chemical formulas all worksheets 2011

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Mrs. Meer
Chemistry
Name______________________ #_______
Date_____________ Period_____________
Chapter 7 Part I
1
Types of Chemical Compounds Classify the following compounds as ionic or molecular (covalent).
1. CaCl2 _______ionic________
11. MgO ____________________
2. CO2 ____________________
12. NH4Cl ____________________
3. H2O ____________________
13. Sr(NO3)2 ____________________
4. Na2SO4 ____________________
14. KI ____________________
5. K2O ____________________
15. Ba(OH)2 ____________________
6. NaF ____________________
16. NO2 ____________________
7. Na2CO3 ____________________
17. Ca3(PO4)2 ____________________
8. CH4 ____________________
18. FeCl3 ____________________
9. Mg(NO3)2 ____________________
19. P2O5 ____________________
10. LiBr ____________________
20. N2O3 ____________________
Binary Ionic Compounds – Compounds with monatomic ions in it, a metallic ion and a
nonmetallic ion. This allows only two types of atoms in the formula. Ex: Rb2O
Ternary Ionic Compounds – Compounds with at least one polyatomic ion in it. This allows three
or more types of atoms in the formula. Ex: RbNO3
Classify the following compounds as binary ionic or ternary ionic.
21. KOH ____ternary ionic___________
26. Na2Cr2O7 _______________________
22. CoO _________________________
27. MgSO4 _________________________
23. Fe(NO3)2 _______________________
28. Cu2S _________________________
24. MgH2 _________________________
29. SnO2 _________________________
25. Cs2S _________________________
30. NH4NO3 ________________________
2
Naming Ions
Polyatomic Ions
Rule: Look up the name or symbol from your polyatomic ion sheet.
Example 1:
ammonium ion ____________________
Example 2:
NO3- ____________________
Example 3:
NO2- ____________________
Monatomic Ions
•
CATIONS
Rule A: If the atom always forms the same charge when forming an ion, (all group 1,
group 2, and Zn2+, Ag+, Cd2+, & Al3+), take the name of the atom that the ion is formed
from, and add “ion”.
Example 4:
Na+
Example 5:
Mg2+ ____________________
Example 6:
aluminum ion ____________________
____________________
Rule B: If the atom can form more than one charge when forming an ion, (any of the
transition metals and any metals underneath the staircase), take the name of the atom that
the ion is formed from, place the charge as a Roman numeral in parentheses, and then add
“ion”.
Example 7: Pb2+ _________________
Example 9: copper(I) ion __________
Example 8: Fe2+ _________________
Example 10: copper(II) ion _________
Try These:
11. Rb+ ____________________
15. Fe3+ ____________________
12. Ca2+ ____________________
16. cobalt(II) ion _________________
13. Ni+ ____________________
17. lithium ion ________________
14. Ag+ ____________________
18. zinc ion _________________
3
•
ANIONS
Rule: Take the nonmetal atom name, remove the ending and add “-ide ion” to it.
Example 21: S2- ____________________
Example 22: N3- ____________________
Example 23: bromide ion ____________________
Example 24: telluride ion ____________________
YOU TRY IT!
25. iodide ion ____________________
26. selenide ion ____________________
27. F- ____________________
28. O2- ____________________
Let’s Compare some ions:
N3- ____________________
NO2- ____________________
NO3- ____________________
sulfide ion ____________________
sulfite ion ____________________
sulfate ion ____________________
4
Understanding Ion Nomenclature IONS
CATIONS
MONATOMIC
ANIONS
POLYATOMIC
MONATOMIC
POLYATOMIC
*one possible
charge
*Groups 1 & 2
and others
*more than one
possible charge
*few
*ends in –IDE
*ends in –ITE -ATE
or –IDE (a few)
Na+ sodium ion
Ca2+calcium ion
Ag+ silver ion
Zn2+ zinc ion
Cd2+ cadmium ion
Al3+ aluminum ion
Fe2+ iron(II) ion
Fe3+ iron(III) ion
Cu+ copper(I) ion
Cu2+ copper(II) ion
NH4+ ammonium ion
Cl- chloride ion
O2- oxide ion
N3- nitride ion
SO32- sulfite ion
SO42- sulfate ion
CN- cyanide ion
Monatomic cation with one possible charge – Name of atom and add “ion”
Monatomic cation with more than one possible charge – Name of atom, with charge as Roman numeral in parentheses, and add “ion”
Monatomic anion – Name of atom, remove ending, and add “-ide ion”
Polyatomic ions – no naming rules…just know them.
