IQC Inojales&Sy Semi-Final

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A Study on the Quality Control System
Andres Andrea Printing Services
Submitted by:
Adrian Chester R. Inojales
Chloie Nicole Sy
Submitted to:
Elaine P. Quinto
In partial fulfillment of the requirements in Industrial Quality Control
B.S. Industrial Engineering
Ateneo de Davao University
1st Semester, 2018-2019
1
Table of Contents
Background................................................................................................................................ 3
Scope and Limitations ................................................................................................................ 4
Assumptions .............................................................................................................................. 4
Objectives .................................................................................................................................. 4
Definition of Terms ..................................................................................................................... 4
Methodology .............................................................................................................................. 7
Data Gathering........................................................................................................................... 7
Analytical Tools .......................................................................................................................... 7
Findings ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Data Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 9
Recommendation ......................................................................................................................11
Appendix A (Industrial Quality Control Checklist) ......................................................................15
Appendix B (Documentation) ....................................................................................................16
2
Background
Andres Andrea Printing Services is a printing shop located at Bolton St., Villa Fontana,
fronting University of Mindanao Bolton Campus, Davao City. The printing shop caters a lot
services including but not limited to t-shirt printing, sublimation printing, jersey making, uniforms
and other garments. They also make personalized keychains, drawstring, bagtags, lanyards, etc.
They started their textile and printing business in 2003. They have started their first branch
in Obrero, Davao City where they cater clients mostly coming from University of Southeastern
Philippines. They had very few competitors that’s why business was good for them during that
time. They almost get 100% mark-up for every garment they sell. However, as the time passes
by and due to inflation, they only get a small percentage for each product they make.
One of their latest technologies today is the dye-sublimation printing. Dye-sublimation
printing is where the printer uses heat to transfer dye onto materials such as a plastic, card, paper,
or fabric. As what we have researched, the sublimation name was first applied because the dye
was considered to make the transition between the solid and gas states without going through a
liquid stage. This understanding of the process was later shown to be incorrect. There is some
liquifying of the dye. Since then, the process is sometimes known as dye-diffusion, though this
has not eliminated the original name.
Dye-sublimation printing is a digital printing technology using full color artwork that works
with polyester and polymer-coated substrates. Also referred to as digital sublimation, the process
is commonly used for decorating apparel, signs and banners, as well as novelty items such as
cell phone covers, plaques, coffee mugs, and other items with sublimation-friendly surfaces. The
process uses the science of sublimation, in which heat and pressure are applied to a solid, turning
it into a gas through an endothermic reaction without passing through the liquid phase.
It has been used for long in other countries but was only introduced in the Philippines
around 2008. In Davao, it was only introduced in 2015 and Andres Andrea Printing Services was
one of the pioneers for this kind of printing. According to Ma’am Marlyn Alegarbes, the wife of the
owner, told us that the reason that they have acquired a large sublimation printer is that most of
their clients demand for more unique prints that ordinary printers can’t create.
As of today, they are already 15 years in the business and they cater a lot of customers
from different schools, organizations, and offices. They also have bigger cleints outside Davao.
3
Scope and Limitations
The study is concentrated on the process of Sublimation Printing and its’ products from
receiving of orders to the final product. Its main focus is the quality of the product through the
present operations. More importantly, the study considered which quality characteristics (the hue
of the print, the interweaving of the cuts, the cutting, and proper measurements) should be
monitored to set standards for accepted and rejected outputs.
Assumptions

The production starts 10 am the earliest and ends 6 pm (though there’s are overtime
periods up to 11 pm).

One worker is assigned to recreate the design and operate the printer, another worker is
for the heat press, and another is the seamstress.

Orders are varying but on average they receive 60 orders of jerseys, warmers, or shirts.

Compensation
o
Printer Operator- Minimum Wage (per week)
o
Heat Press Operator – P3/shirt
o
Seamstress – 30% of the set price per piece
Objectives
The objective of the study is to create a quality control system for Andres Andrea that will
help them monitor the quality of their outputs.
Definition of Terms

Sublimation Printing - is a digital printing technology using full color artwork that works
with polyester and polymer-coated substrates. Also referred to as digital sublimation, the
process is commonly used for decorating apparel, signs and banners, as well as novelty
items such as cell phone covers, plaques, coffee mugs, and other items with sublimationfriendly surfaces.

