Ecology Interactions Between Organisms and their Environments Mr. Broderick NC SCOS Goal 5 Lesson #1: Living and non-living parts of an Ecosystem • Objectives – Identify abiotic and biotic factors in a given description of an ecosystem interaction – Generate an example relationship using abiotic and biotic factors – Determine if a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral given its pH – Set-up an experiment to test the effect of pH on the sprouting of a lima bean • Develop hypothesis, procedure Key Vocabulary to Define • • • • • • • Ecosystem Abiotic Biotic pH Acidic Basic Neutral The organization of our world! The earth is a biosphere Ecosystems are the living and nonliving things in an area Populations are a group of one type of organism living in an area Hierarchy of Biology • Ecosystems • Communities • Populations • Organisms • Organ systems • Organs • Tissues • Cells • Organelles • Molecules What is ecology? • Ecology: The study of the relationship between organisms and their environment • Example problems that ecology handles: – How do humans affect the atmosphere and contribute to global warming? – How does the population of wolves in an area affect the population of rabbits? – Do clownfish (Nemo!) and anemone benefit each other? Why does ecology matter? • Ecology: The study of the relationship between organisms and their environment Scenario: Imagine that there is an insect that lives on peanut plants growing on farms in Northampton County. Is there a way that we can limit insect damage to the peanut crops in order to decrease the price of peanuts at the store by 20 cents per pound? How do we study environments? • Quadrant Studies: Tracking changes in a small section of the environment How do we study environments? • Sampling: Only measuring a small, random part of an environment Ecosystems • Ecosystem: An area containing an interaction of living and non-living factors in an area/region • Example ecosystems: – North Carolina forests (pine forests) – Coastal Plains of NC – Outer banks coastal water ecosystem – Lake Gaston ecosystem What is in an Ecosystem? • Abiotic Factors: The non-living parts of an ecosystem – Rocks, soil, temperature, gases in the air, light • Biotic Factors: The living parts of an ecosystem – Plants, animals, bacteria, fungus • Producers: use light to make their own energy • Consumers: eat other organisms to obtain energy • Decomposers: break down dead organisms for energy Word Parts! • Placing an “a” before a word makes it an opposite or not – Abiotic (not biotic; not living) – Atypical (not typical) – Anonymous (no name) Biotic Abiotic • • • • • • • • • • • • • Humans Bacteria Fungus Plants Insects Amphibians Reptiles Mammals Birds Water Soil Wind or Air Gases – oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen • Temperature • Sunlight • pH – Acid or base Abiotic or Biotic? Biotic (plant) Abiotic (rainwater) Abiotic or Biotic? • • • • • The air temperature is 45 degrees F = abiotic The soil is made of rocks and minerals = abiotic A bird lays eggs = biotic Bacteria break down dead organisms = biotic The pH or the water is 2 (acidic) = abiotic Abiotic or Biotic? Biotic Abiotic Biotic Biotic Which of the following is a relationship between abiotic and biotic factors? A) The rain on an open field washes away soil B) A hawk hunts a mouse and swoops down into the forest for the kill C) A lake has very acidic water which causes many fish populations to die Abiotic D) A deer grazes in a field of grasses Biotic Independent Work • Read your scenario card • Identify the abiotic and biotic factors in the scenario • Now, find others with your letter and check your work. Mini-Lesson: pH • pH: the measurement of how acidic, basic, or neutral a solution is Weakly Acidic Weakly Basic 1 ------------ 4 ----------- 7 ------------ 11 ------------- 14 Neutral Strong Base Strong Acid (very basic) (very acidic) Guided Examples • Vinegar – pH of 4 Acidic • Baking Soda Basic – pH of 8-9 • Tap water – pH of about 7 Neutral • 1 M HCl (hydrochloric acid) – pH of about 1 • 1M NaOH – pH of about 14 Basic Acidic Guided Examples • Which is more acidic? A) B) C) D) pH of 2 pH of 5 pH of 7 pH of 11 • Which is more basic? A) B) C) D) pH of 2 pH of 5 pH of 7 pH of 11 A scientist performs an experiment to see if acids have an effect on the health of a particular type of plant. Three sets of plants were treated with acidic solutions of known pH while the control set was treated with a solution of neutral pH 7. What is the best conclusion for this experiment? A. Acid has no effect on the health of this type of plant B. High acidity is helpful to this type of plant C. Low acidity is harmful to this type of plant D. High acidity is harmful to this type of plant Energy Transfer in an Ecosystem NCSCOS 5.02b Food Chains • A food chain shows the flow of energy between the organisms in an environment Food Chains • Notice that the arrow points from the organism being eaten to the organism that eats it. – Like the burger you eat goes into you Plants Cow (burger) Human What do the arrows in the food chain below