Antimicrobial drugs chart

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Antibiotics by Mode of Action
INHIBITORS OF CELL WALL SYNTHESIS
Natural Penicillins
Penicillin G
Penicillin V
Semisynthetic Penicillins
Oxacillin
Ampicillin
Amoxicillin
Aztreonam
Imipenem
Cephalosporins
Cephalothin
Cefixime
Polypeptide Antibiotics
Bacitracin
Vancomycin
Antimycobacterial Antibiotics
Isoniazid
Ethambutol
INHIBITORS OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Chloramphenicol
Aminoglycosides
Streptomycin
Neomycin
Gentamicin
Pleuromutilins
Mutilin, retpamulin
Tetracyclines
Tetraycycline, oxytetracycline,
chlortetracycline
Macrolides
Erythromycin
Azithromycin, clarithromycin
Telithromycin
Streptogramins
Quinupristin and dalfopristin
Oxazolidinones
Linezolid
Comments
Against gram-positive bacteria, requires injection
Against gram-positive bacteria, oral administration
Resistant to penicillinase
Broad spectrum
Broad spectrum combined with inhibitor of penicillinase
A monobactam, effective against gram-neg bacteria
A carbapenem, very broad spectrum
Activity similar to penicillin, requires injection
Oral administration
Against gram-positive bacteria, topical application
A glycopeptide type, penicillinase resistant, against gram
negative bacteria
Inhibits synthesis of mycolic acid component of cell walll of
Mycobacterium
Inhibits incorporation of
Broad spectrum, potentially toxic
Broad spectrum, including mycobacterium
Broad spectrum, topical use
Broad spectrum, including Pseudomonas spp.
Inhibit gram-positive bacteria
Broad spectrum, including chlamydias and rickettsias; animal
feed additives
Alternative to penicillin
Semisynthetic, broader spectrum and better tissue
penetration than erythromycin
New generation of macrolides, used to cope with resistance
to other macrolides
Alternative for treating vancomycin-resistant gram-positive
bacteria
Used primarily against penicillin resistant gram-positive
bacteria
Glyclycyclines
Tygecycline
INJURY TO THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
Polymixin B
Lipopeptides
Danptomycin
INHIBITORS OF NUCLEIC ACID
SYNTHESIS
Rifamycins
Rifampin
Quinolone and Fluoroquinolones
Nalidixic acid, nofloxacin,
ciprofloxacin
Gatifloxacin
COMPETITIVE INHIBITORS OF THE
SYNTHESIS OF ESSENTIAL
METABOLITES
Sulfonamides
Trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole
Broad spectrum, especially MRSA and Acinetobacter
Topical use, gram-negative bacteria, including pseudomonas
To treat MRSA infections
Inhibits synthesis of mRNA, treatment of tuberculosis
Inhibits DNA synthesis; broad spectrum; urinary tract
infections
Newest generation, increased potency against gram-positive
bacteria
Broad spectrum, combination is widely used
Antifungal drugs
AGENTS AFFECTING FUNGAL
STEROLS (PLASMA MEMBRANE)
Polyenes
Amphotericin B
Azoles
Clotrimazole, miconazole
Ketoconazole
Allylamines
Terbinafine, Naftifine
AGENTS AFFECTING FUNGAL CELL
WALLS
Echinocandins
Caspofungin
AGENTS INHIBITING NUCLEIC
ACIDS
Flucytosine
OTHER ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS
Griseofulvin
Tolnaftate
Mode of Action
Comments
Injury to plasma membrane
Systemic fungal infections, fungicidal
Inhibits synthesis of plasma
membrane
Inhibits synthesis of plasma
membrane
Topical use
Inhibit synthesis of plasma
membrane
Treatment of diseases resistant to
azoles
Inhibits synthesis of cell wall
Intravenous use only
Inhibits RNA synthesis
Usually in combination with other
antifungals
Inhibits mitotic microtubules
Unknown
Fungal infections of the skin
Athlete’s foot
Can be taken orally for systemic
fungal infections
Antiviral drugs
ENTRY AND FUSION INHIBITORS
Maraviroc
Zanamivir, oseltamivir
UNCOATING INHIBITORS
Amantadine,
zimantadine
GENOME INTEGRATION AND
NUCLEIC ACID SYNTHESIS
INHIBITORS
Zidovudine
Acyclovir, ganciclovir,
ribavirin, lamivudine
Cidofovir
Adenovirus dipivoxil
ASSEMBLY AND EXIT
INHIBITORS
Saquinavir
Boceprevir
Zanamivir
INTERFERONS
Alpha interferon
Mode of Action
Comments
Binds CCR5
Inhibits neuramindase on
influenza virus
Treatment of HIV
Treatment of influenza
Inhibit uncoating
Treatment of influenza
Inhibits DNA or RNA synthesis
Inhibits DNA or RNA synthesis
Competitive inhibitor for HBV
reverse transcriptase
Used primarily against HIV
Used primarily against
herpesvirus
Cytomegalovirus infections,
possibly effective against
smallpox
Treatment of lamivudine
resistant infection
Protease inhibitor
Protease inhibitor
Neuraminidase inhibitor
Treatment of HIV
Treatment of Hepatitis C
Treatment of influenza
Inhibits spread of virus to a new
cells
Viral hepatitis
Inhibits DNA or RNA synthesis
Antiprotozoan Drugs
Chloroquine
Diiodohydroxyquin
Metronidazole
Anthihelminthic Drugs
Niclosamide
Praziquantel
Pyrantel pamoate
Mebendazole,
albendazole
Ivermectin
Mode of Action
Inhibits DNA synthesis
Unknown
Interfere with anaerobic
metabolism
Mode of Action
Prevents ATP generation in
mitochondria
Alters permeability of plasma
membranes
Neuromuscular block
Inhibits absorption of nutrients
Paralyzed worm
Comments
Malaria, effective against red
blood cell stage only
Amebic infections, amebicidal
Giardiasis, amebiasis,
trichomoniasis
Comments
Tapeworm infections, kills
tapeworms
Tapeworm and fluke infections,
kills flatworms
Intestinal roundworms, kills
roundworms
Kills roundworms
Intestinal roundworms
primarily, occasional use for
scabies, mites, and lice
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