Business Studies Teacher Guide

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Teacher Guide
Cambridge IGCSE® and Cambridge
O Level
Business Studies
0450 and 7115
Cambridge Secondary 2
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permitted to copy material from this booklet for their own internal use. However, we cannot give permission
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Centre.
® IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations.
© Cambridge International Examinations 2014.
Contents
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 1
What do I need to get started?
Section 1: Syllabus overview ............................................................................................... 3
1.1 Aims of the syllabus
1.2 Assessment objectives
1.3 The assessment structure
Section 2: Planning the course ............................................................................................ 7
2.1 Long-term planning
2.2 Medium-term planning (creating a scheme of work)
Section 3: Planning the lessons (creating lesson plans) ..................................................... 11
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
Points to consider
Key factors to consider when planning lessons
Reflection and evaluation
Flexibility
Section 4: Classroom practice ........................................................................................... 13
4.1 The role of the teacher
4.2 Sustaining interest and motivation
4.3 Strategies for managing learning
Section 5: Preparing learners for final assessment ............................................................ 17
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
Command words
Developing case study skills
Revision tips for learners
Use of past papers, mark schemes and principal examiner reports
Section 6: Resources and teacher support ........................................................................ 21
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
Teacher support
Finding and evaluating resources
Endorsed and recommended text books
Creating and sharing resources
Adapting resources
Ask CIE
Training
Professional development for teachers
Appendices ......................................................................................................................... 25
Appendix 1: Sample long-term plan
Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Appendix 3: Two sample lesson plans
Appendix 4: Sample lesson plan template
Appendix 5: Mind map
Appendix 6: ‘Exchange rates’ worksheet
Contents
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Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Introduction
Introduction
This guide is designed to help you familiarise yourself with the Cambridge IGCSE (0450) and O Level (7115)
Business Studies syllabuses and the related support materials available from Cambridge. It also aims to help
you organise and plan your teaching, offering advice and guidance on possible teaching strategies, on how
to select and use resources, on how to develop case study skills and how to prepare your learners for the
final assessment.
What do I need to get started?
When planning a course the teacher needs to become thoroughly familiar with the syllabus (both the
curriculum content and the assessment structure), the scheme of work and the other support materials
available.
The syllabus covers the overall aims, assessment objectives, curriculum content, descriptions of the
examination components and grade descriptions of the subject. Each area or skill within a subject is defined
to help you organise the overall scope of what needs to be learnt.
Extracts from the published schemes of work in the appendices of this guide illustrate one method of
organising and delivering the course and include examples of appropriate teaching activities alongside the
learning objectives. They also exemplify the planning principles outlined in sections 2 and 3 of this guide.
A fully comprehensive scheme of work covering the whole programme is available on Teacher Support
http://teachers.cie.org.uk. You can obtain a username and password for the site from your Exams Officer.
On Teacher Support you will find a range of other support materials for teachers; these include question
papers, mark schemes and examiner reports. Making appropriate use of these resources can:
•
help you understand how the teaching and learning relates to the assessment objectives
•
help you prepare your learners for their final assessment
•
help you understand the standard
•
save you time.
Other support materials for teachers are available on the public website www.cie.org.uk. Make the most of
these Cambridge resources by combining them with local activities and resources developed and provided
by your school.
Here is a checklist to help you get started.
Checklist
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•
•
•
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Have you read the syllabus and checked that it is for the correct year?
Have you looked at the Cambridge website and Teacher Support?
What support materials are you going to use?
What local resources are available to use?
What school resources are available to use?
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
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Introduction
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Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Section 1: Syllabus overview
Section 1: Syllabus overview
Being familiar with the requirements of the course is important. The syllabus sets out in detail which topics
need to be covered and may be examined. Where appropriate, it also explicitly states what will not be
assessed. For example, in Section 3 it indicates that knowledge of the formula and calculations of Price
Elasticity of Demand (PED) will not be examined. A full list of the curriculum content can be found in section
6 of the syllabus.
In addition to this, the syllabus outlines the skills that learners will need to develop during their course, as
well as explaining in what way assessment will be carried out.
1.1 Aims of the syllabus
The course is designed to provide learners with a strong foundation for further study as well as giving
them an ideal preparation for the world of work. The aims of the syllabus are therefore broadly focused.
It is hoped that learners will develop an understanding of the issues they may face in the business world.
They will have to develop skills of analysis and try to identify and recommend appropriate strategies to help
them solve problems. In addition, learners will have the opportunity to reflect on the bigger issues affecting
modern organisations such as globalisation, ethical problems and the environment.
The aims of the syllabus (which can be found in Section 5.1 of the syllabus) describe the desired educational
outcomes that learners will work towards during the course.
There are eight aims. These are to enable candidates to:
1. make effective use of relevant terminology, concepts and methods, and recognise the strengths and
limitations of the ideas used in business
2. apply their knowledge and critical understanding to current issues and problems in a wide range of
appropriate contexts
3. distinguish between facts and opinions, and evaluate qualitative and quantitative data in order to help
build arguments and make informed judgements
4. appreciate the perspectives of a range of stakeholders in relation to the business environment,
individuals, society, government and enterprise
5. develop knowledge and understanding of the major groups and organisations within and outside
business and consider ways in which they are able to influence objectives, decisions and activities
6. develop knowledge and understanding of how the main types of businesses are organised, financed and
operated, and how their relations with other organisations, consumers, employees, owners and society
are regulated
7. develop skills of numeracy, literacy, enquiry, selection and employment of relevant sources of
information, presentation and interpretation
8. develop an awareness of the nature and significance of innovation and change within the context of
business activities.
1.2 Assessment objectives
The assessment objectives (which can be found in section 5.2 of the syllabus) are statements about what
will actually be tested in the final examination. Each question that is set in the examination relates to one or
more of these assessment objectives (AOs).
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
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Section 1: Syllabus overview
There are four assessment objectives:
AO1: Knowledge and understanding
Candidates should be able to:
•
demonstrate knowledge and understanding of facts, terms, concepts, conventions, theories and
techniques commonly applied to or used as part of business behaviour.
Knowledge and understanding are clearly linked. Learners need to be able to give clear and precise
definitions of basic terms and concepts such as ‘flow production’. They also need to show that they clearly
understand what the term means by using it appropriately or describing it in detail.
Knowledge is also identifying relevant points in a variety of different business situations. Learners could be
asked to identify key features or state implications of flow production for different types of business. For
example, small businesses will not benefit from flow production, whereas flow production has implications
for larger businesses especially in terms of finance and people.
AO2: Application
Candidates should be able to:
•
apply their knowledge and understanding of facts, terms, concepts, conventions, theories and
techniques.
Learners will need to learn how to use their knowledge to select what is appropriate for a given situation.
The key thing for learners to remember is that whatever the context – mining, transport, a cosmetics
business, or a shoe retailer business – the principles are the same. It is the implications for each situation
that will vary depending on the size, type and business circumstances.
For example, knowledge of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Taylor’s theory and Herzberg’s hygiene and
motivational factors are relevant to almost every single business – but how the theories are implemented/
used in different businesses is likely to be different. Learners will need to consider what these types of
business do and how they operate so they can apply their knowledge appropriately. Piece rates might work
in a factory but would not be relevant to a retail business.
AO3: Analysis
Candidates should be able to:
•
distinguish between evidence and opinion in a business context
•
order, analyse and interpret information in narrative, numerical and graphical forms, using appropriate
techniques.
This involves developing or explaining concepts or information to show a more detailed understanding
of key terms or ideas. Learners could be asked to select and interpret some data, a table or chart and
explain what this might mean for a given business situation. They might have to identify factors, reasons or
problems and then explain how or why it is an issue that needs to be considered. For example, a question
could ask whether introducing e-commerce might be helpful for a particular type of business. As not all the
knowledge points learnt might be relevant, learners will have to identify factors and then explain how or why
the particular points selected are issues that this business needs to consider.
AO4: Evaluation
Candidates should be able to:
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present reasoned explanations, develop arguments, understand implications and draw inferences
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make judgements, recommendations and decisions.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Section 1: Syllabus overview
This involves developing arguments and making decisions which you can support with reasons. Giving an
opinion and making a decision on its own is not actually evaluation. Learners must learn to provide suitable
explanations to support their point of view. In many cases there is no right or wrong answer, so it is really
about how well they support their decision with a relevant argument.
1.3 The assessment structure
The final exams are looking to find out what candidates know and what they can do. The syllabus includes
information that explains the respective length and structure of each paper. For IGCSE Business Studies,
candidates must take two compulsory papers. There are no optional questions. (Remember, you can see
examples of these papers on Teacher Support.)
Both papers can draw on topics taken from the whole of the syllabus content. All candidates can access the
full range of grades (A* to G).
The following table, taken from Section 4 of the syllabus document, summarises this information.
Components
Weighting
Paper 1
1 hour 30 minutes
Written examination consisting of four questions requiring a mixture of short answers
and structured data responses.
Candidates answer all questions.
80 marks.
Externally assessed.
Paper 2
50%
1 hour 30 minutes
Written examination consisting of four questions based on a case study, provided as
an Insert with the paper.
Candidates answer all questions.
80 marks.
Externally assessed.
50%
Weighting reflects the relative importance attached to different papers and assessment objectives across
the qualification.
In Business Studies each paper is equally important. Therefore, to achieve a high overall grade, learners will
have to do well on both papers.
However, the marks allocated to the four assessment objectives for each paper do vary.
The structure of the IGCSE Business Studies syllabus for the two papers is as follows:
Assessment objective
Paper 1
Paper 2
Weighting for qualification
AO1: Knowledge and understanding
40%
20%
30%
AO2: Application
30%
30%
30%
AO3: Analysis
15%
25%
20%
AO4: Evaluation
15%
25%
20%
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
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Section 1: Syllabus overview
The grid shows Paper 1 is more focused on knowledge and understanding while Paper 2 is assessing the
higher order skills of analysis and evaluation.
To be successful in the final examination, candidates must demonstrate a range of skills. Overall, a
candidate who can only show knowledge and understanding is not going to achieve a high mark, as only
30% of the total marks are allocated to this assessment objective.
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Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Section 2: Planning the course
Section 2: Planning the course
Planning is important. Preparation and organisation mean that you are more likely to achieve your overall
objectives.
2.1 Long-term planning
A long-term plan should act as a framework to make sure the whole syllabus (and associated skills) are
covered during the time that you have available.
To plan effectively, there are a number of factors that you will need to consider as you start to put your
course together.
•
Prior Knowledge: Find out what learners already know, understand and are able to do. Plan to build on
this, rather than repeat what they have already learnt. Some learners might not have studied Business
Studies before.
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Sequencing: There must be a logical order, which effectively links certain topics with one another.
Some topics have to be taught in a certain order as learners need to understand some basic concepts
before they can attempt to learn and understand other related issues. Therefore, it is sensible to start
with unit 1 – understanding business activity. It is usual to finish with Unit 6: external influences.
Learners need to study the other areas of business to fully understand some of the implications these
external factors might have on businesses and its other stakeholders. The order of the other four
sections is a matter of choice, depending on individual circumstances and preferences.
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Actual teaching time available: Refer to your school calendar as to the timing and length of half
terms, holidays, festivals and when other school events occur. Include key dates such as parent
evenings/reports home along with examination dates.
