US & UN Security Strategy

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Course No: 502
International Security
Mostakim Bin Motaher
Lecturer
Department of International Relations
Jahangirnagar University
Email: [email protected]
• A few questions…
How do the world’s powerful nations,
regional and international institutions,
conceptualize security?
What security issues dominate their
strategy? Why?
Let’s look at the EU, UN and U.S. strategic
documents to answer these questions…
• The European Council. 2003. A Secure Europe in a Better
World: European Security Strategy. Brussels: The
European Commission.
• The European Council. 2016. Shared Vision, Common
Action: A Stronger Europe. A Global Strategy for the
European Union’s Foreign And Security Policy.
• The White House. 2002. The National Security Strategy of
the United States of America. Washington, DC: The White
House.
• The White House. 2017. The National Security Strategy of
the United States of America. Washington, DC: The White
House.
• United Nations. 2004. A More Secure World: Our Shared
Responsibility (Report of the Secretary-General’s Highlevel Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change). United
Nations Department of Public Information, pp. 1-19.
Conceptualizing Security Strategy
of the
EU, UN and USA
U.S. National Security Strategy (2002)
• Summary:
Transnational terrorism poses the principal threat to U.S.
national security.
Al Qaeda and its radical Islamist network constitutes the
core threat.
The United States is fighting a war against terrorism of
“uncertain duration”.
The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and
their delivery systems remain a grave threat.
Weak states, like Afghanistan, can be used as incubators
of terrorism and transnational organized crime.
The U.S.A. needs to partner with it traditional allies in
Europe and Asia, and form a coalition of the willing to
fight terrorism and other transnational security threats.
U.S. National Security Strategy (2017)
An America First
National Security Strategy
• America possesses
unmatched political,
economic, military, and
technological advantages.
But to maintain these
advantages, build upon
our strengths, and
unleash the talents of the
American people, we
must protect four vital
national interests in this
competitive world.
My fellow Americans:
American people elected me to make
America great again. I promised that my
Administration would put the safe , interests,
and well-being of our citizens first. I pledged
that we would revitalize the American
economy, rebuild our military, defend our
borders, protect our sovereignty, and
advance our values.
Vital National Interest
Pillar
1
• Protect the American People,
The Homeland and the American
Way of Life.
Pillar
2
• Promote American Prosperity.
Pillar
3
• Preserve Peace through Strength.
Pillar
Pillar
4
• Advance American Influence.
Threats
• North Korea seeks the capability to kill millions of
Americans with nuclear weapons.
• Iran supports terrorist groups and openly calls for
US destruction.
• Jihadist terrorist organizations such as ISIS and alQaeda are determined to attack the United States
and radicalize Americans with their hateful ideology.
• Non-state actors undermine social order through
drug and human trafficking networks, which they use
to commit violent crimes and kill thousands of
American each year.
Secure U.S. Borders and Territory
Strengthening control over our
borders and immigration
system is central to national
security, economic prosperity ,
and the rule of law.
Defend Against
Weapons of Mass
Destruction (WMD)
Combat Biothreats
and Pandemics
Strengthen Border
Control
and Immigration
Policy
Defend Against Weapons of
Mass Destruction (WMD)
• Major Concern:
Syrian regime’s use of chemical weapons.
ISIS has used chemical weapons in Iraq and Syria.
North Korea is also pursuing chemical and biological
weapons
China and Russia are developing advanced weapons
• U.S. strategy to combat WMD:
ENHANCE MISSILE DEFENSE:
DETECT AND DISRUPT WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
ENHANCE COUNTERPROLIFERATION MEASURES
TARGET WMD TERRORISTS
Combat Biothreats and
Pandemics
• Major Concern:
Biological threats
Deliberate attacks
Natural outbreak
Ebola, SARS
Anthrax attack: September 18 2001
• U.S. strategy to combat Biothreats and Pandemics
DETECT AND CONTAIN BIOTHREATS AT THEIR SOURCE
SUPPORT BIOMEDICAL INNOVATION
IMPROVE EMERGENCY RESPONSE
Strengthen Border Control
and Immigration Policy
• Major Concern:
Terrorists, drug traffickers, and criminal cartels exploit
porous borders and threaten U.S. security and public
safety.
Reform current immigration system, which, contrary to
national interest and national security.
• U.S. strategy to Strengthen Border Control
and Immigration Policy
ENHANCE BORDER SECURITY
ENHANCE VETTING
ENFORCE IMMIGRATION LAWS
BOLSTER TRANSPORTATION SECURITY
Pursue threats to their Source
We will give our frontline
defenders—including
homeland security , law
enforcement, and intelligence
professionals— the tools,
authorities, and resources to
stop terrorist acts before they
take place.
Defeat Jihadist
Terrorists
Dismantle
Transnational
Criminal
Organizations
Defeat Jihadist Terrorists
• Major Concern:
ISIS, Al Qaeda
Hizballah
• U.S. strategy to Defeat Jihadist Terrorists
DISRUPT TERROR PLOTS
TAKE DIRECT ACTION
ELIMINATE TERRORIST SAFE HAVENS
SEVER SOURCES OF STRENGTH
SHARE RESPONSIBILITY
COMBAT RADICALIZATION AND RECRUITMENT IN
COMMUNITIES
Dismantle Transnational
Criminal Organizations
• Major Concern:
Drug cartels
Chinese fentanyl traffickers
• U.S. strategy to Dismantle Transnational
Criminal Organizations
IMPROVE STRATEGIC PLANNING AND INTELLIGENCE
DEFEND COMMUNITIES
DEFEND IN DEPTH
COUNTER CYBER CRIMINALS
Keep America Safe
in the Cyber Era
America’s response to the challenges and
opportunities of the cyber era will determine
our future prosperity and security.
