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ISSN: 2345 -3109 RCEE Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering www.jrcee.com Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013 1 (05) 287-299 REVIEWING PERFORMANCE OF PILED RAFT AND PILE GROUP FOUNDATIONS UNDER THE EARTHQUAKE LOADS * Ali Akbari a, Mohammad Nikookar b , Mahdi Feizbahr c a Postgraduate of Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran b Master of Science Student of Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran C School of Civil engineering, Engineering campus, University sains Malaysia,14300 Nibong tebal , Penang, MALAYSIA Keywords piled raft pile group load bearing proportion earthquake load superstructure response 1 A B S T R A C T The primary idea of using deep foundations was brought up, in order to control overall and differential settlement of foundation under heavy structural loads. However, gradually by increasing height of structures, using deep foundations were considered for controlling inversion and deal with shear loads resulting from the earthquake, more than was previously considered. But the important matter about deep foundations is to focus on shearing and bending forces in connection place of cap to piles, as well as their growth in depth, which it must be reviewed accurately for planning goals. There has been used from ABAQUS finite element software, to investigate interaction of soil, foundation, and structure. The studied soil is clay type with Mohr-coulomb behavioral model. There have been modeled structural sections with dual system performance in three storey type, including 10, 20, and 30 storey. The study aims to review transaction effect of soil, foundation, and structure for transferring shearing resulted from earthquake to superstructure, pile group loading share from horizontal loading and shearing and bending forces in piles. INTRODUCTION In the past, using reinforced mat foundation was the best option for dealing with heavy structural loads. Gradually there was considered idea of using pile, in order to control and decrease settlement, because of heavier structures and necessity to consider settlement in final designation and settlement limitation to the allowable settlement. There was designed a traditional deep foundation with relative high safety factor for * Corresponding author (E-mail: [email protected]). Ali Akbari et al - Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013 1 (05) 287-299 the piles. In the past few decades, researchers concluded that it can be gained a more economical plan than free pile group by taking into account the capacity of raft in the load and division safety factor between raft and piles. Piled raft foundation is an economic and logical foundation in dealing with vertical static loads because the load is transferred to the ground by both components of piles and raft; in addition, it can be accessed to the same settlement by reducing number of piles in comparison with pile group (Hemsly, 2000). With this idea, many attempts were performed to investigate piled raft behavior against vertical static and dynamic loads. Behavior of piled raft foundation is relatively complicated during earthquakes, because of dynamic interaction between raft, pile and soil. In areas with high activity of seismicity such as Japan, the piles tolerate high load during earthquakes, especially when imposed superstructure initial force will be high, which it is often the same. Stress is focused in head of pile, because connection type between raft and piles is usually fixed. Dynamic behavior of piles depends on deformations of foundation ground, in addition to the imposed inertia force from superstructure on the foundation. In Huguken-Nambu earthquake, the piles were failed because of the ground deformations, even in absence of superstructure (Horikoshi et al., 1996). Until 2003, there was ignored pile capacity in designing piles under earthquake loads in Japan (Matsumoto et al., 2004). Poulos and Davis (1980) offered a comprehensive relation for designing deep foundations under static lateral load. In the past few decades, there were conducted significant researches to understand behavior of deep foundations under dynamic loads. There were presented various methods to assess the dynamic behavior of piles based on linear behavior of soil including subgrade reaction method (Tucker et al., 1964), lumped mass idealization method (Prakash et al., 1973), Novak continuum approach (Novak, 1974). But results of dynamic and centrifuge laboratory experiments (Pak et al., 2003; Boominathan et al., 2006; Puri et al., 1992; Anandarajah et al., 2001) show major difference between the observations and the estimated parameters due to the resulted nonlinear