5
Ions ‐ Worksheet Name the following ions.
1. Ca2+ ______________________________
2. O2- ______________________________
3. H+ ______________________________
4. H- ______________________________
5. Cu+ ______________________________
6. Fe3+ ______________________________
7. CO32- ______________________________
8. NH4+ ______________________________
9. Zn2+ ______________________________
10. N3- ______________________________
Write the formulas for the following ions.
11. acetate ion ______________________________
12. phosphide ion ______________________________
13. phosphate ion ______________________________
14. iron(II) ion ______________________________
15. strontium ion ______________________________
16. nickel(II) ion ______________________________
17. tin(II) ion ______________________________
18. sulfate ion ______________________________
19. sulfite ion ______________________________
20. sulfide ion ______________________________
6
Ionic Compound Nomenclature ALL COMPOUNDS ARE
NEUTRAL!
When ions combine, they will form neutral compounds. These formulas are written in the
lowest, whole-number ratio. These lowest, whole-number ratios are called “formula units”.
An ionic compound is often referred to as a “salt”. One of the most common ionic compounds is
NaCl. This is why we usually refer to it as salt or table salt.
When determining the formula for an ionic compound, determine the charges of each ion and be
sure to combine them so that the number of positive charges is equal in magnitude to the number
of negative charges.
Example:
Al2O3 - aluminum oxide
It is made of two Al3+ ions (aluminum ions) and three O2- ions (oxide ions).
2 Al3+ ions would make a total positive charge of +6.
3 O2- ions would make a total negative charge of -6.
This makes a neutral compound.
Ionic Compounds are named after the ions they contain.
Example: CaI2
This contains 1 Ca2+ ion and 2 I- ions. They are written in a 1:2 ratio in the compound so it is
neutral. However, when naming the compound, just write the names of the two types of ions.
So the name is calcium iodide.
Example: MnO2
This contains 1 Mn+4 ion and 2 O2- ions. I had to determine the charge on the Mn. It is a
transition metal and needs a roman numeral in its name. I first looked at the O and knew it was a
2-. I then thought that if there were two 2- ions, then that would be a total negative charge of 4-.
In order to make a neutral compound, the positives would have to add up to 4+. If there is only
one Mn in the compound, then its entire charge would be 4+. So, the compound is made of
manganese(IV) ions and oxide ions. The name is manganese (IV) oxide.
Example: copper (I) sulfide
This contains Cu+ ions and S2- ions. Two Cu+ ions are needed for each S2- ion, making Cu2S.
7
Binary Ionic Compounds – Worksheet #1 A. Write the formulas for the compounds formed from these elements. Remember, the cation is
always written first.
1. rubidium and iodine ___________
5. sulfur and sodium ___________
2. barium and chlorine ___________
6. aluminum and oxygen ___________
3. lithium and selenium ___________
7. silver and phosphorus ___________
4. nitrogen and magnesium ____________
8. fluorine and zinc ___________
B. Write the names for these binary ionic compounds.
9. Cs2S ____________________________
16. FeF3 ___________________________
10. BaO ___________________________
17. Mg3N2 _________________________
11. AlI3 ____________________________
18. Ni3P2 ___________________________
12. MnO2 __________________________
19. UO2 ___________________________
13. Tc3P4 __________________________
20. HF ____________________________
14. CdBr2 __________________________
21. CoN ___________________________
15. NaCl ___________________________
22. K2S ____________________________
C. Write the formulas for these binary ionic compounds.
23. rubidium sulfide _______________
30. europium(II) nitride ______________
24. mercury(II) oxide _______________
31. cesium phosphide _______________
25. calcium nitride _______________
32. lead(II) chloride _______________
26. zinc bromide _______________
33. cadmium oxide _______________
27. uranium(VI) fluoride ______________
34. tin(IV) fluoride _______________
28. silver phosphide _______________
35. iron(II) oxide _______________
29. platinum(II) selenide ______________
36. iron(III) oxide _______________
8
Binary Ionic Compounds – Worksheet #2 If the name of the compound is given, write the formula. If the formula of the compound is
given, write the name.
