U1 The First Empires PDF

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Welcome to World History!
The First Empires
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In today’s lesson…
 Why was Hammurabi’s code significant?
 How did Egypt expand and gain power during the
New Kingdom?
 What are some major legacies of the Persian
Empire?
How would you define an “empire”?
How would you define an “empire”?
Official definition of an empire is an area or political
unit that brings different people or formerly
independent states together under the control of
one ruler.
How did empire builders gain and
maintain power over vast territories?
How did empire builders gain and
maintain power over vast territories?
Methods include:
 military conquest
 taxation
 controlling trade routes
 terror
 using governors and officials to run territories
 establishing an infrastructure for communication and transportation
 tolerance (including religious tolerance)
Early Empires of Mesopotamia
Akkadian Empire
 Sargon of Akkad formed the world's first
empire by conquering Sumerian city-states,
sometime around 2350 B.C.
 Sargon's army of professional soldiers
protected trade routes, and taxes increased
Sargon's wealth.
[Empires] Rise and Fall of the Akkadian Empire: Every Year
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWf11jB99uY
Babylonian Empire & Hammurabi
Around 1790 B.C., Hammurabi used conquest and dealmaking to form a unified Babylonian Empire in Mesopotamia.
The Code of Hammurabi brought order and stability to the
Babylonian Empire.
Hammurabi’s Policies:
• Organized a system for collecting taxes
• Appointed officials to carry out policies
• Constructed irrigation system
• Oversaw markets to make sure businesses ran smoothly
The Hittites sacked Babylon and the set the stage for the
decline of the Babylonian Empire.
Code of Hammurabi
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDALXORbtR4
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnAdQFB5eX8
Egypt Builds an Empire
 The Middle Kingdom grows prosperous from trade.
 After a series of weak pharaohs, the Hyksos defeat the
Egyptians.
 Hyksos kings rule much of Egypt for about a hundred years.
 The New Kingdom is established when Ahmose I drives out
the Hyksos.
 New Kingdom pharaohs conquered new territory.
 Egypt has become an Empire.
Hatshepsut declared herself pharaoh
while regent for son around 1480 B.C.,
becoming one of Egypt's most
powerful rulers.
Thutmose III, was one of the most
imperialistic pharaoh’s of Egypt,
fighting wars every year for 20 Years.
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) was one
of Egypt's’ most disruptive pharaohs established a new religion to worship
one god instead of Egypt's many gods.
Tutankhamen restored Egypt’s
traditional religion and removed
Akhenaten’s name from all the
monuments in Egypt; was unknown to
historians until 1922.
Ramses II ruled Egypt for more than
60 years, and made peace with the
Hittites; carried out ambitious
building projects, including the hall at
Karnack and Abu Simbel.
Nubia and the Kingdom of Kush
The Kushites were people who lived in
southern Nubia. They had established a
kingdom and by around 1700 B.C. had
established an alliance with the Hyksos who
were ruling Egypt.
Around 750 B.C., after the New Kingdom had
weakened, Kushite armies conquered Egypt.
The Kushite pharaohs adopted many of
Egypt’s oldest traditions.
Beginnings of the Persian Empire
Geographic:
• Originally came from: the region north of the Black and Caspian
Seas
• Settled here: Iranian plateau, along the Persian Gulf
Economic:
• Economic activities: sold horses and mules; mined minerals and
precious stones; profited from trade passing through the region
Expanding Mesopotamian Empires
The Assyrian Empire ruled Mesopotamian from about 850 to 650 B.C., building a large library at
Nineveh and governing conquered people harshly.
The Chaldeans and Medes united to defeat the Assyrians in 612 B.C.
King Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt the city of Babylon into the wonder of the age.
Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylon in 539 B.C., forming an empire that stretched from
the Indus River to Asia Minor.
Darius I of Persia organized the Persian Empire into provinces, building roads to keep them
connected.
At its height, the Persian Empire embraced many peoples and cultures.
Weak rulers and internal quarrels led to a loss of unity and the decline of the Persian Empire.
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