An In-Depth Study Focusing on Psychological Effects of School Stress Amongst Senior High Students Group 5 (11-STEM Descartes) Moso, Josephine Baldove, Myka Maeh Villacote, Perlie Ann Reoma, Yolan Catarig, Mark Raymond Gallano, Renan Jesus CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE INTRODUCTION Psychology is a branch of science that studies of how we people thinks and those psychological effects will purely be related to those kinds of mental disorder like depression, anxiety and etc. It is such a broad topic to be tackled because it is like a big tree, too branchy. And psychologically speaking, stress is the starting point of those mental disorders that may end up to severe imbalances of a human aspect. Stress? People may seem to use it just like an expression or a synonym for being tired but it is not. Stress is a serious topic that anyone should know the basic symptoms from it because it may lead to any psychological illness like a serious one. And that is the main point of this study, to inform the people what are those psychological effects of stress- school stress to be exact to those students who are or not capable of it. And because of the increasing rate of those people committing suicides and the truth that most of them are students, this study aims that those students whose suffering from school stress will be enlightened. Due to stress, the word depression, anxiety, and other mental disorders are diverting each mind to a life-threatening situation. This is the reality, students are more involve into this. Projects, exams, thesis, and many more that must have to be done in a short period of time is the very main reasons why they stressed out their selves plus the lack of having a time management. This is the start of being stressed and those possible psychological effects may come next. Students are still weak and prone for this so they must be aware. As we will go on in this research, different psychological disorders caused by school stress will be deepened that will help the students to be more knowledgeable in this field. This is a very big help because schools will not always adjust for students just like for instance, having a test in three subjects and a project to be passed tomorrow morning, school will never adjust for this so you have to control yourself not to be stressed too much to prevent depression or anxiety or etc. because this is life, you are student so be it. Every student could really experience school stress but the more important is you have to stop there and never go beyond to it. PROBLEM STATEMENT School stress may not really define the broadness of stress as a whole but it could also give massive effects to students that may perhaps turns into psychological matter. People may think that it is just as simple case like a wound or scratch on the knee but it is not, this is not just physical pain but also the mental and emotional aspects. And the real thing about this is what are the possible psychological effects of school stress that will affects the individuality of the students, how the whole thing could destroy the foundation of education and how school stress will lead to any psychological matter. Here are some questions for the research: What makes a student stressed? What are those possible psychological effects of stress to students? How did it affect their performance in school? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study is very significant to students in a way of providing important information to generate their minds in order to prevent deeper effects of being stressed usually to school stresses. Like for instance, students will grasp the truth that being stressed may also lead to any psychological disorders like depression or anxiety. And also they will use this research as a precautionary measure to avoid further circumstances due to school stress. This study will just purely give information of those possible psychological effects due to school stress for the students to have a better outcome. SCOPE, LIMITATION & DELIMITATION The study will delimited to all high school students in Hilongos National Vocational School of Hilongos, Leyte particularly focuses to senior high students of the said school. The study will also cover the different psychological effects due to school stress of the students and how this will affect into them. And due to lack of mechanics or something like time, this study will not be surveyed to all senior high students but only for those who were chosen non- randomly. And because of the lack of coordination between the respondents, the study got only 160 respondents from the expected target which was 200 and also some of them didn’t take it seriously. DEFINITION OF TERMS STRESS Is the state of mental tension and worry caused by problems in your our life. PSYCHOLOGICAL Is anything that relates to our mind; relates on the way a person or group thinks. PRECAUTIONARY It is something that is done to prevent possible harm or trouble from happening in the future. DEPRESSION It is a serious medical condition in which a person feels very sad, hopeless, and unimportant and often is unable to live in a normal way. ANXIETY It is a condition in which a person over think things and a feeling of wanting to do something very much; fear or nervousness about what might happen. CHAPTER 2 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Bressert, S. (2016). The Impact of Stress. Psych Central. Retrieved on March 21, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/lib/the-impact-of-stress/ Being stressed is not just all about freaking out because of having piles of school works but it is about those pressures that have worst impact into us not just physically but also in our mental state. And in this study the different signs of stress was more focused and some of it was having a sleep disturbance like insomnia and sleeping fitfully, clenching your jaw and grinding your teeth, experiencing digestive upsets ,lump in your throat and difficulty in swallowing your food, showing agitated behavior like twiddling your fingers and playing with your hair , also having an increased heart rate, general restlessness, sense of muscle tension in your body, actual muscle twitching, noncardiac chest pains, dizziness, lightheartedness, hyperventilating, sweaty palms, nervousness, stumbling over words, high blood pressure, lack of energy and over fatigue. The signs also of cognitive stress are having mental slowness, having confusion most of the time, experiencing general negative attitudes or thoughts, constant worry, your mind races at times, difficulty in concentrating, being forgetfulness, difficulty thinking in a logical sequence, and the sense that life is overwhelming like always stating that I can’t solve this. And because stress also could affect our emotional state, some of its sign are being irritated, no sense of humor, frustration and apathy. And because of those signs, it could affect our behaviors apparently and the signs for this are having decreased contact with family and friends and decreased sex drive. Stress is never good for our health because it may lead depressions or anxiety or any illnesses like amnesia and multiple personality and obsessive- compulsive disorder or even phobias. So, it is better if you don’t let yourself be too much stressed to avoid this. Iliades, C. (2013). Stress May Trigger Mental Illness and Depression In Teens. Everyday Health Retrieved from https://www.everydayhealth.com/depression/stress-may-triggermental- illness-and- depression-in-teens.aspx Severe depressions in teens are very common nowadays. Adolescent brains are more sensitive to what we called stress hormone cortisol and could feel its effects more quickly. The part of the brain that is responsible for shutting down the stress response, called the prefrontal cortex, is less developed in adolescents, so stress may also be experienced for longer periods. And in this study, it was said that the most common types of mental illness in young adults that may be triggered by stress are schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, severe depression, and substance abuse. And some of the causes are the demands of school or work, bullying, obesity and also having negative thoughts and self-doubt. Stress may lead to depression in teens that may results to more delicate mental illness mostly for those individuals who are more vulnerable when it comes to this. The adolescent brain is more sensitive to stress hormones and can suffer damage from stress that lasts into adulthood and because it develops so rapidly as well as for good habits for coping with stress also can last into adulthood. Depression in Teens. Mental Health America [MHA] retrieved from http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/conditions/depression-teensTeens are more prone to depression. Adolescence is always the time which physical, emotional, psychological and social changes happen. Depression comes next to stress which caused by deep disappointment and then everything will be at mess. Negative thoughts will be the reason of depression. Teens always think that their life really never go to the way they wanted to be. Today, many factors could affect all individuals to be stressed out that may lead to depression just like those technologies, like for instance the media. And teens really need the adult's guidance to understand more all those changes happening to them. Teens must also know how to recognize the symptoms of being depressed and how to treat it in order to avoid life- threatening situations like suicides. And for those people, never ignore the warning signs of depression. 5 Things you should know about Stress. National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH]. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/stress/5thingsshldknowaboutstress-50803132017_142898.pdf We all know that each of us feel the word stress. We can recover it through the help of the 5 things. 1. Stress affects everyone - everyone feels stressed from time to time. Some people cope up stress effectively or recover from stressful event more quickly than others. 2. Not all stress is bad - stress can motivate people to prepare or perform, like they need to take a test or interview for a new job. It can be a life - saving in some situations. 3. Long term stress can harm your health - health problem can occur if the stress response goes on too long. Different people feel stress in different ways. For example, some people experience mainly digestive symptoms, while others may have headaches, sleeplessness, anger or irritability. 4. There are ways to manage stress - recognized the signs of your body, consult to the doctor if immediately, you should exercise every day at least 30 minutes, set goals and priorities. 5. If you are overwhelmed by stress, ask for help from the professional - you should seek right away if you have suicidal thoughts. Khan, M. J. (2013) Effect of Perceived Academic Stress on Students’ Performance. FWU Journal| of Social Sciences, Winter.7 (2), 146-151 retrieved from http://sbbwu.edu.pk/journal/FWU%20Journal%20Vol.7,%20No.2/6.