Canvass - works as the paper of the sublimation printer. However, the canvass is in rolls
and usually the grammage is up to 100 gsm to support the large format.

Heat Press - refers to the merging of the canvass and the dri-fit cloth (a kind of sports
cloth that resembles a silk, and lightweight) through the machine after its name.
4
Present Operations
Process Flow for Sublimation Printing
Process Owner
Remarks
Manager
The manager will receive the orders since
he also manages the front desk.
Manager
The customer can either choose to pay in
full or pay the down-payment.
Scheduling
Manager
Both parties will set a date that’s
favorable for both.
Purchase of raw materials (e.g.
dri-fit textile, CMYK ink)
Manager
The manager will place their orders of raw
materials to their suppliers.
Manager/Available
Workers
Workers will check if the materials
delivered by the supplier have any
defects.
Graphic Artist
The worker will develop the design based
on the customer’s preference and adjust
it accordingly.
Start
Receives orders from customer
Payment/Down payment
Inspect
the
materials
Process design on computer
NO
Does the
customer
approve of
the design?
This means that the customer checks the
design if it meets their specifications and
requirements.
5
YES
Adjust the design according to
the size of the canvass
Transfer the design to a Large
Format Printer via flash drive
Print the design on the
canvass
Transfer pre-finished canvass
to the sublimation printer
Heat press the design and the
drifit cloth together
Graphic Artist
The worker will adjust the size and
position of the design to the necessary
specifications for printing.
Shirt Printer
Shirt Printer
Shirt Printer
Shirt Printer
This process will only take a couple of
minutes.
Cut the pressed cloth
depending on the pattern
Available Worker
Sew the pieces together
Seamstress
Parts of the shirt (i.e. sleeves, neckline,
cuff, placket, etc.) will be sewn together
by the seamstress.
Manager
Check if the transfer on the shirt didn’t
leave blotches or other marks.
Inspect
the shirt
6
Packing
Completion of payment (if
down payment)
Manager/Available
Workers
Any worker available will help with the
packing.
Manager
Pick-up or deliver the shirts
Manager
Customers will pick up their ordered shirts
from the store.
Methodology
Data Gathering
Information needed was gathered through conducting an interview with the proprietors,
Mr. Darwin and Mrs. Marlyn Alegarbes, and also the workers under the sublimation process (the
one who supervises the print, the one who does the heat press, and the tailors). Actual
observation of the entire production was also conducted to gain further understanding of the
process sublimation printing.
Analytical Tools
Analytical tools used to aid the analysts in gathering the data are the following:

Industrial Quality Control Checklist- to breakdown and easily pinpoint the problems and
issues needed to be resolved.

Control Charts for Attributes- to help analyze and set standards for rejected and accepted
lot.
These tools would best meet the needs of the analysts in gathering information for the
study.
7
Findings
The data gathered below are past clients of the Andres Andrea Printing Services that have
ordered materials sublimation print style. The data also provides information on the finish date,
quantity of orders, type of product done in sublimation style, and the defects.
There are only 15 orders noted in this data from late May to early October. They have only
acquired the sublimation printing machine last May.
Client
SIMCARRD
Team Royal Lion
Advincula Law Office
Brokenshire College
St. John Paul II College
University of Immaculate Concepcion
Association of Barangay Captains
College of Accountancy- UM
Yuda Dust
Kabacan Airsoft Team
SEA-AdDU (Sublimation Jersey)
Dream Vapor
Body Wish (Massage and Spa)
DC Invest
EASEC AdDU Subli Print
Date of
Finish
10/1/2018
9/27/2018
9/19/2018
9/19/2018
9/13/2018
9/6/2018
9/2/2018
9/17/2018
8/12/2018
8/11/2018
8/2/2018
7/30/2018
7/21/2018
7/11/2018
5/26/2018
Type of
Product
T-Shirt
Sports Uniform
Sports Uniform
Sports Uniform
Sports Uniform
Sports Uniform
Sports Uniform
Sports Uniform
Sports Uniform
Sports Uniform
Sports Uniform
Sports Uniform
Sports Uniform
Sports Uniform
T-Shirt
Quantity
50
80
20
32
36
90
45
54
23
45
90
20
18
200
32
Defects
1
3
1
0
1
10
0
2
0
3
6
2
1
5
1
P
0.020
0.038
0.050
0.000
0.028
0.111
0.000
0.037
0.000
0.067
0.067
0.100
0.056
0.025
0.031
Table 1.0 Sublimation Prints Data
A defect can be defined as “a departure of a quality characteristic from its intended level
or state that occurs with a severity sufficient to cause an associated product or service not to
satisfy intended normal, or reasonably foreseeable, usage requirements” (ASQC, 1983, p.l3).
The defects in the sublimation printing can be classified as follows;

