CHAPTER ONE

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CHAPTER 1
Using Scientific Inquiry
WHAT IS SCIENCE?
•Science is the study of the physical
and natural world through
observations and experiments.
Main Branches of
Science
•Science organizes knowledge in the
form of testable explanations and
predictions about the universe.
•There are three main branches of
science:
Earth and Space Science, Physical
Science, and Life Science.
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Physical
Science
Life
Science
Earth and
Space
Science
LESSON 1: HOW SCIENTISTS WORK
Scientists use particular skills to understand
and study the world around them.
Scientists observe.
Scientists classify.
Scientists organize data.
Scientists make models.
Scientists interpret their findings.
Scientists predict.
Scientists analyze.
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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION
Observe
• Using one or more of your senses to gather
information.
Classify
• Grouping items together that are alike in someway.
Make Models
Infer
• Creating representations of complex objects or
processes.
• Explaining or interpreting data you have collected.
• Inferences are not guesses.
Predict
• Making a statement or claim about what will happen
in the future based on experience or evidence.
Analyze
• Evaluating observations and data in order to make
conclusions about them.
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TYPES OF OBSERVATION
QUANTITATIVE
Quantitative observations
deal with numbers and
amounts.
Examples: temperature,
height, weight, age.
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QUALITATIVE
Qualitative observations
deal with descriptions that
can not be expressed in
numbers.
Examples: color, feeling,
taste.
WHAT IS DATA AND HOW DO YOU CLASSIFY IT?
✘ Data is any information recorded that has
been collected via scientific investigation.
Data is facts, figures and any other evidence
collected.
✘ You can use charts, graphs, and other tools to
classify data into groups with similar
characteristics.
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LESSON TWO: SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE
Scientific knowledge is what we learn by the
scientific process. This involves observing,
collecting and analyzing data.
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SKEPTICISM
Skepticism is one of the most important
characteristics that scientists possess.
Skepticism is a scientist’s attitude of doubt and
questioning. Skepticism leads to new
understandings and prevents scientists from
accepting faulty evidence and research.
TYPES OF REASONING
OBJECTIVE
Objective reasoning is
reasoning based on
evidence and facts.
Scientific reasoning is an
example of objective
reasoning because it relies
heavily on evidence.
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SUBJECTIVE
Subjective reasoning is the
opposite of objective
reasoning. Subjective
reasoning relies on
personal feelings, values
and emotions.
PSEUDOSCIENCE
Beliefs that may make use of science.
However, the conclusions or
predictions are not based on
observation, objective reasoning, or
scientific evidence.
PSEUDOSCIENTIFIC BELIEFS
Flat Earth Theory
Lunar Effect
Climate Change Denial
Free Energy
Alternative Medicine
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LESSON THREE: DESIGNING
EXPERIEMENTS
MAKE AN OBSERVATION
DEFINE THE PROBLEM
DEVELOP A HYPOTHESIS
CONDUCT AN EXPERIMENT
ANALYZE DATA
DRAW A CONCLUSION
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WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC INQURY?
Scientific inquiry is the process through which
scientists ask questions about the natural world. Another
name for scientific inquiry is the scientific method.
The first step in the process is making an observation, asking
a question and defining a problem. The next step is to
develop a hypothesis. The hypothesis is the
possible answer to the scientific question.
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VARIABLES
INDEPENDENT
The independent variable
is the factor that is
purposely changed to test
a hypothesis.
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DEPENDENT
The dependent variable is
the factor that may change
in response to the
independent variable.
CONTROLLED
EXPERIMENT
A scientific experiment in which only
one variable is changed at a time.
EXPERIMENTAL BIAS
An error in the design of an experiment.
This error in the design will make a
particular result more likely.
Presenting Data
The results of an
experiment can be
organized and
presented in a variety
of ways. Diagrams,
graphs and charts are
excellent ways to
show the results of
experiments.
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DRAWING CONCLUSIONS
Drawing a conclusion means examining the data objectively to see if
the results support or fail to support your hypothesis.
Often times, you will need to perform a repeated trial in order to
be sure your hypothesis is correct.
There will be times where the data does not support the hypothesis.
Be sure to double check the experiment for errors or bias. Even a
hypothesis that has been proven incorrect can be useful for future
experiments.
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REPLICATION
An attempt by a different group of
scientists to conduct the same
experiment in order to get similar
results.
SCIENTIFIC
EXPLAINATION
A generalization that makes sense of
observations by using logical
reasoning.
LESSON FOUR: SCIENTIFIC THEORIES
SCIENTIFIC THEORIES VS. SCIENTIFIC LAWS
SCIENTIFIC THEORIES
SCIENTIFIC LAWS
A well-tested explanation for a
A statement that describes what
wide range of observations and
scientists expect to happen every
experimental results.
time under a specific set of
conditions.
Examples: The Big Bang
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Theory, Theory of
Examples: Newton’s Laws of
Evolution, Theory of
Motion, Law of Gravitation, Laws
Relativity
of Conservation .
WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
The difference between a scientific law and scientific
theory is unlike a scientific theory, scientific laws
describe an observed pattern in nature without
attempting to explain it. Scientific theories attempt to
explain an event. Scientific laws become widely
accepted among scientists quickly while theories are
only widely accepted when they can explain an
Important observation.
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MODIFYING SCIENTIFIC THEORIES
When a theory can not explain new observations
about the original event then the theory is either
modified or thrown out all together.
Scientist’s theories evolve to explain new
observations.
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LESSON SIX: SCIENTIFIC LITERACY
Understanding scientific terms and principals
well enough to ask questions evaluate
information and make decisions.
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EVIDENCE VS. OPINION
EVIDENCE
Includes observations and
conclusions that have been
repeated.
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OPINION
An idea that may be
formed from evidence, but
has not been confirmed by
evidence.
ANALYZING SCIENTIFIC CLAIMS
Scientific literacy gives you the ability to analyze
scientific claims. By using scientific reasoning you
can look for bias and errors in research, evaluate
data and identify faulty reasoning.
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