%20EFFECT%20OF%20P ERCIEVED%20ACADEMIC-1.pdf Stress arises when there are burden on the person. Stress is considered to be a part of students life and can affect the impact of the students coping strategies. Academic work is always accomplished with stressful activities. Students commonly experience stress in taking an exam, class ranking competition and high academic. Most of the college students experience strong relationship with stressful life events. The undergraduate students stated that stress was the most common factor among all factors, which have a big impact in their academic performance. Overall adjustment is not easy for students. And can make the students more susceptible. Many of the studies have addressed this issue. Hearon, B. V. (2015) Stress and Coping in High School Students in Accelerated Academic Curricula: Developmental Trends and Relationships with Student Success. University of South Florida [USF] retrieved from http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6693&context=etd Adolescence is a turbulent stage of development characterized by a number of intrapersonal, cognitive, physical and emotional. It is critical to understand the challenges face by the adolescents, as stressful life experience. The environmental stressor is the other reason of the detrimental outcomes, although coping strategies have been categorized. Environmental stressors students most frequently encounter while enrolled in a given grade level. Moreover, the changes of coping strategies, high - achieving students use to manage stressors related to their academic performance. Coping strategies adopted by the youth may change throughout the adolescents. Adolescents successfully cope the stress are meaningful implications to their adaptations. Sarita, S. (2015) Academic Stress among Students: Role and Responsibilities of Parents. International Journal of Applied Research. Retrieved http://www.allresearchjournal.com/archives/2015/vol1issue10/PartF/1-10-3.pdfThis from study shows how stresses are part of our daily existence that behind those achievements of every student is a stress that they must conquer. Stresses are everywhere. It could be social, economic, financial, family or academic stress is a psychological imbalance due to the demands that they wanted to meet. Academic stress is one of the basic factors that could also effects the student academic performance. This is the combination of academic stress that has a big possibility to be a depression. Social support is the most considered way to cope up for this and also the fully understanding of those people that surrounds them. Nicholson, L. (2016) Stressed out: the psychological effects of tests on primary school children. The Conversation retrieved from http://theconversation.com/stressed-outthe-psychological-effects-of-tests-on-primary-school-children- 58913 Pressure defines stress. It is one of those factors why people stress their selves just to meet those expectations. And in this study, those exams and activities could cause pressure to students that may lead to stress. And also those pressures from there parents is the largest source why children feel stressed. Test anxiety is the term used by education researcher to those pressures and stresses felt by the students in every forthcoming exam. And those anxiety could results a negative thoughts like not having a good job if you will failed for this which could make those students pressured and will lead to poor performance because they will have a hardship in processing some ideas. Comfort and guidance is the best way to prevent this and the understanding of the teachers to the social, emotional, and mental health and development of the children. Ossola, A. (2015) High-Stress High School. The Atlantic retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/10/high-stress-high-school/409735/In this study, both merits and demerits of stress in private and public schools were studied and how they differ when it comes to stress. Private school seems well equip and students there could enjoy lots of advantages because they have the access to the most challenging academic classes at reputable institutions. And because they have the access to those opportunities, fortunate students are very fluky but still their luck are paralleled to misfortune because when time happens, during their college days, surely they will be burn out and have difficulties in their studies and they will experience some physical and psychological effects of stress. And as of for stress, students always viewed it as a bad thing but not actually. Base on this study students need a little stress because it will help them to do better and will also help them to give their best shots in school, but when we talks about too much like too much stress, this is not healthy to us anymore because it will surely results to anxiety or depression and worse it will lead to heart problems, exacerbate respiratory and etc., because if our stress hormones will get through to our immune system it would really affect our health. And students described those school works, grades and college admissions constituted their greatest source of stress but not totally because it was really the pressures they felt from their teachers, peers, and parents. And on the other hand, students in public school are also prone to this. This stressor does not just happen for those wealthy students but both upper and lower extremes of socioeconomic ladder. But the difference between private and public school is the physical safety like gangs activity, fights and etc. which usually found in public schools and this one is really a stressor but, in terms of coping stress, hopefully they can figure out some healthy strategies like listening to music and talking with friends though some cannot specially those students having an intense chronic stress. Stress is part of our life cycle and being student all you have to do is to balance your school life- having a little bit stress but still aiming for the best. And also always help in building a school with good environment because it can also be your stress reliever. Strauss, V. (2011) How much does stress affect learning? The Washington Post retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/how-much-does-stress- affect learning/2011/06/08/AGJCtrNH_blog.html?utm_term=.d25a5edd3361In this study, they come up into a thought of having a research, if the classrooms' environment could affect the learning of a student due their basis that the adults' workplaces could affect the employee’s well- being and stress levels. Stress in the classroom's environment could also affect the ability of the students in many ways. First, its ability to interact, he or she will have difficulties in building