indicate? A. B. C. D. Sunlight Energy flow Heat transfer Toxins What is energy? • The energy that is transferred in an ecosystem is stored in carbon-compounds, or organic compounds. – Organic compounds: molecules that contain a carbon atom • Carbohydrates: glucose, starch, cellulose (mostly plants) • Proteins: the muscles of animals (steak!) • Fats: in muscle of animal tissues (fatty steak!) Food Webs • When we put many food chains together in one ecosystem, it is called a food web Food Webs • Food webs show the direction that energy flows in an ecosystem. Energy Moves in a Food Web Other animals get energy from the fat and protein in other animals Some animals get glucose from plants Plants make glucose from light Parts of a Food Web • Producers: organisms that use light to store energy in organic compounds. – (examples: plants, algae, phytoplankton) Parts of a Food Web • Where are the producers in the food web below? Parts of a Food Web • Consumers: organisms that eat other organisms to get organic compounds that they use for energy – (examples: humans, cows, insects, birds…) Parts of a Food Web • Where are the consumers in the food web below? Parts of a Food Web • Tertiary consumers: organisms that eat secondary consumers for energy • Secondary consumers: organisms that eat primary consumers for energy • Primary consumers: organisms that eat producers to obtain energy compounds Tertiary Consumer Secondary Consumer Primary Consumer Producer How is energy stored and transferred in an ecosystem? A. B. C. D. In light In oxygen and carbon dioxide In carbon compounds like glucose In the process of decomposition Which of the following organisms is a primary consumer in the ecosystem shown? A. B. C. D. Hawk Rabbit Mountain lion Frog Population Impacts in a Food Web • If the population of organisms at any level of the food web changes, it will affect the population at other levels Population Impacts in a Food Web • If the population of producers decreases, then the population of primary consumers will decrease if they don’t have enough food. Population Impacts in a Food Web • If the population of primary consumers decreases, then… – The producers will increase because there are less consumers eating them – The secondary consumers will decrease because there is less food for them Which organism would be most affected if the cricket population decreased? A. B. C. D. Snake Deer Frog Hawk Energy Pyramids • Energy Pyramids show the amount of energy at each level of a food web – Trophic Level: the total amount of energy in all organisms at one level in the food web. Energy Pyramids • More energy at the bottom, decreases as the pyramid moves up the food web Less Energy More Energy Energy Pyramid Labels Tertiary Consumers Secondary Consumers Primary Consumers Producers Energy Transfer in Energy Pyramids • Each trophic level of the energy pyramid supplies energy to the level above it. • Each transfer loses 90% of the energy • Only 10% of the energy at a level is passed to the next level up! Energy Transfer (percents) 0.1% 1% 10% 100% Energy Transfer (calories) 1 calorie 10 calories 100 calories 1,000 calories Energy Transfer in Energy Pyramids • We can say that the energy transfer from level to level is inefficient – (not a lot of the energy at each level makes it up) • This means that there can’t be many levels ina food web or pyramid – The amount of energy decreases, and it cannot typically support organisms at higher levels than tertiary consumer Why are there a limited number of energy levels in an energy pyramid or food web? A. B. C. D. Energy transfer is very efficient Energy is captured as heat Energy transfer is inefficient Energy is not transferred in a food web Energy Transfer and Flow NCSCOS 5.02a, 2.05bc How does energy enter the food web? Better question… where does the weight of a producer come from? How does this... become this? Photosynthesis • Photosynthesis: a toxin process that occurs in producers and converts light, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose (sugar) and oxygen. Carbon Dioxide Water Sunlight Glucose Oxygen More Photosynthesis a. Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the air. b. The carbon dioxide in the air is the building block for glucose. c. The light energy helps bond CO2 and H2O together to make glucose. • The energy in light is now stored in the glucose molecule Starch Fat (nuts) Glucose Light CO2 O2 H2O How do consumers get energy? • Digestion of organic molecules – Consumers eat other organisms to obtain organic molecules, which are forms of stored energy. – Energy is stored in the bonds of the molecules. The Carbon Cycle NCSCOS 5.02a Carbon Cycle • Carbon is found throughout the environment – Carbon is found in the atmosphere and in water as carbon dioxide (CO2) – Carbon is found in organisms as organic molecules, like glucose (sugars) and fats – Carbon is found buried in the ground as fossil fuels Carbon Cycle • Carbon is cycled, or moves 1) Atmosphere: Carbon is in the form of CO2 CO2 Carbon Cycle 2) Producers: Use photosynthesis to make sugars from CO2 