Global Poverty

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Global Poverty
• Who are the world’s poor?
• How is being poor in a poor
country different from being
poor in a rich country?
• Why are countries poor in
the first place?
• How can we help?
• Why does all this matter?
© 2010, Cate Biggs
6 Billion People in the World:
Haves and Have-Nots
• __ billion people live in
countries where they have
____________ for a long
quality life.
• __ billion live in countries
where they have the _____
of getting what they need.
• __ billion live in countries
that have very little at all.
Being poor in a poor
country is ________ from
being poor in a rich country.
The Bottom Billion*...
Live on __ per day,
many of them on ____
than $1 per day (the cost of an
iTunes song)
*Credit: Paul Collier
Around $__ per week
Close to $___ per month
Less than $____ per year
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Where Do the Bottom
Billion Live?
• In Poor or Least Developed
Countries (____) - also
known as the _________or
Third World
• Concentrated in ____Saharan Africa, Central and
South Asia, Latin America,
and the Caribbean (Haiti)
• _____and _____ are not
considered LDCs.
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Poor people in poor
countries face huge
challenges...even if they
work really hard.
• Water
• Food
• Electricity
• Roads
Poor countries lack
______________
• __________
• __________
• _____________
• _____________
• _____________
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Why Are Countries
Poor?
The Five Ps
• _________
• _________
• _________
• _________
• _________
Why Countries are
Poor:
__________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
___________
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Place: The United
States (the world’s wealthiest
nation)
• The _______-largest country in
the world, spread out over high
quality, arable land in a
temperate climate.
• Abundant _________ and rivers.
• Minimal climate-related pests
and ________.
• Diverse, rich base of natural
resources.
• Only ___ land neighbors, both of
whom are mostly friendly and
stable. © 2010, Cate Biggs
Place: Chad (Central Africa)
(one of the world’s _______
nations)
• Small
• _____-locked
• Harsh climate with little arable
land. ________ rainfall. Main
water source is fast
disappearing.
• High climate-related _______
and pest burden.
•
Few natural _________ besides
oil reserves, opening it up to the
“resource curse.”
• ____ land neighbors. Many are
unfriendly and in crisis. Why Countries are
Poor: Past
• History of slave trade?
• Colonial history?
• How were borders
drawn?
• When did independence
come?
• Outsiders meddling
during Cold War?
• Chance to develop own
leaders?
Past United States
• _______ colony
• Independence ____
• Peace and expansion
across continent
• Civil War 1860s
• Great Depression 1930s
• Superpower 1940s- present
Chad
______ colony
Independence 1960
Civil wars 1960-1990
Invasions by Libya, Sudan
Near constant civil war up to
present day
Involvement in neighbors’ civil
wars
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Why Countries are
Poor: People
• ____ many?
• What ____?
• How _____?
• Are they
educated?
• Where do they
___?
• Different _____
groups and languages?
© 2010, Cate Biggs
People United States
• __ children born per
woman
• __ in 4800 women die
during pregnancy, childbirth
• __ of 1000 babies die
• Life expectancy ___
• Average age ___
• 99% of adults can read
• 82% live in urban areas
• 3 main languages
Chad
• __ children born per woman
• __ in 10 women die during
pregnancy, childbirth
• ___ of 1000 babies die
 Life expectancy ___
• Average age ___
• __% of adults can read
• 27% live in urban areas
• 2 main + 120 languages
Why Countries are
Poor: Politics
• Is there rule of law?
• Are citizens and leaders
educated about laws?
• Do citizens participate in
making laws and choosing
leaders?
• Do people know what
leaders are doing?
• Are communities
connected?
• Leaders too strong?
• Leaders too weak? © 2010,
Cate Biggs
Politics United States
Chad
• Nearly all voters literate
• Government institutions
• Checks and balances
• Free press (2,218 tv stations)
• Connected communities
• Government is stable and secure
• Less than 25% of voters literate
• Dictatorship
• Small group controls country
• State-controlled press (1 tv
station)
• People spread out with few roads,
phones
• President in constant danger of
military coup
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Why Countries are
Poor: Peace
• Wars with other
countries? • Where
are the wars fought? •
Civil wars?
• How
many wars?
• How
long are wars?
• Risk
of wars resuming?
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Peace United States
Chad
• Few wars on US mainland
(1776, 1860)
• No danger of invasion by
neighbors
• Oceans keep other
enemies out
• Neighbors at peace
• Constant civil wars
• War with neighbors
• Borders easily crossed
• Spill-over from neighbors’
wars (Darfur)
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Poverty is a
Cycle
For individuals and for
countries...
Things that make you
poor in the first place
create other
disadvantages that keep
you in poverty.
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Especially in a
“globalized” world...
LDCs are not part of the
global economy
that has lifted other
countries like India and
China to the middle
income level.
Technology is linked to
development.
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Why Should We
Care?
Data and Graphics: The United Nations ©
2010, Cate Biggs
The United Nations
Millennium
Development Goals
(MDGs)
End Poverty and Hunger
Universal Education Gender
Equality
Child Health
Maternal Health Combat
HIV/AIDS Environmental
Sustainability Global
Partnership
© 2010, Cate Biggs
International
Development
Assistance Helping
the Bottom Billion
Donor Countries The United
Nations World Bank Foundations
Individuals
Corporations
Non-Governmental Organizations
(NGOs)
Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)
Microfinance Institutions
Public ~ Private Partnerships ~
Collaborations Global ~ Local
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Some Types of
Development
Assistance
• Cash Aid and Grants
• Special Projects
• Loans
• Debt Relief
• Microfinance
• Foreign Direct Investment
(FDI)
• Trade Policy
• Peacekeeping
• Climate Change Prevention
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Aid to the Bottom
Billion is
controversial...
• How much? • How?
•
To Whom? • Why?
Impact
Mutual Accountability
Best Practices
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Effects of the Global
Recession on the
Bottom Billion
Economic isolation had
its benefits initially.
But the second wave
has been devastating...
• Aid levels
• Investment
• Consumers
• Remittances
© 2010, Cate Biggs
Coming Soon:
Haiti
The 5Ps explain much
about why the earthquake
was so devastating, and
why the relief and
recovery process has
been so daunting.
© 2010, Cate Biggs
For More
Information...
Grasp Global Poverty
http://graspglobalpoverty.
wordpress.com/
The World Savvy Monitor
Global Poverty and
International Development
Edition and Update
http://worldsavvy.org/moni
tor/
© 2010, Cate Biggs
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