a series circuit, more A in a parallel circuit. 44. Know what the process of splitting apart water into hydrogen and oxygen molecules is called. (From the fuel cell experiment). 45. Know that Hydrogen fuel cells create electricity through an electrochemical process that converts water into hydrogen and oxygen. Know that solar cells convert light into electricity using photons to create electron flow. Thermodynamics 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. Know the temperature at which all kinetic energy stops. Know the relationship between temperature and molecule movement and kinetic energy. Be able to convert temperatures from degrees C/K/F. Know which materials make good conductors of electricity. Know the temperatures (in C, K and F) that water boils and ice melts/freezes. Know the thermodynamic energy formulas and how to use them given data. Know how to calculate specific heat, given all the other requisite variables. Know the definition of thermodynamics Know the definition of the zeroth law of thermodynamics. Know the difference/definitions of conduction, convection and radiation and know an example of each. 56. Know how to calculate energy transferred (Q) given proper temperatures, Delta Temp, c values. 57. Know what R and U values are. Know how to calculate total R value given proper information. Centroids 58. Know how to calculate the centroid location for a square, triangle, semi circle and complex shape. (Know the equation and how to use it). 59. What is the neutral Plane? Structural Member Properties 60. Know the relationship between Moment of Inertia (I) and deformation. “By wisdom a house is built, and by understanding it is established;” - Proverbs 24:3 61. 62. 63. 64. Know how to calculate the Moment of Inertia for rectangles Know the definition of Modulus of Elasticity (E), and why it’s important. Know the characteristics of objects that affect deflection Know the formula for calculating beam deflection, and be able to use it to calculate Delta max. Free Body Diagrams 65. Know what a free body diagram is. 66. Know how to draw a free body diagram given a picture of a system. (Truss bridge, rollers, pins, cables, built in end support/cantilever, etc) Calculating Force Vectors 67. Know how to calculate the magnitude of resultant forces. “By wisdom a house is built, and by understanding it is established;” - Proverbs 24:3