•
Number and frequency of lessons: e.g. the length of lessons can influence which activities are
practical to use.
•
Staffing: Who will be involved in teaching the course?
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Assessment policy of your school, including when you can set mock examinations.
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Homework policy of the school.
In addition, it is helpful at this early stage, to consider the following issues:
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Cross curricular links: Some topics and skills are covered in more than one subject area. In Geography,
learners might study external costs and benefits. Your school might host an Enterprise Fair or run
environmental and/or ethically focused events.
•
Using local resources: Be aware of local and national events. News stories about local businesses and
government policy can help bring business concepts to life. Learners can apply their learning in realistic
and useful ways to understand the importance and relevance of the concepts.
•
Culture: All countries will have different customs, laws and traditions. The syllabus does not require
learners to have specific knowledge of laws, only the impact of types of laws on businesses. Likewise,
learners need to know the advantages of trade unions for workers, even though you might be in a
country that does not have a tradition of trade union membership.
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Section 2: Planning the course
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Activities: Any activity must be relevant to what you need to teach. Variety is important to ensure you
engage all learners in the learning process. Different activities will help the development of different
skills.
•
Special needs guidance: Some learners might need a lot of help to understand basic terms and
concepts. Special needs can cover a wide range of issues, so strategies vary with each individual.
Recognising that you might have learners who may make slower progress or who have difficulties in
particular skills or subject areas (e.g. mathematical aspects of accounts) helps you to plan ahead.
•
Advanced student guidance: Some learners have high cognitive skills. They are able to learn at a
much faster pace and are able to process material to a much greater depth. These learners do not need
a high level of repetitive work. They need to engage in work that is both challenging and stimulating.
•
Helping you build in formative and summative assessment: Formative assessment takes place
throughout the course. It involves gathering information on what learning is occurring during the
teaching of the course. This could be through marking class and homework, through observations,
question and answer sessions or end of topic tests. It is useful to discuss performance with each
learner. The result of formative assessment should guide and influence subsequent teaching and
learning. Summative assessment is the assessment of learning at the end of the course or the final
assessment. This establishes what progress a learner has achieved by that stage and is often used to
report to others.
All these factors vary greatly between schools. It is therefore important that you develop your plans to suit
your particular circumstances.
2.2 Medium-term planning (creating a scheme of work)
Once you have an overview in place, you will need to add the next levels of detail. A scheme of work will
allow you to break down the syllabus content into small stages to help you plan your teaching. It will guide
you as you prepare what, when and how you plan to deliver the course. It will also help with organisation,
assessment and evaluation issues.
Important issues to consider when planning your scheme of work include:
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Information on the learners in the class or group including number, age, sex and ability. This will
influence the pace at which you cover the course and the activities you use.
•
Previous knowledge and experience of the class in relation to the subject matter.
•
The number and duration of the lessons, i.e. the amount of time the teacher has for each lesson.
This can vary from school to school.
•
The aim of the scheme of work (outlining the subject matter and content). Ideally you should include
the learning objectives for each lesson or unit of work.
•
The main content to be covered in each lesson in terms of knowledge, concepts, understanding and
skills.
•
Differentiation strategies How will you allow for learners with different abilities? Most classes will
include a range of abilities so you will need to develop some differentiated tasks (more on this in
section 4).
•
Organisational issues including: Which teaching and learning methods will be used? Which sources
of information and equipment will be used – (e.g. books, worksheets, pictures)? Which resources and
activities will support the learning objectives. Every teacher has their own teaching style and your
scheme of work should reflect this.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Section 2: Planning the course
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Details of how assessment is going to take place: How will you know if learners have understood
what they need to know?
Cambridge provides a sample scheme of work on the secure online support facility for Cambridge teachers,
http://teachers.cie.org.uk. (You will need a password, obtainable from your Exams Officer, to gain access.).
An extract from this published scheme of work is provided in Appendix 2. It is important to understand that
this scheme of work is intended only as an example, and you are not obliged to use it. Each school will wish
to develop their own scheme of work, to suit their individual circumstances and their learners. It is always
good practice to involve everyone in the department in the construction of the scheme of work.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
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Section 2: Planning the course
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Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Section 3: Planning the lessons (creating lesson plans)
Section 3: Planning the lessons (creating lesson plans)
3.1 Points to consider
A lesson plan is an outline to help you work out, step-by-step, what you are going to do in the lesson and
why you are going to do it. The lesson plan also acts as a guide to show how you are going to assess the
learning that has taken place.
To be effective, the lesson plan does not have to be an exhaustive document that describes each and every
possible classroom scenario. It has to be adaptable. You might have to change as the lesson develops to
ensure effective learning is taking place.
You might not have time to plan every lesson in great detail, but try to ensure that you find time to plan key
lessons. This might be when you introduce a new topic or key concepts which could be difficult for learners
to understand.
In practice, many of the issues that you need to think about in your lesson plan are similar to your scheme of
work, just more detailed.
3.2 Key factors to consider when planning lessons
•
Who are you teaching? What level are your learners working at and what do they already know?
•
Teaching aims: This is an overall aim. It should be based on the scheme of work to ensure that it is
integrated into the overall course. It should reflect what you want to achieve from teaching this lesson.
•
Learning objectives: These objectives must be learner-centred. They should state what your learners
will know, do, demonstrate, or practise as a result of the lesson. To allow for different abilities, this
can be split up into ‘should learn’, ‘must learn’, ‘could learn’. This requires you to think what the most
important concepts and ideas are, or which skills learners need to grasp and apply. Why are they
important? So even if learners can only do some of the work, they will at least have covered the ‘must
learn’ content. Limit the number of learning objectives set as it is difficult to achieve too many. You
might want to share these aims with the learners so that they understand the purpose of the lesson.
•
How will you start and finish the lesson? The starter activity could take many forms including: a brief
quiz, brainstorm, some stimulus material or a brief video clip. To end, you can use many of the same
methods such as verbal or written quizzes supported by a follow-up discussion, question and answer
sessions in which you select responses from learners across the ability range, role-play scenarios in
which learners are required to apply their newly gained knowledge, understanding and/or skills.
•
Teaching/learning activities: How do you think you might want to teach the learners? Remember
any activity must help meet the objective(s) for that lesson. Activities can be used in a variety of
ways – from ice-breaker to plenary. For example a video clip on how businesses use break-even could
introduce the topic. Or it could be part of the main learning activity, acting as the basis of a discussion or
worksheet. Think about how you intend to use any activity.
•
Differentiation: How will you ensure that all learners, no matter what their ability, will be suitably
stretched and occupied throughout the lesson (more about this in section 4.3.2)?
•
Resources: What materials will you need (textbooks, worksheets, computers, scissors and coloured
pens etc.), and are they available when you need them?
•
Timings: How much time will each activity take?
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
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Section 3: Planning the lessons (creating lesson plans)
•
Assessment: You cannot just teach a lesson and then move on to the next topic. You have to know
how well each learner has understood the lesson objectives, in terms of content and skills. Assessment
can be formally done through questions or a test, but can also happen through classroom observation
and peer assessment.
•
Additional or extension activities? It is useful to have an extra activity or discussion question in case
you have time left. Will you set any additional work as homework?
You can find sample lesson plans in Appendix 4 of this guide.
3.3 Reflection and evaluation
During a lesson, teachers have to make quick decisions, with little or no time to think about them. Take
a few minutes after each class to reflect on what worked well and why, and what you could have done
differently. A lesson plan may not work as well as you had expected due to a number of reasons. Think
about how you might approach topics and situations in future.
The following are some questions that you may wish to consider:
•
Did the lesson achieve its planned learning outcomes?
•
How well did the learners perform the tasks set? Did they have enough time to complete the work?
Were the tasks too easy/challenging for some or all the learners? Did you ask the right questions?
•
Were there any problems? If so, why did they arise and how did you deal with them? How could you
respond to such problems in future?
•
What worked particularly well and why?
•
What, if anything, would you change if you taught the lesson again? Are there other activities you could
have used?
Some teachers involve others in lesson evaluation. You might want to ask another teacher to observe a
lesson to give you some feedback. You could involve your class for feedback by asking learners which
activities they enjoyed or whether they think the learning objectives have been achieved. For example when
teaching Unit 4.3, you could prepare a questionnaire as the basis for a discussion on quality.
3.4 Flexibility
Don’t try to plan everything down to the last detail. Teachers will modify their scheme of work and lessons
plans all the time. A scheme of work is not likely to remain the same year-on-year. New resources and
activities, as well as different teachers and groups of learners, mean that everything will need to be
constantly monitored and updated if necessary.
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Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Section 4: Classroom practice
Section 4: Classroom practice
4.1 The role of the teacher
Besides planning, teachers have to manage and organise the learning to ensure objectives are met. This
requires teachers to assume a variety of roles. As a facilitator, you should try to set tasks which encourage
active learning rather than telling learners the necessary information. Teachers should try and encourage
enthusiasm by making the lessons varied and interesting, keeping learners engaged in what they are doing.
Try to support and motivate them at every opportunity. Some learners need help to understand some
concepts, whilst others will want to explore topics in more detail. You know your learners best and will be
able to encourage, question, listen and give advice to suit each learner’s needs.
4.2 Sustaining interest and motivation
To help manage effective learning, a teacher has to keep learners interested and engaged in what they are
doing.
Here are some ways to achieve this:
•
Explain: Learners need to know what they are doing and why they are doing it, otherwise they can
quickly lose interest. For example you could share the lesson objectives so that they understand the
purpose of the lesson and how it fits into their other learning on the subject. You should also of course
be available to explain tasks if they have not been fully understood.
•
Make it real: Try to create activities based on issues that are relevant to your learners’ lives, whether
its marketing, motivation or types of business. If they can link the concepts you are teaching to what
they know, and are interested in, they are likely to see the relevance of the material and are more likely
to be engaged. Use local business examples, visits, newspaper articles or popular/local products where
possible.
•
Mix it up: The more traditional, didactic approach of standing in front of the class and lecturing over
long periods of time can make learners disengage. Plan and use a variety of teaching methods to suit all
types of learners to get them involved whenever possible.
•
Make learning visual: Learners associate ideas and concepts more immediately with images, so use
diagrams, tables and charts where this is useful. For revision, mind maps provide useful summaries (an
example is provided in Appendix 5). Try starting some topics with a diagram to show the relationship of
all the associated parts, so from the beginning they can see why they need to learn all these different
concepts.
•
Give learners choices: Learners like to feel responsible. Let them have some choice who to work with
or what project title or activities they do. Learners will be much more committed to a learning activity
that they have chosen rather than been told to do.
•
Goals: Set high but realistic expectations. Most people perform better when they are set a challenge. If
tasks are too easy, it can lead to boredom or send the (wrong) message to learners that you do not think
they are capable of anything more. However, if a task is too difficult it can affect their confidence, so
that they stop trying.
•
Feedback: Let learners know how well they are doing and be supportive by listening, giving hints and
encouragement as necessary. Do not wait for report time to talk to them about issues or skills where
they need to improve.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
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Section 4: Classroom practice
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Rewards: Recognise good work or behaviour. Rewards can be as simple as saying ‘well done’, or using
stickers or comments on work to encourage them to keep working hard.
