Science 8 Name: _________________________ HOW THE EARTH WAS MADE The Grand Canyon 1. Where is the Grand Canyon located? 2. How much rock has been carved out of the Grand Canyon? 3. The Grand Canyon could hold all the river water on Earth and be how full? 4. What are the dimensions of the Grand Canyon (width, length, depth)? 5. Compared to the Mississippi River, how big is the Colorado River? 6. Why are we not 100% sure how the Grand Canyon was formed? 7. How much water flows down the Colorado River every hour? 8. What method is used to date the ugly black rocks? 9. How old are the ugly black rocks? 10. The garnets in the ugly black rocks told scientists what? 11. What happened to the mountains? 12. What type of fossils did scientists find in the Grand Canyon? Science 8 Name: _________________________ 13. These fossils told scientists what? 14. This part of Arizona has been under that sea how many times? 15. Why is the Grand Canyon red? 16. How were ocean fossils able to be found 1 mile above sea level? 17. Hindu Canyon was created how long ago? 18. How was Young able to determine that Hindu Canyon had nothing to do with the Grand Canyon? 19. The Colorado River runs which direction? 20. How do scientists know Muddy Creek was once a vast lake? 21. When did the Colorado River arrive in Arizona? 22. How did scientists figure this out? 23. What are the 3 major theories for how the Canyon was carved so quickly? 24. What is the Spill Over Theory? Science 8 Name: _________________________ 25. Did the Spill Over Theory work in Douglas’s model? 26. What ancient lake does Douglas believe might support his Spill Over Theory? 27. What evidence did Douglas find in the lake? 28. How do scientists get an absolute date on the sand? 29. What is the rate of canyon cutting? 30. Water doesn’t cut rock, but what in the water does? 31. What happens to the river bed as water flows over rapids? 32. For every mile the Colorado River travels, it drops how much in elevation? 33. Why doesn’t the Mississippi River carve a canyon? 34. What forces besides the Colorado River helped widen the Grand Canyon? 35. The flows of black rock were formed how long ago? 36. What formed the black rocks? Science 8 Name: _________________________ 37. What type of volcanoes created the basalt remnants? 38. Rocks around the rim of the of the volcanos show that most recent eruption occurred when? 39. Explain what geologic processes change the Earth over time. 40. Explain what methods scientists use as clues to Earth’s past.