Psychological Testing

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Psychological Testing
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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Definition of Terms
a) Assessment: the process of gathering
information
b) Measurement: the process of assigning
numbers
c) Evaluation: the process of determining worth of
sth based on numbers (Evn=Qnt+Qlt)
d) Testing: quantifying behavior by using a test
(items, questions that make up a test)
o Test: a tool used to quantify behavior (e.g.
personality, spelling, ability, and interest test)
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What is Psychological Testing?
• Psychological test: contains a set of items
designed to measure characteristics of human
behavior
– Overt behavior: observable action
– Covert behavior: takes place inside a person
(cannot be directly measured)
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Psychological Testing vs Assessment
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Psychological Assessment
• A general approach that utilizes various
sources of data (portfolio, interviews,
observations, etc in addition to a test) to make
decisions
• Combines both qualitative (subjective )and
quantitative (objective) approach
• Individualized, unlike psychological testing
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 Collaborative assessment: the assesor and
assessee work as partners (e.g. therapy)
 Dynamic assessment: an interactive
approach that follows a model of evaluation,
intervention, and evaluation
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Tools of psychological assessment
• Test
• Psychometrics: the science of psychological
measurement
• Portfolio
• Case history data
• Observation
• Role play
• Technology (EEG, etc)
• Interviews (panel)
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Psychological testing
• The use of psychological and educational tests
to measure individual differences (personality,
achievement, etc)
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Traits and States
Tests often try to measure traits and states
Traits: enduring predispositions
States: specific status of a person (e.g. mood,
situations)
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Function of Psychological Testing
• Decision making: psychological tests cab be
used determining promotion,
• Placement: place students and workers to
different categories (based on tests scores)
• Administrative function:
• Diagnosis: identifying psychological problems,
learning difficulties, etc.
• Research: using psychological tests for
research purpose
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Psychological Testing is Applied in
different Settings
 Educational. Tests are used to identify special
children, to test achievement, and to diagnose
students’ area of deficiency.
 Clinical. Hospitals and clinics use tests to screen
behavioral disorders, and to test effectiveness of
interventions.
 Legal. The legal setting utilizes results from clinics,
psychologists in determining CTT, etc.
 Industrial setting. Industries and organizations
heavily rely on tests to measure job motivation,
competence, and commitment.
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Assumptions in Psychometrics
1. Psychological attributes exist
2. Psychological attributes can be measurable
and quantifiable
3. The same attribute may be measured in
various ways
4. Assessment processes are prone to errors
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1.2. History of Psychological Testing
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1. Ancient China
 In 2200 B.C. Chinese government
employees were tested every three years
 Written exams were introduced in the Han
dynasty (202B.C.–A.D. 200)
 Five topics were tested: civil law, military
affairs, agriculture, revenue, and geography.
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2. Early Psychiatric tests
In 1885, the German physician Hubert von
Grashey found that many brain injury patients
could recognize stimuli (words, pictures, or
symbols) in their totality but could not identify
them when shown through the moving slot.
German psychiatrist Conrad Rieger developed an
excessively ambitious test battery for brain
damage (it took over 100 hours to administer)
 These tests did not win much acceptance.
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3. Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920)
• Founded the first psychological lab in
Germany, Leipzig (1879)
• Thought meter, used pendulums to assess
thought swiftness, based on observed vs
actual pendulum position (1862).
• Speed of thought varies from one person to
another.
• Focused on human similarity rather than
difference.
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4. Francis Galton (1822-1911)
• Sir Francis Galton (Darwin’s cousin), a British scientist,
applied evolutionary theory to the study of
intelligence, which he believed to be heritable.
• Introduced a measure of relationship, later called
correlation.
• Believed that intelligence is quantifiable and normally
distributed.
• Known by eugenic movement (selective breeding of
gifted individuals).
• Intelligence is the ability to use sensory ability.
• Used sensory discrimination and RT as tests of
intelligence (1883).
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Francis Galton
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5. James McKeen Cattel (1860-1944)
• American psychologist who worked with Galton
in England.
• Developed a battery of 50 tests to measure
mental ability (1890s).
• Like Galton, he relied on RT and sensory
discrimination.
