SYSTEM

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SYSTEM
EYE
PROBLEM
Conjunctivitis
PATHOGEN
Adenoviris
Herpes 1 & 2
Chlamydia trachomatis
Neonatal conjunctivitis
Neisseria Gonorrhea
Retinitis
SINUS/NOSE Sinusitis
THROAT
Bacterial Pharyngitis
Viral Pharyngitis (Cold)
Mononucleosis
Acute Bronchitis
TREATEMENT
No Tx
Acyclovir
Azithromycin / tetracycline
CMV
CLASSIFICATION
Picornavirus
Acyclovir
bacteria (obligate
intracellular)
Bacteria – diplococci
(G-)
Herpes virus
Strep. Pneumoniae
H. Influenza B
G+ diplococci
G- Rod
M. Catarrhalis
G- Kidney bean
S. Aureus
G+ cocci clusters
Rhinovirus
RSV
Picornovirus
Paramyxovirus
doxycyclin / amoxicillin
doxycyclin / amoxicillin (+ Blactamase inhib)
doxycyclin / amoxicillin
(+ B-lactamase inhib)
Non-resistant = PCN
MRSA = Vanco, Clindamycin
No Tx
Ribavirin
Strep. Pyogenes (Group A)
N. Gonorrhea
M. catarrhalis
G+ cocci
G- Diplococci
G- Kidney bean
C. diptheriae
G+
Rhinovirus
Coronavirus
Influenza
Coxsackievirus A / B
Parainfluenza - CROUP
Adenovirus
RSV
EBV, CMV
HIV
“Usually Viral”
S. pneumoniae
H. influenza
M. catarrhalis
Picornavirus
Coronavirus
Ceftriaxone (3 cephalosporin)
Valgancyclovir (gancyclovir)
PCN, Clindomaycin, Azithromycin
3 Ceflosporin
Doxy, ampicillin (+ B-lactamase
inhib)
Vancomycin
Oseltamivir (if  Risk)
Picornavirus
Adenovirus
Paramyxovirus
Herpesvirus
Retrovirus
G+ diplococci
G- rod
G- kidneybean
Ribivirin (if  Risk)
Symptomatic Tx
Amoxicillin
Amoxocillin
Amoxocillin
Pneumonia (viral)
Pneumonia (bacterial)
Chronic/Severe pneumonia
(immuno-compromised)
GI
Acute gastritis
Gastroenteritis (Preformed
toxins)
Gastroenteritis
RSV, Parainfluenza
Hantavirus
Measles
paramyxovirus
bunyavirus
parmyxovirus
Influenza
CMV
Legionella
Chlamydia (neonatal)
Klebsiella (alcoholics)
Mycoplasma (“Walking”)
Strep. pneumoniae (**1**)
Nocardia
Staph
H. influenza B
orthomyxovirus
herpesvirus
G- rod (tiny)
obligate intracellular
Enteric Gobligate intracellular
G+ diplococci
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Acid-fast bacteria
Histoplasma capstulatum
Cocidioides immitis
Blastomyces
Cryptococcus
Dimorphic fungi
H. pylori
Staph aureus (entrotoxin A,B,C)
G- bacteria
Bacillus cereus (“rice” – heat stable)
C. botulinum (canned goods, honey)
C. perfringes (gravy, uncooked meat)
Cigatera (neuro toxin, shell fish,
reverses hot and cold sensation)
Demoic Acid (“red tide”) Short term
memory loss
Scrombroid (histamine release:
flush, NV, red)
Pfiesteria (long term memory
deficit)
Campylobacter (chicken)
G+
G+
G+
Produced in fish
Produced in mussels
and clams
Produced in shellfish
Produced via contact
w/fish feces
G-
ECMO (extra corporial memb. O2)
Prevention = vaccine, ribavirin and
+/- Vit. A
Oseltamivir, zanamivir
acyclovir
Antifungals
Self resolves
Self limited. Fluid therapy(bacteremia in immunocomp)
Salmonella (chicken, eggs)
Shigella (produce) (“bacillary
dysentery”)
Yersinia enterocolitica
Vibrio Cholerae (fecal oral)
ETEC (travelers)
EIEC (similar to shigella)
EPEC (infantile)
EHEC (Shiga toxin)
Gasteroenteritis (Parasitic)
G+ bacillus
Plasmodium falciparum
Sporozoite (vector)
Giardia lamblia
Trophozoite (cyst
ingestion)
Trophozoite (cyst
ingestion)
Trophozoite (cyst
ingestion)
Sporulated oocyst
(cyst ingestion)
Cryptosporidium Parvum
Cyclospora
Ascaris lumbricoides
Enterobius (pinworm)
Strongyloides
T. trichuria
T. solium
Gastroenteritis (Viral)
GGGGGG-
C. difficile (pseudomembranous
colitis=green, mucousy diarrhea
Listeria monocytogenes (deli meat)
E. histolytica
Gastroenteritis (helminthic)
G-, intracellular
G-
Rotavirus (most common cause of
diarrhea in kids worldwide)
Norwalk (explosive diarrhea)
eggs ingested (fecaloral)
eggs ingested (fecal –
oral)
Filariform larvae,
penetrate intact skin
(soil)
Ingest eggs
Ingest ova or cyst
(pork)
Reovirus
Fecal-oral
Calicivirus
Cipro and antimotility
DO NOT TREAT! ( risk of HUS
due to of mass release of toxin)
Metronidazole
Chloroquine, mefloquine,
malarone, doxycycline
Metronidazole
Metronidazole + Paromomycin