friendships, dealing with his or her co- classmates, difficulties in expressing feelings, in showing sensitivity or internalizing problems. Then, difficulties in exhibiting his or her learning problems like his or her flexibility, difficulties with attentiveness, take persistence and etc. Lastly is about his or her difficulties of externalizing problems. And because of this, student's academic performance will be at stake. If a certain classroom environment gives a negative effects to students there will be no effective learning. A classroom having a negative condition doesn't gives a good result to students just like having a lack of essential materials resources for learning like textbooks, the students will have a loss of interest and sense of value and importance. Stressed environment could make a student loss its interest of going to school and in this study; they projected how income level could relate to the level of classroom stress. The student who has lower socioeconomic status is more stressed because he or she has more possibilities of encountering poorer classroom environment. However, the data states that their results did not suggest that the stressful classroom conditions had any worse effect on the mental health of low-income children compared to high-income children. Essel, G. and Owusu, P. (2017). Causes of Students’ Stress, Its Effects on their Academic Success, and Stress Management by Students. Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences: Retrieved from https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/124792/Thesis%20Document.pdf?sequence =1Stress is one of that affects the performance and what possible management techniques are suitable especially on students. The word stress brings many thought which can increase the rate of depression, anxiety, and other life threatening issues. As the introductory paragraph states the example, the things which lead the student to be tensed up makes these stressors to even greater level of stress. The research examines the impact of stress on students. It shows or explains the different factors affecting students’ academic performance. The research is grouped into four different factors. However, stress could be managed through stress management courses and enumerate those stressors. The outcome of this research study provides the basis of overcoming and ensuring academic success of students. The data that are used will be primary which will base the study on journals, books, and related thesis as well as questionnaire’s that were administered in a specific area. Sharmila, S. (2015). Psychological Effects of Stress on College Students. Epratrust. Retrieved from http://epratrust.com/articles/upload/20.S.Sharmila.pdf Stress refers to conflict between our environmental and leading emotional and physical pressure. It takes students' to be prone in failure. This study tackles on the pros and cons of stress on college students. There are different causes of stress which are known to be stressors. Stress thus, brings a possession to students to be threatened and triggered to fear and anxiety. The pros and cons could help college students to learn on managing stress and making stress as a part of college life dealing their minds to be strengthened. The study will be an issue to be discussed seriously and if not tackled, there would have a severe change in the minds of the students to adverse effect on society and education. The study focuses to the psychological stress on colleges. It also studies the level of stress on students which affects their psychological thinking. The interventions of these for students are needed and must be repeated but in much larger areas on universities and college officials to manage stress factors for students. Lastly is an orientation to students so that they can cope methods in measuring their level of stress and tension and manage it. Whitman, N. (1985). Student Stress: Effects and Solutions. ERIC Digest. Retrieved from https://www.ericdigests.org/pre-926/stress.htm Every people experience stress but in different intensity and situations. Stress is a situation that evokes negative thoughts and feelings of a person. And in this study, they used one model called person- environmental model and according to it, stressful events can be appraised by an individual as a challenge or a threat. If a student treats the education as challenging then it will make a sense of competence and may increase also the capacity of the student to learn but if he or she saw the education as a treat then the result of it was the total opposite. Stress is necessary to challenge students to learn and the key for the students to think about it in that way is to provide them the feeling of having the control over their education, information about what to expect, and feedback regarding what can be done to improve their performance because students who do not feel helpless will adopt their own coping strategies. New York University (2015). Study examines top high school students' stress and coping mechanisms. Frontiers in Psychology. Retrieved from https://phys.org/news/2015-08-high-schoolstudents-stress-coping.html According in this study, the academic, athletic, and personal challenges have been regarded as domains of good stress for high school, thus, many growing awareness of youth experience with high levels of chronic stresses that may be a disadvantage in succeeding academically. And the data stated that because of increasing chronic stresses to the students, they are concerned that those students will be burn out even before reaching college. They conducted research in both private and public school to come up better results. And the differences about the two are the family of students in private schools pays substantial tuition, but still they suffer from chronic stresses also. Some students are using drugs and marijuana or even drunk their selves just to be relaxed and forget those certain stresses and even the female students are into it. Stress commonly lead to mental health problems such as depression and anxiety and this research come up that schools would have the opportunities to train and engage each family the ways to increase their capacities to serve as the sources for children to know more knowledge about the effects of chronic stress to avoid lifethreatening situations. Leonard, N., Gwadz, M., Ritchie, A., Linick, J., Cleland, C., Elliott,L., and Grethel, M.