•
Care: Learners will respond to teachers who appear interested in them. Take an interest in other things
that they do. Be approachable.
4.3 Strategies for managing learning
From the development of a scheme of work, creating lesson plans to motivating learners, you are always
managing learning.
4.3.1 Promote active learning
Cambridge syllabuses aim to produce learners who are actively involved in their own learning. They should
become confident at looking critically at business issues in a range of contexts and be able to offer solutions
to problems faced by different types of businesses. They should be able to take an informed interest in a
wide range of topical issues that relate to business.
Active learning will help achieve these aims. Active learning is a student-centred approach to learning,
where the responsibility for learning is placed upon the student, often by working together with others in
the class. Teachers act as facilitators to assist learners as they discover and process the information they
need. There are many ways that this can be achieved. For example:
•
you could ask learners to research types of business organisation by referring them to a website or a
textbook or getting them to find examples locally
•
you could write up the types of business organisation they have found on the board
•
in groups, you could ask them to consider which types of business organisation might be good for
different businesses and why, for example, a car manufacturer, accountancy business or small market
trader.
Giving more responsibility to learners does take class time but it does not necessarily take any longer than
traditional teacher-led activities. In reality, if learners are actively engaged they are likely to retain more
knowledge and by doing so they are developing the skills they need to learn.
There are many ways you can promote active learning, including the following.
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•
Brainstorming: This can be really useful when starting new topics or looking at current business
events. For example, as most learners know something about advertising methods, you could ask them
to consider the advantages and disadvantages of each method. You could write up their responses on
the board.
•
Group discussions or debates. It is a good idea to ask learners to research a topic beforehand. For
example, how a business could finance its expansion plans. Different groups could be asked to research
one method of finance so that there are a range of options to be discussed. Alternatively you could just
give everyone the same topic, e.g. do you think the Government should support small businesses in
getting set up or dealing with green issues? This might lead to an open discussion.
•
Group work. This is a traditional way of getting all learners involved in their learning. Groups of two
or three learners can be given different or related activities, e.g. one group could research fixed costs
whilst others look at variable costs. As well as learning, they are also developing their social and
interaction skills.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Section 4: Classroom practice
•
Projects: These are useful to allow learners the opportunity for either shared or individual discovery.
They are good for developing higher order skills such as problem solving, analysis and evaluation. For
example, learners could be asked to develop a business plan for a product or service they create or as a
way to consider the impact of Government policies on a particular business.
•
Presentations: These work well later in the course. Small groups of learners could be asked to
research ideas for a possible marketing strategy for a particular product either real or created. After the
presentation, the group could answer questions from the rest of the class.
•
Role playing: There are a number of topics where this approach will work well. For example as part of
leadership styles, some learners could assume the role of workers and managers to see the effect of
the different approaches. Alternatively, it could be used for location decisions – where to locate a new
car factory. You could give different groups of learners the role of unemployed workers, local businesses
and residents, owners, environment groups and Government officials. You could give them prepared
briefing sheets or ask them to produce them.
•
Worksheets: This is a common way of getting learners involved in their own learning. Worksheets
can be used in many ways. They can be used to check understanding and the application of concepts,
e.g. explain accounting terms or practise ratio calculations. It is a good idea to have some extension
questions as well. As the course progresses, worksheets will need to be more challenging to assess
analysis and evaluation skills.
•
Case studies: These can be used in a variety of ways. At the start of the course, you can get learners
to work on them in pairs or groups. You could create your own with newspaper or other articles to focus
on individual topics. At the end of the topic, they can be used to consolidate learning.
•
Wall displays: As well as being creative, learners have to present what they know in an interesting
and informative way. Wall displays and posters also serve to make the classroom more interesting and
attractive. Posters and wall charts can be produced on any number of topics. Posters naturally fit well in
communication and marketing.
•
Question and answer sessions: This is a quick way of assessing learner understanding.
4.3.2 Differentiation
Any class you teach is likely to include learners with different needs, capabilities and preferred ways of
learning. By using a variety of active learning methods it is possible to help all learners have the best
possible chance of learning. It can allow you to set work that will challenge advanced learners, whilst at the
same time allow you to support those who find it difficult to understand some or all concepts.
Differentiation is the technique for dealing with mixed abilities. This method enables you to ensure that
every individual learner in the class, no matter what their ability, is involved in tasks that are suitable for
them, and lets them progress at a rate that is appropriate for them. When devising activities you will need
to think about how to make sure that advanced learners are being fully stretched and stimulated whilst the
least able feel fully engaged with the lesson.
There are many ways to include differentiation into your lessons. Using the ideas given for active learning,
options include:
•
Brainstorming: You can target questions to different learners. Individuals could be asked to write up
the ideas, whilst others could produce mind maps to summarise the information.
•
Group discussions or debates: You might want to split the class into a number of groups who discuss
different issues such as factors affecting location for different types of business. Each group could
present their findings to the class. You can try to encourage different people to be spokesperson,
starting with confident speakers but encouraging all to take the role over time.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
15
Section 4: Classroom practice
•
Group work: Groups can be arranged in a number of ways. This could be by ability or interest to
encourage learners to share and discuss others ideas. Advanced learners can benefit from being in a
group with less able learners. All have to cooperate and share ideas. Able learners can reinforce their
learning by explaining points to others.
•
Projects: These are a good way to support individual learners with particular abilities, whilst offering
others the chance to develop their strengths. A simple way to differentiate is to give different groups
their own titles or allow them to choose. If open ended, this will allow the most able to keep exploring a
topic, whilst less able learners can have a narrower focus to their work.
•
Presentations: Different roles can be assigned. One learner might have lead responsibility for
researching the topic, one for organising the presentation, whilst others give the presentation.
•
Role playing: Roles can be assigned according to how challenging they are. This might be in terms of
how difficult the concepts might be or the number of issues they have to consider.
•
Worksheets: You can produce worksheets of different levels or ones which include extension
questions. Worksheets need to allow learners to progress quickly from the low/medium level skills of
knowledge, understanding and application to questions which focus on the higher order skills of analysis
and evaluation.
•
Case studies: Again you can produce case studies of different levels, or have additional or enriched
questions for advanced learners.
•
Wall displays: You can assign different tasks to learners. Some learners might have good visual
awareness but need help from others with better understanding of the concepts being displayed.
•
Question and answer sessions: You can target different questions towards certain learners whilst
having some questions open to all.
4.3.3 Assessment
Knowing where learners are at their current stage of development is crucial to managing their learning. You
need to set and monitor targets at various stages in the course. Marking work and discussions with learners
will help judge the progress made. Some schools create computer-based systems to track learner progress
across a range of subjects. This can allow you to spot if learners’ performance is consistent with their
general level of learning or whether you need to investigate further.
16
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Section 5: Preparing learners for final assessment
Section 5: Preparing learners for final assessment
5.1 Command words
These act as a guide to indicate which of the assessment objectives is being assessed in a particular
question. They are there to help candidates know what the examiner is looking for. Certain command
words are associated with certain assessment objectives so you need to identify the command words
used in each question. This will give you the clue as to which skills you should focus on in the question. For
example AO1 (knowledge and understanding) the key words to look for include ‘identify’ or ‘what is meant
by’.
You will need to provide learners with questions throughout the course that use these command words
appropriately. You should also give them feedback on their answers so they learn the meaning of each one.
5.2 Developing case study skills
Learners will need to become familiar with the format of case studies in Paper 2 and how to approach them.
Learners need to be able to apply their knowledge and understanding to a realistic scenario to help them
analyse the issues faced and make suitable recommendations as to what this particular business should do.
These skills need to be built up over time. The only way to do this is with practice. You can start with
learners answering simple knowledge-type questions based on short, stimulus material. Then you could add
question parts that test analysis and finally evaluation.
You can always adapt articles from magazines and newspapers to give learners plenty of different scenarios
to practise applying what they know to a variety of different problems or situations. Start by asking learners
to look for simple points such as who a particular business sells to, what the level of sales are and how
many people they employ. Encourage them to identify relevant issues. For example:
A supermarket chain has 120 stores in China. It plans to roll out an
online grocery business across 50 Chinese cities if a trial in the major
city of Shanghai is successful. The management of the chain thinks
this is a ‘safer’ way to enter this growing market.
The potential expansion is part of the company’s plan to grow its
online business globally. It is already the largest online food retailer
in the world. It has an internet business in most of the 14 countries
where it has stores.
a) What is an ‘online business’?
b) How many stores does the supermarket chain have in China?
c) How many countries does the chain operate in?
d) What reason does the supermarket chain give for planning a trial in Shanghai first?
e) Why might the chain be looking to grow its business in China?
f)
Do you think an online grocery business is the best way for the chain to expand its business?
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
17
Section 5: Preparing learners for final assessment
In answering analytical questions, it is important to establish links. You may help learners to develop thinking
skills by having a set of cue cards or prompts for them to use. Encourage them to always think in terms of
key questions such as ‘What is the significance of this?’, ‘What effect will this have?’, ‘Why?’, ‘What will
this lead to?’. Or you may help learners to develop this way of thinking by encouraging them to construct
flow charts. For example:
Cost of raw materials increase
Increase in variable costs
Increase in total costs
Pass on to customers?
Selling price rise?
YES
Margin same
NO
Fall in margin
Decrease in profits
Evaluation is a challenging skill for all learners. It requires learners to be able to build arguments and justify
opinions. You will need to help your learners build up their skills, and be able to use them in a number of
different settings.
Some good ways to develop evaluative skills:
•
Constantly ask learners for their opinions about current business stories in the news and why they have
that view.
•
Hold debates and discussions so they can practise making decisions based on a range of evidence and
articulating an argument.
•
Ask learners to prepare and make a presentation in which they consider both sides of an issue, for
example whether businesses should invest in new technology or whether the Government should allow
a new power station to be built. You could ask them to make a recommendation having considered the
various points made.
•
Provide activities such as case studies with questions which require learners to make judgements.
•
Set past questions.
5.3 Revision tips for learners
All learners will revise in different ways. Here is some good advice you can offer them:
18
•
Find out what you need to learn: Look at the relevant syllabus to check exactly what you need to
know and understand.
•
Make a revision timetable: Work out when your exams are and how much time you have to study.
Start early so you leave plenty of time to learn everything you need to know. It is likely you will have
other exams as well, so you will need to allow time for them as well.
•
Manage your time well: Work in terms of 30 or 40 minutes (or topic by topic) then take a break. This
will give you time to reflect on what you have learnt.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Section 5: Preparing learners for final assessment
•
Revision is more than just reading: Don’t just read but make notes, draw diagrams, create
mnemonics to summarise the main points.
•
Test yourself regularly to check you have understood the topic: There are usually revision
questions in most text books or revision guides that you can use to help work out what you need to
know.
•
If you do not know something, ask for help.
•
Practise exam-style questions: Be familiar with the styles of question that you are likely to be asked.
Learning how to approach different types of question will enable you to demonstrate that you can both
select and apply appropriate skills in each instance.
