CORNELL NOTES Spanish civil war

Important Terms:
TOPIC:____The Spanish Civil War______________________
By 1936, moderates and conservatives feared a Bolshevik type communist revolution in Spain if the Popular Front
was allowed to continue.
Marxism and socialism
Based on the work of Karl Marx(1818-83), Marxism and socialism was backed by USSR and many Left-wing
parties(CNT). The workers were bound to take over and dominate the state, and their ruling would bring social
justice and destruction of capitalism and the ruling class.
Separatists-Basque, Galicia, Catalonia vs. Nationalists, Radical left group vs. conservatives. The wishes of the left
alarmed the Right.
Separatism and Anarchism
Monopoly of power
Division of wealth and classes
Class struggle
General Strike
The Catholic Church
Miguel Primo de Rivera
The Reconquista
The First Spanish Republic
Democracies are able to maintain stability due to -Monopoly of force, Legitimacy. In Spain, fractions concerned were
not addressed and the Republic could not force compliance.
Ideology-The wishes of the left alarmed the right and vice versa
Deeds-SCW started with Franco’s coup
Spanish communists backed by USSR
Spanish communists
Spanish socialists
vs. Carlists
In Cordoba province, 7 percent of landowners controlled 52% of the land. This clearly violated the ideologies of
anarchists, socialists and communists who thought that the workers should play a major role in ruling the state.
The Popular Front
In Barcelona in 1909, a general strike broke out. During the event, eighty churches and monasteries were attacked. It
was a strike throughout the economy, with the aim of demonstrating the power of workers.
Francisco Franco
Supports by King Alfonso XIII, Miguel led a military coup in September 1923, but he was forced to resign in 1930.
Manuel Azana
Formed by radicals, democrats, republican, the First Spanish republic merely survived about 2 years, which
foreshadowed the collapse of the Spanish republic.
Election in 1936
The popular Front was formed by left-wing coalition. It took actions after being elected in 1936. Its actions include:
granting Catalonia part of autonomy, stopped paying priests, made army officers retire early, nationalizing huge
estates, increasing wages of workers. This alarmed the right with eventually started the SCW
International Brigade/aid
Franco- Military dictator, introduced elements of fascism
Blue Division
Azana-leader of the Accion Republicana, president of the republic throughout SCW.
Non-intervention committee, neutrality act
Siege of madrid, two and a half year of resistance---terror bombing rehearsal of WWII
Blue Division-18,000 German soldiers that aided the Nationalists
The right-wing conservative was alarmed by the radical policies carried out by the Spanish republic in 1936, which eventually led to the
SCW.The Nationalists, led by General Francisco, launched an attack against the established government to take control of the country. The
rebel group mainly consisted of people who thought that the ruling government was irrational. The rebel group was supported by Germany
and Italy who ignore the non-intervention committee. Other democracies during the times did not aided the republic. Nevertheless, USSR
supported the loyalists’ war effort with men and equipment even though required Spanish gold reserve in return. By 1939, the war was ending
and the Republicans were slowly conceding defeat to the Nationalists. At the war’s conclusion, those linked to the republicans were persecuted
by the Nationalists. As a result, many people who stood by the existing government were forced to escape to refugee camps in Southern
France. Following the fall of the Spanish Republic, Franco took power.
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