behavior of soil and also due to separation between pile shaft and soil under vibration. In recent year’s scholars such as Matsumoto et al., (2004), Nakai et al., (2004), Horikoshi et al., (2003) and Banerjee (2009) have studied performance of piled raft foundation by using centrifuge laboratory tests and shaking table. Based on elasticity theory, Nakai et al., (2004) have offered approximate analysis method for piled raft foundation under static lateral load, in order to determine contribution of horizontal load in each component of raft and piles. Due to complexity of horizontal load sharing between raft and pile group in the piled raft foundation, there is designed most piles for entire horizontal load which it very non-economic, because according to Nakai et al., (2004) there can be decreased pile horizontal contribution 60 to 80 percent with regard to soil type and recognizing foundation performance, which it requires more exact survey of horizontal load mechanism in this type of foundation. Reaction of the two above introduced system will be certainly different, under earthquake loads or any other dynamic load such as wind, with regard to their different performance and interactions in dealing with vertical static loads. This study aims to describe some of these differences. Figure 1 shows the apparent difference between piled raft and pile group foundation. 288 Ali Akbari et al - Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013 1 (05) 287-299 (a) (b) Fig. 1 Schematic form of: (a) piles group, (b) piled raft 2 MODELING Using and developing accurate numerical models for simulating any engineering structure is inevitable because of high costs for constructing laboratory samples in a large scale. It can be studied role of different parameters in different stages of loading by using a numerical model and laboratory samples can be only used for modeling calibration. In this paper, it has been used from ABAQUS finite element software to examine the interaction of soil – foundation – structure. The studied soil is clay type with Mohrcoulomb behavioral model, which it have been used from un-drained shear resistance (SU), in order to consider un-drained conditions under dynamic load. Physical and mechanical parameters of used materials in this study are shown in Table 1. Table 1 Mechanical and physical parameters of the used materials Clay Bedrock Concrete Steel Density: γ, (kN/m3) 19 20 24 78 Young’s modulus: E, (MPa) 40 500 40,000 210,000 Poisson ratio: υ 0.45 0.3 0.25 0.2 friction angle: ϕ, (deg) 0 45 - shear strength: SU, (kPa) 60 0 - In dynamic studies, model boundaries should not be considered fixed, but should provide conditions that part of energy from the vibrations is exited from the boundaries, which they are called transient boundaries. There have been used infinite elements around the soil model, in order to consider transient boundary conditions and semi-infinite mass. Infinite elements are defined as which connected nodes to original model is the closed level and nodes of infinite side are open which it provides support fixed conditions in far field. In this review, there have been used three types of foundations with arrangement 3×3, 4×4, and 5×5 with different length and diameter of piles, based on increasing number of storey, according to specifications in Table 2. Structural part has been modeled with dual system function (composition of brace and bending frame on earthquake direction) in three floor types of 10, 20 and 30 as superstructure, by considering to importance of structural part in dynamical analysis, especially analysis related to inertia. Specifications of the studied structure and foundation are shown in Table 3. Each structure contains beam, column, brace and roof in each floor and there has been avoided from details modeling such as how to connect, walls, base plates and etc, all connections have assumed fixed. 289 Ali Akbari et al - Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013 1 (05) 287-299 Table 2 Specifications of the studied structure and foundation Storey number Total weight (Ton) Storey height (m) Number of openings Raft dimensions (m2) Raft thickness (m) Number of piles Diameter of piles (m) Length of piles (m) Distance of piles (m) 10 20 30 700 3,000 7,200 3 3 3 2 3 4 10×10 15×15 20×20 0.8 1.4 1.8 9 16 25 0.6 0.9 1.2 10 14 18 4 4 4 Thickness of soil layer has been selected 2 times of pile length and its width is 4 times of raft width. In order to manner separate in the simulation of pile group and pail raft, cap has been located with the distance of one-fifth of the raft thickness from the soil surface in the pile group to avoid direct contact with the soil and just get involve to support horizontal and vertical load while in the pile raft, raft