In the exam:
•
read and follow the instructions on the front of the paper
•
attempt all questions (there are no optional ones)
•
read each question carefully. Make sure you have the right focus to a question. For example, if the
question asks about advantages for franchisees, don’t discuss issues that affect a franchisor. If the
question asks for three points, include three points in your answer
•
identify the command word used in each question
•
include appropriate calculations (and formulae). If data is provided, there will be a question that requires
you to use it
•
use complete sentences whenever possible. Bullet point lists tend only to show knowledge, which
could restrict the marks available if analysis is required
•
demonstrate the application of knowledge and concepts. Base your answers on the scenario. This
doesn’t mean simply referencing the business name. Try to think about what makes a product or service
sell, and the issues that this type of business could face. Always use the information provided in the
case study or question stem to help guide you when considering what to write
•
aim for a balanced answer. Try to include both advantages and disadvantages if the question requires
evaluation
•
make sure you do include a decision or recommendations if they are requested in the question
•
leave time at the end of the exam for checking what you have done. Have you attempted all four
questions?
5.4 Use of past papers, mark schemes and principal examiner
reports
There are a number of documents produced by Cambridge to help teachers prepare learners for their final
exams.
5.4.1 Past papers
These directly illustrate the requirements of the exam. Learners get to know the format of the exam, the
type of questions asked and the style and type of command words used in different questions.
There are many ways in which past papers can help revision.
•
For practice: This is useful to help learners assess whether they know and understand the subject
matter or alternatively to identify gaps in their knowledge. Setting a whole paper is good practice
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
19
Section 5: Preparing learners for final assessment
for the examinations as learners also gain experience of working in exam conditions and within time
constraints. You do not always have to use the whole paper. For Paper 2, for example, you could set one
of the four questions and reduce the time accordingly to 20 or 25 minutes.
•
As a focus for revision: You can see what level of detail is expected and this will help learners work out
how much they need to know about different topics.
•
Understanding what the examiner will be looking for: Ask learners to try marking someone else’s
response to a question to understand how an examiner will look at the answer. This will also enable
them to see how others approach the same question.
A good number of past papers are available on Teacher Support http://teachers.cie.org.uk (see page 1 for
access details) as there are several variants of Papers 1 and 2 in each exam series.
5.4.2 Mark schemes
Probably the best way to use mark schemes is to set past questions (either single questions or whole
papers) as a test for learners and check how well they have done by referring to the mark scheme. You
might, sometimes, give them to learners to mark their own work or even each other’s.
5.4.3 Principal examiner reports
These reports, found on Teacher Support http://teachers.cie.org.uk (see page 1 for access details) contain
information on how candidates have performed in both examination papers. They give guidance on what
examiners were looking for in each question, as well as which questions candidates have done well on and
any common mistakes and points of confusion. The reports are useful for both teaching and revision as you
can pick up tips to help improve learners’ understanding and exam performance.
20
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Section 6: Resources and teacher support
Section 6: Resources and teacher support
6.1 Teacher support
Teacher Support is the name of our free, secure online resource bank for Cambridge teachers
http://teachers.cie.org.uk. The site contains subject-specific resources, downloadable documents from
previous exam series, and other online resources such as teaching materials and resource lists.
In addition there is a Community area where teachers can share information, ideas and materials. The
Community area includes discussion forums, community resources and online textbooks.
Access to the site is restricted to registered Cambridge Centres. Teachers will therefore need a password to
access this site. Your Exams Officer in your school will be able to give you a username and password. If not,
contact Cambridge who will be able to help you.
6.2 Finding and evaluating resources
A comprehensive resource list can be found on Teacher Support. This includes books, CDs/DVDs,
downloadable resources and websites.
There are many useful resources available. Teachers can freely access many trustworthy websites to obtain
suitable resources free of charge. However not all of them will have been produced for this particular course
(see section 7). For example www.tutor2u.net has resources for various GCSE and A level courses. This
means that some of the content and activities provided on this website is too detailed or not relevant to
IGCSE learners.
When selecting suitable resources consider the following questions:
•
Is it relevant to the subject content and skills outlined in the syllabus?
•
Does it help achieve lesson objectives? Does it help you teach the concepts that you want to cover this
lesson?
•
Is it suitable for the age and ability of learners? Does it assume any prior knowledge?
•
Is the language suitable?
•
How does it present the concepts and ideas? Will it engage learners in a way which will promote active
learning?
•
Does it allow for different abilities of learners? Is it going to be too easy/hard for some learners?
•
How much time is needed? Do you have enough lesson time to use it effectively?
•
Do you have all the necessary materials and equipment to use it?
6.3 Endorsed and recommended text books
Endorsed and recommended textbooks are available in our resources lists. When a title is endorsed it
means that it has been written to follow closely the qualification it relates to, so it is suitable to be used as
teaching material for that specific subject.
Recommended titles are also available which are useful as a reference resource when teaching or studying
the subject, but the title has not been written specifically for the qualification it is linked to.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
21
Section 6: Resources and teacher support
6.4 Creating and sharing resources
There is no need to rely only on books, downloads and the internet for resources. Newspapers (local,
national or international), can provide a wealth of up-to-date material. Likewise, magazines often include
data, articles and features. Many businesses provide promotional materials that you can use. Business
leaflets, posters and business cards, as well as forms of packaging, are can all be useful resources. When
creating your own materials use the same criteria outlined in section 7.1 to make sure it is useful.
Teachers in a department will find it useful to store all materials in a central resource, either in printed form
or as shared electronic files.
You can share resources with other teachers. One way you can do this is through the community resources
on Teacher Support.
6.5 Adapting resources
There is no guarantee that you will want to use the resources you have found in a particular way. Some
case studies might take too long for the time you have available. A worksheet might look at issues not on
the syllabus or some of the questions asked might be too difficult. Rather than not use them at all, you
might want to spend some time adapting the resources you have. For example, you could cut and paste the
questions you want to create your own resource.
Adapting resources is important in Business Studies as the subject matter is always changing. Businesses
have to react to changing market conditions so there is always new material to use as the basis for a
discussion or worksheet. For example, give your learners a newspaper article about a planned business
closure and ask them to discuss the impact on stakeholders.
Past papers can also act as a model to produce your own resources. Use questions as a template to create
additional questions. Think about switching a large manufacturer to a small one, or change the type of
product, or adapt some of the questions to suit a different topic. For example:
Telefax is a business that manufactures a range of electronic products. Table 1
shows selected information from its latest Balance Sheet.
Table 1: Balance Sheet Telefax as at 30 June
$m
2009
22
Fixed Assets
Current Assets
Current Liabilities
Net Assets
16
16
Financed by:
Long-term Liabilities
Shareholders’ Funds
Capital Employed
10
20
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
2010
30
30
40
24
20
44
20
24
30
44
Section 6: Resources and teacher support
(a) What is meant by the term ‘fixed assets’? [2]
(b) Identify two examples of Telefax’s current liabilities. [2]
(c) Identify and explain two reasons why most businesses have debtors. [4]
(d) Identify and explain three reasons why Telefax’s bank manager might want to see the accounts of the
business. [6]
(e) Do you think that the financial position of Telefax has improved in 2010? Justify your answer. [6]
You could change the questions asked. For (a), it might be a definition of ‘current assets’. Question (c) might
become problems of debtors or why have creditors. For (d), you might ask how a different stakeholder
might look at the accounts. In (e) different numbers in the balance sheet could mean the question does
not have to change. You could add a line to the ‘stem’ (the text preceding the question) to allow you to
ask about a different topic. For example, ‘Telefax has a wide span of control’. This would allow you to ask
organisational questions.
6.6 Ask CIE
Ask CIE is a bank of answers to frequently asked questions from Cambridge principals, teachers, learners,
parents, examinations officers and other customers. You have 24 hour access to all this useful information.
If you cannot find the answer you require, you can contact someone via Ask CIE who will try to help you
personally.
6.7 Training
6.7.1 Online training
Online training is occasionally available to Cambridge schools, usually on a rolling schedule. Check
www.cie.org.uk/events to see when courses are running and to register.
Online tutor-led courses
Where available, these courses are led by a Cambridge expert. They focus on classroom practice.
Participants follow a three unit programme over six weeks and can interact and share resources with
teachers from other schools. A number of participants have built up long-lasting professional links with their
fellow participants.
Online seminars
Where available, these seminars are led over a short period by an expert and focus on specific issues such
as syllabus changes or the recent examination session.
6.7.2 Face-to-face
We run an extensive programme of short professional development courses across the world for teachers
at Cambridge schools. Some workshops are run by a Cambridge trainer and others by experienced local
teachers. These courses offer teachers the chance to update their knowledge, learn new skills and network
with other teachers. Please check the Cambridge website events tab to see when courses are running and
to register: www.cie.org.uk/events.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
23
Section 6: Resources and teacher support
6.8
Professional development for teachers
We also offer professional qualifications for teachers who want to develop their thinking and practice.
Learn more about the Cambridge International Certificate for Teachers and Trainers and the Cambridge
International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers at: www.cie.org.uk/qualifications/teachers.
24
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Appendices
Appendices
Appendix 1:
Appendix 2:
Appendix 3:
Appendix 4:
Appendix 5:
Appendix 6:
Sample long-term plan
Extracts from the scheme of work
Two sample lesson plans
Sample lesson plan template
Mind map
‘Exchange’ rates worksheet
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
25
Section 6:Appendix 1: Sample long-term plan
Appendix 1: Sample long-term plan
This plan is based on a two year IGCSE course, with the two examination papers being taken in the final
term.
Term 1
General introduction to Business Studies
Understanding business activity
People in business
Focus on developing skills of knowledge with
understanding
Learners to apply concepts including ways
businesses grow or current business events
Short ‘case studies’ and diagrams to be
introduced
Term 2
Continuation of people in business
Learners to apply concepts including motivation
Operations Management
Longer case studies to be explored
Focus on developing the skill of analysis
Term 3
Marketing
Learners to give presentations
Focus on developing the skill of evaluation
Test
Department review of learner’s progress
Term 4
Review of previous year’s work
Finance
Focus on developing approach to case study style
questions
Learners to report on business events/enterprise
activity
Department to identify learners who need extra
support
Term 5
January mock examination papers
•
Structured and short answer paper
•
Case study paper
External influences on business activity
Focus on developing examination techniques –
including selecting questions
26
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Learners work through past papers
Section 6:Appendix 1: Sample long-term plan
Term 6
Revision
Department review scheme of work for next year
Tests:
•
Structured and short answer paper
•
Case study paper
•
Learners take two examination papers
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
27
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Unit 3: Marketing
Recommended prior knowledge
The unit requires little in the way of prior knowledge but will draw heavily on learners’ own experiences as customers and consumers. Some
understanding of the ideas of Units 1 and 2 would also be useful, particularly aspects to do with size and objectives and different departments in a
business. It is therefore suggested that this unit is studied after both Units 1 and 2, although this is not essential.
Context
The purpose of this unit is to give learners an understanding of marketing, its role and functions, together with some development of market research.
Teaching should be based on practical examples of marketing strategies where possible, drawn from the local business environment, or possibly
through an enterprise activity. It links back to Unit 1 as businesses are trying to meet customer needs and wants. Marketing budgets and pricing have
relevance to Unit 4 (costs) and Unit 5 (income statements and profitability.) There are also close links between 3.4.3 (the opportunities and problems of
entering new markets abroad) and with Unit 6.3 (business and the international economy).