Improper Stitching – is the incorrect way of sewing the material as well as
missed or skipped stiches resulting to holes.

Heat Pressing Issues – such as crooked placement of the material which can
result to folds and can cause white spots in the finished product, as well as
color variance.

Wrong information- such as wrong jersey number, misspelled names etc.
8
Data Analysis
When the use of linear measurements in not practical, then attributes are often counted
and appropriate charts constructed. Some of the more common attribute control charts are
number of defects per sample (c charts), number of defects per unit (u charts), and percentage
defective charts (p charts.). (Aft, 2009).
In this case, defects are caused by human errors like the improper stitching the
seamstress, the wrong information edited by the graphic artist, and the accidental folds on the
heat press. The proponents see that the use of p-chart is appropriate in this circumstance.
The percentage defective or proportion defective classification is used in cases where an
item, after inspection, is classified as either acceptable or unacceptable. The percentage
defective, p, is the number of defective units in a sample of size n, divided by the sample size.
The average percentage defective, p, is the sum of the total number of defectives divided by the
total sample size (Aft, 2009).
To compute for the p’
p
 defectives
 p'
 items .inspected
To compute for the upper control limit:
UCLp = p’ +
3 p
To compute for the lower control limit:
LCLp = p’ -
3 p
Computing for the
p 
p' (1  p' )
n
9
The results of the formulas are as follows:
Total Quantity
Total Defective
p'
745
26
0.0349
0.00672
Upper Control
Limit
0.05507
Lower Control
Limit
-0.1585
Table 2.0 Calculations of UCL and LCL
Client
Defective
Errors/Product
SIMCARRD
Quantity
50
1
0.020
Team Royal Lion
80
3
0.038
Advincula Law Office
20
1
0.050
Brokenshire College
32
0
0.000
St. John Paul II College
Association of Barangay
Captains
College of AccountancyUM
Yuda Dust
Kabacan Airsoft Team
SEA-AdDU (Sublimation
Jersey)
Dream Vapor
Body Wish (Massage and
Spa)
DC Invest
EASEC AdDU Subli Print
36
1
0.028
45
0
54
23
45
Mean
0.04311
0.04311
0.04311
0.04311
0.04311
UCL
LCL
0.0551
0.0551
0.0551
0.0551
0.0551
0
0
0
0
0
0.000
0.04311 0.0551
0
2
0
3
0.037
0.000
0.067
0.04311 0.0551
0.04311 0.0551
0.04311 0.0551
0
0
0
90
20
6
2
0.067
0.100
0.04311 0.0551
0.04311 0.0551
0
0
18
200
32
1
5
1
0.056
0.025
0.031
0.04311 0.0551
0.04311 0.0551
0.04311 0.0551
0
0
0
As per calculation, the total defects are 26 in total quantity of 745. The UCL and LCL for
the p-chart of the 13 batches of T-shirts and sportswear of Andres Andrea are 0.0551 and 0
respectively. Therefore, the recommended defective per batch must not exceed greater than the
formulated UCL which is 0.0551. this will help company monitor their defects within the range of
the control limits.
10
ANDRES ANDREA P-CHART
p
Mean
UCL
LCL
0,120
0,100
0,080
0,060
0,040
0,020
0,000
Table 3.0 Control Chart for Andres Andrea Printing
The table above is a control chart for the month May to October of 2018 of which the
company has accepted orders for sublimation printing presented with the following computations
of the UCL and LCL. In the table, It is shown that orders from Kabacan Airsoft Team, SEA ADDU
and Dream Vapor have exceed the upper control limit. Through this control chart Andres Andrea
Printing can understand the importance of quality control in which they can see whether they are
under their control as well as easily identifying and monitoring the defects per order.
Recommendation
The proponents suggest that Andres Andrea Printing Services should use p-chart as a
tool for monitoring quality in their sublimation print products.
The company can use the table below to be guided in setting up their quality control. In
this table, they can really see what defects can they really look into. They can do this monthly or
quarterly or whenever they find it convenient. It can also be suggested that they do Process
Control Chart per defect so that they can analyze which defects occur mostly.
11
Order Client
Quantity White
No.
