APES Final Exam Review

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APES Final Exam Review – 2018
The final exam will be a comprehensive exam covering all topics we have studied this year (the majority
of questions are from the 2nd semester, but there will be some from the 1st semester as well – so be
prepared). The exam will consist of 75 multiple choice questions. You will have 80 minutes to complete
the 75 multiple choice questions. To prepare for the exam, you should study all notes, handouts, labs
and learning targets. In addition, this review should help you to focus in on what is most important.
Ch. 1 – Sustainability
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Define ecosystem. Give an example.
Reasons for extinction
Ecosystem services
Unit conversions/Dimensional Analysis
Sustainable development
Scientific Method / Experimental design
Why does the study of environmental science differ from the study of other natural sciences?
Ch. 2 – Environmental Systems
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What is energy? How is it measured? Give an example. Be able to convert from one unit of
Energy to another.
Where does most energy on Earth come from?
Potential vs. Kinetic Energy
Positive vs. Negative Feedback loops
Open vs. Closed systems
1st & 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics
Entropy
Ch. 3 – Ecosystem Ecology
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What are the most basic processes in an ecosystem?
Chemical equations for photosynthesis & cellular respiration.
Types & roles of individuals in an ecosystem . . . autotrophs, heterotrophs, consumers,
decomposers, etc. . .
What is the approximate energy transfer in a food chain?
Biogeochemical cycles – know the basics of each cycle and the potential human impact on each.
Trophic levels
Ch. 4 – Global Climate & Biomes
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Climate vs. weather
What factors affect climate of a region?
Layers of the atmosphere
High vs. Low pressure systems
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Rain shadow effect
Upwelling – what is it and where does it occur?
El Nino – what is it, where does it occur & what are the effects?
Biomes – be able to read figure 12.2 on page 123.
Ch. 5 – Evolution of Biodiversity
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Biodiversity – what is it?
What processes can create genetic diversity?
What is an adaptation? Give an example.
What is evolution? Give an example.
How does evolution occur?
Range of Tolerance . . . what is it? Give an example.
Niche . . . what is it? Give an example.
Resource partitioning . . . what is it? Give an example.
Competitive exclusion principle
Genetic Diversity & variability
Ch. 6 – Population & Community Ecology
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Population – know how to calculate population density, birth rates, death rates, growth rates,
doubling time
Density-dependent vs. density –independent factors
Define population ecology.
Symbiosis – what are the 3 main types? Examples of each.
Predator/Prey interactions & adaptations
Carrying capacity
Exponential vs. Logistic growth
Primary vs. secondary succession
Consequences of Fire Suppression
Keystone species
Ch. 7 – Population
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Current human population, growth rate & projections for the future
Why have human populations grown so much in the last several thousand years?
HIV . . . what region of the world is affected the most by this infection?
TFR – what is it? What does it indicate about the growth of a country/region?
Age structure – what is it? What do the different shapes indicate about the growth of a
country/region?
Solutions for the human population crisis? Factors that help /slows population growth
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What determines the impact of a region/country on the environment?
Demographic transition
Impacts of rapidly increasing human population
Developed vs. Developing country
Ch. 8 – Earth Systems
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Rock cycle – know the basics
Soil Layers
Ch. 9 – Water Resources
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Water distribution - % salt, glaciers, ground, etc. . . .
Salt water intrusion – what is it and where does it usually occur?
Ch. 10 – Land, Public & Private
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Fire & succession – relationship to availability of material
Fire suppression – history and results
Clear-cutting vs. sustainable tree harvesting
Ch. 11 – Feeding the World
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Energy Subsidy
Pesticides – what are they and the general categories?
CAFO’s – what are they and what are their impacts?
Sustainable farming methods
Biological controls to replace pesticides – benefits and drawbacks
Ch. 12 – Nonrenewable Energy Resources
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What is energy? How is it measured? Give an example. Be able to convert from one unit of
Energy to another.
Non-renewable vs. renewable energy
½ life calculations
Uranium-238
Ch. 13 – Achieving Energy Sustainability
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Passive vs. Active Solar energy
Ch. 14 – Water Pollution
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Eutrophication – what is it and how does it affect an aquatic ecosystem?
BOD vs. DO
Dead zone – causes and effects
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Indicator species in wastewater
Acid mine drainage
Sediment pollution
Water pollution in developing vs. developed regions
Clean Water Act
Wastewater treatment
Ch. 15 – Air Pollution and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
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Layers of the atmosphere
Clean Air Act
What type of UV radiation does stratospheric ozone absorb?
Stratospheric vs. tropospheric ozone
Acid rain – what is it and what are the causes?
Solutions to control air pollution
Ch. 16 – Waste Generation and Waste Disposal
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MSW generation in developed vs. developing regions
What is the largest component of MSW in the US?
Leachate from a sanitary landfill – what is it and what are the impacts?
Ch. 17 – Human Health and Environmental Risks
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What are the known public health issues related to exposure to radioactive material?
What is the largest cause of disease in developing regions?
What is the plague?
Why could the use of antibacterial soaps lead to a future health problem?
Bioremediation – what is it and what is it used for?
Ch. 18 – Biodiversity Conservation
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Human interaction with the environment & impact on biological diversity
Species endangerment & extinction – major causes.
Characteristics of species more likely to become endangered or extinct
Legislation to protect species
Ch. 19 – Global Change
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Greenhouse Effect – what is it? What are the major greenhouse gases?
UV vs. IR radiation
Anthropogenic vs. Natural Greenhouse Gases
What is the trend in greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere?
What is albedo? How does it affect global change?
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What organization was created by the UN to understand and combat climate change?
Even though there is more CO than CFC’s in the atmosphere, why would we be concerned about
CFC’s in our atmosphere as a potent greenhouse gas?
Ch. 20 – Economics & Government
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Natural vs. Manufactured capital
Sustainability
Environmental injustice
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