Outline
This unit is a relatively large unit. It starts by considering what the role of marketing is, how market changes might affect businesses, and how
businesses target customers. It then looks at the different methods of market research and how businesses can use these results to help their
marketing activities. The unit then moves on to consider the four main elements of the marketing mix, and these can be used to create an effective
marketing strategy. It also considers how technology has created both opportunities and threats for businesses. The unit ends with a consideration of
the issues facing businesses who want to sell their goods and services abroad.
It is suggested that approximately 20 per cent of the course time should be allocated to this unit.
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
28
Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
3.1.1
3.1.2
Learners should be able to
identify customer needs, and
understand how and why it
is important for businesses
to satisfy the needs of both
existing and new customers.
You might want to introduce the topic with a
brainstorm to identify some marketing strategies
of businesses using newspapers, magazines,
learners’ experiences and so on. This can lead to
discussion of key concepts such as different types
of markets, objectives of marketing, customer
needs, customer loyalty. (W)(Basic)
Online:
http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/
mfi-furniture-group/developinga-customer-focused-sales-strategy/
building-customer-relationships.
html#axzz2Q3FHktX8 (customer
relations case study)
There is a case study on technology in Borrington
and Stimpson (4th) (page 141), which could be
used as the basis for discussion. (W or G)
www.gulfnews.com (UAE)
As a basic activity there is a question in Dransfield
et al (page 103). On page 80 there is a useful
case study, and three questions about the use
of marketing in making decisions. There are
also questions in Nuttall and Houghton (page
125) about customer needs. (I or G) (Basic/
Challenging)
Textbooks:
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies,
Nuttall and Houghton, page 125
There are activities for marketing objectives in
Borrington and Stimpson (3rd) (pages 252 and
253). To extend this, there is an activity on page
196 of Titley. (Basic/Challenging)
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level,
Titley, page 196
www.indiatimes.com/ (India)
IGCSE Business Studies (3rd edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages 252
and 253
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, page 141
Business Studies for IGCSE,
Dransfield et al, page 103
29
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Syllabus ref
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
0450 past examination papers:
Jun 2012 Paper 11
Nov 2011 Paper 12
Jun 2011 Paper 12
Jun 2011 Paper 11
Nov 2012 Paper 11
Nov 2011 Paper 22
Jun 2011 Paper 22
Jun 2012 Paper 21
3.1.3
3.1.4
Learners should be able to
identify and explain the benefits
and limitations of each approach
to marketing (niche and mass).
Learners should be able to
identify how and why market
segmentation is undertaken.
They should be able to select
and justify an appropriate
method of segmentation in given
circumstances.
As a basic activity, you could ask learners to
compare a mass market product (e.g. Coca-Cola)
with a niche market product (e.g. Diet Coke).
Dransfield et al. has an interesting case study
looking at tourism in Jordan (page 89). (I or G).
(Basic/Challenging)
Give the learners a product for them to identify the
different segments of the market. (Basic) To extend
this, learners could explore how other products and
services are segmented. (Challenging)
Borrington and Stimpson (3rd) has a useful table
(page 254) on ways to segment a market. There are
also activities on segmentation in Jones (pages
118, 121).
Segmentation is usefully covered in the Australia
Tourist commission case in The Times 100.
The second exam-style question in Borrington
and Stimpson (4th) (page 141) could be used for
formative assessment.
Online:
http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/
australia/#axzz2Qhyamhln (case study)
Textbooks:
IGCSE Business Studies (3rd edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, page 254
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, pages 112, 117, 118, 121
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages 141
and 164
Business Studies for IGCSE,
Dransfield et al. pages 83, 85 and 89
0450 past examination papers:
Nov 2012 Paper 13
Nov 2012 Paper 22
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
30
Syllabus ref
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
For review, learners could be asked to answer
the summary/review questions for these topics
in the textbooks. As formative assessment,
Jones has questions on pages 112 and 117. (Basic/
Challenging)
3.2.1
3.2.2
Learners should understand
the need for market research.
They should be able to identify
and explain the stages of market
research and be able to explain
the limitations of market research
data.
Learners could then present their results in an
appropriate manner and appraise each other’s
work – especially the accuracy of the information
gathered. If, for example, soft drinks were chosen,
learners could go to Coca-Cola or Pepsi for their
secondary sources. See also resource list. (Basic/
Challenging)
All the textbooks cover the basic information
and have a range of activities for this topic. For
example, Nuttall and Houghton has a useful table
summarising advantages and disadvantages of
different research methods. Jones has activities on
pages 107, 109, 111 and 112 on research methods.
Titley has data questions on pages 211, 213 and 214
for learners to practise data presentation. Borrington
and Stimpson (3rd) (page 269) has a basic activity
on the limitations of different methods. (G and I)
(Basic/Challenging)
Online:
www.bized.co.uk/educators/16-19/
business/marketing/presentation/
research_map.htm (mind map)
www.bized.co.uk/educators/16-19/
business/marketing/lesson/research.
htm (lesson ideas)
www.coca-cola.com or www.pepsico.
com
Textbooks:
IGCSE Business Studies (3rd edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, page 269
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level,
Titley, pages 211, 213 and 214
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, pages 107, 109, 111 and 112
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, page 164
Business Studies for IGCSE,
Dransfield et al. pages 83 and 85
31
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Learners should be able to
present, analyse and interpret
simple market research
information.
An effective start is to choose an appropriate topic,
e.g. identify a gap in the market such as a local
vacant shop or what to sell in school. Get learners
to carry out a market research exercise including
some primary research in the form of carrying out
a questionnaire survey. Also carry out secondary
research on the topic chosen of suitable internet
sites for the research. This could very usefully be
tied in with the promotion section below or an
enterprise activity.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
For revision, learners could read pages 114–117 of
Houghton, and use this to produce a summary mind
map. You could use the Bized mind map as a guide.
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Revision Guide,
Houghton, pages 114–117, 119 and 125
To sum up, Dransfield et al. has three summary
questions (pages 83 and 85), and there are also
multiple-choice questions on the CD-ROMs that
accompany the Jones and Titley textbooks.
0450 past examination papers:
Nov 2012 Paper 11
Jun 2012 Paper 12
Nov 2011 Paper 11
Nov 2012 Paper 12
Nov 2012 Paper 13
Nov 2011 Paper 12
Nov 2012 Paper 21
Nov 2012 Paper 23
Jun 2012 Paper 22
To extend this, page 164 of Borrington and
Stimpson (4th) also has exam-style questions. (I)
(Basic/Challenging) which could be used as part of
formative assessment. There are also exam-style
questions in Houghton (pages 119 and 125).
In addition, the Bized website has a number of
lesson ideas that you might find useful.
3.3.1
Learners should be able to
identify and explain the costs
and benefits of developing new
products.
You might want to start this section with a brief
introduction to the marketing mix. As a basic
activity, learners could look at a familiar product
to consider how it is marketed in terms of price,
product, place and promotion. (Basic) To extend
this, there is an activity on page 91 of Dransfield
et al. (Challenging)
Focusing on the product itself, Borrington and
Stimpson (3rd), has information on what makes
a product successful, and an activity (page 228).
(Basic) In Titley, there is also a useful flowchart for a
typical product development (page 225).
Online:
www.dyson.com
www.bpamoco.com
http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/
kelloggs/extending-the-product-lifecycle/#axzz2Qhyamhln (extension
strategies)
http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/
hutchison-3g/market-leadership-in-the3g-market/#axzz2Qhyamhln (product
lifecycle and strategy)
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
32
Syllabus ref
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Learners should be able to explain
the concept of brand image and
its impact on sales and customer
loyalty.
Suggested teaching activities
Learners could compare the brands for a particular
product. A product such as mobile phones could
be taken as an example and study of how products
change in relation to recent developments. To
extend this, see case study (page 288) of Borrington
and Stimpson (3rd). (Basic)
There is some interesting material on product
development on the Dyson and BP websites.
Learners then need to explore what a brand is and
its impact on sales and customers. For instance,
using the phones again, learners can discuss which
products are popular, and why. (G)(Basic) Titley has
a useful table of popular brands (page 226), as well
as a useful activity. There are also activities in Jones
(page 126), and Borrington and Stimpson (3rd) (page
290) and a case study in the 4th edition (page 171).
Learners could look at the packaging of two
products, and discuss why they are packaged this
way. Learners could then design the packaging for a
product e.g. food product. (I or G)(Basic)
To extend this, learners could write a report or
present the packaging and justify the reasons for
this particular design. (Challenging)
There are helpful summary diagrams in Dransfield
et al. (page 92) and on the purposes of packaging
Jones (page 127), Borrington and Stimpson (3rd)
(page 292) have activities on the topic. (Basic/
Challenging)
http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/
nestle/kit-kat-revitalising-a-brandleader/#axzz2Qhyamhln (extension
strategies
Textbooks:
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies,
Nuttall and Houghton, page 145
IGCSE Business Studies (3rd edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages 228,
288, 290, 292, 295
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level,
Titley, page 225, 227–229
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, pages 126, 127, 129
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages 171,
167
Business Studies for IGCSE,
Dransfield, et al., pages 91, 92, 93
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Revision Guide,
Houghton, Unit 25
33
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Identify and explain the role of
packaging.
Learning resources
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Learning objectives
Learners should be able to draw
and interpret a product life cycle
diagram. They should be able
to identify and explain the main
stages of the product life cycle,
including extension strategies;
and explain how stages of the
product life cycle can influence
marketing decisions.
Suggested teaching activities
As a basic activity, the teacher could draw
three different product lifecycles on the board.
Learners could discuss the possible reasons and
consequences of each pattern. An important activity
for learners is to read the two tables in Titley which
explain the different stages and the impact of each
stage on marketing decisions (pages 227–228).
To extend this, there are activities in Nuttall and
Houghton (page 145), Borrington and Stimpson (3rd)
(page 295). There are more challenging questions
in Titley (page 229). For formative assessment,
there is an exam-style question in Jones (page 129).
(Basic/Challenging)
It is important to consider the implications and
options for extending the product life cycle for a
range of products. In addition to the textbooks,
there are some useful case studies on this topic
involving companies such as Kellogg’s, Hutchinson
and Nestlé (see online resources).
For assessment purposes, Borrington and Stimpson
(4th) (page 167) has two exam-style questions.
With regard to revision, learners could read
Unit 25 in Houghton. There are also summary
questions in Dransfield et al. (page 93), as well
as review questions in the other textbooks (or on
accompanying CD-ROMs).
Learning resources
0450 past examination papers:
Nov 2012 Paper 12
Nov 2011 Paper 11
Nov 2011 Paper 12
Jun 2012 Paper 12
Nov 2011 Paper 13
Jun 2011 Paper 11
Jun 2012 Paper 21
Jun 2011 Paper 21
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
34
Syllabus ref
Syllabus ref
3.3.2
Learning objectives
Learners should be able to
identify and explain the main
pricing methods, and be able
to select and recommend an
appropriate pricing method in
given circumstances.
Suggested teaching activities
As a basic activity, learners could compare prices of a
consumer good between different brands and different
outlets. If there are few outlets locally, the internet
could be used. There are many price comparison
websites which learners could use. (G)(Basic)
Learners could then explore the different pricing
methods. Answering the questions in Jones (pages
132 and 133) would be useful. There are also
activities in Nuttall and Houghton (page 147). This
book also has a helpful diagram (page 149) outlining
the main features of each method.