Fluid Support
Bactrim
Albendazole/mebendazole,
Pyrantel pomoate
Pyrantel pomoate
Ivermectin, Thiabendazole
Mebendazole/ Albendazole
Fluid support
Vaccine Available
Fluids, Antiemetics
LIVER
Liver abscess
Mixed enterobacteriaceae
Anaerobic (peptostreococcus)
E. histolytica (See gastroenteritis –
parasitic)
Viral Hepatitides (A, B, C,
D, E)
(“vowels” = Fecal oral )
(“consonants” = serum
blood, maybe sex)
Acute = Flu-like symptoms,
jaundice, LFT
Hepatitis A
(Acute, may be asymptomatic)
Picornavirus,
Get it once and establish
immunity. Vaccine available by
IgM, immunity lifelong
Hep B
(Acute or chronic, may be
asymptomatic)
Hepadnovirus
Unique b/c makes
RNA template
Vaccine available
Acute = HBsAg+ / IgM-core +
Chonic = HBsAg+ / IgG-core +
Vaccinated = HBsAG + only
Hep C
Flavivirus
80-85% become chronic, 15%
clear infection, rarely acute
#1 cause liver transplants
#1 cause of chronic liver disease in
US
Chronic = hepatomegaly,
LFT, risk hepatocellular
carcinoma,  cirrhosis
STDs
NASH
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Vaginitis
C. albicans
(White cheesy discharge, itch)
Trichomoniasis
(Yellow discharge, itch)
Gardnerella vaginalis
(white-grey malodorous discharge)
C. trichomatis
N. gonorrhea
HSV
N. gonorrhea
Dimorphic, germ
tubes
protozoa
Fluconazole (anti-fungal),
caspofungin, imidazole
Metronidazol and tinidazle
G-
Metronidazole
Obligate intracellular
G- diplococci
Herpes
G- diplococci
Azithromycin
3 cephalosporin
acyclovir
3 cephalosporin
C. trachomatis
E. coli
S. saprophyticus
E. faecalis
P. aeruginosa
Obligate intracellular
G- rod
G+ cocci cluster
G+ cocci
G-
azithromycin
cipro, bactrum
PCN
Urethritis
Pelvic Inflammatory
Disease (PID)
UTI
aminoglycosides + Ex spec pen
Glomerulonephritis
Other STDs
GU/SKIN
SKIN
Lesions
Viral Rash
Bacterial rash
Impetigo
Erysipelas
Cellulitis
Fungal (superficial)
Fungal (cutaneous)
Fungal (Subcaneous)
K. pneumonia
G-
P. mirabilis
Uropathogenic E. coli (fimbrae)
Strep. pyogenes
HIV
GG-
HSV 1/ 2
T. pallideum (syphilis)
H. ducreyi
HPV
Molluscum contagiosum
Herpes virus
spirochete
Gpapillomavirus
pox virus
Measles
Pox viruses (small poxk molluscum
contagiosum)
Rubella
Parvovirus – 5ths disease
Roseola (HHV-6)
Varicella zoster (chicken pox,
shingles)
3 syphilis – treponema pallidum
vibrio vulnificus
(raw shellfish, rampant skin inf)
S. Aureus
Strep. pyogenes
(scarlet fever: red rash on body)
S. Pyogenes
S. aureus / S. Pyogenes
(small, non-purulent)
MRSA (purulent)
Malassezia furfur
(Pityriasis versicolor)
Dematophytes/ringworm
(microsporin, trichophyton,
epidermophyton)
Sporothry schenkii
(Rose bushes, sporotrichiosis)
aminoglycosides and
chephalosporin
fluorquinolones (cipro, Bactrim)
PCN, azitrhomycin, clindamycin
retrovirus
acyclovir
PCN (single large dose)
 risk of cervical cancer
herpes virus
1 gen. cephalosporins, cephazolin
NO ABX!
Vancomycin
Topical imidazoles
Lyme Disease
Rocky Mnt. Spotted Fever
Bubonic Plague
Leishmoniasis
Trypanosomiasis
(African Sleeping Sickness)
Trypanosomiasis
(Chaga’s disease)
BRAIN
Meningitis
Encephalitis
Eumycoti mycetoma
(pus, lesions, commonly on foot)
Borriella burgdoferi (deer ticks)
(target-colored lesions)
Rickettsia (tick)
Yersinia pestis (flea)
Leishmania tropica + L. Major
(sandfly)
African: Trypanosoma brucei
(tsetse fly)
periorbital edema, lymphodema=
“Romana’s sign”, ulcer at bite site
American: T. cruzi (kissing bug)
doxycycline and ceftriaxone
(acute)
N. meningitis
S. pneumonia
H. Influenza
Listeria (elderly, infants, pregnant
women, immunocomp)
S. agalactica
Enterovirus
HSV II
GG+
G- diplococci
G+ rod (tumbling)
Steriods First, 3 cephalosporins
Ampicillin, vancomycin
3 cephalosporins
ampicillin
G+
Picornavirus
Herpesvirus
ampicillin
HSV I
West Nile Virus
Rabies
Herpesvirus
Flavirirus
Rhabdovirus
Trypanosoma “African Sleeping
Sickness” (Tsetse fly)
T. Brucei
acyclovir
antibody + CTL’s
Post exposure Prophylaxis
Anti-rabies Ig
Melasporol, Suramin, Eflornithine
acyclovir
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