• Later, one study (Clark Wissler, 1901)
contradicted and the other supported the
relationship between RT and processing speed
with academic achievement.
• Cattel introduced mental test in 1890.
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6. Alfred Binet (1857-1911)
 Alfred Binet, A French psychologists tried to
develop the first standard intelligence test
 He used tests to identify developmentally
disabled children from normal school children
 The approach was not deterministic (but aimed
at training those who need help)
 In 1905, with Theodore Simon, Binet
introduced items that are graded according to
actual age level (CA).
 The number of right answers indicated mental
age (MA)
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Binet’s principles
 Age differentiation: older adults perform
better compared to younger children
 General mental ability: a set of specific
abilities, to indicate intelligence, used in
solving any problem in an environment.
 Task 1+Task2+Task3….Task30=Intelligence
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Alfred Binet
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Components of Binet-Simon test
 Binet-Simon test included practical
knowledge, memory, reasoning, vocabulary,
and problem solving
 The tests worked better at predicting school
success compared to simple sensory tests
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Sample Binet-Simon items (1911)
Age
Three
Four
Five
Task
Shows nose, eyes and mouth.
Repeats two digits.
Describes objects in a picture.
Gives family name.
Repeats a sentence of six syllables.
Gives own sex.
Names key, knife, and penny.
Repeats three digits.
Compares the length of two lines.
Compares two weights.
Copies a square.
Repeats a sentence of ten syllables.
Counts four pennies.
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Age
Six
Seven
Fifteen
Task
Distinguishes between morning and afternoon.
Defines objects in terms of their use.
Copies a shape.
Counts 13 pennies.
Compares faces from the aesthetic point of view.
Identifies right hand and left ear.
Describes a picture.
Follows precise directions.
Names four colors.
Repeats seven digits.
Gives three rhymes.
Repeats a sentence of 26 syllables.
Interprets a picture.
Solves a problem from several facts.
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Evolution of Alfred-Binet test
 n 1908, Binet and Simon published a revised 58-item
scale that incorporated the concept of mental level.
 In 1911, a third revision of the Binet Simon scales
included each age level now had exactly five tests; the
scale extended into the adult range.
 In 1912, Stern proposed dividing the mental age by the
chronological age to obtain an intelligence quotient.
 In 1916, Terman suggested multiplying the intelligence
quotient by 100 to remove fractions.
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7. Stanford-Binet Test
• Lewis Terman and his colleagues modified
Simon-Bine test in 1916.
• It was renamed as “Stanford-Binet” test.
• Multiplied the intelligence quotient by 100 to
remove fractions.
• Terman is the first to use the IQ for
intelligence quotient, the ratio of mental age
(MA) to chronological age (CA), multiplied by
100.
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Calculating IQ

IQ= x100

Where: MA=Mental age
CA=Chronological (actual) age
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Example,
• A 12 year child may score like a 14 year old
child. His IQ will be:
•  =
14
100=1.6*100=116
12
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• Modern intelligence tests—including the current
Stanford-Binet test—no longer compute scores
using the IQ formula.
• Instead, they rely on how far the person’s
performance deviates from the average
performance of others who are the same age.
• Most modern tests arbitrarily define the average
score as 100.
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8. World War I (1914-1918)
• Robert Yerkes and colleagues developed two
intelligence tests to recruit individuals for US
army.
• Army Alpha: exam for literate recruits.
– Included athematic, general knowledge, analogies,
synonym-antonym, and other problems.
• Army beta exam: for non-English speakers and
illiterate recruits.
– Included tests to complete pictures, missing elements,
mazes, and solve puzzles
• The recruits were chosen based on their scores.
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9. Spearman’s Two Factor Model
 In 1902 Charles Spearman, British
psychologists, proposed two factor theory.
 Intelligence consists one general factor (g)
and a number of specific factors
 Intelligence=g+s+e
 A single g factor is a predictor of all s factors
 He introduced factor analysis, to reduce a
large number of variables into smaller (a
single) factor, g.
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 Tests that show high positive relationship are
g loaded.
 All positive correlations on all mental tasks
indicate a common variable (factor)
producing the correlation, g.
 Tests with moderate or low relationship
indicate a specific factor (s) or unique ability,
requiring unique ability.