Learners also need to consider which methods to
use in different situations. There are activities in
Borrington and Stimpson (3rd) (page 311), Nuttall
and Houghton (page 150), Titley (page 238) and
Jones (page 133). (Basic/Challenging)
Learners should understand the
significance of price elasticity of
demand.
This is quite a challenging topic for learners, but
one that they can find interesting. Teacher could
lead a discussion on the relationship between price
and demand. There is a basic activity in Nuttall and
Houghton (page 148) in which learners can classify
products as elastic or inelastic. To extend learners,
there is an activity in Titley (pages 236 and 237).
(Basic/Challenging) Emphasise to learners that
they will not be required to do any calculations.
Online:
www.kelkoo.co.uk/
www.which.co.uk
Textbooks:
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Nuttall and Houghton, pages 147–149,
150
IGCSE Business Studies (3rd edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, page 311
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level,
Titley, pages 236–238
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, pages 132 and 133
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, page 174
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Revision Guide,
Houghton pages 135–136
0450 past examination papers:
Nov 2012 Paper 12
Nov 2012 Paper 11
Nov 2012 Paper 13
Nov 2012 Paper 22
Jun 2011 Paper 22
Jun 2012 Paper 21
Nov 2011 Paper 22
35
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Alternatively groups of learners could be asked to
investigate possible pricing strategies for different
products and present their findings to the class
(Basic) and justify which method should be used.
Learning resources
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
To sum up price elasticity and pricing methods,
learners could read pages 135–136 of Houghton.
(I) (Basic)
For assessment purposes, Borrington and Stimpson
(4th) (page 174) has two exam-style questions,
which could be used as the basis for formative
assessment.
3.3.3
Learners should be able to
identify and explain the
advantages and disadvantages of
different channels, and be able to
select and justify an appropriate
distribution channel in given
circumstances.
For a basic activity, give learners a selection of
products and decide how they could be sold, and
which method of transport to use. To extend this,
learners could be given the case study in Dransfield
et al. (page 97). This could be used to discuss the
importance of distribution. (Basic/Challenging)
In groups, learners could consider the differences
between the different distribution channels, by
looking at how and where different products are
sold. (G) Learners could answer the questions in
Borrington and Stimpson (3rd) (pages 334–336).
To extend this there are exam-style questions on
page 207 (4th edition only). These could be used
as the basis for formative assessment. To extend
this, there are also activities in Jones (pages 134
and 139) and Nuttall and Houghton (pages 152,154
and 155), and page 245 of Titley. (Challenging)
Unit 27 in Houghton, (pages 140–143) summarises
the main advantages and disadvantages of each
channel, along with sample exam-style questions
for learners. All the textbooks (or accompanying
CD-ROMs have revision questions or activities).
Textbooks:
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies,
Nuttall and Houghton, pages 152, 154
and 155
IGCSE Business Studies (3rd edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages
334–336
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level,
Titley, page 245
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, pages 134 and 139
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, page 207
Business Studies for IGCSE
Dransfield et al., page 97
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Revision Guide, Houghton, Unit 27
0450 past examination papers:
Jun 2012 Paper 11
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
36
Syllabus ref
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
Nov 2011 Paper 12
Nov 2011 Paper 11
Jun 2011 Paper 22
3.3.4
Learners should be able to
identify and explain the aims
of promotion. They should be
able to identify the advantages
and disadvantages of different
methods of promotion, and
explain how they influence sales.
Learners are likely to enjoy exploring the topic
of promotion. They could be required to work
individually or in small groups to develop their
own advertising strategy for a product of their
choice, with a realistic budget. They can research
local advertising rates in various media. (Basic/
Challenging)
The Red Bull and Hi-tec case studies have some
interesting activities on promotion methods.
For revision, learners could read pages 146–150 of
Houghton, and use this information to produce a
summary chart of the different options that would
be suitable for different types of businesses. (Basic)
http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/redbull/#axzz2RIcbMiL2 (Red Bull case
study)
Textbooks:
IGCSE Business Studies (3rd edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, page 325
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level,
Titley, pages 250, 253, 260
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, page 145
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages 198
and 199
Business Studies for IGCSE,
Dransfield et al., page 103
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Revision Guide,
Houghton, pages 146–150
37
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Learners then need to consider promotion that
could be used for a variety of different products.
Learners could look at how two or three products
are promoted, and discuss whether it is effective.
The activity on page 250 of Titley might be useful.
Advertisements do not just have to be on television.
To extend this, learners could answer questions on
page 253. There are also questions on page 145
of Jones, and Borrington and Stimpson (3rd) (page
325). (Basic/Challenging) The 4th edition has a
good activity which looks at the role of the internet
in promotion (page 198), as well as exam-style
questions on page 199.
Online:
http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/hitec-sports/#axzz2RIcbMiL2 (Hitec case
study)
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Learning objectives
Learners should be able to explain
the importance of a marketing
budget, and the need for cost
effectiveness in spending the
marketing budget.
Suggested teaching activities
Learners could then discuss the marketing budget
required in various situations e.g. a local shop,
a national supermarket chain, an international
business. (G)
The activity on page 103 of Dransfield et al. might
be useful to help teach the concept of a marketing,
budget and cost effectiveness. (G)(Basic) A more
challenging activity is on page 260 of Titley. (I or G)
(Challenging)
3.3.5
Learners should be able to
identify and explain the concept
of e-commerce, and the
opportunities and threats of
e-commerce for businesses and
consumers.
As a basic activity, learners could discuss how and
why they do/do not use e-commerce. (G)(Basic)
Learners should be able to explain
how the internet and social
networks are used for promotion.
To extend this, there is an activity in Borrington and
Stimpson (4th), (pages 194 and 195) which might be
useful. There is a helpful table and also in Houghton
(page 38). Jones has two activities (pages 137 and
138). (Challenging)
Learners could compare using a retail outlet for a
product (e.g. some item of clothing) with buying
using e-commerce.
There is some interesting material in the Amway
case study (see link) on the opportunities of
e-commerce.
This could be covered in combination with 3.3.1–
3.3.4.
Learning resources
0450 past examination papers:
Nov 2011 Paper 12
Nov 2011 Paper 13
Nov 2012 Paper 11
Nov 2012 Paper 13
Jun 2012 Paper 11
Nov 2011 Paper 23
Nov 2012 Paper 22
Online:
http://download.businesscasestudies.
co.uk/retrieve_amway_9_
YW13YXkvdGVhY2hlcnMvOS9sZ
XNzb24tc3VnZ2VzdGlvbnMuZG9jfHw
(Amway case study)
Textbooks:
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages 194
and 195
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, pages 137 and 138
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Revision Guide,
Houghton, page 38
0450 past examination papers:
Nov 2012 Paper 11
Jun 2012 Paper 12
Jun 2011 Paper 21
Jun 2012 Paper 22
Nov 2012 Paper 23
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
38
Syllabus ref
Syllabus ref
3.4.1
Learning objectives
Learners should be able to select
and justify appropriate marketing
strategies in a given situation.
Suggested teaching activities
Learners could be given a practical exercise to
develop a marketing plan for a product. (I or G)
(Basic)
To extend this, they could include consideration of
a strategy throughout the life of a product/service.
(Challenging) Learners could use the activity on
page 341 of Borrington and Stimpson (3rd) as a
guide.
In addition, Jones (pages 146, 148 and 149) has
activities based on TATA’s Nano, Virgin Active and
Fresh Living magazine. Dransfield et al. has a case
study on Tesco (page 100). A more challenging
activity is in Titley (page 258). (I or G)(Basic/
Challenging)
For revision, learners could answer the summary
three questions in Dransfield et al. (page 101)
or revision questions in the other textbooks or
accompanying CD-ROM.
Online:
www.tutor2u.net/business/gcse/
marketing_strategy_introduction.htm
(table shows how marketing can help
business strategy)
www.youtube.com/watch?v=s5oS57LJWY (video focusing on strategies used by
different companies)
Textbooks:
IGCSE Business Studies (3rd edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, page 341
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level,
Titley, page 258
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, pages 146, 148 and 149
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, page 206
Business Studies for IGCSE,
Dransfield et al., pages 100, 101
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Revision Guide,
Houghton, page 156
0450 past examination papers:
Jun 2012 Paper 11
Jun 2011 Paper 12
Nov 2011 Paper 12
Nov 2011 Paper 21
39
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Houghton (page 156) has some exam-style
questions, whilst Borrington and Stimpson (4th)
(page 206) has a Paper 2-style case study which
you might want to use as the basis of assessment.
(Challenging)
Learning resources
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
3.4.2
Learning objectives
Learners should be able to
identify and explain the impact of
legal controls on marketing.
Suggested teaching activities
Learners could use local websites and newspapers
to explore local consumer issues. This could lead
to a discussion on why and how legal controls are
needed on marketing. The activity in Dransfield et al.
(page 189) might be useful.
Learners could then focus on the impact of these
legal controls. Answering the questions in Titley
(page 417) (I or G) or Nuttall and Houghton (page
232) or Borrington and Stimpson (3rd) (page 66)
might be useful. (Basic)
To extend this, learners could answer the questions
in Jones (page 269). (Challenging)
This could be covered in combination with
3.3.1–3.3.4.
Learning resources
Online:
www.ascionline.org/ (India)
www.asasa.org.za/ (South Africa)
Textbooks:
IGCSE Business Studies (3rd edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, page 66
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level,
Titley, page 417
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, page 269
Business Studies for IGCSE,
Dransfield et al., page 189
0450 past examination papers:
Nov 2012 Paper 11
Jun 2012 Paper 11
Jun 2012 Paper 22
3.4.3
Learners should be able
to identify and explain the
opportunities and problems of
entering new markets abroad,
and understand the benefits
and limitations of methods to
overcome such problems.
An effective way to start this topic would be to use
the activity in Dransfield et al. (page 41). Learners
could then discuss the results to understand why
products need to be adapted for different markets.
Titley has an activity (page 98) which highlights
some of the possible issues.
To extend this, learners could answer the three
questions in Nuttall and Houghton (page 60). Jones
has some interesting data questions (pages 51 and
52) which are useful. (Basic/Challenging)
Textbooks:
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Nuttall and Houghton page 60
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level
Titley page 98
IGCSE Business Studies
Jones pages 51 and 52
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
40
Syllabus ref
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
In addition, Borrington and Stimpson (4th), (page
204) has two activities, as well as some exam-style
questions (page 215). (Basic/Challenging)
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition)
Borrington and Stimpson pages 204,
215
For revision, learners could answer the three
summary questions in Dransfield et al. (page 41)
or revision questions in the other textbooks or
accompanying CD-ROM. (Basic/Challenging)
Business Studies for IGCSE,
Dransfield et al., page 41
0450 past examination papers:
Nov 2012 Paper 12
Jun 2012 Paper 12
Jun 2011 Paper 12
Jun 2012 Paper 21
Nov 2011 Paper 23
For past examination papers go to
Teacher Support at
http://teachers.cie.org.uk
41
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Recommended prior knowledge
It is recommended that learners have covered Units 1–5 before starting this unit, as the intention of this unit is to develop ideas on the factors external
to a business that influences its decisions. Some of the concepts are probably less accessible for learners and require prior knowledge of the main
function areas of business such as marketing, production and finance.