(2015). A multi-method exploratory study of stress, coping, and substance use among high school youth in private schools. Frontier’s in Psychology. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4511824/ Adolescents are really prone to different normative chronic stressors, including academic and social demands, the nonnormative major life events, such as parental divorce or the death of loved ones. Youths are now more prioritized in terms of research about this stresses. They focused on the major events of youths that could trigger them to be stressed. And for high school students this chronic stress in high school appears to persist into the college years, and may contribute to academic disengagement and mental health problems in the future. Private schools are known to be elite, offers high- quality education and high- caliber teachers. And this study focuses on how private schools cope up to chronic stresses and the substance used among high school students. The pressure of the students in selecting a school for college or universities is one of the factors identified that leads the chronic stress of youth to high rates. Chronic stress based on the data has been cited as the new cultural currency in private schools as well as in public. And this study used the Stress Process Model, a theorical framework that describes the process by which exposure to stressors carries out of the context of individuals' everyday lives. In this model, the social and personal medications and moderator serves as the protection of the increasing risk of deleterious health outcomes of chronic stress. Blair, B. (2008). Stress and the primary school child. Open Learn. Retrieved from http://www.open.edu/openlearn/body-mind/psychology/stress-and-the-primary-schoolchild There is lots of confusion about what stress is. Stress is now a scourge in modern life. Stress is compared to anxiety if they are the same. It is stated that stress differs from anxiety. Why? Stress is defined to an individual who is stocked up with so much works or given short deadline work. However, anxiety is a frequent reaction to stress and even manifestation of thoughts that leads to fear. We all normal human beings are stressed by threatening events like wars and others. Adults can react badly to stress as well as babies or children. It is important to understand this reaction. On the other hand, anxiety arises from thoughts about what might be, not what is. The focus of this article is to cope with the stress of children’s and what effective methods are essential in minimizing children's stresses. Children’s' most important people in their life are their parents and also classmates, teachers, and friends. This means that their parents are the central of their sense of well-being. The best way to prevent a child from getting anxious is to approach their problems calmly and confidently. The thing that a child will be strengthened is to make sure that they see you approach them and turn threats as a challenge so that their minds will be motivated to overcome it. In conclusion, the study suggests making a point of praising a child because it minimizes their anxiety and the child can decide how much effort will be added in their works. Pellissier, H.(2018). Stress and your child’s brain. Great Schools. Retrieved from https://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/how-stress-affects-your-child/ Stress is indeed a scourging problem in our society especially in students and even people with pile of works to do. The article tackles on the scientific basis of what causes stress and what effects it carries to our body and also our brain. It was said that when the hypothalamus releases hormone in the stage of stress, it rushes the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland then mobilizes the production of other hormones. The adrenaline then also accelerates the child's heart rate and elevates blood pressure. It reflects on life-or-death emergency situations that long ago, the psychological response to stress allowed us to escape pal Eolithic beasts making us to prevail against dangers brought by the environment. Stress then is carrying a great impact on our psychological thinking. In a 2006 study, the researchers at Arizona State University noted that stress weakens the dendrites and decreases dendrites length and branch numbers. Dendrites provides the pathway of which new learning takes place, and if the hippocampus is having some malfunctions, it leads to learning impairment and leads to be prone on stress and psychological problems. At this point, experts say that the best way to prevent and combat stress is exercise. It is because during exercise neurons' creation is increased and is reliable in survival and resistance to stress. Psychologists also agreed that maintaining physical activity helps to promote stress-resistant and stress reliance. Neighmond, P. (2013). School Stress Takes A Toll On Health, Teens And Parents Say. Shots. