L5 CS471 video CH05

Fundamental Concepts in Video
Prof. Dr. Alaa E. A. Ahmed
Fundamental Concepts in Video
• We consider the following aspects of video
and how they impact multimedia applications:
– Types of video signals.
– Analog video.
– Digital video.
5.1 Types of Video Signals
 Video signals can be organized in 3 different ways:
 Component video,
 Composite video,
 S-video.
Component Video
• Three separate cables carry the RGB (Analog)
• Best form of analog video
• RCA Cable
Component video: Higher-end video systems make use of three
separate video signals for the red, green, and blue image
planes. Each color channel is sent as a separate video signal.
a) Most computer systems use Component Video,
with separate signals for R, G, and B signals.
b) For any color separation scheme, Component Video gives the
best color reproduction since there is no "crosstalk" between
the three channels.
Component video, however, requires more bandwidth and good
synchronization of the three components.
Composite Video — 1 Signal
Composite video: color ("chrominance") and intensity ("luminance") signals
are mixed into a single carrier wave.
a) Chrominance is a composition of two color components (I and Q, or U and V).
(I (in-phase) and Q (quadrature) signals into a single chroma signal C)
b) In NTSC TV, e.g., I and Q are combined into a chroma signal, and a color
subcarrier is then employed to put the chroma signal at the high-frequency
end of the signal shared with the luminance signal.
c) The chrominance and luminance components can be separated at the receiver
end and then the two color components can be further recovered.
d) When connecting to TVs or VCRs, Composite Video uses only one wire and
video color signals are mixed, not sent separately.
• The audio and sync signals are additions to this one signal. • Since color and
intensity are wrapped into the same signal, some interference between the
luminance and chrominance signals is inevitable.
Composite Video
Sometimes Called Color Under
Signals Are Combined (Encoded)
Other Equipment Must Decode It
• Each Piece of Video Equipment Used (i.e. VCRs) Must Decode
and Re-Encode the signal Each Time Television Sets Must
Decode the Signal This Process of Constantly Decoding and
Encoding Results in Signal Degradation Developed to
Squeeze Color Information into the Same Broadcast
Bandwidth Used for Black and White TV
S-Video — 2 Signals
• S-Video: as a compromise, (Separated video, or Super-video, e.g., in
S-VHS) uses two wires, one for luminance and another for a
composite chrominance signal.
• As a result, there is less crosstalk between the color information and
the crucial gray-scale information.
• The reason for placing luminance into its own part of the signal is
that black-and-white information is most crucial for visual
– In fact, humans are able to differentiate spatial resolution in grayscale images with a much higher gray acuity than for the color part
of color images.
– As a result, we can send less accurate color information than must
be sent for intensity (Luminance) information — we can only see
fairly large blobs of color, so it makes sense to send less color
• S-Video
– One wire for luminance
– One wire for both chroma component
Pin 1 GN D Ground (Y)
Pin 2 GN D Ground (C)
Pin 3
Y Intensity (Luminance)
Pin 4
C Color ( Chroma)
5.2 Analog Video
An analog signal f(t) samples a time-varying image.
So-called "progressive" scanning traces through a complete picture (a frame)
row-wise for each time interval.
• In TV, and in some monitors and multimedia standards as well, another
system, called "interlaced" scanning is used:
a) The odd-numbered lines are traced first, and then the even-number lines are
traced. This results in "odd" and "even" fields — two fields make up one
b) b) In fact, the odd lines (starting from 1) end up at the middle of a line at the
end of the odd field, and the even scan starts at a half-way point.
c) Figure 5.1 shows the scheme used. First the solid (odd) lines are traced, P to Q,
then R to S, etc., ending at T; then the even field starts at U and ends at V.
d) The jump from Q to R, etc. in Figure 5.1 is called the horizontal retrace, during
which the electronic beam in the CRT is blanked. The jump from T to U or V to
P is called the vertical retrace.
Interlaced raster scan
Analog video
• Because of interlacing, the odd and even lines are displaced in
time from each other — generally not noticeable except when
very fast action is taking place on screen, when blurring may
• For example, in the video in Fig. 5.2, the moving helicopter is
blurred more than is the still background.