Context
Several of these topics will probably have been introduced during the other sections. For example, pressure groups, role of legal controls over business
activity affecting the environment and externalities might influence business location (section 4.4.1). The possible conflict between ethics and profits
might have been discussed as part of 1.5 (business and stakeholder objectives). Section 6.3 has a number of links with earlier sections. The concepts
of globalisation and exchange rates might have been introduced in Unit 3.4.3 (opportunities and problems of entering new markets abroad) and
multinational companies can be linked to Unit 1.4.1 (forms of business organisation).
It is intended that learners will understand the impact that external factors have on business behaviour, but not a detailed understanding of economic
issues or the law. So, for example, learners should understand how interest rates impact on decisions, and why governments need to change them,
without any detailed understanding of monetary economics.
Teaching can be focused on Government issues in the learners’ own country with substantial use of newspapers and other media.
Outline
The unit starts by considering the ways in which governments control the economy, and how this can affect business activity. It then looks at
the environmental and ethical issues, both in terms of the opportunities and constraints for businesses. The unit ends with a consideration of the
international aspects of business in terms of the importance of globalisation, the importance and growth of multinational companies and the impact of
exchange rate changes on business activity.
It is suggested that approximately 15 per cent of the course time should be allocated to this unit.
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
42
Unit 6: External influences on business activity
Syllabus ref
6.1.1
Learning objectives
Learners should be able to identify
and explain how government’s
control over the economy affects
business activity, and how
businesses might be affected by,
and react to these changes:
•
government economic
objectives, e.g. increasing
Gross Domestic Product
(GDP)
•
main stages of the business
cycle; growth, boom,
recession, slump
•
how changes in taxes and
Government spending can
affect business activity
how changes in interest rates
can affect business activity
•
how businesses might
respond to these changes
Learners could be introduced to the concepts of
Gross Domestic Product (GDP), inflation, balance
of payments and unemployment. Then they could,
in groups, be asked to find out how and why
governments might try to achieve these objectives.
Different groups could research different objectives.
(G)(Basic) In addition, some learners might want to
explore how these issues affect different countries.
(Challenging) Each group could then present
their findings to the whole class. (Challenging)
Newspaper articles and news websites are a good
source of information for this activity. Alternatively,
there is a good activity in Titley (page 50) which you
could use instead of newspaper cuttings.
To extend this, learners could answer the four
questions in Nuttal and Houghton (pages 39 and 41).
There are also activities in Dransfield et al. (page 25)
and Titley (page 53). (Basic/Challenging)
Borrington and Stimpson (4th) have two case studies
on the economic problems in Spain (page 326) and
the motorbike industry in Bangladesh (page 327).
(G)(Basic/Challenging)
Discuss with learners what stage of the business
cycle your country currently is in (use the indicators
in the textbooks such as Borrington and Stimpson
(4th) (page 55) or Titley (page 433) or the Powerpoint
slides (see online resources). Learners could then
draw and label a business cycle, and add the key
features for each stage. (I or G)(Basic)
Learning resources
Online:
http://download.businesscasestudies.
co.uk/retrieve_cima_16_Y2ltYS90ZWFja
GVycy8xNi9kb3dudHVybi1hbmQtcm
VjZXNzaW9uLnBwdHx8
(slides on business cycle)
www.bized.co.uk/reference/
diagrams/The-UK-Trade-Cycle--Business-Cycle
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/
gcsebitesize/business/environment/
stateofeconomyrev1.shtml (interest rate
notes)
www.dineshbakshi.com/
phocadownload/governmenteconomic-policies.pdf (mind map)
www.bbc.co.uk/news/10604117
(economy tracker)
www.tradingeconomics.com (data for
countries)
Textbooks:
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies,
Nuttall and Houghton, pages 39 and 41
43
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
•
Suggested teaching activities
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learners, in groups, could be given information on
four or five countries and be asked to decide if they
are recession, growth, boom or slump and why.
(G) (Challenging)
In terms of taxes, learners should find out
information about the different types of taxes in their
own country and in another country. (I or G)(Basic)
Then, in groups, they could be asked to explain
how this policy measure might affect different
businesses. They could be required to bring out the
analytical links in the form of a flow chart.
(G) (Challenging) To extend this, learners could
look at some case study questions. For example,
Dransfield et al. has a good case study activity on
taxes in Albania (page 27). (I)(Basic)
There are also activities in Titley (pages 57 and
60), Jones (page 31) (I)(Basic) and Borrington and
Stimpson (3rd) (page 62). (Challenging)
A similar approach could be used for interest rates.
Learners could investigate what has happened to
interest rates over a certain time period. There are
many websites that learners could access, such
as trading economies or the BBC for data. (I or
G)(Basic) They could then be required to find an
example of how interest rates have impacted on
two different types of businesses. For example, one
business might have delayed investment or found
alternative sources of finance.
Alternatively, you might want learners to answer
activity 1.16 in Titley (page 61). (Challenging)
Learning resources
IGCSE Business Studies (3rd edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages 62 and
76
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level,
Titley, pages 50, 57, 60, 61, 433
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, pages 31 and 32
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages 55, 56,
62, 327
Business Studies for IGCSE,
Dransfield et al., pages 25, 27 and 195
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Revision Guide,
Houghton, pages 32–33
0450 past examination papers:
Nov 2012 Paper 12
Jun 2011 Paper 11
Nov 2011 Paper 13
Nov 2012 Paper 11
Nov 2012 Paper 22
Nov 2011 Paper 22
Jun 2011 Paper 21
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
44
Syllabus ref
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
Borrington and Stimpson (4th) (page 327) has a
helpful table which shows the possible impact of
these changes on businesses, while Houghton
(pages 32–33) has useful flowcharts on this topic.
For revision, you might want to use revision
questions 1–12 in Borrington and Stimpson (3rd)
(page 76) or the three summary questions in
Dransfield et al. (pages 27 and 195). (Basic)
For assessment, you might want to use the activity
on page 32 of Jones. (Basic/Challenging)
6.2.1
Environmental concerns
and ethical issues as both
opportunities and
constraints for businesses.
You could start by asking learners to consider ways
in which business activity has impacted on the
environment, using newspapers, online resources
and their own experiences. (I or G)(Basic) Learners
could present their findings in a report, poster or as a
presentation to the class. (Challenging)
There is plenty of opportunity for exploring the
issues of environment and ethics. In addition to
the textbooks, the Jusbiz website has a number of
scenarios and resources that you might find useful.
www.bized.co.uk/educators/16-19/
business/external/presentation/
pressure1_map.htm (mind map)
www.bized.co.uk/educators/16-19/
business/external/activity/ethics.htm
(Ethical activity based on Coca Cola)
www.our-africa.org/kenya/lake-naivasha
(video)
www.jusbiz.org/downloads/pdf/timber.
pdf (role play exercise)
45
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
All the textbooks have activities and case studies
that you could use. For example, Dransfield et al.
(pages 11, 13 and 170), Titley (page 388), Jones
(pages 255, 258, 270–272), Nuttal and Houghton
(pages 27–28, 30, 237 and 238), Borrington and
Stimpson (3rd) (pages 85–87), with additional case
studies in Borrington and Stimpson (4th) (pages 337
and 338). (I and G)(Basic/Challenging)
Online:
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/
business/environment/ (link for revision
notes, videos and test materials)
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
It has an interesting case study which looks at
the impact of a flower farm on a lake in Kenya.
This could be used as the basis for a discussion,
or you could develop into ethical or environmental
questions. There is also a role play exercise based
on deforestation (see online resources). (G)(Basic/
Challenging)
This particular topic is very good in terms of learners
giving presentations on ethical or environmental
issues. Different groups could be asked to prepare
a case for or against a new factory or mine being
opened in your country. (G) The presentations could
then be followed up by a class discussion.
(W) (Basic)
Learners could research the measures that their
country might use to limit the impact of business
activity and what issues any pressure groups in their
country are seeking to address. (Basic)
There is a helpful chart in Houghton (page 237)
outlining the effect of the actions of pressure groups
on businesses. There are also three exam-style
questions that learners could answer on page 241.
(I)(Basic/Challenging)
Borrington and Stimpson (4th) has two exam-style
questions (page 339) which could be used for
formative assessment.
Learning resources
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/
gcsebitesize/business/environment/
acompetitivemarketvid.shtml (ethics
video)
www.youtube.com/
watch?v=FzxGyKyzfP8 (BBC video
on issues such as globalisation,
environment)
www.youtube.com/
watch?v=8VsidkU9xug (video about
Nike and ethics)
www.forbes.com/sites/
jacquelynsmith/2013/03/06/the-worldsmost-ethical-companies-in-2013/
(list of ethical companies)
Textbooks:
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies,
Nuttall and Houghton, pages 27–28, 30,
237 and 238
IGCSE Business Studies (3rd edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages 85–87
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level,
Titley, page 388
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
46
Syllabus ref
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, pages 255, 258, 270–272
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages 337–339
Business Studies for IGCSE
Dransfield et al., pages 11, 13 and 170
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Revision Guide,
Houghton, pages 237, 241
6.3.1
Learners should be able to
understand the importance of
globalisation.
Learners should be able to identify
and explain the opportunities
and threats of globalisation for
businesses.
Learners should be able to
identify and explain why some
governments might introduce
import tariffs and quotas.
You might want to start with the video clip (see
online resources) which has some basic information
about McDonald’s growth. Learners could then
consider the reasons for globalisation. (Basic)
Online:
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/
geography/globalisation/globalisation_
rev1.shtml
Borrington and Stimpson (4th) (page 341) covers the
basic information. Learners could then answer the
two questions to activity 34.1 (page 342). (Basic)
A more challenging activity is in Jones (page 66).
(Challenging)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/
business/2007/globalisation/default.stm
(link to articles)
As an additional activity, groups of learners could
research the threats and opportunities for other
businesses, and present their findings as a poster.
(G) (Basic)
www.youtube.com/
watch?v=8wicr0PzRRo (McDonalds
video) or www.youtube.com/
watch?v=SyJ23a7_fvQ or
www.youtube.com/watch?v=
MmjJjR2_-BQ
(videos on pros and cons of globalisation)
47
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
0450 past examination papers:
Jun 2012 Paper 11
Jun 2011 Paper 12
Nov 2011 Paper 13
Nov 2012 Paper 12
Nov 2012 Paper 23
Jun 2011 Paper 21
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
The BBC website has some useful links for this
topic. There is also an interesting case study in
Dransfield et al. (page 42) on the use of tariffs.
Textbooks:
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, page 66
For revision, a basic activity would be to read page
341 of Borrington and Stimpson (4th). (Basic) The
first exam-style question would provide challenging
work for learners (page 348). (Challenging)
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages 341,
342, 348, 431
Business Studies for IGCSE
Dransfield et al., page 42
0450 past examination papers:
Nov 2012 Paper 11
Nov 2012 Paper 21
Jun 2012 Paper 12
6.3.2
Learners should be able to
identify and explain the reasons
for the importance and growth of
multinational companies
(MNCs).
You could ask learners in groups to research into two
multinational companies that operate in their own
country to find out what they provide. To extend
this, learners can find out additional information
such as which other companies they operate in,
the number of employees and sales levels. (G)
(Basic/Challenging) Alternatively, you might want
to use the activity in Titley (page 134), in which
learners research the home countries of a number of
multinational companies (MNCs).
