Notes and Quotes Greg Lombana John Stuart Mill Chapter 3: Of the Ultimate Sanction of the Principle of Utility • Sanctions: the punishments that utilitarianist philosophy may impose when deviated from. • Utilitarianism can impose sanctions in the form of one’s feelings, meaning that one’s own mind can create discomfort when one violates their utilitarian duties. • Internal sanctions: these feelings of discomfort that result from deviating from duties can go on to influence one’s actions if their “moral nature” has been sufficiently cultivated. • Mill acknowledges that some people are more likely to adhere to moral principles if they are not rooted in subjective feelings, but rather in objective facts. • Mill believes that regardless of objective fact, one’s ultimate drive to adhere to moral principle is rooted in their own subjective feelings, thus making internal sanctions the most powerful. John Stuart Mill Chapter 3: Of the Ultimate Sanction of the Principle of Utility • If internal sanctions are the most powerful influencer over one’s actions, then utilitarianism must appeal to one’s conscientious feelings, aka. inner sentiments. • Mill says that moral feelings are acquired, and they are a natural outgrowth of human nature. • Artificial moral feelings are imposed rather than naturally developed or cultivated. • Artificial moral feelings dissolve under the scrutiny of analysis. • Natural sentiment will nurture feelings that promote utilitarianism. • Humans do not necessarily have feelings that promote utilitarianism, but Mill believes that when people are educated to embrace utilitarianism, they would develop natural sentiment to promote social utility out of fear of feeling guilty when they do not act in such a way that promotes this social utility. • Mill says that a successful moral theory is one that will resonate with its practitioner’s natural sentiments, otherwise it will dissolve under scrutinous analysis. Emmanuel Kant GMM - Chapter 1 • Duties should be undertaken out of "reverence" for "the law." • Remember that the function of humans is to act and think rationally; Any organism can act out of instinct but only a rational being can recognize a general moral law and act on it simply because it is rational to do so. • The "reverence" for law that a rational being has is the moral motivation of a person who recognizes that the law is an imperative of reason (rational because it’s rational) that transcends all other concerns and interests, such as one’s internal emotions and feelings.