01-02-2018 AUT-50

1. Early History
a. Some were Steam/Electric
b. Open Body
c. 1930-1960 Had little CHange
d. 1960 Improved Safety and Pollution Control
2. Gas Made of HydroCarbons
3. 1967
Federal motor vehicle safety standard
4. 1970
a. OPEC Oil embargo create fuel shortages
Drives the advancement of smaller, more efficient cars
b. Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standard Set 1975
c. Leaded fuel phased out
d. Catalytic converters introduced
5. 1980
a. Mechanical systems begin intertwining with electronics
b. 1st use of electronic engine controls
c. ABS Introduced
d. Passive restraint systems and airbags installed
e. Fuel injection replacing carburetor
6. 1990
a. Fuel injection standard on all engines
b. Increasing use of electronics and computers
c. Passive restraints and ABS standard equipment on new cars
d. First hybrids appear
7. 2000
a. Electronics and computer systems manage most on board vehicle functions
b. GPS navigation, adaptive cruise control, and dynamic vehicle control systems
standard equipment
c. Hybrids available from several manufacturers
8. Basic Engine
a. Gas engines most common
b. Use spark ignition system
c. Combined with electric in hybrid
d. Diesel engines most common in heavy duty applications
e. Uses compression pressure for ignition
f. Newer diesels much cleaner and quieter
9. Cylinder Block
a. Made from cast iron or aluminum
b. Contains the crankshaft, pistons, and connecting rods
c. Forms lower half of engine
10. Cylinder Head
a. Mounts on top of engine
b. Made of cast iron or aluminum
c. Contains camshaft and valves
d. Has intakes and exhaust manifolds attached
11. Engine Systems
a. Lubrication systems
b. Cooling
c. Fuel and air
d. Emission control
e. Exhaust
f. Ignition
g. Starting and Charging
h. Electronic engine control
i. On-board diagnostics
12. Lubrication System
a. Supplies clean oil to various parts of the engine
b. Removes heat from combustion
c. Removes combustion by products
d. Filters oil
13. Cooling System
a. Remove heat from combustion
b. Maintain proper engine operating temperature
c. Supplies heat for passenger compartment
14. Fuel and Air intake Systems
a. Fuel system stores and supplies fuel to the engine
b. Contains fuel tank, pump, and filter
c. Fuel is injected into engine by fuel injectors
d. Air intake system supplies filtered air to the engine
e. Air is drawn into the cylinder and mixed with fuel for combustion
15. Read Vapor point
a. Expansion and contraction of gas between hot and cold
16. Ignition Systems
a. Must ignite air and fuel mix at precisely the correct time
b. Boosts battery voltage to 20k-40 volts
c. Changes spark timing based on engine load, speed, and other factors
17. Starting and charging systems
a. Electric motor converts stored energy into motion
b. Generator converts movement into electrical energy
c. Starter motors and generators can be conventional 12V or part of hybrid
motor/generator assembly
18. Heating System
a. Uses coolant heated by the engine to warm the passenger compartments
b. Thermostat maintains minimum system temperature
19. AC System
a. Removes heat and moisture from the passenger compartment
b. The AC Compressor can be belt driven or electric on a hybrid vehicle
20. Hybrid Electric Vehicles
a. HEV’s use one or more electric motors and an internal combustion engine (ICE)
to propel the vehicle
b. HEV’s recapture braking energy to recharge the high voltage batteries
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