has been defined in the contact interaction with the soil to consider the simultaneous behavior of raft and piles under the load. There has been considered mechanical contact between soil surface and foundation components including raft bottom, piles shaft and end by introduction a surface for transferring shear tension between two contact surfaces, by using penalty frictional formulation and normal behavior for superficial introduction for transferring normal tensions. Due to symmetry in geometry and loading, there have been modeled all models symmetry for time reduction, and displacement constraints have been used in symmetry surface (displacement and rotation have been closed in symmetry and other both directions respectively). Figure 2 represents modeling and meshing a foundation 3×3 piles array in the ABAQUS software. (a) (b) (d) (c) Fig. 2 Foundation model with 3×3 piles array in the ABAQUS software: (a) Foundation meshing and the field soil, (b) array type of piles (c) Model configuration, (d) three-dimensional model 290 Ali Akbari et al - Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013 1 (05) 287-299 There have been applied loading in three steps contain geostatic step for considering in situ soil tensions, static for gravity loading resulting superstructure weight, and dynamic time history loading as horizontal acceleration in bed rock 2 meter thick to the model. There has been used from explicit approach for analysis in the above three steps. There has been used from time history acceleration earthquake in Kobe with PGA= 0.371 g and effective duration of 16 seconds (time 2 to 18 seconds) recorded in the NishiAkashi station for dynamic loading. Time history of this acceleration is shown in Figure 3. This record has been selected because of suitability for start effective time (analysis time reduction), relatively slow end, and average PGA. Acceleration (g) 0.4 Kobe Earthquake PGA=0.371 g 0.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 -0.2 -0.4 Time (S) Fig. 3 recorded time history acceleration of Kobe earthquake in Nishi-Akashi Station 3 VALIDATION There has been used from results of experimental study of Matsumoto et al., (2004) for validation of modeling in ABAQUS software. In this study, some shaking table experiments on piled raft foundation with three different type of superstructure has been done, which there has been used from superstructure with a maximum height in validation of finite element model. Used soil in the study is dry sand soil with Young’s modulus 70 MPa and internal friction angle 45 degrees. Dynamic loading has been applied as harmonic acceleration with frequency 5Hz and PGA=0.1 g in model bed. According to Table 3, cited in original article, finite element model has been modeled by using laboratory conversion coefficient to prototype model. Figure 4 represents modeling of laboratory sample in ABAQUS software. Table 3 coefficients of conversion laboratory model to real model (Prototype model) 291 length gravity acceleration tension force λ 1 1 λ λ3 Ali Akbari et al - Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013 1 (05) 287-299 (a) (b) (c) Fig. 4 (a) meshing foundation plan, (b) meshing cross-section foundation, (c) the dimensions and configuration of finite element model 30 30 20 20 10 0 -10 0 1 2 -20 -30 Time (S) )a( 3 Horizontal Load (N) Horizontal Load (N) Figure 5(a) shows time history of total shear force in finite element model. In this figure, numeric value of shear force has become to laboratory model by using force coefficients in Table 3. In laboratory model, maximum shear force at foot structure has been reported almost equal to 30N and it is 28.5N in finite element model. Figure 5(b) shows time history of shear force at piles head for finite element model. Maximum shear force of piles is almost to 12N and it is 12.5N in finite element model. Results of modeling finite element and laboratory test do not show significance difference. 10 0 -10 0 1 2 3 -20 -30 Time (S) (b) Fig. 5 Time history for: (a) total shear force, (b) piles head shear force in finite element model 292 Ali Akbari et al - Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013 1 (05) 287-299 4 ANALYSIS RESULTS Figure 6 shows time history of shear force at the base of structure for 10 storey structure. As figure shows, Recorded maximum shear force in pile group is greater than compound raft. This reduction in response of piled raft foundation system is due to raft surface to surface contact with soil which this contact is more maintained and foundation sliding is less, so superstructure based on piled raft foundation receives less response from earthquake. In pile group, shear force is transferred to soil by only piles with less contact surface in relation