Analog video
Since it is sometimes necessary to change the frame rate, resize, or even produce
stills from an interlaced source video, various schemes are used to "deinterlace" it.
a) The simplest de-interlacing method consists of discarding one field and
duplicating the scan lines of the other field. The information in one field is lost
completely using this simple technique.
b) Other more complicated methods that retain information from both fields are
also possible.
• Analog video use a small voltage offset from zero to indicate "black", and
another value such as zero to indicate the start of a line. For example, we
could use a "blacker-than-black" zero signal to indicate the beginning of a line.
Analog video
• Interlaced Raster Scan
– Way to increase refresh frequencies by alternating odd and even scan lines
in separate refresh
– NTSC has a notion of blacker than black signal that triggers a beginning of
– 525 scan lines at 29.97 frames per second
– VHS: 240 samples per line, S-VHS: 400-425, Hi-8: 425, miniDV: 480x720)
– PAL and SECAM: 625 scan lines, 25 frames per second
5.2.1 NTSC Video
• NTSC (National Television System Committee)
TV standard is mostly used in North America and Japan. It uses the familiar
4:3 aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of picture width to its height) and uses 525
scan lines per frame at 30 frames per second (fps).
a) NTSC follows the interlaced scanning system, and each frame is divided
into two fields, with 262.5 lines/field.
b) Thus the horizontal sweep frequency is 525×29.97 ≈ 15, 734 lines/sec, so
that each line is swept out in 1/15.734 × 103 sec ≈ 63.6μsec.
c) Since the horizontal retrace takes 10.9μsec, this leaves 52.7μsec for the
active line signal during which image data is displayed (see Fig.5.3).
Color Model and Modulation of NTSC
• NTSC uses the YIQ color model, and the technique of quadrature
modulation is employed to combine (the pectrally overlapped part of) I
(in-phase) and Q (quadrature) signals into a single chroma signal C.
5.2.2 PAL Video
• PAL (Phase Alternating Line) is a TV standard widely used in Western Europe, China,
India, and many other parts of the world.
• PAL uses 625 scan lines per frame, at 25 frames/second, with a 4:3 aspect ratio and
interlaced fields.
a) PAL uses the YUV color model. It uses an 8 MHz channel and allocates a bandwidth
of 5.5 MHz to Y, and 1.8 MHz each to U and V. The color subcarrier frequency is
fsc ≈ 4.43 MHz.
b) In order to improve picture quality, chroma signals have alternate signs
(e.g., +U and -U) in successive scan lines, hence the name "Phase Alternating Line".
c) This facilitates the use of a (line rate) comb filter at the receiver — the signals in
consecutive lines are averaged so as to cancel the chroma signals (that always carry
opposite signs) for separating Y and C and obtaining high quality Y signals.
PAL Phase Alternate Line) is a TV standard originally invented by German Scientists.
It uses 625 scan lines per frame, at 25 frames per second, with 4:3 aspect ratio and
interlaced fields. Its broadcast TV signals are also used in composite video.
It is used in Western Europe, China, India and many other parts of the world. It uses
YUV color model with an 8 MHz channel
5.2.3 SECAM Video
 The third major broadcast TV standard which was invented by the French.
• SECAM stands for Syst`eme Electronique Couleur Avec M´emoire, the third
major broadcast TV standard.
• SECAM also uses 625 scan lines per frame, at 25 frames per second, with a 4:3
aspect ratio and interlaced fields.
• SECAM and PAL are very similar. They differ slightly in their color coding scheme:
a) In SECAM, U and V signals are modulated using separate color subcarriers at
4.25 MHz and 4.41 MHz respectively.
b) They are sent in alternate lines, i.e., only one of the U or V signals will be sent
on each scan line.
Major analog broadcast TV systems
• Table 5.2 Comparison of analog broadcast TV systems:
Bandwidth allocation (MHz)
TV system
of scan
I or U
Q or V
5.3 Digital Video
• The advantages of digital representation for video are many.
For example:
a) Video can be stored on digital devices or in memory, ready to be
processed (noise removal, cut and paste, etc.), and integrated to
various multimedia applications;
b) Direct access is possible, which makes nonlinear video editing
achievable as a simple, rather than a complex, task;
c) Repeated recording does not degrade image quality;
d) Ease of encryption and better tolerance to channel noise.