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10. Modern Tests
• Personality inventories (1920-1940)
• Vocational interest tests developed (19611980)
• Computerized Testing System (1980-present)
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CHAPTER TWO
INTELLIGENCE TESTING
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2.1. Psychological Attributes
• Psychological attributes: refers psychological
characteristics that differentiate individuals on
different dimensions such as; personality,
intelligence, etc.
• Psychological attributes can be:
– Stable attributes: relatively long lasting (e.g.
intelligence, personality, etc.
– Fluid attributes: attributes that vary on different
occasions, situations, and times (e.g. mood).
• Personal values, opinions, and attitudes may change from
18-25 years
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 Stable attributes are good predictors of
future behavior.
 Fluid attributes are less important to predic
future behavior.
 Psychological attributes are assumed to be
normally distributed.
 The attributes reveal individual difference.
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Defining Intelligence
 Intelligence: general mental ability to reason,
solve problems, think abstractly, and apply what
they know to solve practical problems.
 includes different forms of information
processing:
–
–
–
–
–
Memory
Learning
Reasoning
Thinking and
Decision making
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2.2. Theories of Intelligence
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• Galton
• Binet
• Spearman
• Unitary mental ability
• Multiple factors
• Cognitive theories
Thurston
Cattle & Horn
Gardner
Cattel-Horn
Sternberg
Carrol
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1. Spearman’s Two Factor Theory
(1904)
• Charles Spearman stated that general
intellectual factor (g), reflects performance on
different tasks (s).
• Each intelligence tests measure some parts of
g.
• Test score=g+S+e
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g
(General
Mental ability)
S1 (Abstract
reasoning)
S2
(Vocabulary)
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S3 (Numerical)
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2. Theory of Primary Mental Abilities
(1939)
• Louis Thurston, American psychologist
opposed the notion of g factor
• Proposed that intelligence consists different
(seven) primary abilities that can be grouped,
independent of one another (but still related
to g).
• Thurston and his wife administered a battery
of 56 tests to college students and analyzed
the scores by using their factor analysis.
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Thurston’s Primary abilities
S.No
Factor
Ability
Description
1
S
Spatial ability
Ability to perceive spatial relations (form
and patterns of 3D objects)
2
P
Perceptual ability
The ability to distinguish visual details
3
N
Numerical ability
Ability to deal with numbers
4
V
Verbal
comprehension
Ability to understand meaning of words
5
W
Word fluency
Ability to think and use words rapidly (e.g.
rhyming tests)
6
M
Memory
Ability to remember (words, numbers, etc.)
7
R
Reasoning
Ability to think logically
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3. The gf-gc Theory (1963)
 Raymond B. Cattel and John L. Horn used new
method of factor analysis.
 They identified two types of general
intelligence:
a). Fluid intelligence(gf): abilities that allow us to
reason, think, and acquire new knowledge
(biological base).
– Increase into adulthood and then decrease.
b). Crystallized intelligence(gc): the knowledge and
skills acquired through learning and experience.
– Increases throughout life span (e.g. vocabulary).
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g=gc+gf
Where: gf= ability to see relationships
gc=learned ability plus retrieval
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4. Guilfold’s Tri-dimensional Theory
(1961, 67)
 J.P. Guilfold stated that every intelligence can be
described in terms of three basic dimensions:
– Operations: the act of thinking (action of the person).
– Contents: nature of material for operation (e.g.
words, pictures).
– Products: the ideas we produce (information
processing).
 Provided 120 primary abilities on a cube (4 contents x
5 operations x 6 products=4x5x6=120)
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Modified version
• In 1967, he expanded his cube to make them
150.
– Operations: Memory, Cognition, Recording, etc
– Contents: Visual, auditory, semantic, symbolic, etc.
– Products: units, classes, relations, etc.
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5. Multiple Intelligence Theory (1983)
 Howard Gardner, American Psychologist seriously
challenged the notion of one general intelligence.
 He proposed that multiple intelligences exist,
independent of one another.
 He observed prodigies (extremely talented young
individuals) and savants (score low on IQ tests but
extremely talented in some tasks such as drawing or
memory)
 Presence of one extraordinary ability in absence of
other abilities show the existence of multiple
intelligences.