All the textbooks cover the basic material. There are
some challenging activities in Nuttal and Houghton
(page 89), Borrington and Stimpson (4th) (pages 344
and 347) and Jones (pages 68–70). You might want
to use the activity in Jones, (page 70) as the basis
for formative assessment. (Challenging)
This particular topic is very good in terms of learners
giving presentations on the case for or against
Online:
www.tutor2u.net/blog/index.php/
business-studies/comments/
globalisation-and-indian-coffee-houses
(video on coffee and multinationals in
India)
www.tutor2u.net/blog/index.php/
business-studies/comments/
the-dawning-age-of-the-chinesemultinational (article and link to BBC
article on growth of Huawei)
Textbooks:
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies,
Nuttall and Houghton, page 89
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level,
Titley, page 134
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
48
Syllabus ref
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
multinationals. Different groups could be asked
to prepare a case for or against a MNC setting up
in your country. (G) The presentations could then
be followed up by a class discussion. (W)(Basic)
Learners could be asked to recommend and justify
whether the MNC should be allowed. (Challenging)
IGCSE Business Studies,
Jones, pages 68–70
Included in the online resources are links to a
video and articles about multinationals, which you
might want to use as the basis for discussion or as
additional reading.
Business Studies for IGCSE,
Dransfield et al., page 55
For revision, a basic activity would be for learners to
answer the three summary questions in Dransfield
et al (page 55). (I)(Basic) There are more challenging
exam-style questions in Houghton (page 79).
(Challenging)
Learners should be able to explain
the impact of exchange rate
changes.
Learners could find out the current value of their
currency against a number of other currencies.
(I) (Basic) Alternatively, you might want to use a
game approach (see example in the teacher’s guide
in Appendix 3).
As well as undertaking activities and exercises in the
textbooks mentioned, it would be useful for groups
of learners to follow particular rates of exchange for
a number of weeks and produce a chart to show
how the rate might have changed. (G)(Basic)
You could extend this, by asking learners to
provide a written explanation of why it has or has
not changed, and how this might affect different
businesses. Each group could focus on a separate
business. (G)(Challenging)
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, pages 344
and 347
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Revision Guide,
Houghton, page 79
0450 past examination papers:
Jun 2012 Paper 12
Nov 2011 Paper 23
Online:
www.bbc.co.uk/news/business11722578 (BBC video
explaining the basics of exchange rates)
www.bbc.co.uk/news/business18044218 (BBC video on
implications of a strong currency)
http://teachers.cie.org.uk (follow link to
teachers guide)
49
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
6.3.3
Learning resources
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
For revision, a basic activity would be to read page
51 of Houghton, or page 92 of Dransfield et al.
(I)(Basic) or watch the second video clip listed in the
online resources.
Textbooks:
Complete Business Studies for
Cambridge IGCSE & O Level,
Titley, page 434
To sum up this unit, learners could answer the case
study style question in Borrington and Stimpson
(4th) (page 349). (Challenging)
IGCSE Business Studies (4th edition),
Borrington and Stimpson, page 349
There is also a crossword on page 434 of Titley
which would provide a challenging activity for
learners. (Challenging)
Business Studies for IGCSE,
Dransfield et al., page 92
Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Revision Guide,
Houghton, page 51
0450 past examination papers:
Nov 2012 Paper 11
Nov 2011 Paper 22
For past examination papers go to
Teacher Support at
http://teachers.cie.org.uk
® IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations.
© Cambridge International Examinations 2013
Section 6:Appendix 2: Extracts from the scheme of work
50
Syllabus ref
Section 6:Appendix 3: Sample lesson plan 1 (Exchange rates)
Appendix 3: Sample lesson plan 1 (Exchange rates)
Date:
Time: 1 hour
Room:
Class:
Ability: mixed
Number of learners: 20–25
Lesson objectives
At the end of the lesson, learners will be able to:
•
develop knowledge and understanding of exchange rates
•
explain how exchange rates affect businesses
Relevance to syllabus
6.3.3
Prior knowledge
Demand and supply
Resources required
Notes, pretend currencies, items to sell (range of goods e.g. food, pens)
IGCSE textbook activity
Breakdown of activities (Remember to include a starter, plenary as well as main activities):
Time
TEACHER Activity (and notes)
LEARNER Activity
5 minutes
Brainstorm session on what learners know about
exchange rates (holidays, news stories)
Learner answers
Introduce aims of lesson
5 minutes
Teacher-led explanation of exchange rates
15 minutes
•
Classroom arranged so there are four separate areas
to represent four countries, which will sell different
items. (Need to choose four learners, each to
represent each country).
•
One learner to run the bank (banker).
•
Rest of learners divide into four teams.
•
Learners are given some ‘currency’ which they will
need to exchange for the currency of the country
where the product they want to buy is from.
•
The banker will sell the currency to the learners who
will then buy the product.
•
The learners will then move to another table and buy
another item – by which time the currency rate will
have changed.
5 minutes
Discussion to summarise results
Learners engage in role
play activity
Learners answer
targeted or open
questions on role play
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
51
Section 6:Appendix 3: Sample lesson plan 1 (Exchange rates)
10 minutes
Power point slides (currency graphs, notes on how
exchange rates can affect a business).
Introduce idea of the mnemonic (SICED/WIDEC; see
below)
Learners take notes,
answer questions
15 minutes
Worksheet activity to reinforce key ideas
Paired work,
work through questions
5 minutes
(Plenary)
Mind map – summary of impact of exchange rates
Extension work: Use additional questions from
endorsed text book
Own time: Research examples of actual
businesses
Homework:
Set text book questions or adapt exam style
question to practise/consolidate understanding.
Teacher notes: key points
An exchange rate is the value of one currency expressed in terms of another.
Currencies change in value against each other all the time. The value of a currency changes over time
(through demand and supply).
•
If more businesses/people want £’s, then the price of the £ will increase. The currency that is getting
stronger or appreciating is a currency that is going up in value against another. So £1:$1.5 moving to
£1:$1.8 means the £ is getting stronger (change currency to suit individual country) (called appreciation).
•
If fewer people want £’s, the price of the £ will fall (called depreciation). The currency that is becoming
weaker or depreciating is a currency that is going down in value against another. So £1:$1.8 moving to
£1:$1.5 means the £ is getting weaker.
Currencies change in value because there is a change in demand for holding that currency. Households,
Governments and businesses need other countries’ currencies to buy their goods and services (e.g. holiday
makers to buy souvenirs/postcards to send home or a business buying spare parts for machinery from
another country).
Exchange rates and how they affect businesses:
A change in exchange rates might affect a business in the following ways:
•
exchange rate changes can increase or lower the price of a product the business sells abroad
•
the price of imported raw materials may change
•
the price of competitors’ products may change in the home market.
For example an increase in the exchange rate will mean:
52
•
that price abroad goes up, lowering sales
•
price of imported raw materials falls, either leading to a fall in price and more sales, or an increase in
profits
•
competitors’ (imported) prices fall, meaning lower sales.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Section 6:Appendix 3: Sample lesson plan 1 (Exchange rates)
How to remember?
A strong currency is one which rises compared with other currencies.
SICED: Strong = Imports Cheap Exports Dear
WIDEC: Weak = Imports Dear Exports Cheap
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
53
Appendix 3: Sample lesson plan 2 (Advertising)
Appendix 3 (continued): Sample lesson plan 2 (Advertising)
Date:
Time: 1 hour
Room:
Class:
Ability: mixed
Number of learners: 20–25
Lesson objectives
At the end of the lesson, learners will be able to:
• to identify what is meant by advertising
•
to describe the various media that can be used for advertising
Relevant to syllabus
3.3.4
Resources required
Textbook, example of adverts
Breakdown of activities (Remember to include a starter, plenary as well as main activities):
Time
TEACHER Activity (and notes)
LEARNER Activity
5 mins
Recap on other elements of marketing mix already
studied. Introduce aims of lesson.
Learners list and answer
questions asked
15 mins
•
Hand out examples of adverts (use local
examples from magazines, leaflets, newspapers).
•
Circulate around the groups to monitor progress.
•
Go through examples when complete. Discuss
answers with the class.
Discuss where the adverts
are placed and what types
of products are advertised in
different places
•
Put learners into groups of 3–4 (mixture of
abilities or selected as appropriate).
•
Each group selects a different product or service
and decides where to advertise it.
20 mins
Learners select a product/
service and decide where to
advertise it and why
Note: there is no right or wrong answer. Several
different places could be justified for each product.
54
15 mins
Monitor each group. Answer questions as
necessary.
5 minutes
(Plenary)
Review what they have done and set homework.
Extension
work
Homework:
Write a letter to the business that produces the product or service chosen.
Explain the different alternatives they could use to advertise their product/service.
Recommend where they should advertise it and why.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Present their group findings
to the class
Section 6:Appendix 4: Sample lesson plan template
Appendix 4: Sample lesson plan template
Lesson plan
Topic
Date:
Time:
Room:
Class:
Ability:
Number of learners:
Lesson objectives
At the end of the lesson, learners will be able to:
• (Try to limit objectives to 2 or 3, it will help focus the lesson)
Relevance to syllabus
Resources required
Breakdown of activities (Remember to include a starter, plenary as well as main activities):
Time
TEACHER Activity (and notes)
LEARNER Activity
Starter
Main Activities
Plenary
Extension work
Homework:
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
55
Appendix 5: Mind map
Appendix 5: Mind map
56
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Appendix 5:Appendix 6: ‘Exchange rates’ worksheet
Appendix 6: ‘Exchange rates’ worksheet
Section A: Understanding exchange rates
1
What is an exchange rate?
2
Complete the following sentences:
3
a)
S.............. I.......... C......... E......... D.........
b)
Export businesses benefit when the exchange rate ............. because exports become ......................
c)
Exporters find it harder when the exchange rate ............... because exports become ……………….
Here is some information about exchange rates:
1 British Pound = $1.50
1 Indian Rupee = $0.02
1 Brazilian Real = $0.5
$1 = 0.75 British Pounds
$1 = 50.00 Indian Rupees
$1 = 2 Brazilian Reals
a)
How much will it cost in Dollars to buy one Brazilian Real? ………………
b)
How much does it cost in Indian Rupees to buy one Dollar? ………………
c)
A watch costs 10 British pounds. How much would the watch cost in Dollars? ……………
Section B: How exchange rates affect businesses
4
Country U imports a lot of rugs from country P. The currency of the Country U has increased
(appreciated). Identify the effect of this on each of the following. Try to explain why this might have
happened.
a)
The price of country P’s rugs?
b)
The number of rugs imported from country P?
c)
Country U’s demand for the country P’s currency?
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
57
Appendix 5:Appendix 6: ‘Exchange rates’ worksheet
d)
Profits of rug importers in country U.
5. Now assume the value of country U’s currency falls (depreciated). What is the likely effect of this on
each of the following? (Why do you think this might happen?)
58
a)
Country U’s imports of foreign products.
b)
Country U’s exports to overseas consumers.
Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Business Studies
Cambridge International Examinations
1 Hills Road, Cambridge, CB1 2EU, United Kingdom
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