• U.S. strategy to Keep America Safe
in the Cyber Era
IDENTIFY AND PRIORITIZE RISK
BUILD DEFENSIBLE GOVERNMENT NETWORKS
DETER AND DISRUPT MALICIOUS CYBER ACTORS
IMPROVE INFORMATION SHARING AND SENSING
DEPLOY LAYERED DEFENSES
Promote American
Resilience
• U.S. strategy to Promote American
Resilience
IMPROVE RISK MANAGEMENT
BUILD A CULTURE OF PREPAREDNESS
IMPROVE PLANNING
INCENTIVIZE INFORMATION SHARING
Regional Security Strategy
• Changes in a regional
balance of power
can have global
consequences and
threaten U.S.
interests.
• In other regions of
the world, instability
and weak
governance threaten
U.S. interests.
Indo-Pacific
• Most populous and economically dynamic part of
the world.
• Major Actors:
 China
 N. Korea
 S. Korea
 Australia
 Japan
Indo-Pacific Strategy
• Political
• Established alliances and partnerships.
• Resolution of territorial and maritime disputes in accordance with
international law.
• Economic:
• Encourage regional cooperation to maintain free and open
seaways.
• Bilateral trade agreements.
• Pacific Islands regions.
• Military and Security
•
•
•
•
Forward military presence.
Strong defense network(Japan, S. Korea).
Denuclearization of the peninsula.
Taiwan Relations Act.
Europe
• Europe is one of the most prosperous regions in the
world.
• Major Concern:
• Russia Invasions of
Georgia and Ukraine
• Chinas unfair trade
practices and
investing in key
industries, sensitive
technologies, and
infrastructure.
• Islamic extremism
and ISIS threats to
Spain, Belgium, UK,
France Germany.
Strategy
• Political:
• Counter Russian subversion and aggression
• Counter the threats posed by North Korea and Iran
• Economic:
• Work with the European Union, and bilaterally with the
United Kingdom and other states,
• Encourage European foreign direct investment
• Diversify European energy sources
• contest China’s unfair trade and economic practices
• Military and Security:
• Increase defense spending
• Increase counterterrorism and cybersecurity
cooperation
Middle East
• Most wealthiest and
conflicted area.
• Major Concern:
• The region remains home
to the world’s most
dangerous terrorist
organizations. ISIS and AlQaeda.
• Iran, the world’s leading
state sponsor of
terrorism
• Syrian Civil War.
Strategy
• Political:
•
•
•
•
•
Counter violent ideologies.
Strong and integrated Gulf Cooperation Council.
Settlement to the Syrian civil war.
Deny the Iranian regime all paths to a nuclear weapon.
Comprehensive peace agreement that is acceptable to both
Israelis and Palestinians
• Economic:
• Modernizing economies.
• Military and Security:
• Necessary American military presence.
• Strengthening their institutions and capabilities.
• We will help partners procure interoperable missile defense
and other capabilities to better defend against active missile
threats.
South and Central Asia
• With over a quarter of the
world’s population,
• A fifth of all U.S.-designated
terrorist groups,
• Several fast-growing
economies, and two nucleararmed states.
• South and Central Asia
present some of the most
complicated national
security challenges and
opportunities.
Strategy
• Political:
• Deepen strategic partnership with India and support its
leadership role in Indian Ocean security and throughout the
broader region.
• Press Pakistan to intensify its counterterrorism efforts.
• Partner with Afghanistan to promote peace and security in the
region.
• Economic:
• Encourage the economic integration of Central and South Asia.
• Encourage India to increase its economic assistance in the
region.
• Build trade and investment ties with Pakistan.
• Military and Security:
• Supporting the Afghan government and security forces in their.
fight against the Taliban, Al-Qaeda, ISIS, and other terrorists.
Western Hemisphere
• Major Concern:
•
•
•
•
Drug Trafficking
Illegal Migration
Dictatorship
Insurgencies
Strategy
• Political:
• Isolate governments that refuse to act as responsible
partners in advancing hemisphere peace and prosperity.
• Economic:
• Modernize trade agreements and deepen economic ties.
• Military and Security:
• Build upon local efforts and encourage cultures of
lawfulness to reduce crime and corruption.
• Professionalize police and other security forces.
Africa
• Africa remains a continent of
promise and enduring
challenges.
• Major Concern:
• Political turbulence and
instability.
• Corruption and weak
governance.
• Battlegrounds for violent
extremism and jihadist
terrorists.
• China is expanding its
economic and military
presence in Africa.
Strategy
• Political:
• Partner with governments, civil society, and regional
organizations to end long-running, violent conflicts.
• Economic:
• Expand trade and commercial ties to create jobs and
build wealth for Americans and Africans.
• Economic integration among African states.
• Military and Security:
• Continue to work with partners to improve the ability of
their security services to counter terrorism, human
trafficking, and the illegal trade in arms and natural
resources.
US National Security Strategy (2002) & (2017)
 Key Threats & Priorities:
US National Security Strategy
(2002)
US National Security Strategy
(2017)
 Transnational terrorism (Global War on Terrorism)
 WMD Proliferation
 Regional Conflicts
 Strengthen Border control and
Immigration Policy
 Al Qaeda
 Islamic States
 Axis of Evil: Iran, Iraq, N.
Korea, Libya
 N. Korea, Iran
United Nations (2004)
• A More Secure World
• ‘The Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P)
• Sovereignty versus collective responsibility
• Collective Security & the Challenge of Prevention
•
•
•
•
•
Poverty and Infectious diseases
Conflict within and between states
WMD proliferation
Terrorism
Use of Force: War, Peace Conflict, Peace enforcement,
Post-conflict peace-building
• Strengthening the UN System to make a better
world
Any
Questions??
or
Comments??
Thank you
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