with the piled raft, while in the piled raft; part of this force is transferred to soil by raft and another part by piles. This performance difference leads to different response to these two types foundation under earthquake loads. Maximum acceleration and shear force values for two types of foundations and three types of structures are shown in Table 4. It can see that by increasing number of storey, response of superstructure based on pile group to earthquake is more than the piled raft. Shear Force at Structure Base (kN) 1200 Case PR SFmax = 1028 kN 800 400 0 -400 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 10 12 14 16 -800 -1200 Time (S) Shear Force at Structure Base (kN) 1200 Case PG SFmax = 1170 kN 800 400 0 -400 0 2 4 6 8 16 -800 -1200 Time (S) Fig. 6 Time history of shear force at the base of structure in 10 storey structure Table 4 Comparison of maximum acceleration and shear force in types of foundation and structure Foundation type Number of storey 10 20 30 Pile group max acceleration m/s2 5.62 3.94 3.32 Piled raft Max shear force kN 1,170 3,990 6,840 max acceleration m/s2 5.38 3.53 2.84 max shear force kN 1,028 3,810 5,970 Figure 7 represents the comparison of settlement in raft center during an earthquake for two types of foundations. According to the figure, settlement in piled raft is less than pile group, because of compound performance of raft and piles. Settlement difference for 10 storey superstructures is not considerable, during and after earthquake, while this difference will be significantly increased by increasing number of 293 Ali Akbari et al - Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013 1 (05) 287-299 storey, and piled raft shows suitable performance for settlement, especially when number of storey is increased. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Settlement (mm) 0 -1 -2 Case PR Case PG (a) -3 Time (S) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Settlement (mm) 0 -5 -10 -15 Case PR Case PG -20 (b) -25 Time (S) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Settlement (mm) 0 -30 -60 -90 -120 Case PR -150 Case PG (c) Time (S) Fig. 7 Comparison of settlement in raft center during earthquake: (a) 10 storey structure, (b) 20 storey structure, (c) 30 storey structure Table 5 shows horizontal load bearing proportion of piles in pile group and piled raft. In pile group, there is transferred horizontal loading to soil only through piles, because of lacking cap connection to soil (default propose in pile group analysis), so 100% of horizontal load is transferred to soil by piles; while in piled raft, part of this force is transferred to soil by raft and another part by piles. It is observed that regardless of horizontal load bearing proportion of raft or cap in pile group foundation made increasing in piles vertical and lateral (shear) designing forces. This Represents use of piled raft bearing concept is economic method in vertical and horizontal loading. 294 Ali Akbari et al - Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013 1 (05) 287-299 Table 5 Percent of piles horizontal load in pile group system and piled raft Foundation type pile group piled raft 100 100 100 45.6 66 69.3 Number of storey 10 20 30 Figure 8 shows horizontal load bearing proportion of P1 and P2 piles in two types of foundations and three types of structures. As it can be seen piles have less horizontal load bearing proportion because of anticipating raft in horizontal loading. Also it can be seen that horizontal load bearing proportion of P1 pile, which it is located the most distance from foundation center, is more than P2 central pile, which this distance is increased by increasing number of storey. In the figure, decreasing horizontal load bearing proportion of each pile is resulted by increasing number of storey, because as it is seen in table 5, increasing number of piles and piles diameter will increase group role in horizontal loading. 9.1 8 6 5.8 4 4 2 )b( 9.4 10 8 6 4 6.4 5.1 3 2 Case PR P1 Case PG P2 )c( 10 8 5.4 6 4 2 3.6 2 1.3 0 0 0 Proportion of lateral load carried by each pile (%) 10 12 12 11 )a( Proportion of lateral load carried by each pile (%) Proportion of lateral load carried by each pile (%) 12 Case PR P1 Case PG P2 Case PR P1 Case PG P2 Fig. 8 Horizontal load bearing proportion of P1 and P2 piles: (a) 10 storey structure, (b) 20 storey structure, (c) 30 storey structure Figure 9 shows changes of vertical loading for P1 and P2 piles in a 10 storey structure during earthquake. As it can be seen, vertical loading oscillations are very low for both two foundations types, in central pile (P2), while this oscillation is very high in corner pile (P1). Despite large vertical load oscillation of pile P1 in the group pile, because of high initial value of vertical load on P1, this pile will not under tension during earthquake. Therefore piles in piled raft system are more critical than piles in pile groups in terms of the tension. These results are also similar for increasing number of storey. 