Discontinuous/ Wrong
Spot
Unclean
s
Sewing
Info
Color
Others
Variation
from
Design
1
ABC
-
-
-
-
Company
Table 4.0 Blank Chart for Tallying Defects
By identifying and counting the number of defects, the management can use Pareto
Analysis in order to determine which defective category should they focus more their attention.
Pareto Analysis is a simple technique for prioritizing possible changes by identifying the problems
that will be resolved by making these changes. By using this approach, the management can
prioritize the most number of defective category and focus their attention to this category to help
correct and improve the situation.
The Pareto chart provides a graphic depiction of the Pareto principle, a theory maintaining
that 80% of the output in a given situation or system is produced by 20% of the input (TechTarget,
2018).
To appreciate this approach, the proponents presents an instance for the given approach.
The data to be used in the sample will be false data since no real data was obtained. The pareto
diagram as seen will only be representation of the proponent’s proposal to the management.
Order Qty
1
91
2
40
3
90
4
75
5
60
6
43
7
55
White
Spot
4
0
10
4
4
4
8
Discontinuous/Unclean Wrong Color
Stitches
Info
Variation Others
1
5
1
4
2
4
1
3
5
3
3
0
5
5
3
0
5
2
3
1
1
4
1
2
2
4
1
0
12
8
9
10
TOTAL
88
97
100
739
7
1
3
8
5
3
1
0
4
50
27
37
Table 5.0 Chart for Tallying Defects
2
3
3
21
0
1
0
11
The data above shows that a there is a total of 739 and with this there are 50 defectives
from white spots, 27 from unclean stitching, 37 from wrong information, 21 from color variance
and 11 from others.
NO. OF
DEFECTS
Cumulative
White Spot
50
50
34%
Discontinuous/Unclean
Stitches
27
77
53%
Wrong Info
37
114
78%
Color Variation
21
135
92%
Others
11
146
100%
DEFECT
Cumulative
Percent
Table 6.0 Computation for Pareto Diagram
The table above shows the computation for the Pareto diagram. The table’s computation
was acquired through the data from table 5.0. the table shows the cumulative of each defective
category and the cumulative percent of each.
13
Table 7.0 Pareto Diagram
The table above shows the Pareto diagram. It was obtained through creating a histogram
showing the comparison of the tally of defects. The line which represents the cumulative percent
divides the graph into 80% and 20%. The defective category that falls on the upper 20% are wrong
info and with white spot. Therefore, the management should focus on this issue as well as create
a solution for this. The proponents hope that this representation will help the management
understand the approach and will consider it.
14
Appendix A (Industrial Quality Control Checklist)
1.) Quality Assurance Department
Is there one? None
Is there an existing similar section or group that carries out the function of quality assurance?
What? Only Maam Marlyn.
What are functions entrusted to this group?
Who are members of this group? Who do they report to?
If none to questions above, how do they maintain quality of their output? 100% inspection
2) Detail of the Quality Control / Monitoring System or Procedure
What is the quality characteristic monitored (some dimension or breaking strength, etc)?
The cleanliness of the output, the information (jersey numbers, surnames), uniformity of
stitches.
Do they conduct 100% inspection or sampling inspection? 100% or none at all especially
if the order is rushed.
Who designed the inspection procedure (sampling plan)?
What is their inspection procedure? Describe in detail.
By looking at the products, they see visually what are the defects.
3) All Forms filled out and Reports prepared related to sampling inspection and defectives found
during inspection and their samples.
4) All Reports or its summary submitted to management concerning #3
5) How does #4 help ensure that quality of products and / or services are maintained?
6) Is management satisfied with the functions of the present quality assurance group?
15
Appendix B (Documentation)
Examples of defective items caused by Heat Pressing Issues and Wrong information
16
Sublimation Process
17
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