in the atmosphere (carbon is moved!) C6H12O6 Carbon Cycle 3) Consumers: Eat organic molecules and release CO2 into the atmosphere during respiration, or die and go into the soil CO2 Carbon Cycle 4) Soil: decomposers break down organisms, releasing carbon into the atmosphere OR trapping it in the ground (fossils) Carbon Cycle 5) Fossil Fuels: carbon from some dead organisms are trapped as fossil fuel until we burn it Carbon Cycle Stations • Start at one of the stations • Make your way to each different station based on a correct path through the carbon cycle • If you can go to two different places, choose between them and then go back • Write all answers on your sheet! • After you are done, explain to your partner the “story” of the carbon cycle, and have them explain back to you! Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming Greenhouse Effect • Heat is trapped near the Earth’s surface because once light gets in, it warms the surface but cannot escape out of the atmosphere. – It is trapped by the gases in the atmosphere, like CO2 Global Warming Global Warming • The Earth has been warming on average. • Could be due to increased CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, which enhances the greenhouse effect and traps extra heat. Global Warming Excess CO2 Enhanced Global Warming Greenhouse Effect Relationships in an Ecosystem NCSCOS 5.01 Symbiosis • Symbiosis: a long-term relationship between two organisms in an ecosystem. Types of Symbiosis • Mutualism: both organisms benefit from their relationship • Commensalism: one organism benefits, and the other is unaffected • Parasitism: one organisms benefits, and the other is harmed Symbiosis Summary Relationship Type Species A Species B Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + - Name That Symbiosis • Leeches feed off of the lamprey below, and eventually cause it to die. Name That Symbiosis • A clown fish lives among the sea anemone. The clown fish gains protection, but the anemone is neither harmed nor helped. Name That Symbiosis • Ox-peckers live on the heads of the ox, eating insects and keeping the ox clean. The birds also get a place to live. Example: The Malaria Parasite • Species: Plasmodium Vivax • Organism: Protist • Disease: Malaria, which is prevalent in Africa A. Plasmodium Vivax is a one-celled organism that is transmitted to humans through the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito B. It enters liver cells and begins to reproduce C. The reproductive cells infect blood cells. D. Which causes them to lyse or burst. E. The reproductive cells can be picked up by another mosquito, where they reproduce (G) and are transmitted to another human (H) Population Growth and Overpopulation NCSCOS 5.03 Populations • Population: the number of organism from one species that live in a specific area – Examples: the human population in different cities, the squirrel population in a forest, the grass population in a meadow Populations • Populations are affected by many resources. These include: – – – – – The amount of food available in an area The amount of sunlight (if it is a plant population) The amount of water The competition for food/shelter The predators in an area Population Growth Graphs Birth Rate > Death Rate A: Slow growth as a population begins to grow Population Growth Graphs Birth Rate > Death Rate B: Exponential growth as population grows rapidly Population Growth Graphs Birth Rate > Death Rate C: Slow-down of growth as population maxes out its resources, like food, water, or light Population Growth Graphs Birth Rate = Death Rate D: Population reaches the maximum number supported by environment, the carrying capacity Carrying Capacity • Carrying Capacity: the maximum number of organisms in a population that are supported by the environment Population Growth Graphs Reaching Limit of Resources Exponential Growth, no limiting resources Carrying Capacity Carrying Capacity • Populations are typically limited by resources – They reach carrying capacity when there aren't enough resources to keep growing. – Birth Rate = Death Rate. – Logistic Growth! Unlimited Growth • If there are no limiting resources, populations grow exponentially. • Birth Rate > Death Rate Decline • If population birth rate < death rate, the population will go down! Which of the following graphs shows a population that is free of limiting factors? Which of the following graphs shows a population that has reached carrying capacity? How would a scientists determine the growth rate of a population? A. B. C. D. Birth Rate + Death Rate Birth Rate – Death Rate Birth Rate x Death Rate Birth Rate / Death Rate Click To Go Back and Analyze The Graphs In Terms of Birth And Death Rates (with the class) What statement best describes the population shown in the graph below? A. Birth rate = Death rate B. Birth rate < Death rate C. Birth rate > Death rate D. Birth rate = 0 What statement best describes the population shown in the graph below at time “t”? A. Birth rate = Death rate B. Birth rate < Death rate C. Birth rate > Death rate D. Birth rate = 0 Predator vs Prey • Predator and Prey populations can affect one another 1. As prey increases, predator will increase in response 2. As predators increase, prey will decrease 3. As prey decrease, predators will decrease POPULATION TASK POPULATION TASK • Deer control is a major issue in North Carolina • We are going to work as small groups to figure out the problems concerning deer management • We will also brainstorm solutions to the problem. POPULATION TASK 1) What are the effects of an overpopulation of deer? Why is it a problem? 