1. KBr ________________________________________
2. V2O5 ________________________________________
3. cobalt(III) oxide ________________________________________
4. barium phosphide ________________________________________
5. cadmium nitride ________________________________________
6. Cu3P ________________________________________
7. Ag2S ________________________________________
8. Sn3N4 ________________________________________
9. radium iodide ________________________________________
10. beryllium selenide ________________________________________
11. Fe2S3 ________________________________________
12. SrO ________________________________________
13. CrCl2 ________________________________________
14. mercury(II) fluoride ________________________________________
15. lead(IV) bromide ________________________________________
16. CuSe ________________________________________
17. FeP ________________________________________
18. lithium oxide ________________________________________
19. cobalt(III) fluoride ________________________________________
20. CdI2 ________________________________________
9
Ternary Ionic Compounds ‐ Worksheet If the name of the compound is given, write the formula. If the formula of the compound is
given, write the name.
1. calcium nitrite ________________________________________
2. BaSO4 ________________________________________
3. silver acetate ________________________________________
4. SrSO3 ________________________________________
5. nickel(II) phosphate ________________________________________
6. Na2CO3 ________________________________________
7. LiHCO3 ________________________________________
8. ammonium phosphate ________________________________________
9. Be(ClO)2 ________________________________________
10. aluminum oxalate ________________________________________
11. rubidium dichromate ________________________________________
12. KHSO3 ________________________________________
13. calcium hydroxide ________________________________________
14. manganese(II) silicate ________________________________________
15. HCN ________________________________________
16. cesium hydrogen sulfate ________________________________________
17. Ti(OH)4 ________________________________________
18. ammonium chloride ________________________________________
19. Ca(ClO3)2 ________________________________________
20. rubidium cyanate ________________________________________
21. copper(II) sulfate ________________________________________
22. CuCl ________________________________________
23. iron(II) arsenate ________________________________________
24. NH4OH ________________________________________
10
Latin Nomenclature Some ions have Latin names for them that are commonly used. When there are two possible
charges for similar ions, the lower of the two is the “-ous” ion and the higher of the two is the
“-ic” ion.
For your information, the Latin roots for the name of the metals are: Cu “cupr”, Fe “ferr”, Cr
“chrom”, Sn “stann”, Co “cobalt”, and Pb “plumb”.
Cu+ - copper(I) ion – cuprous ion
Cu2+ - copper(II) ion – cupric ion
Fe2+ - iron(II) ion – ferrous ion
Fe3+ - iron(III) ion - ferric ion
Cr2+ - chromium(II) ion – chromous ion
Cr3+ - chromium(III) ion – chromic ion
Sn2+ - tin(II) ion – stannous ion
Sn4+ - tin(IV) ion – stannic ion
Pb2+ - lead(II) ion – plumbous ion
Pb4+ - lead(IV) ion – plumbic ion
You must learn all of these Latin names. Remember the lower of the two is “ous” and the higher
of the two is “ic”.
Name the following compounds with both methods:
1. Fe2O3
iron(III) oxide
ferric oxide
2. Cu2O
______________________________
______________________________
3. SnO2
______________________________
______________________________
4. PbO
______________________________
______________________________
11
Hydrate Nomenclature hydrate – a compound that releases water when heated
Example:
CuSO4▪5H2O
Cu
copper(II)
SO4
sulfate
▪
5
H 2O
part of the compound
penta
hydrate
Example:
MgSO4▪7H2O
Example:
aluminum chloride hexahydrate
__magnesium sulfate heptahydrate_______
_____AlCl3▪6H2O________________
Name the following hydrates:
1. MgCl2▪6H2O ______________________________
2. Cd(NO3)2▪4H2O ______________________________
3. ZnCl2▪6H2O ______________________________
4. Na2S2O3▪5H2O______________________________
monoditritetrapentahexaheptaoctanonadeca-
one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
5. CaCl2▪2H2O ______________________________
Write the formulas for the following hydrates:
6. barium hydroxide octahydrate ______________________________
7. sodium sulfate decahydrate ______________________________
8. lithium chloride tetrahydrate ______________________________
9. cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate ______________________________
10. sodium carbonate decahydrate ______________________________
12
All Ionic Compounds ‐ Worksheet If the name of the compound is given, write the formula. If the formula of the compound is
given, write the name.