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/health- shots/2013/12/02/246599742/school-stress-takes-a-toll-on- health-teens- and-parents- say It is been said that academic stress has been a part of students life on junior, senior and college students. Some thinks that parents are the one that causes their stress. It is because by their recommendations that a student must work harder because he/she is a smart one and in college stage, they must have to work even harder. It is like they feel disappointment from their parents. Parents are right to be worried about stress and their children's health. A psychologist says that a little stress is a good thing but too much can backfire. This article also tackles on numbers of parents and students experiencing stress. It was said that 40% of parents states that their high school life has lots of stressors and home works was their leading cause of their stress. Teenagers said that they were also suffering and parents can help put the child's distress by knowing their problem and making it a topic and do something to overcome the problem. Psychologist says that a balance life should be a goal of families so that parents can help their problems dissolve and deciding what's important to do and what is optional. It is then concluded in this article that time management is also a great way to reduce stress on students and parents who experience the level of stress. The study is somewhat like a qualitative one because its content is like collecting data’s or answers on teens and parents and having some interventions on students. Beilock, S.( 2011). Back to school: Dealing with academic stress. Psychological Science Agenda. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/science/about/psa/2011/09/academic- stress.aspx Simple psychological interventions can help reduce and improve academic performance. It is better to first understand why students sometimes performed their ability in a weak process. The cause of stress in this study focuses or tackles on subjects which cause the students to have academic stresses. It has been said that if the ability to maintain task-relevant is disrupted, the performance may possibly weakened. The study is dealing with the low and high working-memory individuals. The individuals that are having a low working-memory have limited capacity leading to have the problem in computations to begin with. However, high working-memory individuals are more prone to disruptions when the stakes are high. The study then concludes that understanding the mechanisms by which academic situations impact performance allows us to design quickly and with an ease to use interventions to help students in the classroom. Recent works suggests that writing helps boost math performance especially on those STEM (science, technology, engineering & mathematics) students. Math anxiety is then characterized by feelings of tension or fear about performing a task which is similar to other stressful situations. High-math anxious individuals perform poorly in math due. Learning habits to combat stress can bring benefits beyond the area or a campus. People think that large problem also requires large solutions. The study states that the solution and the truth are with simple psychological intervention can have powerful importance and use. Emmanuel, A., Adom, A. E. and Solomon, F. K. (2014). PERCEIVED STRESS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN WESTERN REGION, GHANA. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 2(11) pp 88-101. Retrieved from http://ejbss.com/Data/Sites/1/vol2no11feb2014/ejbss-1342-14 perceivedstressandacademicperformance.pdf Stress has been found to be a major contributing factor especially in academic performances in schools. This study finds out the relation between the senior high students' stresses and academic performances. The academic performance of Ghana becomes a great concern to stakeholders of education. The findings of the study provide the essential information for students to cope effectively with stress and identifying their strengths and weaknesses to achieve academic excellence. The research is a descriptive study which organizes and summarizes data in order to communicate and provide important data’s. The discussion of the research reveals that the females were moderately stressed compared to males. The research concludes that male students performed better than female students. The research was conducted among senior high students because of their perception in knowing the various kinds of academic stresses. The researcher of the study provides the questionnaires as their instrument of the study. The research also provides the insights for stakeholders in education to provide the necessary structures to manage stress of students and improve academic performances. Chapter 3: Methodology RESEARCH DESIGN This is a survey research type particularly belong in qualitative research in which its goal is to have an in depth study about the stresses of students. And this research will take up one month or two in order to achieve its goal and to finish this study. RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT As this research go along its goal, Hilongos National Vocational School of Hilongos, Leyte in Central Brgy., R.V. Fulache Street was chosen to be the school where this research will be conducted particularly at senior high school of HNVS. RESEARCH PARTICIPANT Choosing HNVS means that their students will be the prime respondents of this survey research. And this study only focuses to their senior high school students who suffer stress in any gender, age and nationality as long as they are students from HNVS in senior high school. This research study has a maximum of 200 participants or respondents. SAMPLING METHODS This research will choose the respondents non- randomly so basically its sampling method is purposive under the category of non- random. DATA GATHERING In gathering data or information from the respondents, this research study choose to have a survey type in which a questionnaire is given to a senior high student with his or her will to let their answers be generalized which is needed in the process. METHOD OF ANALYSIS In the process of analyzing the gathered data, this will be generalized by interpreting it and using words for it to be categorized as a one data in order to pin out its essence. Chapter 4 Presentation, Analysis, Interpretation In this chapter, the data gathered from the 160 respondents