295 Vertical Load on Pile head (kN) Ali Akbari et al - Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013 1 (05) 287-299 1500 Case PR P2 P1 1000 500 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 10 12 14 16 -500 Vertical Load on Pile (kN) Time (S) 1500 P2 Case PG P1 1000 500 0 0 2 4 6 8 Time (S) Fig. 9 Changes of vertical loading for P1 and P2 piles in 10 storey structure during earthquake Figure 10 shows maximum bending moment and shear force diagram of P1 pile in maximum shearing and bending moment. Time of maximum shear force and maximum bending moment is different, because effect of initial forces due to superstructure weight in static step. As it can be seen, amount of bending moment and shear force will be decreased significantly, by increasing depth in both two foundation types and three structures types, and the force is transferred to soil through the first several meters, which it shows domination of inertia-based transaction on kinematic transaction. Maximum bending moment and shear force in piles head that connected to pile group system are bigger than piled raft, because of the cap not participating in vertical and horizontal loading. The general forms of the bending moment and shear force variations along the pile in both types of foundation are roughly similar. Variations and suddenly distance not observed. 296 Ali Akbari et al - Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013 1 (05) 287-299 Max Shear Force (kN) 0 200 -200 400 0 0 0 -2 -2 -4 -4 Depth (m) Depth (m) -200 Max Bending Moment (kN.m) Case PR Case PG -6 200 Case PR Case PG -6 -8 400 -8 -10 -10 (a) Max Shear Force (kN) 0 200 400 -400 600 0 0 0 -2 -2 -4 -4 Case PR Case PG -6 Depth (m) Depth (m) -200 -8 400 800 1200 -6 Case PR Case PG -8 -10 -10 -12 -12 Max Bending Moment (kN.m) -14 -14 (b) Max Shear Force (kN) 0 200 400 600 800 -400 0 0 0 -2 -2 -4 -4 -6 -6 -8 Case PR -10 Case PG Depth (m) Depth (m) -200 Max Bending Moment (kN.m) -8 -10 -12 -12 -14 -14 -16 -16 -18 400 800 1200 1600 Case PR Case PG -18 (c) Fig. 10 maximum bending moment and shear force diagram of P1 pile: (a) 10 storey structure, (b) 20 storey structure, (c) 30 storey structure 297 Ali Akbari et al - Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013 1 (05) 287-299 5 CONCLUSION Compound raft foundation is the most complete of foundation system which it provides an economic plan to deal with structural heavy loads and lateral loads such as earthquake, by considering capacity of raft bearing and pile group components. In recent decades, this type of foundation has been increasingly used for transferring heavy structural loads to the soil in different types, including connected and disconnected pile, compound pile raft, and floating piled raft. In this paper, performance of piled raft and pile group under earthquake loading have been studied by ABAQUS finite element software, and its results are: The imposed shear force on foundation by superstructure under earthquake loading in is less than pile group. In other words, made structure on piled raft foundation receives less response from earthquake. After earthquake, foundation settlement in pile raft foundation is less than the pile group, and settlement difference in two systems will be significantly increased by increasing number of storey. In pile group, entire shear force is transferred to the soil by piles, while in the piled raft foundation; part of this force is transferred to soil by raft and another part by piles. The horizontal load bearing proportion of pile is increased by distance pile from foundation center. Oscillation of vertical loading in central piles is very low and in corner piles is very high, which it is less in the used piles in pile group, in comparison with piled raft. With increasing depth of pile, bending moment and shear force are significantly reduced and force transmission from pile to soil is done in a few meters of pile. References Anandarajah, D., Zhang, J., Gnanaranjan, G. & Ealy, C. (2001). Back-calculation of Winkler foundation parameters for dynamic analysis of piles from field-test data. Proc. NSF International Workshop on Earthquake Simulation in Geotechnical Engineering , 1–10. Banerjee, S. (2009). Centrifuge and Numirical Modeling of Soft Clay-Pile-Raft Foundations Subjected to Seismic Shaking, PhD Thesis, National University of Singapore. Boominathan, A. & Ayothiraman, R. (2006). Dynamic response of laterally loaded piles in clay. 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