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Type of intelligence
Description (with a typical example)
1. Linguistic intelligence
Ability to use word and express thoughts
(T.S. Elliot)
2. Logical-mathematical
intelligence
Ability reason logically and solve
mathematical problems (A. Einstein)
3. Spatial intelligence
Ability to perceive visual and spatial
information (e.g. navigation) (Pablo Picasso)
4. Musical intelligence
Sensitivity to musical rhythms, patterns,
and sounds (Igor Stravinsky)
5. Bodily-kinesthetic
intelligence
Ability to use one’s own body (Martha
Graham)
6. Interpersonal intelligence
Understanding others’ behavior (S. freud)
7. Intrapersonal intelligence
Ability to understand one’s own self
(Mohandas Gandhi)
8. Naturalistic intelligence
Sensitivity to nature (Charles Darwin)
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6. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
(1985)
• Robert Sternberg was dissatisfied with traditional
intelligence measures because they do not predict real life
success.
• Triarchic (three-part) theory of intelligence states that
intelligence consists of three main aspects:
– Analytic intelligence: skill in reasoning, processing information,
and solving problems (related to g).
– Creative intelligence: skill in using past experiences to achieve
insight and deal with new situations.
– Practical intelligence: people’s ability to adapt to, select, and
shape their real-world environment. It involves skill in everyday
living (“street smarts”) and in adapting to life demands, and
reflects a person’s ability to succeed in real-world settings.
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7. Three Structures Theory of
Cognitive Abilities (1993)
• J.B. Carrol proposed another multiple intelligence
model based on factor analysis.
• Cognitive abilities have three strata (the top level
includes the rest).
– Top level (stratum): the top strata that shows general
intelligence (g).
– The second stratum: where the g is further broken
down into eight classes (e.g. fluid intelligence,
crystallized intelligence, general memory, etc.)
– Level three: then each level is broken down.
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Intelligence Strata
Level 1
(g)
Level 2
(Gf, Gc, Y, V, U,
R, S, T)
Level 3
Gf=general,
quantitative,
and Piagetian
reasoning
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CHC Model
• Carrol’s theory is similar to Cattel-Horn model
and then it is renamed as CHC (Cattel-HornCarrol) Model.
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8. PASS Model of Intellectual
Functioning ()
•
•
•
•
Planning
Attention
Simultaneous processing
Sucsessive processing
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PASS Model
Attention (Arousal)
Information
processing
(Parallel, Successive)
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Planning
(Problem Solving
Strategy)
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2.3. Modern Intelligence Scales
• Currently, the most accepted form of
intelligence test are:
– Stanford-Binet test
– Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WAIS)
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Stanford-Binet test
• The 1956 scale introduced deviation IQ-the
comparison of performance of a subject with
the performance of others in the same age in
the standardization sample.
• Test performance is converted into a standard
score with a mean of 100 and SD of 16.
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IQ calculation
 Step 1: determine chronological age (calculated based on
subject’s birth day).
 Step 2: determine mental age (calculated based on his or
her score on a scale).
 Step 3: calculate IQ by dividing the mental age to the
chronological age. Then, the score is multiplied by 100, to
eliminate fractions.

 =
100

 For example, Child 1 (MA=6, CA=6)=6/6*100=100
 Adult 2 (MA=16*, CA=37=16/16*100=100
* The maximum age is 16
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The Wechsler Intelligence Scales
• David Wechsler challenged the single score offered by 1937
Stanford-Binet scale.
• Stnford-binet test did not consider that intelligence deteriorates as
we grow older.
• Used the point scale rather than the age scale.
• Included non-verbal (performance) test.
• The point scale concept: the process of arranging similar test items
together and involved assignment of a specific point (credit) for
each test.
• Performance scale concept: to overcome Binet’s emphasis on
language and verbal skills, Wechsler introduced tests non-verbal
intelligence (performance scale).
• Performance scale: can help to overcome cultural bias due to
language.
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Types of Weschsler Intelligence Test
• Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV)
• Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (WISCIV)
• Wechsler preschool and primary scale of
intelligence (WPPSI-III)
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Subsets of Wechsler Intelligence Test
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2.3. Genetic and Environmental
Influences
• Intelligence is a result of both genetic and
environmental factors.