will be presented answering the aim of this research study which is to know about the psychological effects of school stress to senior high school students. Studying the data collected from the surveyed answers of the senior high school students of HNVS, it will be analyzed and interpreted in order to be generalized. RQ1. Knowing the causes of stress suffered by students Figure1. Student’s Definition of Stress DEFINITIONS A physical, emotional, social, FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 28 18% Caused by problems 23 23% Psychological disorder 48 30% Physically, emotionally, and 21 13% It affects everything 7 4% It is an act of being tired, 33 21% and mental tension mentally imbalance distracted, and burden to school works It shows that most of the students or 30% of the students say that stress is a kind of psychological order that a person is suffering for while only 4% define stress as an affecter in everyday life and the rest is shown in the table above. According to the article entitled “5 Things We Should Know About Stress” stating an information that stress could affects everything, just like in this research study, some students define it also that way so looking closely at this similarities this could be interpreted that people tend to think that stress is really an affecter of one’s everyday life. And also, another article (Academic Stress) stated that stress is a psychological disorder or an imbalance of mental state due to its trait of wanting to meet everyone’s demand which could fall to pressure. And this research study could say that the way this students define stress mostly came from their logical thinking and experiences rather than searching its meaning in the internet. Figure2. Causes of the Stress of Students CAUSES OF STRESS SCHOOL WORKS FAMILY PROBLEMS EVERYDAY WORKS OTHERS Others 10% EVERYDAY WORKS 16% Family Problems 36% School Works 86% In the pie graph above, it shows the different factors or top most causes of stress that could affect a student and basically 86% of the respondents say that school works is the major cause of stress because of the fact that they are still studying. And to generate the responses of the 10% students, those causes under the category of ‘others’ also experienced being stress due to peer pressure, love life, social life and also financially. Causes of stress of a student is very important in having an in depth study in order for a researcher to conclude a data and this causes plays an important role because it identifies what kind of stress is a person suffering for. According to a research “Psychological Effects of Stress on College Students” it was stated that stress refers to the conflicts between the environment and leading emotional and physical pressure. Those causes of stress are called stressors. So definitely as a students, they are more prone to stressors because of being emotionally and mentally weak. Stressors of the students of course will always be connected in their studies, family, friends and their chores in life. Figure3. In Connections to School Works, Subjects that Pushes Students to Be Stressed Out SUBJECTS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE English 20 13% Math 30 19% Basic Calculus 31 19% Practical Research 38 24% Gen. Biology 6 4% Physics 11 7% Chemistry 4 3% Science 2 1% PE 4 3% Contemporary Arts 4 3% Entrepreneurship 1 1% MLI 1 1% DRRR 1 1% Major Subjects 9 6% All 6 4% In particular to school works, most of the students or 24% concluded that practical research is more stressful compared to other subjects their taking up as shown in the table above. Subjects are the primary colors in learning because it gives us a definite learning in a certain field. Every subject always demands skills and intelligence which may bring out a student to be more pressured in school and lead to stresses. In a certain study because of school works a student was suffering to a test anxiety and depressed in meeting the demands of each subjects so basically this subjects also is a factor that have to be consider in the category of ‘school works’ that make a student stressed out. RQ2. The possible psychological effects of school stress to senior high school students. Figure1. The Possible Chances of School Stress Resulting to Psychological Effects Does stress could result to a psychological disorder? 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% YES NO Mostly of the students say that stress could really result to a psychological disorder which means that there is a high possibilities because the survey resulted to 80% while only 20% says that it didn’t result to a psychological order. However because of the said percent and the frequency as shown in the table, it was analyze then that stress could result to a psychological disorder. In particular to this study, a research entitled “Stress May Triggered Mental Illnesses and Depression In teens” was been conducted in which it concluded that stress could lead to mental illnesses especially to depression. And this research study could be connected into it because as we generalized each data from our respondents they also conclude that there is a high chances that even teens’ stress still has the possibilities of resulting it to depression and anxiety or worst into death. In that study they said that even stress could lead to amnesia, bipolar disorder, severe depression and schizophrenia caused by the stress from bullying, demands of school and work, self- doubt and etc. Figure2. The Results of School Stress in terms of Emotional and Mental Aspects to Senior High Students RESULTS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Panic Attack 38 24% Having nervous behavior 79 49% Over Reaction 50 31% Too much fear 43 27% Suicidal thoughts 29 18% Loss of interest 109 68% Low Mood 123 77% Pain without cause 45 20% As shown in the table above 77% claimed to have a low mood in school because of stress, 68% of the student says that stress can affect