1. lead(II) nitrate ________________________________________
2. sodium carbonate ________________________________________
3. potassium iodide ________________________________________
4. AgNO3 ________________________________________
5. barium nitrate ________________________________________
6. Na2SO3 ________________________________________
7. potassium carbonate ________________________________________
8. sodium nitrate ________________________________________
9. barium acetate ________________________________________
10. hydrogen peroxide ________________________________________
11. potassium biphosphate ________________________________________
12. Ba(OH)2 ________________________________________
13. FeCl3 (use the Latin nomenclature)___________________________________
14. Fe3(PO4)2 ________________________________________
15. aluminum sulfate ________________________________________
16. calcium hydroxide ________________________________________
17. tin(II) oxide ________________________________________
18. aluminum hydrogen carbonate ________________________________________
19. sodium perchlorate ________________________________________
20. copper(I) dichromate ________________________________________
21. potassium selenide ________________________________________
22. ZnS ________________________________________
23. stannic dichromate ________________________________________
24. sodium hydrogen phosphate ________________________________________
25. Fe(ClO)2 ________________________________________
26. NH4CH3COO ________________________________________
27. copper(II) nitrate ________________________________________
28. potassium hypochlorite ________________________________________
29. iron(III) chromate ________________________________________
30. Ag2SO4 ________________________________________
**THIS MAY BE GRADED FOR CORRECTNESS**
13
Molecular Compound Nomenclature Molecular compounds are composed of individually covalently bonded atoms. The simplest unit
of a molecular compound is called a “molecule”. These compounds are composed of all
nonmetals. They are sometimes called covalent compounds.
One system for naming these compounds is based on the use of prefixes.
monoditritetrapentahexaheptaoctanonadeca-
one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
When naming the molecular compound, the prefix that indicates the number of each atom is
placed before the atom in the name. All molecular compounds end in “-ide”.
Example:
N2O
IS
dinitrogen monoxide
NOT dinitride monoxide (the first element does not end in “-ide”)
NOT dinitrogen monoxygen (the second element should end in “-ide”)
NOT dinitrogen monooxide (often the “o” is dropped before a vowel)
Also, mono is not used to indicate one atom if it applies to the first atom.
Example:
CO
IS
carbon monoxide
NOT monocarbon monoxide (no mono necessary to indicate the first)
NOT carbon oxide (the mono is necessary to indicate the number of O)
NOT carbon monooxide (often the “o” is dropped before a vowel)
14
Molecular Compounds ‐ Worksheet If the name of the compound is given, write the formula. If the formula is given, write the name.
1. CF4 ________________________________________
2. N2O5 ________________________________________
3. CS2 ________________________________________
4. SO3 ________________________________________
5. P4O8 ________________________________________
6. iodine tribromide ________________________________________
7. chlorine dioxide ________________________________________
8. sulfur hexafluoride ________________________________________
9. difluorine octachloride ________________________________________
10. tribromine nonatelluride ________________________________________
11. H2O ________________________________________
12. P2S4 ________________________________________
13. N2O4 ________________________________________
14. XeF4 ________________________________________
15. SI4 ________________________________________
16. carbon dioxide ________________________________________
17. trinitrogen hexabromide ________________________________________
18. diiodine heptaselenide ________________________________________
19. CO ________________________________________
20. dicarbon octafluoride ________________________________________
21. P4O10 ________________________________________
22. Si3N4 ________________________________________
23. Cl2S7 ________________________________________
24. NBr5 ________________________________________
25. phosphorus trichloride ________________________________________
26. PI3 ________________________________________
27. disulfur trioxide ________________________________________
28. PCl5 ________________________________________
29. diiodine dichloride ________________________________________
30. dinitrogen monoxide ________________________________________
31. I4O9 ________________________________________
32. dihydrogen monoxide ________________________________________
15
Acid Nomenclature If a hydrogen atom, H, (1p+, 1e-, 0no) loses an electron to become a hydrogen ion, H+, what is
left? Only a proton is left. So, sometimes, a proton is written as H+.
Often, an acid is referred to as a “proton donor”. If something is a proton donor, it has an H+ in
the formula to donate to another substance during a chemical reaction.
There are many definitions of acids. For naming purposes, we will only be naming acids that
begin with “H” in the formula.
Acids are said to be “aqueous”. Aqueous means something is dissolved in water. It is written as
(aq), although acids are not always written with the (aq).
binary acid – an acid that contains only two different elements: hydrogen and one of the more
electronegative elements
Example: HCl(aq) – hydrochloric acid
oxyacid – an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen and a third element, usually a nonmetal.
