Welcome to World History! The First Empires DISCLAIMER: THIS SESSION WILL BE RECORDED FOR LEARNING PURPOSES. LEARNING PURPOSES INCLUDE: A LESSON REVIEW FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE ABSENT, STUDENTS WHO WANT TO REVIEW FOR A TEST, ETC. In today’s lesson… Why was Hammurabi’s code significant? How did Egypt expand and gain power during the New Kingdom? What are some major legacies of the Persian Empire? How would you define an “empire”? How would you define an “empire”? Official definition of an empire is an area or political unit that brings different people or formerly independent states together under the control of one ruler. How did empire builders gain and maintain power over vast territories? How did empire builders gain and maintain power over vast territories? Methods include: military conquest taxation controlling trade routes terror using governors and officials to run territories establishing an infrastructure for communication and transportation tolerance (including religious tolerance) Early Empires of Mesopotamia Akkadian Empire Sargon of Akkad formed the world's first empire by conquering Sumerian city-states, sometime around 2350 B.C. Sargon's army of professional soldiers protected trade routes, and taxes increased Sargon's wealth. [Empires] Rise and Fall of the Akkadian Empire: Every Year https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWf11jB99uY Babylonian Empire & Hammurabi Around 1790 B.C., Hammurabi used conquest and dealmaking to form a unified Babylonian Empire in Mesopotamia. The Code of Hammurabi brought order and stability to the Babylonian Empire. Hammurabi’s Policies: • Organized a system for collecting taxes • Appointed officials to carry out policies • Constructed irrigation system • Oversaw markets to make sure businesses ran smoothly The Hittites sacked Babylon and the set the stage for the decline of the Babylonian Empire. Code of Hammurabi https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDALXORbtR4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnAdQFB5eX8 Egypt Builds an Empire The Middle Kingdom grows prosperous from trade. After a series of weak pharaohs, the Hyksos defeat the Egyptians. Hyksos kings rule much of Egypt for about a hundred years. The New Kingdom is established when Ahmose I drives out the Hyksos. New Kingdom pharaohs conquered new territory. Egypt has become an Empire. Hatshepsut declared herself pharaoh while regent for son around 1480 B.C., becoming one of Egypt's most powerful rulers. Thutmose III, was one of the most imperialistic pharaoh’s of Egypt, fighting wars every year for 20 Years. Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) was one of Egypt's’ most disruptive pharaohs established a new religion to worship one god instead of Egypt's many gods. Tutankhamen restored Egypt’s traditional religion and removed Akhenaten’s name from all the monuments in Egypt; was unknown to historians until 1922. Ramses II ruled Egypt for more than 60 years, and made peace with the Hittites; carried out ambitious building projects, including the hall at Karnack and Abu Simbel. Nubia and the Kingdom of Kush The Kushites were people who lived in southern Nubia. They had established a kingdom and by around 1700 B.C. had established an alliance with the Hyksos who were ruling Egypt. Around 750 B.C., after the New Kingdom had weakened, Kushite armies conquered Egypt. The Kushite pharaohs adopted many of Egypt’s oldest traditions. Beginnings of the Persian Empire Geographic: • Originally came from: the region north of the Black and Caspian Seas • Settled here: Iranian plateau, along the Persian Gulf Economic: • Economic activities: sold horses and mules; mined minerals and precious stones; profited from trade passing through the region Expanding Mesopotamian Empires The Assyrian Empire ruled Mesopotamian from about 850 to 650 B.C., building a large library at Nineveh and governing conquered people harshly. The Chaldeans and Medes united to defeat the Assyrians in 612 B.C. King Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt the city of Babylon into the wonder of the age. Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylon in 539 B.C., forming an empire that stretched from the Indus River to Asia Minor. Darius I of Persia organized the Persian Empire into provinces, building roads to keep them connected. At its height, the Persian Empire embraced many peoples and cultures. Weak rulers and internal quarrels led to a loss of unity and the decline of the Persian Empire.