• Nature: a view that intelligence is predetermined
by biological or genetic factors.
– Individuals cannot change their intelligence.
– Special education is not needed.
– Political implication
• Nurture: a view that attributes environmental
factors to variations in intelligence.
– Believes in intervention programs
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A. Genetic Factors
• Genetic factors account for about 50 % of the
variability in intelligence test scores.
• Heritability estimates are applied to groups,
not individuals.
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Biological evidence
• Evidences:
– Identical twins reared together have similar Iqs
(r=.90)
– Identical twins reared apart (r=0.72)
– Fraternal twins reared together (r=0.60)
– Brothers and sisters reared together (r=.50)
– Fraternal twins reared apart (r=0.25)
– Adopted children were more similar to their
parents
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B. Environmental Factors
• As children grow they tend to be similar to
their adoptive parents.
• Children adopted in higher SES showed
increased IQ
• Nowadays, IQ scores are increasing
• Even height increased as a result of
Industrialization.
• These shows improved environment increases
IQ scores.
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2.4. Intelligence Variation
• Nowadays, intelligence levels vary from
profound mental retardation to extreme
giftedness based on IQ scores.
– Profound retardation= below 25
– Severe retardation=25-30
– Moderate retardation=40-54
– Mild retardation=55-69
– Normal IQ=90-110
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IQ Range
Description level
% in population
> 130
Very superior
2.2
120-130
Superior
6.7
110-119
High average
16.1
90-109
Average
50
80-89
Low average
16.1
70-79
Borderline
6.7.
< 70
Mentally retarded
2.2
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Distribution of IQ Scores
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Chapter Three
Personality Testing
3.1. Nature and Definition of
Personality
• It is very difficult to provide a complete definition
of personality.
• However, most textbooks define it as a stable
unique characteristics that differentiate one
person from the rest.
– E.g. based on interests, attitudes, worldview, personal
identity, sense of humor, and cognitive and behavioral
styles.
• People in different times to classify people based
on their characteristics.
Traits and types
• Personality traits: relatively enduring distinguishable attribute in
which one individual varies from another (e.g. shy vs outgoing,
optimist vs pessimist, sociable vs unsociable, etc.)
• Personality types: enduring characteristics that belongs to a certain
classification (type). For example, Hippocratic classification.
• Traits are individual descriptions, whereas types are descriptions for
people sharing the same attributes.
• Personality states: a relatively temporary predisposition (e.g.
anxious state because of exam)
Personality assessment
• Personality assessment may be defined as the
measurement and evaluation of psychological
traits, states, values, interests, attitudes, etc.
• Uses projective, objective, and behavioral
methods.
Humoral Theory
• The first attempt to classify people came from Ancient
Greece.
• Hippocrates believed that four bodily humors or fluids
(yellow bile, black bile, blood, and phlegm) determine
temperaments.
• The theory is less scientific.
• Galen, expanded Hippocrates’ idea
– Sanguine: cheerful personality associated with red blood.
– Choleric: hot tempered trait as a result of yellow bile.
– Melancholic: depressed personality due to the abundance of
black bile.
– Phlegmatic: unemotional and lonely tendency due to phlegm.
Somatotypes theory
• William Sheldon, classified individuals based
on their body stracture.
• Researches did not show correlation between
personality and body structure.
• The theory is formed based on embryonic
development.
– Endomorphs: outgoing, fun loving fat people.
– Mesomorphs: assertive muscular people.
– Ectomorphs: intellectual and lonely skinny people.
Why do we need personality
assessment
•
•
•
•
Job selection
Vocational choice
Clinical (psychotherapy)
National intelligence (e.g. the terrorist mind)
3.2. Objective Personality Tests
•
•
•
•
NEO
MMP
CPI
16PF
Factor Analysis
• A data reduction methods that include several types of
statistical techniques collectively known as factor
analysis or cluster analysis.
• Personality related terms (180,000 but 4,505 were real
traits) in English language (Allport & Odbert, 1936)
• Cattell reduced the list to 171 after judges rated “just
distinguishable differences”, by eliminating the
synonyms.
• Then, distributed to college students to rate their friends
on the 171 attributes.
• 16 personality factors (16PF) were drawn.