2) What are some natural ways to control the deer population 3) What are some ways that humans can help control the deer population? Human Population and Impact NC SCOS 5.03 Objectives • We can analyze the growth patterns of the human population • We can explain the impacts of deforestation, pollution, and resource overuse on the environment • We can inform the public about the dangers of human impacts and how to avoid resource overuse Human Population • Human population is currently about 6.8 billion – Human population growth has been exponential Population Pyramid Graphs • Developing countries tend to have high growth rates, whereas developed countries tend to have stable growth. – Population age distribution • Larger at the bottom = more future growth • Equal at each age = stable growth or even decline • Population age distribution • Larger at the bottom = more future growth • Equal at each age = stable growth or even decline Overpopulation: The Bad • The problems with overpopulation include abuse of resources: – Deforestation – Fossil Fuel Overuse – Freshwater Overuse – Pollution – Lack of adequate food – Non-native species Deforestation • Cutting down forests leads to a loss of biodiversity: not as many different species in an area – Can affect local food webs, other species, and even medicine! Fossil Fuel Overuse Burning Fossil Fuels Excess CO2 in the air, traps heat Greenhouse effect enhanced Global warming Freshwater Overuse • Poor water quality, not enough freshwater in areas of need • Polluted runoff from factories Pollution • Acid rain: – Sulfur and nitrogen gases released from factories into the air – Sulfur dioxide: SO2 – Falls in rain drops, slowly impacts pH of water, soil, etc. Pollution • Ozone Layer Destruction – CFCs: chlorofluorocarbons – released into the air through old refrigerator and spray cans, destroy ozone layer. – Low ozone leads to high UV radiation – UV radiation: can cause skin cancer through mutation Why you should wear sunblock! Food • Lack of food sources • Most important in poor, developing countries Introducing Non-native species • Putting species into new ecosystems that aren’t supposed to be there – The introduced species generally outcompete, or do better, than the native species. – Example: pythons in the everglades. What Can We Do? • Use renewable resources for energy – Water, wind, solar, and geothermal energy What Can We Do? • • • • Reduce carbon dioxide emissions Reduce water waste Investigate factories and their pollution levels Increase public awareness of the issues What Can We Do? • Promote sustainable practices – Using renewable energy, rotating crops, avoiding pesticides and toxins, making sure we keep fishing populations high, conserve resources Bioaccumulation NC SCOS 5.03, 5.02b Quick Vocabulary • Autotroph: makes its own energy, a producer • Heterotroph: gets its energy from somewhere else, a consumer Quick Vocabulary • Accumulate: to gain over time Bioaccumulation • Bioaccumulation: the buildup of toxins in top consumers after eating many smaller organisms in a food web – Also called biomagnification or bioamplification Bioaccumulation • Imagine that a toxin, a pesticide, was sprayed on the grass in the food web below. It cannot be released by the plant and is always stored. http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/print/index/publications/press_articles/beef_and_sheep/archive-10/grass-attack.htm Bioacummulation • Each level of organisms above the grass in the food web will accumulate more and more of the toxin because they eat so much of the level below them • For example, the mouse eats a large amount of grass, and stores all of the toxins in its body. Then the snake eats many mice, storing all of their toxins. Finally the hawk eats many snakes and stores all of their toxins in its body Bioaccumulation Eats 10 snakes= 1g Eats 100 mice = .1g Eats 1,000 grasses = .001g 1 grass has 0.000001g Bioaccumulation Highest toxin levels Even more toxin More toxin, concentrated Lots of toxin, spread out Why is biomagnification a problem? • What do you think? – Depends on the type of toxin – If the toxin is toxic, it might cause problems with the functions of an organism • Impairs reproduction • Kills off members of a species • Prevents organisms from reproducing What happens to the food web? • What do you think? – Decreased top consumers means more low level consumers – More low level consumers means increased amounts of the toxic toxin! – The top level consumers don’t stand a chance! • Are we top level consumers? Can this happen to us?