Vicki Drake
Santa Monica College
Fall 2007
(GIS & Cartography lecture notes):
Definition of a map; cartographic traditions, map basics
(projections, latitude, longitude, symbolization, legends, etc.)
3 purposes/benefits and value of maps; difference between topographic and thematic maps
(types of thematic maps), Thematic maps in GIS; Concept of Scale: small- vs. large-scale
maps; four types of data and appropriate labeling of features
Questions addressed by maps: User? Purpose? Where used? How used? Available data?
Basic map elements: title, scale, legend, date, bibliography, etc.
Map layout balancing of elements
Cartographer’s palette: style, color, shadings, size,
Labeling: points, lines, areas (polygons), highlighting within maps
GIS - Legal and Ethical Issues:_
Privacy, access, availability of information, Freedom of Information Act Repercussions,
Challenges to companies: selling private information, monitoring employees
Challenges to government: search and seizure rights, sharing of information
With other agencies, access to database
Challenges to database: time and money, royalties, values (before and after
Accessing) Data Mosaic – data sharing
Challenges to Data Mosaics: (1) Managing security (2) correcting errors and
Propagation of errors (3) Propensity profiles based on database records
Conflicting responsibilities of govt: provide information according to FOIA, but
Costs increasing as databases grow - Choices for government?
Access to private information by persons and industry: availability? Costs?
Value added? What is a public record? Intellectual property rights?
Legal issues: Copyright violations? Registration of trademarks, recipes, etc.
Legal/Liability issues: decisions made based on GIS analysis: decisions made
based on poor GIS: GIS analysis used incorrectly (Unintended and inappropriate use of
GIS data)
GIS as evidence in Court? Precedents?
solutions to legal problems?
GIS and GPS – GPS equipment and definition, accuracy considerations, GDOP (PDOP),
Standard Positioning Service (SPS) – accuracy issues (mapping vs. survey),
Selective Availability, differential correction
Satellites: orbit, positions in space, timing
Three segments: Space – Control – User (examples for each segment)
Datalogger: differences, capabilities, prices
Receivers: differences, capabilities, prices
GPS and the Datum Plane
Implementing a GIS - 6 phase implementation: approaches to introducing new technology,
acquisition of GIS, functional requirements/user needs, needs assessment,
Benchmark test, pilot study, cost benefit analysis, database considerations,
Design and testing, data life cycle, GIS development cycle, data sources,
Data types, data formats, GIS: Performance and Effectiveness (measurements)
Software: Functionality and Performance; Hardware: Components
Applications of a GIS – how to design a GIS for an application, problem-solving with a GIS,
Vicki Drake
SMC 2007