methdology kurma

5.1 Ingredients for pizza dough :
Main ingredients which used in making pizza such as sugar,salts,olive oil,yeast,xanthan gum,
all-purpose flour and ingredient for the flour replacement which is dates are purchase from
market.Around 100 dates are purchase from the market.
5.2 Pizza dough preparation:
The measurement of ingredients for the pizza are shown in table 1.Firstly,ferment the yeast
by hydrate the yeast in warm water for 12 minutes.Sugar and salt are mixed together with
yeast.All the formulation of ingredients based on the Table 1 are mix together in a mixer for
about 12-17 minutes to make the dough.After mix,the dough is set aside for 2 hours for the
fermentation process.While the dough is set aside,the dough is cover with plastic cover to
prevent the loss of moisture to the environment.Preheat the oven to 450 ˚F.The dough is
divide into two and roll with roller for each pieces into 15-inch round.The dough is bake in
oven for 15 minutes.
5.3 Dates flour preparations :
Separate the seed from the flesh of dates.Wash the seeds to to clean up the dirt around the
seeds.Soak the seeds with natrium bisulfite for one day.The seeds are soak with natrium
bisulfite because to prevent the browning effect during heating process.Boiling the seeds in
water with temperature of 194 ˚F for 12 minutes to soften the outer surface of the seeds.Drain
the warm water and dry the seeds in oven for one day at 140 ˚F.After drying,grinding the
seeds by machine.Lastly,the seeds flour are sieve to get fine texture of flour.For the flesh of
dates,the flesh are blend than mix with the seeds’ flour.
Table 1 : Formulation for pizza with different type of flours
All – purpose flour (g)
Dates flour (g)
Yeast (g)
Xanthan gum (g)
Salt (g)
Sugar (g)
Sugar (g)
Olive oil (mL)
Water (mL)
Formulation 1
Formulation 2
Formulation 1 : Pizza dough from all-purpose flour
Formulation 2 : Pizza dough from dates flour
5.3 Physical analysis of cake :
5.3.1 Colour of the pizza dough after bake :
The color of the pizza dough is quantify from the midsection of the crust and crumbs by
color-measuring spectrophotometer.The total color difference (AE) compared to the control
was calculated. The results of the L(lightness), a(redess), b(yellowness) and AE were
averaged from triplicate measurement.
5.3.4 Texture profile analysis (TPA) :
The pizza dough is cut to 50 mm of diameter and 5 mm of height. Care was taken to make
sure that each slice was even and consistent. This was done to make sure a consistent
representation of the product was presented to the texture system each time.Texture of pizza
dough is measure using a texture analyzer (Model Brookfield CT3 Texture Analyzer). A
crosshead speed of 1.3mm s -1 was used to compress the central area of pizza base samples to
35% of their original height. The sample is compress twice and the waiting time is 8 seconds
before starting the second compression.The sample is compress twice to get two-bite texture
profile curve.The parameters obtained from the curves were firmness (N), springiness,
resilience, gumminess (N) and chewiness (N).
5.4 Chemical analysis of cakes :
Proximate analysis of pizza dough such as crude fiber,ash,crude protein,moisture and crude
fiber are determined on dry matter basis based on the standard method of [36].
5.5 Sensory Evaluation :
A group of expert panellists (30 panels – 15 females and 15 males) are select to assess the
acceptability of the sample cakes.Sensory evaluation of the sample pizza dough are evaluate
for the sensory characteristics such as colour,texture,appearance and overall acceptability
with the use of affective test which is nine-point hedonic scales.This sensory evaluation is
done in the sensory lab.The pizza dough is prepare with the addition of slices of sausages and
tomato ketchup as the topping.The pizza samples are code with three digit codes and serve to
the individual panellist.
5.6 Statistical analysis :
To evaluate the effect of replacing flour with dates flour on the properties of the pizza dough
for two formulations (100% all-purpose flour and 100% dates flour), analysis of variance
(ANOVA) with a completely randomized design (CRD) at 5% significance level are use with
three replications using software MSTAT-C.
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