4,504
word
171
36
16 PF
Big 5
Cattel’s 16PF
Dimensions
Warmth
Reasoning
Warm
Concrete
Reserved
Abstract
Emotional stability
Reactive
Dominance
Liveliness
Deferential
Serious
Emotionally
stable
Dominant
Lively
Rule-Consciousness Expedient
Social Boldness
Perfectionism
Shy
Tolerates
Disorder
Rule
conscious
Socially bold
Perfectionistic
Sensitivity
Vigilance
Abstractedness
Privateness
Utilitarian
Trusting
Grounded
Forthright
Sensitive
Vigilant
Abstracted
Private
Apprehension
Openness to Change
Self-Reliance
Tension
Self-assured
Traditional
Group oriented
Relaxed
Apprehensive
Open to change
Self-oriented
Tense
 An example from Cohen and Swerdlik on
factor analysis
– 1000 colors
– Primary colors (Red, Yellow, Blue)
– Secondary colors (possible combinations=RY, RB,
RYB)
Big Five Personality (abbr. OCEAN, CANOE)
Personality
Characteristics
High score
Openness to
experience
Curiosity, appreciation for art, Inventive/curios
adventure, and unusual ideas,
imagination, & creativity
Low score
Consistent/cautious
Conscientiousnes Organized, disciplined,
s
planned, and inflexible
Efficient organized
Easygoing/careless
(flexible, spontaneous,
unplanned)
Extraversion
Assertiveness, energy,
talkativeness, sociability, and
stimulation seeking in the
presence of others
Outgoing/energetic
Solitary/reserved
Agreeableness
Compassionate, cooperative,
trusting , sympathetic
Friendly/compassionate Analytical/detached
Neuroticism
Emotionality, impulsiveness,
anger, anxiety, etc
Sensitive/nervous
Secure/confident
NEO Personality Inventory: Measures big
five personality traits
Comparing “Big Five” with Castell's Five
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Inventory
• Developed by Starke R. Hathaway (psychologist)
and John Charnley McKinley
(psychiatrist/neurologist)
• It contained 566 T/F items to identify personal,
social, and behavioral problems.
• MMPI is a trade mark of university of Minnestota.
• MMPI-2 is introduced in 2008.
• MMP-2 contains 338 items and 50 sclaes
Continued
“Type A” vs “Type B” Personality
• Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman
(cardiologists) classified personality into type A
and B.
• Type A personality: characterized by
competitiveness, haste, restlessness, impatience,
feelings of being time pressured, and strong
needs for achievement and dominance.
• Type B personality: characterized by calmness,
patience, etc.
3.3. Projective Personality
Tests
 Projective tests base on projection, a means to infer mental
process that subjects fail to admit by using different tests.
 Judgment of the personality is made on the basis of
performance on a task that involves supplying some sort of
response to an ambiguous stimulus such as a word, an
incomplete sentence, an inkblot, or an ambiguous picture.
 Less valid because of their subjective nature of interpretation
 These testes are based on the assumption that people tend to
project their unconscious needs, wishes, fears, and conflicts in
interpretation vague stimuli.
A. Rorschach Inkblot Test
• The test consists of ten inkblots, and the
scoring considers location and content
– Location: areas of blots used
– Content: what qualitative characteristics perceived
on a test
The ten inkblots published by the Swiss
doctor Hermann Rorschach in his book
Psychodiagnostik.
A subject is given an inkblot and is asked to
report his or her perceptions.
B.
Thematic
Apperception
Test
(TAT)
• Henry Murray
• In Tat, an examiner will be shown pictures and
asked to tell stories about each picture.
C. Draw-A-Person Test (DAT)
• An examiner is asked to draw a human figure
2.2. Aptitude
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2.3. Achievement
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2.4. Interest
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2.5. Personality
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CHAPTER THREE
BASIC STATISTICS
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Scales Of Measurement
 Nominal: numbers are used to name and
label (e.g. Gender; 1=Male, 2=Female)
 Ordinal: naming plus ordering (e.g. 1st, 2nd,
etc.)
 Interval: scales showing equal intervals (e.g.
Likert scale)
 Ratio: includes absolute zero score (e.g. age,
height, scores, etc.)
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