Example: HNO3(aq) – nitric acid
NAMING RULES: Since all the acids we are naming begin with a hydrogen ion, they are
differentiated by the anion in the formula. If the anion is identified, then the acid can be named.
-ide ions
hydro__stem___ic acid
Ex: HCl(aq) Cl- chloride ion
-ite ions
_____ stem _____ous acid
Ex: HClO2(aq) ClO2- chlorite ion
chlorous acid
-ate ions
_____ stem _____ic acid
Ex: HClO3(aq) ClO3- chlorate ion
chloric acid
hydrochloric acid
Sulfur and phosphorus are exceptions. For sulfur you place sulfur in the blank. For phosphorus,
you place phosphor in the blank.
When taking the name and writing the formula, be sure to combine the appropriate amount of H+
with the anion to make a neutral compound.
Example: phosphoric acid
phosphor-ic acid is from the phosph–ate ion, PO43Therefore the formula is H3PO4(aq).
So, if the citrate ion is C6H5O73-, what is the formula for citric acid?
16
More Acids… monoprotic acid diprotic acid triprotic acid polyprotic acid ______________________________________________________________________________
17
Acids ‐ Worksheet If the name of the acid is given, write the formula. If the formula of the acid is given, write the
name.
1. hydrocyanic acid ________________________________________
2. dichromic acid ________________________________________
3. hydrobromic acid ________________________________________
4. nitrous acid ________________________________________
5. sulfuric acid ________________________________________
6. H2SiO3(aq)________________________________________
7. HF(aq) ________________________________________
8. H3PO3(aq) ________________________________________
9. H2CO3(aq) ________________________________________
10. H2S(aq) ________________________________________
11. acetic acid ________________________________________
12. sulfurous acid ________________________________________
13. perchloric acid ________________________________________
14. hydroselenic acid ________________________________________
15. carbonic acid ________________________________________
16. HClO(aq) ________________________________________
17. HClO2(aq) ________________________________________
18. H2C2O4(aq) ________________________________________
19. H3P(aq) ________________________________________
20. HMnO4(aq) ________________________________________
21. hydrochloric acid ________________________________________
22. chromic acid ________________________________________
23. phosphoric acid ________________________________________
24. HCl(g) ________________________________________
18
Chapter Review of All Naming If the name of the substance is given, write the formula. If the formula is given, write the name.
1. cadmium nitrate ______________________________
2. chromate ion ______________________________
3. dinitrogen monoxide ______________________________
4. potassium bromide ______________________________
5. nitrous acid ______________________________
6. HPO42- ______________________________
7. PCl3 ______________________________
8. V2O5 ______________________________
9. HClO4 ______________________________
10. BaSO4 ______________________________
11. sulfur hexafluoride ______________________________
12. cuprous oxide ______________________________
13. sulfuric acid ______________________________
14. hydrogen peroxide ______________________________
15. carbonate ion ______________________________
16. BaO ______________________________
17. HClO2 ______________________________
18. SrSO3 ______________________________
19. Fe ______________________________
20. acetic acid ______________________________
21. CBr4 ______________________________
22. hypochlorite ion ______________________________
23. (NH4)2SO4▪6H2O ______________________________
24. calcium hydroxide ______________________________
25. Na2CO3 ______________________________
26. Cu3P ______________________________
27. HI ______________________________
28. lead(II) acetate ______________________________
19
Polyatomic Ion Practice (Some of these, you did not have to memorize.) NO2-
__________________________________
hydroxide ion _______________
CO32-
__________________________________
hydrogen sulfate ion ___________
B4O72-
__________________________________ hydrogen phosphate ion ________
HSO3-
__________________________________
hydrogen carbonate ion ________
SCN-
__________________________________
chlorate ion
H2PO4-
__________________________________
ammonium ion _______________
C2O42-
__________________________________
perchlorate ion _______________
PO33-
__________________________________
hypochlorite ion ______________
H3O+
__________________________________
nitrate ion
_______________
AsO43-
__________________________________
cyanide ion
_______________
NH4+
__________________________________
sulfate ion
_______________
MnO4-
__________________________________ sulfite ion
_______________
BO33-
__________________________________
PO43-
__________________________________ chlorite ion
_______________
Cr2O72-
__________________________________
acetate ion
_______________
O22-
__________________________________
thiosulfate ion _______________
I3-
__________________________________
cyanate ion
_______________
chromate ion _____________
_______________
20
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