Digital connections
– Example display modes (single link):
• HDTV (1920 × 1080) @ 60 Hz
• UXGA (1600 × 1200) @ 60 Hz
• WUXGA (1920 × 1200) @ 60 Hz
• SXGA (1280 × 1024) @ 85 Hz
– Example display modes (dual link):
• QXGA (2048 × 1536) @ 75 Hz
• HDTV (1920 × 1080) @ 85 Hz
• WQXGA (2560 × 1600) pixels (30" LCD)
• WQUXGA (3840 × 2400) @ 41 Hz
5.3.1 Chroma Subsampling
 Humans see colors with much less spatial resolution than
black and white, it makes sense to decimate the
chrominance signal.
 To begin with, numbers are given stating how many pixel
values, per four original pixels, are actually sent.
 Thus the chroma subsampling scheme “4:4:4” indicates
that no no chroma subsampling is used. Each pixel’s Y, Cb,
and Cr values are transmitted, four for each of Y, Cb, and Cr.
 See figure 5.6 page 121 in the text.
Chroma subsampling
• 4:4:4, 4 pixels of Y, Cb and Cr each
• 4:2:2 : Cb and Cr are half
– NTSC uses this subsampling
• 4:1:1 : Cb and Cr are factor of four
– DV uses this subsampling
• 4:2:0 : Cb and Cr are subsampled, effectively
– Used in JPEG, MPEG and HDV
5.3.2 CCIR Standards for Digital Video
• The CCIR is the Consultative Committee for International Radio. It has produced CCIR-601 (ITU-R601), for component digital video.
• The NTSC version has 525 scan lines, each having
858 pixels. Because the NTSC version uses 4:2:2
each pixel can be represented with two bytes (8 bits
for Y and 8 bits alternating between Cb and Cr).
data rates = 216 Mbps.
• During blanking, digital video systems may make
use of the extra data capacity to carry audio signals,
translation into foreign languages, or errorcorrection information.
Digital Video Specifications
• Table 5.3 digital video specifications:
CCIR 601
CCIR 601
Luminance resolution
720 x 480
720 x 576
352 x 288
176 x 144
Chrominance resolution
360 x 480
360 x 576
176 x 144
88 x 72
Aspect ratio
Color subsampling
• CIF = Common Intermediate Format. It used
progressive (non interlaced) scan.
5.3.3 High Definition TV (HDTV)
 Wide-screen movies – viewers enjoyed the level of
 HDTV is not to increase the “definition“ in each unit area,
but rather to increase the visual field (width).
 NHK HDTV has 1,125 scan lines, interlaced(60 fields per
second), and a 16:9 aspect ratio.
 In general, terrestrial broadcast, satellite broadcast, cable,
and broadband networks are all feasible means for
transmitting HDTV as well as convention-al TV.
 Since uncompressed HDTV will easily demand more than
20 MHz bandwidth, which will not fit in the current 6-8
MHz channels, various compression techniques are being
High Definition TV
• First generation analog: 1125 scan lines
• US style:
– MPEG 2 video, Dolby AC-3 audio
– 1920x1080i - NBC, CBS ..
– 1280x720p - ABC, ESPN
– 1920x1080p - Xbox 360, PSP3
• 1920x1080p24 - cinematic
– Many TVs only display 1024x768 pixels, look at specs
• HDV uses rectangular pixels: 1440x1080
– High definition Multimedia Interface
• uncompressed, all-digital audio/video interface
• High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) DRM
• Without HDCP HD-DVD & Bluray can restrict quality to DVD
• Supports 30-bit, 36-bit, and 48-bit (RGB or YCbCr)
• Supports output of Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio
streams for external decoding by AV receivers
Advanced Digital TV Formats
• Table 5.4 Advanced Digital TV Formats Supported by
ATSC ( Advanced Television Systems Committee):
Number of active
pixels per line
Number of active
Aspect ratio
Picture rate
60I 30P 24P
60P 30P 24P
16:9 and 4:3
60I 60P 30P 24P
60I 60P 30P 24P
In the table 5.4,”I” means interlaced scan, “P”
means progressive ( non interlaced) scan.
For video, MPEG-2 is chosen as the compression
The salient difference between conventional TV and
HDTV is that the latter has much wider aspect ratio
of 16:9 instead of 3:4. Another feature of HDTV is
its move toward progressive (non interlaced) scan.
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