them in a way that it can loss their interest in studying or even listening to the discussion of the teachers and also in doing school activities, 49% for those students experiencing nervous behavior in going to school and doing school activities, 31% for students who over react, 27% for experiencing too much fear, 24% whose having a panic attack, 20% for those who suffer from pain without any clear cause and lastly 18% for those students having suicidal thoughts. According to a research study “Impacts of Stress”, stress may results to a certain imbalances in all aspects like having a sleep disturbance, insomnia, digestive upset, lump in their throat or having difficulty in swallowing foods, showing agitated behaviors, chest pain, hyperventilating, over fatigue , mental slowness, difficulty in thinking logically, being irritated, frustrated, and no sense of humor. And in accordance into it, this study only provides the most commonly effects that a student could suffer from school stress but this effects also is the symptoms shown from having a depression and anxiety if they experienced this all at one time. RQ3. In this case, the effects of school stress to a student performance in school will be analyzed. Figure1. The Effects of School Stress to Senior High School Students in their Performances in School EFFECTS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Low Grades 26 16% Loss of interest in school/ 94 59% 6 4% Causes overthinking 6 4% Poor performances in school 13 8% Losing self- confidence 7 4% Always late 2 1% unfocused Being tired in doing school activities 59% of the students say that stress can affect their academic performance because they become unfocused during class, 16% as a result of having low grades, 8% for having a poor performance, 4% as a result of losing self-confidence, being tired in doing school activities and it also causes over thinking. Lastly, it makes a student come to school late. According to a research “High- Stress High School” , a student will view the stress in a positive way if he or she will look the education as a challenge but if he or she will see it as a threat then its outcome will be negative effects and worst if it can be controlled those effects will lead to drop out. And in connection in our study research, those effects might be the outcome of those students who did not totally viewing education as challenge but of course stress is stress so it will always be part of daily life. CHAPTER 5 Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation SUMMARY Our research study is all about “An In-depth Study Focusing on psychological effects of school stress amongst senior high students”. Our study aimed to know the possible psychological effects of school stress on senior high students and how it this caused in a student’s life especially in in their performances in school. This research takes an in depth study using a survey type in order to gathered data of the respondents and generalized it to get the main purpose and essence of this research. Stress seems so broad thus, this research study only focuses on school stresses which might happen to be a depression, anxiety or even more severe psychological disorder. In this research, it was answered specifically that school stress may really resulted in psychological disorder talking about the causes of it and how it will affect a students’ performance. This research study collected its data through surveying the 160 students in senior high school at Hilongos National Vocational School Hilongos, Leyte, choosing them non- randomly and analyzed it through interpreting and using categorized word for them to be generalized. And as a result of the gathered data, we researcher answered the main objective of this study which is to determine if school stress caused by school works could affect students’ performance and if it will resulted to psychological disorder. CONCLUSION Psychologically speaking, some of the studies had also concluded that stresses were really possible of resulting into a severe psychologically disorder. And this research study, had conducted survey in order to conclude that school stress could result to psychological disorder like depression and anxiety. This research study concluded that school stress has the capability of resulting to a psychological disorder/ imbalances. As the process of generalizing the gathered data terminated, it concludes that if the school stress can't be controlled then it has its own level before resulting to a severe psychological disorder. As this research study done a survey, it was answered by the respondents and majority of the students concluded that it will really result to a psychological disorder and also based on their answers they acknowledge themselves that because of too much stress they tried committing suicides which is the basic symptoms of experiencing depressions and also some of the respondents said they was having panic attack and being anxious. . RECOMMENDATION As this research study completed, we researchers recommend to the other researcher to study this topic more deeply because it is very important and helpful to the readers. We expect this study to be more precise and informative as it will be studied by the next researchers. We recommend to the teachers to exert more efforts in teaching this kind of topic for the students to be knowledgeable enough in this so they would be aware and could think for a possible solution. For the school, we recommend them to take some actions in terms of this topic and be more active in order to help students prevented into this. For the students they must be active in preventing this and they must have knowledge in taking actions when they are still out or in the process of experiencing stress for them to avoid having severe psychological disorders. We recommend to the parents to let their children avoid into this necessarily and also they must guide their children in any kind of circumstances.